Title Page
 Memoir of De Foe
 Robinson Crusoe: Part I
 Robinson Crusoe: Part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072809/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 373 <i.e. 383>, <2> p., <8> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Browne, Hablot Knight, 1815-1882 ( Illustrator )
Evans, Edmund, 1826-1905 ( Engraver )
Rambert ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
G. Routledge & Co ( Publisher )
Cox (Bros.) and Wyman ( Printer )
Publisher: G. Routledge & Co.
Place of Publication: London (Farringdon Street) ;
New York (18 Beekman Street)
Manufacturer: Cox (Bros. and Wyman
Publication Date: 1855
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1855   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; including a memoir of the author, and an essay on his writings ; illustrated by Phiz.
General Note: Some ill. engraved by Evans, Rambert.
General Note: After the t.p., pagination is: <2>, 1-15, <1>, 1, 10-373.
General Note: Differs from Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 433, which is an 1855 edition, described from an 1857 reissue.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (<2> p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072809
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10945661

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Memoir of De Foe
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
        A 9
        A 10
        A 11
        A 12
        A 13
        A 14
        A 15
    Robinson Crusoe: Part I
        B 9
        B 10
        B 11
        B 12
        B 13
        B 14
        B 15
        B 16
        B 17
        B 18
        B 19
        B 20
        B 21
        B 22
        B 23
        B 24
        B 25
        B 26
        B 27
        B 28
        B 29
        B 30
        B 31
        B 32
        B 33
        B 34
        B 35
        B 36
        B 37
        B 38
        B 39
        B 40
        B 41
        B 42
        B 43
        B 44
        B 45
        B 46
        B 47
        B 48
        B 49
        B 50
        B 50a
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        B 154a
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        B 194a
        B 195
        B 196
        B 197
        B 198
    Robinson Crusoe: Part II
        B 199
        B 200
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Full Text

jkfr I afe0 na fitura


Enclubing a ftremoir of tljt Siutlor, aub an aEssa an fjis z ritings.




IF ever the story of any private man's adventures in
the world were worth making public, and were acceptable
when published, the Editor of this account thinks this will
be so.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all that is to be
found extant; the life of one man being scarce capable
of greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and
with a religious application of events to the uses to which
wise men always apply them; viz., to the instruction of
others, by this example, and to justify and honour the
wisdom of Providence in all the variety of our circumstances,
let them happen how they will.


DAIEL FOE, or, as he subsequently styled himself (though at what
time and on what occasion is not known), De Foe, was born in the
parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, London, in the year 1661. The
earliest of his ancestors of whom there is any account, was Daniel
Foe, a yeoman, who farmed his own estate at Elton, in Northampton-
shire. He maintained a pack of hounds; from whence it may be
reasonably inferred that his means were above competency. A custom
of the times in bestowing party names on brutes is thus mentioned by
our author. "I remember," he says, my grandfather had a hunts-
man that used the same familiarity with his dogs; and he had his
Roundhead, and his Cavalier, and his Goring, and his Waller, and all
the generals of both armies were hounds in his pack; till the times
turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter his pack, and make
them up of more dog-like surnames." It is from his grandfather that
De Foe is supposed to have inherited landed property: for in his
" Review," a work we shall often have occasion to consult, he says,
"I have both a native and an acquired right of election." Our
author's father, James Foe, followed the trade of butcher, in St. Giles's,
Cripplegate: and these few barren facts are all that is to be gathered
of the ancestors of Daniel De Foe. "He had," says Mr. Wilson, in
his excellent work, The Life and Times of Daniel De Foe," a work
abounding with the most curious and minute information on the
period of which it treats-" He had some collateralrelatives, to whom
he alludes occasionally in his writings, but with too much brevity to
ascertain the degree of kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of
humour, and that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained
with him through after life, "making a sunshine in the shady place "
of a prison, and arming him as the champion of truth in humanity in
the most perilous times. An anecdote related by our author is illus-
trative of the discipline that governed the home of his boyhood.
During that part of the reign of Charles II. when the nation feared
the ascendancy of Popery, and it was expected that printed Bibles

