Half Title
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe: Part I
 Robinson Crusoe: Part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072810/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 333, <6> p., <23> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Clarke, Charles H ( Publisher )
Wade, Jas ( Printer )
Girardet, Karl, 1821-1893 ( Illustrator )
Hildibrand, Henri Th\'eophile ( Engraver )
Leighton, John, 1822-1912
Lavieille, Jacques Adrien, 1818-1862 ( Engraver )
Piaud, Antoine Alphee ( Engraver )
Pisan, H\'eliodore Joseph, 1822-1890 ( Engraver )
Sargent ( Engraver )
Sotain, Noel Eugene, b. 1816 ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Clarke, Charles Henry ( Publisher )
Publisher: Charles H. Clarke
Place of Publication: London (23A Paternoster Row)
Manufacturer: Jas. Wade
Publication Date: <1856?>
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1856   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with twenty-four illustrations.
General Note: On spine: Robinson Crusoe. 65 illustrations.
General Note: Some ill. signed Karl Girardet, del; engravers include Hildibrand, Lavieille, Sargent, E. Sotain, Piaud, and Pisan.
General Note: Includes parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Front. is included in pagination.
General Note: Date from Mansell. Pre-1956 imprints.
General Note: Binding designed by John Leighton.
General Note: Includes publisher's advertisements (<6> p.) at end.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072810
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24765957

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Title Page
        Page 8
    Robinson Crusoe: Part I
        Page 9
        Page 10
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    Robinson Crusoe: Part II
        Page 236
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Full Text



'I I I


4 ,.

SWlihen I took leave of this island, I carried on board for relics the great
goat-skin cap, my umbrella, and one of my parrots."--Page 210.











I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade,
lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good
family in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called-nay, we call our-
selves, and write our name-Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father or mother did know what was become
of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given me a
competent share of learning, as far as house education and
a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all
the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and" other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that

propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
le called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon this subject; he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune
by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.
He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand,
or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low
life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best
state in the world, and the most suited to human happiness;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind
of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that
temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and
comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to
precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that as he would do very kind things for me if I
would stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would
not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me
any encouragement to go away; and to close all, he told
me I had an elder brother for anexample,to whomhehad used

the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into
the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though he said he would not cease to
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my re-
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it
to be so himself, the tears ran down his face very plentifully,
especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and
none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and,
in short, to prevent any of my father's further inportunities,
in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat
of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time
when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon
seeing the world, that I should never settle to anything
with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was
too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time,
but I should certainly run away from my master before my
time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home
again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she

knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; and that, if I would ruin myself,
there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; and I should never have
it to say that my mother was willing when my father was.
Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet
I heard afterwardscthat she reported all the discourse to
him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at.
it, said to her, with a sigh, That boy might be happy
if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will
be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I can
give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expos--
tulated with my father and mother about their being so.
positively determined against what they knew- my inclina-
tions prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither.
I went casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions going
by sea to London in his father's ship, and prompting me to
go with them, with the common allurement of a seafaring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as.
sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God's blessing or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. The
ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind
began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful man-
ner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was .overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for
my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning
my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen anany times

since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and
had never known anything of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more: in this
agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if
ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship
again while I lived.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next
day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it; however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and
a charming fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon
it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that
ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be
so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now,
lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had enticed me away, comes to me: "Well, Bob,"
says he, clapping me upon the shoulders, how do
you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?"-" A
capful, d'you call it ?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm."-
" A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call that
a storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye
see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and


in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions
for the future. As the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that
storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears
and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being
forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress; and I had, in five or six days, got as complete a
victory over my conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have
another trial for it still.
The sixth day of our beingat sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather
calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here
we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or
eight days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh,
and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour,
the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work
to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid fore-
castle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to the better
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of

the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, "Lord, be merciful to us we shall be
all lost; we shall be all undone!" and the like. During
these first hurries I was lying still in my cabin; but when
the master himself came by me, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the
sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing
but distress round us; two ships that rid near us, we found,
had cut, their masts by the board, being deep laden; and
our men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all
adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light
ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which
he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting
to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he con-
sented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the
main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
Anyone must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in
such a fright before at but a little. But the worst was
not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and
wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and
then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage
in one respect that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment that the ship

would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that
had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak;
another said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then
all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards
upon the side of the bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and
would come near us, ordered a gun to be fired as a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought
the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port, so the master
continued firing guns for help ; and a light ship, who had
rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it
was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very heartily,
and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a
rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it
out a great length, which they, after much labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose
for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive,
and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could;
and our master promised them that if the boat was staved upon

shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood lor
the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the
moment that they rather put me into the boat, than th:it
I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition-the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore-we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand to
assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow
way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the
shore, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the
shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we
got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth,
where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to
carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to
go home, yet I had no power to do it.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I.
The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters, his tone was altered; and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked

me how I did; and, telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad ; his father turning to me, with a very grave
and concerned tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought
never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain
and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
" Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ?" That
is another case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore
my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see
What a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to
expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on
your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, "what are you; and on what account did
you go to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my story;
at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion. "What had I done," says he, "that such an
unhappy wretch should come into my ship ? I would not
set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds." However, he afterwards talked very gravely to
me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said
he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and
disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled
upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As
for me, having money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself, what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else.
In this state of life, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irre-
sistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I

stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been
in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I
quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, whatever it was, presented the
most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and
I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa;
or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast
man; and in time might have qualified myself for a mate
or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my
fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money
in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would
always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so
I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to
do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again;
this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was
not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend
the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed

me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by the
assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least
my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
This was the oply voyage which I may say was suc-
cessful; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my return, almost 300, and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since completed
my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage,
and had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did
not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I
had 200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes;
the first was this-our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by
a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all
the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas
as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear;
but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart
our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to
bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred
men which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack
us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting



-- -
I -- -'- -- -

ITf you come near the boat, I'll shoot voet thlroug tteo io 'id; for I ans
resolved to havc my libet y -ith 21.

and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half pikes, powder chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice; but our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to, yield, and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended; I was kept by the captain of the rover
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change
of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave,
I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
worse; but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my master had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-
of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden,
and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying
at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace,

and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always
took me and young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
made him' very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send
me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth-
the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish
for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured
all day, and all the next night, and when the morning
came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead
of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour and some
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by
him the long-boat of our English ship that ho had taken,
he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a
place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-
sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails. The cabin lay very snug and low, and had
in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of liquor, and his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat with two or three Moors, of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for

that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning; when by-and-by my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish
I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have
a little ship at my command: and my master being gone
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither I should steer-anywhere to get out of
that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for
our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above half a hundredweight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to
him:-" Moely," said I, "our patron's guns are on board
the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot ? It
may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in
the ship." Accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, and another
with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets,
and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had found
some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which

I filled one of the large bottles in the case; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This
will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and set
the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to; when, giving the
boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I
took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and begging to be taken
in, told me he would go all over the world with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him,
and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none. "But," said I, "if you come
near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty;" so he turned himself about
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father's beard, "I must throw you
into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While the Moor was swimming, I stood out directly to
sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed
anyone that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed on to
the southward, where whole nations of negroes were sure
to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we

could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savage
beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east; and
having a fresh gale of wind, and a smooth sea, I made such
sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less
than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee.
The wind continued fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the south-
ward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they would now give over; so I ventured to
make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a
little river, I knew not what, or where; I neither saw, or
desired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me
not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then
I won't; but it may be we may see men by day who will
be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we give them the
shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, make them run wey."
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a
dram to cheer him up; and we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for
in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures, of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore and run into the water,
wallowing and washing for the pleasure of cooling them-
selves; and they made such hideous howlings and yelling
that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blow-
ing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and cried to me to weigh anchor and row
away: "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable, with

the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
within two oars' length; however, I immediately fired at
him, upon which he turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and cowlings, that were raised upon the re-
port of the gun. This convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how
to venture on shore in the day was another question too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had
been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left in
the boat. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? The
boy answered with so much affection as made me love him
ever after. If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
wey."-" Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if
the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us." So we hauled the boat in near the shore, and
waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two
jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled
to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with
some wild beast, and I ran forwards to help him ; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a
hare; it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek we found
the water fresh when the tide was out, so we filled our jars,
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go

on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.
I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in; but my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels that would
relieve and take us in.
We made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than
we were obliged for fresh water. My design in this was,
to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any-
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they
were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury said to me, No go, no
go." However, 1 hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me
a good way: I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which
Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great
way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh
and some corn. We were willing to accept it; but how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture
5n shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they stood a safe way for us all, for they brought it to
ihe shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
x'ay off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing


to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were
lying by the shore, came too mighty creatures with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea. The man that had
the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest
did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if
they Ihd come for their diversion: at last one of them
began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others.
As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot
him directly in the head : he immediately made to the
shore, but died just before he reached it.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of
them were ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead
with the very terror; but when they saw the creature
dead, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. By the help of a rope, which I slung rourd him,
and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and
fine to an admirable degree.
The other creature, frighted with the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains whence
they came. I found quickly the negroes wished to eat the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, pointing out that I would give it them;
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me a great deal more of their provisions. I
then made signs to them for some water, and held out one
of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came
two women, and brought a great vessel; this they set down
to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,
and filled them all three.

1,ohl -t 38(( ftl i i l


I was now furnished with roots, corn, and water; and
leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven
days more, without offering to go near the shore. At
length, doubling the point, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seaward: then I concluded that this was the Cape
de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de
Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not tell well what I had best do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on
a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw
that it was a Portuguese ship.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them ; but after I ih:d
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European
boat; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and made them a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw. Upon these signals
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and in
about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at
last, a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me; and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee: they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus delivered
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition; and
I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the
ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously
told me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had

should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
"No, no," says he, "Seignor Inglese, I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again."
In this proposal he was just in the performance to a tittle;
for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything
that I had: then he took everything into his own posses-
sion, and gave me back an exact inventory of them.
My boat was a very good one; and he told me he would
buy it. I told him, he had been so generous to me that I
could not offer to make any price of tha boat, but left it
entirely to him; upon which he told me he would give me
a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury;
but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered that he would set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived
in All Saints' Bay in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of
all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I
was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought of me: in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, who had a plantation and
sugar-house. I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself with the manner of planting and making of sugar;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got
rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle
there, I would turn planter: resolving, in the meantime, to

find out some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself
to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. My stock was low, as well as his;
and we rather planted for food than anything else, for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come in order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come: but we both
wanted help ; and now I found I had done wrong in parting
with Xury.
But I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an
employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
rary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house and broke through all his good advice.
I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this
neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of my
lands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
way upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ng on the plantation, before my kind friend the captain went
ack; for the ship remained there nearly three months; when,
selling him what little stock I had left behind me in Lon-
on, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:-"Seignor
nglese," says he (for so he always called me), "if you will
ive me letters to the person who has your money in London,
o send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I

ve orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
y, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first;
That if it come safe, you may order the rest the same
ay; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to
yve recourse to for your supply."

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I
could take; so I prepared letters to the gentlewoman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this
honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to
her: whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out
of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me to the Brazils: among which he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary
for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made,
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years'
service, and would not accept of any consideration, except
a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of
my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English
manufacture, particularly valuable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour in the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did I bought
a negro slave, and a European servant also, besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
I went on the next year with great success in my plan-
tation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among
my neighbours, and these fifty rolls, being each of above a

hundredweight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now increasing in
business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story :-You may suppose that having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that,
in my discourses among them, I had frequently given them
an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the
manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-
not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related to
the buying of negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the permission of the Kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things
very earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning,
and told me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came
to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship
to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it
was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part

upon the coast of Guinea; and they ofibred me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, had it been made to anyone
that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
Sto look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to
do but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from
England; and who in that time could scarce have failed of
being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and
that increasing too-for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation
in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all entered into covenants
to do; and I made a formal will, disposing of my planta-
tion and effects, in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life my heir, but obliging
him to dispose of my effects ; one-half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason ; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, the cargo furnished, and all things done,
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,

carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with a design to
stretch over for the African coast. We had very good weather
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered
as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of
our knowledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found that he was upon the coast of Guiana,
and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and lie was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to,
till we came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both
to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same

impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of
all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages, than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, "Land !" and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship
struck upon a sand, and in a moment the sea broke over in
such a manner that we expected we should all have perished;
and we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for anyone who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We knew not where we were, or
upon what land we were driven; and as the rage of the
wind was still great, we could not hope to have the ship
hold many minutes without breaking into pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and
expecting death every moment, every man preparing for
another world; for there was little or nothing more for us
to do in this; but, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and the master said the wind began to
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dread-
ful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at
our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by
dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place,
she broke away, and either sank or was driven off to
sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no time to debate, for
we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her

slung over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild sea.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none; so we worked at the oar to-
wards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going
to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came
nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like,
came rolling astern of us with such fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat
as from one another, gave us not time to say, "0 God !"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sank into the water: for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid
it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and
so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now
being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way

towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness to-
wards the shore a very great way ; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I
felt myself raising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved greatly, gave me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with water
a good while, but not so long but I held it out ; and
finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt
ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my lieels and ran, with what strength I had,
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves
and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had been well nigh fatal to
me; for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
that with such force, as left me senseless, and indeed help-
less, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my
side aud breast, beat ile breath, as it were, quite out of my
body ;. and had it returned again immediately. I must have
been strangled in the water : but I recovered a little before
the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of
the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the
wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as
at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and
the next run I took, I got to the main land; where, to my

great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the
ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands ; and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them
afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats,
one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so bi/, I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible
I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what
kind of face I was in, and what was next to be done:
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that I had a
dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to
shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink; neither did
I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which
was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon,
either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about
like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a
heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they
always come abroad for their pr.ey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next dav what death I should die, for as
yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did to my great joy; and having drunk, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,
I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might not fall.
And having cut a short stick, like a truncheon, for my
defence, I took up my lodging; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found
myself more refreshed with it than I think I ever was on
such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the
ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay,
by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as
far as the rock, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might
save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from the tree; I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay,
as the wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for
the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present sub-
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief, for I saw that if we had kept on board, we

had been all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely
destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears to my eyes again; but I resolved, if possible, to
get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, and took the
water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was
still greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
hung down by the fore-chains so low, that with great
difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I got
up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold;
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry. First, I found
that all the ship's provisions were untouched by the water.
I also found some rum in the great cabin. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars
of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship ; I resolved
to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When
this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them
to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as
I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them, cross-ways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to
work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing my-
self with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I
should have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to

preserve what I had laid upon it from the surf of the sea:
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted, I got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied,
and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these I
filled with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of
dried goat's flesh, and a little European corn. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. Those I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
any room for them. It was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have beC*n at that time. I got it down
to my raft, whole as it was, withbut losing time to look into
it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns
and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. There
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but I knew not
where our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search
I found two of them dry and good. These two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and
the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my naviga-
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea';
2ndly, the tide rising and setting into the shore ; 3rdly, what
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and beside the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some

creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of
the tide -et into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could,
to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had liked to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart;
for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at
one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the
other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen
into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could
not thrust off the raft with all my strength ; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in : but holding up the chests
with all my might, I stood in that manner near half an
hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me
a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off' with the
oar 1 had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I
at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, re-
solved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had liked
to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that
shore lying pretty steep-there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would
endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the water
would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground,
and there moored her, by sticking my two broken oars

into the ground-one on one side, near one end, and
one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay
till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to s:ow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen. Where
I was, I yet knew not: whether on the continent or on an
island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in
danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got
to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I
was in an island environed on every side by the sea: no
land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way
off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and
uninhabited. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back I shot
at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side
of a wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired,
than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused scream-
ing and crying, everyone according to his usual note, but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day: what to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid

to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that
I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of tJe
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart, till I had got everything out of the ship
that I could get.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard. I brought away
several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's
stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above
all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these
I secured, together with several things belonging to the
gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another
fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more;
a large bagfull of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-
lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to
get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor;
only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-

tance, and then stood still. She satvery composed and uncon-
cerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but,
as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned
at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed
her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it: however, I spared her a bit, and she ate it, and
looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and
could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was
obliged to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks-I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some
poles which I cut for that purpose: and into this tent I
brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on
end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, for I was very i eary and
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man; for while the ship sat
upright, I got everything out of her that I could: so every
day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went,
I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also
all the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with a piece
of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
But that which comforted me more still, was, last of all,
after I had made five or six voyages, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with, I found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour. I soon emptied the hogshead of the

bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out, and got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables, cutting the great cable into
pieces, such as I could move. I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having
cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with ail
these heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck
began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and
so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide
it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me
and all my cargo into the water; my cargo was a great
part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me: however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labour. After this,
I went every day on board, and brought away what I
could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise; how-
ever, at low water I went on board, and though I thought
I had rummaged the cabin so effoctual v that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or thrce razors, and one
pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money-some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "0 drug!"
said I aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou art not
worth to me-no, not the taking off the ground : one of
those knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of
use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving."
however, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
apping all in a piece of canvas, I began to think of

making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I
found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in
a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend
to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was
my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly from
the roughness of the water.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold
no more ship was to be seen!
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling
to make-whether I should make me a cave in or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which, it may not be improper
to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, because it was on a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation: 1st, health
and fresh water; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun;
3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the

entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.
SOn the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above
a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, de-
scended irregularly every way down into the low ground
by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so
that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came
to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those
countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the
circle, between those two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was
completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,
which otherwise I could not have done; though, asit appeared
afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and stores, of
which you have the account above; and I made a large

tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part
of the year are very violent there, I made double, one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and
covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which had be-
longed to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus
inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till
now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,
by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in
the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave,
that a "storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surpri, el with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself: 0 my powder! My very heart sank within me when
I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be
destroyed; on which, not my defenceonly, but the Iroviding
me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the
powder took fire, I should never have known who had hurt
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a

parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which
in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert my-
self as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and as
near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this mis-
fortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so
swift of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the world to
come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed that if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that by
the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards I took this method-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck o, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took
her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my inclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took

the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was
forced to kill it, and ate it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my
provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must now give some little ac-
count of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its begin-
ning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account,
the 30th of September, when I first set foot upon this horrid
island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself by
observation to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-
two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even
forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making
it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first
landed, "I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calender, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among the many
things I brought out of the ship, I got several thi ,ga of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before, as pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical in-
struments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-

:. .:-e

"T'lh first shot I .. .. i .. ... I killed a she-goat which
I. I ., ,. 1., ,. I. 'age 51.

-~ ~i~~

)',' ". .

tion; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also I found three very good Bibles, which
came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had
packed up among my things; some Portuguese books also;
and several other books, all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with
me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of
himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that would not do. My pens,
ink, and paper I husbanded to the utmost; and while my
ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone I could not, for I could not make ink by any means
that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all "that I had amassed together; and of
these, ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread:
as for linen, I soon learned to want that without much
This want of tools made every work I did go heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more,
by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of these posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which pur-
pose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing
I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other em-
ployment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state
of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that should come after me, for I was likely to have but
few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself
as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from worse;
and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the
comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-
I am cast upon a horrible, But I am alive, and not
desolate island, void of all drowned, as all my ship's
hope of recovery, company were.
I am singled out and sepa- But I am singled out, too,
rated, as it were, from all the from all the ship's crew, to be
world to be miserable. spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.
Iam divided from mankind But I am not starved, and
-a solitaire; one banished perishing on a barren place,
from human society, affording no sustenance.
I have not clothes to cover But I am in a hot climate,
me. where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, But I am cast on an island
or means to resist any vio- where I see no wild beaSts
lence of man or beast, to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked
I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore, that I have got out
as many necessary things as
will either supply my wants
or enable me to supply my-
self, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable
but there was something negative or positive to be thankful
for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship-I began to apply myself to arrange my way
of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about
two feet thick on the outside: and after some time (I think
it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to
the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which
I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I
had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my
cave, and work farther into the earth; and when I found I
was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to
the right hand into the rock; and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out
on the side of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or
do several things with so much pleasure, without a table:
so I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that
as reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics,
so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by
making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never

handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had tools.
However, I made abundance of things, even without tools;
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe,
till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub
it smooth with my adze. It is true that by this method I
could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I
had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up
to make a plank or board : but my time or labour was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, in the first place ;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I
brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, to separate everything into their places, that I
might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up: so that my cave looked like a general magazine
of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at
my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my
goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.
Having settled my household stuff and habitation, made
me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal; of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all those par-
ticulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having no
more ink I was forced to leave it off.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in the

offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island,
which I called The Island of Despair ;" all the rest of the
ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me:
either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered
by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort, on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not
broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed
on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1 st of October to the 24th.-All these days en-
tirely spent in several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the

wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no more
to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, either from wild
beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place,
under a rock, and marked out my encampment; which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carry-
ina all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to see for some food, and discover the country;
-when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked
out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, aud killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion ; viz., every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I
had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to
sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in the
evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for
I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and

necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day went aboard with my gun and
my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing; every creature that I
killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming
back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost
frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was
Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with
much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times.
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied
with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about
a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days
I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further convenience.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so

I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for the
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy ; but the next thing was a shovel or
spade ; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.
aNo. 1S.-The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
IBrazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness;
of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, witl dificulty
enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hard-
ness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effetually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that
the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long; however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it too.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
harrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker
ware-at least none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that
I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it;
besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in ; so I gave it
over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as making the shovel: and
yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up noless than four days.
Nov. 23.-Mv other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went
on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods com-

o- *

11 I llllld tile (-artll erlimblll-o, down fromol thle root o f my cave, m)(11 two o ~f tile,
si~is I haid st t up in my caverrc cr~acl;cvd il a frighltfid manuer.al. -Payn e 66.