would become rare, many honest people employed themselves in
copying the Bible into short-hand. To this task, young De Foe applied
himself; and he tells us that "he worked like a horse till he had
written out the whole of the Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that
he was willing to risk the rest." The parents of De Foe were non-
conformists, and his education was consonant to the practice of that
faith. Family religion formed an essential part of its discipline; and
it was made matter of conscience to instruct the children of a family
and its dependents in their social, moral, and religious duties.
Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his
reputation by representing him as having been bred a tradesman,
there is ample evidence to prove that he was originally intended for
one of the learned professions.* When he had, therefore, sufficiently
qualified under inferior tutors, he was, at about fourteen years of age,
placed in an academy at Newington Green, under the direction of
"that polite and profound scholar," the Reverend Charles Morton,
who was subsequently defended by his pupil, some aspersions having
been cast upon the character of the master by an ungrateful scholar
who had deserted to the church. De Foe writes, "I must do that
learned gentleman's memory the justice to affirm, that neither in his
system of politics, government, and discipline, nor in any other of
the exercises of that school, was there anything taught or en-
couraged that was antimonarchical or destructive to the constitution
of England."
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to
speak with any certainty. He tells us in one of his Reviews" that
he had been master of five languages, and that he had studied the
mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography, and history: he was
one of the few who, in those days, studied politics as a science. He
went through a complete course of theology, and his knowledge of
ecclesiatical history was also considerable. He was, however,
attacked by party malice as "an illiterate person without education."
To this he calmly makes answer :-" Those gentlemen who reproach
my learning to applaud their own, shall have it proved that I have
more learning than either of them-because I have more manners."
He adds, I think I owe this justice to my excellent father still living
(1705), and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I am a blockhead,
it is nobody's fault but my own." He proceeds to challenge his
slanderer to translate with me any Latin, French and Italian author,
and after that to retranslate them crossways, for twenty pounds each
book; and by this he shall have an opportunity to show the world
It is not often," says De Foe, in his Review, vi. 341, that I trouble you
with any of my divinity; the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster
first to be set apart for, and then to be set apart from, the honour of that sacred

how much De Foe, the hosier, is inferior in learning to Mr. Tutchin,
the gentleman."
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade-most
perilous in his day-of author; at the which he laboured through
good and through evil report, with lasting honour to himself, and
enduring benefit to mankind, for half a century. It is now ascer-
tained that De Foe's first publication was a lampooning answer to
" L'Estrange's Guide to the Inferior Clergy," and bore the following
quaint title:-" Speculum Crape-Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass for
the YoungAcademicks new Foyl'd; with Reflections on some of the late
High Flown Sermons: to which is added, an Essay towards a Sermon of
the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to the Inferiour Clergie. Ridentem
discere Vernn Quis Vetat. London: printed for E. Rydal. 1682."
This title De Foe borrowed from the crape gowns then usually worn
by the inferior clergy; and in the book, he fights the fight of the
Dissenters against what he terms the libels of the established clergy.
"The fertility of the subject," says Mr. Wilson, soon produced a
second part of the 'Speculum;' in which the author deals more
seriously with the government, and by a practical view of the effect
of persecution, exposed its absurdity."
We have entered more at length into the nature and purpose of
De Foe's first book, than will be permitted to us by our limits to do
with each of the works that now followed, in rapid profusion, from
the pen of our author. All that we purpose to ourselves is, to give
the strongest outlines of his character,-the principal events of his
career: and, avoiding on one hand a jejune brevity, that confines
itself to mere dates, attempt not, on the other side, a minute descrip-
tion of events incompatible with our present object.
When the duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe was among
those who joined the standard of the hapless nobleman. "A romantic
kind of invasion," says Welwood, "and scarcely paralleled in his-
tory." At the age of four-and-twenty, we see De Foe, the author of
"Robinson Crusoe," a soldier; as ready with his sword as prompt
with his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De
Foe seems to have had some previous knowledge, having often seen
him at Aylesbury races, where the duke rode his own horses, a cir-
cumstance alluded to by our author in his "Tour." De Foe had the
good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so many of the
duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where, leaving
the stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention to trade.
The nature of his business has been variously represented. In several
publications of the time, he is styled a hosierr;" but, if we may
believe his own account, he was a hose-factor, or, the middle-man
between the manufacturer and the retail-dealer. This agency concern
he carried on for some years, in Freeman's-court, Cornhill; Mr.

Chalmers says, from 1685 to 1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8,
having claimed his freedom by birth, he was admitted a liveryman
of London. In the Chamberlain's book, his name was written
"Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting,
in Surrey, where he was the first person who attempted to form the
Dissenters in the neighbourhood into a regular congregation. De Foe
was for many years a resident in this part of Surrey; it is likely that
he had a country-house there during the time that he carried on his
hose-agency in Cornhill. De Foe was one of the most ardent wor-
shippers of the Revolution: he annually commemorated the 4th of
November as a day of deliverance. "A day," says he, "famous on
various accounts, and every one of them dear to Britons who love
their country, value the Protestant interest, or have an aversion to
tyranny and oppression. On this day, he (King William) was born;
on this day, he married the daughter of England; and on this day,
he rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of Egypt; a
bondage of soul, as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the ambition
and raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice, cruelty,
and blood." In order to do honour to the king, and add to the
splendour of the procession, on the royal visit to Guildhall, many of
the citizens volunteered to attend William as a guard of honour on
the occasion. Among these was Daniel De Foe.
The commercial speculations of our author, though at the first
prosperous, were ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a
various character, is evident from the fact of his having engaged with
partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It is very clear, from
a passage in his Review," that he had been a merchant-adventurer.
In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish
proverb, "which," says he, "I learnt when I was in that country."
It further appears, that while residing there, he made himself a
master of the language. De Foe's losses by shipwreck appear to
have been very considerable. The occupations of trade, however,
according to De Foe's own confession, assort ill with literary feelings.
" A wit turned tradesman! he exclaims; no apron-strings will hold
him: 'tis in vain to lock him in behind the counter, he's gone in a
moment." He concludes:-"A statute of bankrupt is his Exeunt
Omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue in the Fleet Prison or
In allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers
observes:-" With the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried
into companies who were gratified by his wit. He spent those hours
with a small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-house;
and, being obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally

attributed those misfortunes to the war, which werd probably owing
to his own misconduct. An angry creditor took out a commission of
bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the petition of those to
whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition on his
single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied
diligence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied,
falling afterwards into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid
them their whole claim, being then in rising circumstances, in con-
sequence of King William's favour." De Foe, being subsequently
reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, he tells him,
in 1705, that, "with a numerous family, and no help but his own
industry, he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence,
through a set of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of
composition, from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand
It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe, our laws
against bankrupts were as inhuman as they were foolish. "The
cruelty of our laws against debtors," says De Foe, without distinc-
tion of honest or dishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am per-
suaded, the honestest man in England, when by necessity he is com-
pelled to break, will early fly out of the kingdom rather than submit.
To stay here, this is the consequence: as soon as he breaks, he is
proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty to sixty days to surrender
both himself and all that he has to his creditors. If he fails to do it,
he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit of clergy;
if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown into gaol for
life by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath!
What must the man do?" We have reformed a great deal of this
in our days, yet something remains undone, for the bankrupt is
still too much left at the mercy of the malevolent or ignorant
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his cre-
ditors, resided some time at Bristol. A friend of mine in that city,"
says Mr. Wilson, "informs me that one of his ancestors remembered
De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking in the streets of Bristol,
accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing wig, lace
ruffles, and a sword by his side: also, that hethere obtained the name
of 'the Sunday gentleman,' because, through fear of the bailiffs, he
did not dare to appear in public upon any other day." De Foe was
wont to visit "The Red Lion," kept by one Mark Watkins, who, in
after times, used to entertain his company with an account of a sin-
gular personage, who made his appearance in Bristol, clothed in goat-
skins, in which dress he was in the habit of walking the streets, and
went by the name of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe! It
was during this retreat from London that De Foe wrote his celebrated