Note.-During all this time, I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
house, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except that some-
times, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard, that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards
to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in
the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them
with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.-I began to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side; so
much that it frighted me, and not without reason, too; for
if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger.
I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out: and which was of more im-
portance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post; this I finished
the next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in
about a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon, but boards
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day: no stirring
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that

I caught it, and led it home in a string; when I had it at
home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broken.
N.B -I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever: but by nursing it so long
it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door,
and would not go away. This was the first time that I
entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, an no breeze, so
that there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening,
for food: this time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there were
plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come
at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for
they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger
too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that
I was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though
it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length,
being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another
place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being
in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was
finished; and it is scarcely credible what inexpressible
labour everything was done with, especially the bringing

piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have cone.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there they
would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a
very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat. And now, in the managing my household
affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I
thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as, in-
deed, with some of them it was: for instance, I could
never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold
water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was
at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged
to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees'-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had
none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when
I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn

for the feeding of poultry. The little remainder of corn
that had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats,
and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dut; and
being willing to have the bag for some other use, I shook
the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so
much as remembering that I had thrown anything there,
when about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few
stalks of something green shooting out of the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I
was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which
were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion; I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few
notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any
sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as
chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so
much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or His order in governing events for the world.
But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began
to suggest that God had miraculously caused His grain to
grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy
of nature should happen upon mf3account; and this was
the more strange to me because I saw near it still, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I
had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting that there was

more in the place, I went all over that part of the island
where I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to seek for more of it, but I could not
find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook
a bag of chickens' meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease: and I must confess, my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon
the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to
me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had de-
stroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at
that time, it had been burntyp and destroyed.
I carefully saved the earsof this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and,
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again,
hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order;
for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have
done: of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care
and for the same use, to make me bread, or rather food;
for I found ways to cook it without baking, though I did
that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal:
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall,
by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.

April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
in the inside: this was a complete inclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself
killed; the case was thus:-As I was busy in the inside,
behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was
terribly frighted with a most dreadful surplriiinl tiling
indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come
crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the
edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had
set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared; thinking that the top of my cave was
fallen in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll
down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the
firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of
a rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the
sea, fell down, with such a terrible noise as I never heard
in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with anyone that had, I was
like one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but
the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were,
and rousing me from the stupified condition I was in,
filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but
the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and 1 felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not
heart enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
while, I had not the least serious religious thought, nothing
but the common "Lord have mercy upon me!" and when
it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind arose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew
a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden,
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered
with the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by
the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about
three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours
more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified
and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts,
that these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I
might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my
spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to per-
suade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the
rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my
head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to
cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink, to let the
water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still
no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be
more composed. And now to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store and
took a small sup of ium; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and
great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad;
but my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do: concluding, that if the island was sub-

ject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me
in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in
an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts
or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, which was just under the
hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I
spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April,
in contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad
without any fence was almost equal to it: but still, when I
looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger,
in made me very loath to remove. In the meantime, it
occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for
me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture where
I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had
secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time; and resolved that I would
go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and
cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it,
when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was finished and fit to remove. This
was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means, to put this resolve into execution; but I was at
a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets, but with much chopping and cutting
knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull;
and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and
grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At
length I contrived a wheel with a string to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grind-

ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone
performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself
to one biscuit a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I
came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces
of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the
late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it
used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present,
and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in
pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on
that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not come within a
quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake; and by this violence the ship was
more broke open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the
winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of
that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of any-
thing, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of

the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her
would be of some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter deck togetlhr, and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest : but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
May 4.-I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durAt eat of, till I was weary of my sport ; when, just going
to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet
I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir-planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made to float on shore
when the tide of flood came on.
MIay 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very
hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open
that I could see into it, but it was almost full of water and
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for the next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them up.
I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it
was too heavy to remove.
May 10, 14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got
a great many pieces of timber and boards or plank, and
two or three hundredweight of iron.

Mlay 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet and driving it with the other; but as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
Muy 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I
stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece of
the lead, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the
wreck; and with hard labour I loosened some things so
much with the crow, that the first blowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but tho
wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that
day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand had spoiled
it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it ebbed out;
and by this time I got timber and plank, and iron-work,
enough to have built a good boat, if I had know how ; and
also I got at several times, and in several pieces, near one
hundredweight of the sheet-lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or
scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I


thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly; which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head,
and very feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the
apprehension of my sad condition-to be sick, and no
help; prayed to God, for the first time since the storm ofl
Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why; my thoughts
being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours: cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak: however, I killed a
she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled
some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made
some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
dny, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but
was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say: only I lay and cried, "Lord,
look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon
me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours;
till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty; however, as I
had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till
morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I
had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on
the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when
the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire,

and light upon the ground: he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him :
his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
for words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to
my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground at
some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood was this :-" Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die;" at which words I thought he lifted up the spear that
was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any mure possible
to describe the impression that remained upon my mind
when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a constant conversation with none but such as
were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I
do not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought
that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards
God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways;
but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or
conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I
was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature
among our common sailors are supposed to be: not having
the least sense, either of the fear of God, in danger, or of
thankfulness to God, in deliverance.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all
my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised
with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true

thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere
common flight of joy, without the least reflection upon the
distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the
rest were destroyed. Even when I was, afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind,
out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon
as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not
starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction
wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied myself to
the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me:
these were thoughts which very seldom entered my head.
But to return to my Journal:
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and
though the fright and terror of my dream was very great,
yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again
the next day, and now was my time to get something to
refresh and support myself when I should be ill; and the
first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with
water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed; and
to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I
put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh,
and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At
night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I
roasted in the ashes, and ate in the shell, and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, that I
could remember, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I
tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that, so I
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and
very calm and smooth. Some such thoughts as these

occurred to me: God knows that I am here, and am in tlis
dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all that is to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any of these
conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed
all this to befall me ; that I was brought into this miserable
circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power,
not of me only, but of everything that happened in the
world. Immediately it followed-Why has God done this
to me? What have I done to be thus used ? My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had
blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
"Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look
back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself, what
thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in
Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship was
taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the wild
beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, what have I
done?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say-no, not to answer
to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had
no inclination to sleep: so I sat down in my chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the
apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers,
and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and
not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt, for in this chest I
found a cure for both soul and body. I opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, the tobacco: and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles
which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or inclination, to look into. What use to

make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or
whether it was good for me or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one
way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupified my
brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had
not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it
an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of
it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as
I could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible and
began to read, but my head was too much disturbed with
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time: only,
having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these, Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
These words were very apt to my case, and made some im-
pression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that I began to say as the children
of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, Can
God spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I began to say,
" Can God Himself deliver me from this place ?" And as
it was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had dozed
my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in
the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did
what I had never done in all my life; I kneeled down,
and prayed to God, to fulfil the promise to me, that if I
called upon Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver
me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco ; which
was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that I could scarcely
get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I found

presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into
a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next
day; nay, to this hour, I am partly of opinion, that I slept
all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after: for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day
out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared
some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing
and recrossingtheLine, Ishould have lost more than one day;
but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when
I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was stronger
than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for
I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I
ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day before, the tobacco steeped in
rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I
chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st
of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways;
and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I
was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly
upon this Scripture, "I will deliver thee;" and the im-
possibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in
bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I
pored so much upon my deliverance from the main affliction,
that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I

was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these,
viz.: Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from
sickness? from the most distressed condition that could be,
and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
I taken of it ? Had I done my part? God had delivered
me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had not
owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance: and
how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched my
heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave
thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and
every night; not tying myself to the number of chapters,
but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not
long after I set selriou'ly to this work, till I found my heart
more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The impression of my dream revived ; and
the words, "All these things have not brought thee to re-
pentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly
begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened
providentially, the very day that, reading the Scripture, I
came to these words, "He is exalted a Prince and a
Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I
threw down the book ; and with my heart as well as my
hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstacy of joy, I
cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!" This
was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with
a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of
hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of God;
and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that
God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
" Call on Me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion
of anything being called deliverance, but my being delivered
from the captivity I was in: for though I was indeed at
large in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to

me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I
learned to take it in another sense; now I looked back
upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared
so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but
deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my
comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not
so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it
was all of no consideration in comparison to this. And I
add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that
whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will
find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than de-
liverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:-
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and
a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was
reduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly
new, and perhaps which had never cured an ague before;
neither can I recommend it to any one to practise by this
experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it
rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent
convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time; I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my
health that could be, especially in those rains which came
attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the
rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was
much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September
and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten
months: all possibility of deliverance from this condition
seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed
that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to
my mind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect dis-
covery of the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I
came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, very fresh and good; but this being the
dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it.
On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass: and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of or under-
standing about, that might perhaps have virtues of their
own, which I could not find out. I searched for the
cassava root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make
their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of
aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-
canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and
came back, musing with myself what course I might take
to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or
plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no
conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation
while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants
in the field, that might serve me to any purpose now in my
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and after going something farther than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and the
country became more woody. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly melons upon the ground, in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising
discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remem-
bering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of
grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves



I ''

i. "I

"To y matoni hinumt, my crat rtrnted home with fIl
8a' d:I

there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I
found an excellent use for these grapes; and that was, to
cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be wholesome
and agreeable to eat, when no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I
might say, I had lain from home. In the night, I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well;
and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery,
travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the south and north side of me. At the end of this
march, I came to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water,
which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, that
it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on
the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a kind of
secret pleasure, though mixed with my other afflicting
thoughts, that this was all my own; that I was king and
lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in
inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange
and lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit.. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very whole-
some; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which
made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I
found now I had business enough, to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap
in another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in
another place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled
homewards; and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or
sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Ac-

cordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave), but before
I got thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the
fruit, and the weight of the juice, having broken them and
bruised them, they were good for little or nothing : as to
Sthe limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was
surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were
so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here,
some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this,
I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts,
which had done this; but what they were, I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps,
and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they
would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for
I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure
and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and the lemons,
I carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the
pleasantness of the situation; the security from storms on
that side the water, and the wood: and concluded that I
had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by far
the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began
to consider of removing my habitation; and looking out
for a place equally safe as where now I was situate, if
possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place
tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage;
and, by the same ill fate that brought me hither, might
bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and
though it was scarce probable that any such thing should
ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and

woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this
place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of
the remaining part of the month of July, and though, upon
second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a
little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with
a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could
reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood; and
here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights to-
gether; always going over it with a ladder; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house; and this work took me up to the beginning of
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy
my labour, when the rains came on, and mademe stick close
to my first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like
the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well,
yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms,
nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August,
I found the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and
indeed were excellent good raisins; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so,
for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and
I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had above
two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I
taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the
middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could
not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of
my family: I had been concerned for the loss of one of my
cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been
dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to my astonish-
ment, she came home about the end of August with three

kittens. This was the more strange to me, because, though
I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I
thought it was quite a different kind from our European cats;
but the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as
the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it
very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came
to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like
vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be
much wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened
for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat;
and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus :-I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece
of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled,
for I had no vessel to boil or stew anything; and two or
three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by de-
grees worked it on towards one side, till I came to the
outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out
this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open;
for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect
inclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and open
for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest
creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and
found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, even till the going
down of the sun; I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it,
with religious exercise. I had all this time observed no
Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon
my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the

Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the
days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I
found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two
in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail
me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly,
and to write down only the most remarkable events of my
life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other
The rainy season and the dry season now began to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
for them accordingly; but I bought all my experience
before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of
the most discouraging experiments that I made.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley
and rice which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I
thought of themselves, and I believe there were about
thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now
I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the
sun being in its southern position, going from me. Ac-
cordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it in two parts, I
sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because
I did not know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed
about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of
each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did
so, for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to
anything; for the dry months following, the earth having
had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to
assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been
but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow,
which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for
a moister piece of ground to make another trial in, and I
dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a

very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and
not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity
at last, my whole crop not amounting to half a peck of
each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of
my business, and knew exactly when the proper season was
to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times and two
harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains
were over, and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower, where, though I had not been some
months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some
trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots
the first year after lopping its head. I was surprised, and
yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I
pru'ed them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I
cotud; and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into in three years; so that though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees
soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to
cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a
semi-circle round the wall of my first dwelling, which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about
eight yards' distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation,
and afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall observe
in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but
into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus:-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the
half of April-rainy, the sun being then on or near the
The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and

the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north
of the Line.
The half of August, the whole of September, and the half
of October-rainy, the sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December,
and January, and the half of February-dry, the sun being
then to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter,
as the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care
to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might
not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. This time I found much
employment, and very suitable also to the time, for I found
great occasion for many things which I had no way to
furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant appli-
cation; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of
excellent advantage to me now, that when I was a V=y, I
used to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's,
in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware ; and being, as boys usually are, very officious
to help, and a great observer of the manner in which they
worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had
by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and I
wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into my
mind that the twigs of that tree whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows,
and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly,
the next day I went to my country-house, as I called it,
and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my
purpose as much as I could desire;. whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.
These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when
they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here,
during the next season, I employed myself in making,
as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry or to

lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently
serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took
care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets
to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come
to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to
supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything that
was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of
rum, and some glass bottles-some of the common size, and
others, which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of
water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil any-
thing, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship,
and which was too big to make broth, and stew a bit of
meat by itself. The second thing I fain would have had
was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I em-
ployed myself in planting my second rows of stakes
or piles and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry
season, when another business took me up more time than
it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see
the whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and
so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that
side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and
a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two
biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale
where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the
sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly
described land, at a very great distance; by my guess,
it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America, and,
as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions.

After some thought upon this affair, I considered that, if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one
lime or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or
other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the
Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely for-
ward; I found that side of the island where I now was
much pleasanter than mine-the savannah fields sweet,
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods.
I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught
one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to
speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young
parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having
recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years be-
fore I could make him speak; however, at last I taught
him to call me by my name very familiarly. But the
accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very
diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and
foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I
had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I
had no want of food, and of that which was very good, too,
especially these three sorts, viz.: goats, pigeons, and turtle,
or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market
could not have furnished a table better than I, in propor-
tion to the company.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns
to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary
enough to the place where I resolved to sit down all night;
and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, from
one tree to another, so that no wild creature could come at
me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to
see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with

innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found
but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number of fowls of many kinds, some I had seen, and some
I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat,
but such as I knew not the names of, except those called
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot, and therefore had more
mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed
on; and though there were many goats here-more than on
my side the i-land, yet it was with much more difficulty
that I could come near them, the country being flat and
even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to
remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became
natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be,
as it were, upon a journey, and from home. However, I
travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I sup-
pose about twelve miles, and then, setting up a great pole
upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home
again, and that the next journey I took should be on the
other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep all the island so much in
my view, that I could not miss finding my dwelling by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself
descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not
see which was my way by any direction but that of the sun,
nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the
sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further
misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or four
days while I was in the valley, and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last
was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come
back the same way I went; and then, by easy journeys,

I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it, and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and
saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it
home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it
might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a
breed of tame goats, which might supply me when my
powder and shot should be all spent. I made a collar for
this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some
rope-yarn, which I always carried about with me, I led him
along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my
bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for I was
very impatient to be at home, whence I had been absent
above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed.
This little wandering journey, without any settled place of
abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house,
as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me com-
pared to that; and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way
from it again while it should be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and rdgale myself
after my long journey; during which, most of the time
was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my
Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor
kid which I had penned in within my little circle, and re-
solved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food;
accordingly, I went, and found it where I left it, almost
starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees,
and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it
over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had
no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog; and
as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn
manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the
island, having now been there two years, and no mo e
prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all
the past part of my days; and now I changed both my
sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered, my affections
changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new
from what they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the
two years past.
I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to
my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, I will never, never leave
thee, nor forsake thee;" immediately it occurred that these
words were to me; why else should they be directed
in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourn-
ing over my condition, as one forsaken of God and man ?
"Well, then," said I, if God does not forsake me, of what
ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the
world should all forsake me? seeing, on the other hand, if
I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing
of God, there would be no comparison in the loss."
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that
it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken,
solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
been in any other particular state in the world; and, with
this thought, I was going to give thanks to God for bring-
ing me to this place. I know not what it was, but some-
thing shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not
speak the words. "How canst thou become such a
hypocrite," said I, even audibly, to pretend to be thankful
for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour to
be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from ?" So I stopped there, but though I could
not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave
thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting

providence, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the
Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God
for directing my friend in England, without any order of
mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting me
afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.
In this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so
particular an account of my works this year as the first, yet
in general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle;
but having regularly divided my time according to the
several daily employment that were before me, such as,
first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for, thrice every day ;
secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning, when it
did not rain ; thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and
cooking, whatIkilled or caught for my supply these took up
great part of the day; also, it is to be considered, that in
the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the
violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about
four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I
changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to
work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the
To this short time for labour may be added the exceed-
ing laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for
the want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, every-
thing I did took up out of my time; for example, I was
full two and forty days in making a board for a long shelf
which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with
their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of
the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to
be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This
tree I was three days in cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced
both the sides of it into chips till it began to be light

enough to move; then I turned it, and male one side of
it smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then, turn-
ing that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought
the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides. Any one may judge the labour in such a piece
of work, but labour and patience carried me through that,
and many other things, as will appear by what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December,
expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured and dug up for them was not great; for, as I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck, but now my crop promised very well, when on
a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by
enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to
keep from it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures which
I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay
in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so
close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for, but by making an inclosure
about it with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of
toil and the more because it required speed. However,
as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got
it totally well fenced in about three weeks' time; and
shooting some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my
dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at
the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so,
in a little time, the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was
in the blade, so the birds were likely to ruin me now, when
it was in the ear; for, going along by the place to see how
it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I
know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among them,
for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot,
but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not
seen at all, from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few
days they would devour all my hopes; that [ should be
starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all, and what

to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my
corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day.
In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage was
already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal
of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss
was not so great, but that the remainder was likely to be a
good crop, if it could be saved.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about
me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the
event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was
gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped
down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked,
that I could not have patience to stay till more came on,
knowing that every grain they ate now was, as it might be
said, a peck-loaf to me in consequence; but, coming up to
the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This
was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served them
as we serve notorious thieves in England-hanged them in
chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
that this should have such an effect as it had, for the fowls
would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they for-
sook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scare-crows hung there. This
I was very glad of, and about the latter end of December,
which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down,
and all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out
of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the ship. However, as my first
crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down;
in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the
ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had
made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the
end of my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels
and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I
had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I
foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply me

with bread: and yet, here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or,
indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into
meal, how to make bread of it: and if how to make it,
yet I knew not how to bake it. I resolved not to taste any
of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next
season ; and, in the meantime, to employ all my study and
hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread.
I believe few people have thought much upon the strange
multitude of little things necessary in the providing, pro-
ducing, curing, dressing, making, and finishing, this one
article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this
to my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible
of it every hour.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade
or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me
a wooden spade, as I observed before, but this did my work
but in a wooden manner, and though it cost me a great many
days to make it, yet for want of iron, it not only wore out
soon, but made my work the harder, and made it be per-
formed much worse. However, this I bore with, and was
content to work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When the corn was sown, I
had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and
drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as
it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it
was growing, and grown, I have observed already how
many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap
it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff,
and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it; but all these things I did without, as shall
be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me, too. All this made everything laborious
and tedious to me, but that there was no help for; neither was
my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a
certain part of it was every day appointed to these works;

It cost me near tlorui mnak it s I ornet i.t cIl;r t. i0 in sic il wr-k it
out so as to make an exnct boat, (f it."--Pnae 103.


and as I had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I
had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish my-
self with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this,
I had a week's work at least to make me a spade, which,
when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very
heavy, and required double labour to work with it. How-
ever, I got through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge,
the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which I had
set before, and knew it would grow; so that in one year's
time I knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that would
want but little repair. This work did not take me up less
than three months, because a great part of that time was
the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors
I found employment in the following occupations-always
observing that, all the while I was at work, I diverted myself
with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I
quicklytaught him to know his own name, and at last to speak
it out pretty loud, Poll, which was the first word I ever heard
spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This,
therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work,
for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows: I had long studied to make, by some
means or other, some earthern vessels, which, indeed, I
wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them.
However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might make some
pots that might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything
that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was
necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c., which was the
thing I was doing, I resolved to make them as large as I
could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should
be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at

me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this
paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell out-the clay not
being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many
cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily ;'and how many fell in pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a
word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay-to
dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it-I could
not make above two large earthern ugly things (I cannot
call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard,
I lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in
two great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for
them, that they might not break ; and as between the pot
and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it
full of the rice and barley straw ; and these two pots being
to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success; such
as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and
anything my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun
baked them quite hard.
But my end was to get an earthen pot to hold what was
liquid, and bear the fire; which none of these could do. It
happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for
cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I had
done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as
a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to my-
self that, certainly they might be made to burn whole, if
they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had
some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins,
and two or three pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my firewood all round it with a great heap of embers under
them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside,

and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all;
when I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat
about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it
did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat,
and would have run into glass if I had gone on; so I
slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the
red colour, and watching them all night, that I might not
let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had three very
good (I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other
earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of
them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthenware for my use; but as to the shapes of
them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they
were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with some
water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably
well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good brotl,
though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it as good as I would have had it been.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp
or beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no
thought of arriving at that perfection of art with one pair
of hands. To supply this want, I was at a great loss ; for,
of all the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I any
tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out
a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a
mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the
solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor
indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient,
but were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither
would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break
the corn, without filling it with sand; so, after a great deal
of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and
resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood, which

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