"Essay upon Projects," though he did not publish it until nearly five
years afterwards.
It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants
of his acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain. with the
offer of a good commission: "but," says our author, "Providence,
which had other work for me to do, placed a secret aversion in my
mind to quitting England upon any account, and made me refuse the
best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some eminent persons at
home, in proposing ways and means to the government for raising
money to supply the occasion of the war, then newly begun." De
Foe suggested a general assessment of personal property, the amount
to be settled by composition, under the inspection of commissioners
appointed by the king. It was, doubtless, owing to these services,
that De Foe was appointed to the office of accountant to the com-
missioners of the glass duty, in 1695: the commission ceased in 1699.
It was probably about this time that De Foe became secretary to the
tile-kiln and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had
been hitherto a Dutch manufacture, and were brought in large quan-
tities to England. To' supersede the necessity of their importation,
these works were erected. The speculation proved unsuccessful,
De Foe himself losing by its failure no less than three thousand
pounds. He continued the works, it is believed, until the year 1703,
when, being deprived of his liberty for a libel, the undertaking came
to an end.
Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world
his Essay upon Projects;" a work "alike admirable for the novelty
of the subject, and the clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated.
The projects of our author may be classed under the heads of politics,
commerce, and benevolence; all having some reference to the public
improvement. The first relates to banks in general, and to the royal
or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be rendered sub-
servient to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of commerce,
as well as to the purposes of the state : his next project relates to
highways; a third, to the improvement of the bankrupt laws; a
fourth, to the plan of friendly societies, formed by mutual assurance,
for the relief of the members in seasons of distress; a fifth, for the
establishment of an asylum for fools," or, more properly, naturals,"
whom he describes as a particular rent-charge on the great family
of mankind:" he next suggests the formation of academies, to supply
some neglected branches of education; one of these was for the
improvement of the English tongue, "to polish and refine it;" and
this project combined a reformation of that "foolish vice," swearing:
the next project of our author was an academy for military studies;
and, under the head of Academies," he suggested an institution for
the education of females:-" We reproach the sex every day," says

he, with folly and impertinence, while, I am confident, had they the
advantages of education equal to us, they would be guilty of less than
In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of "The
Trueborn Englishman." It was composed in answer to "a vile,
abhorred pamphlet, in very ill verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin, and
called 'The Foreigners,' in which the author-who he then was I
knew not," says De Foe-" fell personally upon the king and the
Dutch nation." How many thousands familiar with the following
now proverbial lines, know not that with them opens "The True-
Born Englishman!"

Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The devil always builds a chapel there;
And 't will be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation I"

De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Norman
invader, who cantoned out the country to his followers, and every
soldier was a denizen." The folly of indulging this pride of ancestry
is finely painted in the following lines:-
"These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived.
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;
The Pict and painted Briton, treach'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-haired offspring everywhere remains;
Who, joined with Norman-French, compound the breed
From whence your True-Born Englishmen proceed.
And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."

De Foe concludes with the following striking lines:-
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate:
How we contend for birth and names unknown;
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile degenerate race;
For fame of families is all a cheat,

"When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against
Dutchmen," says De Foe, in his "Explanatory Preface," "only

because they are foreigners, and the king reproached and insulted by
insolent pedants and ballad-making poets, for employing foreigners,
and being a foreigner himself, I confess myself moved by it to remind
our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see what a ban-
ter they put upon themselves; since, speaking of Englishmen ab
origin, we are really all foreigners ourselves."
It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted for a personal intro-
duction to King William. He was sent for to the palace by his
Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated interviews with him
afterwards. The manners and sentiments of De Foe appeared to have
made such a favourable impression on the king, that he ever after
regarded him with kindness; and conceiving that his talents might be
turned to a beneficial account, he employed him in many secret ser-
vices, to which he alludes occasionally in his writings.
The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most bene-
ficial. De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes,
"National mistakes, vulgar errors, and even a general practice, have
been reformed by a just satire. None of our countrymen have been
known to boast of being True-Born Englishmen, or so much as use
the word as a title or appellation, ever since a late satire upon
that national folly was published, though almost thirty years
In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King William,
we find De Foe strenuously engaged advocating the necessity of set-
tling the succession in the Protestant line; an important object with
William, as the only means of perpetuating the benefits which the
nation had reaped from the Revolution. To this great end, De Foe
devoted all his energies, labouring with unwearied zeal in the cause.
His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose
names are historically associated with the presentation of the famous
Kentish petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character.
The Commons had imprisoned the petitioners, who prayed the house
for the settlement of the Protestant succession, for having presented
a petition "scandalous, insolent, and seditious." On this, De Foe
drew up his celebrated "Legion Paper." In what manner it was
communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It
was reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, pre-
sented it to the Speaker as he entered the House of Commons. The
"Legion" petition rang like a tocsin throughout the kingdom. As,
however, the author remained concealed, the Commons did not think
fit to pass any particular censure upon it. The Kentish petitioners
were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th of
June: they were subsequently feasted at Mercers' Hall, where De
Foe attended. "Next the Worthis," says a pamphlet of the time,
"was placed their secretary of state, the author of the 'Legion

Paper;' and one might have read the downfal of parliaments in his
very countenance."
By the death of King William, "more mortally wounded," says De
Foe, "with the pointed rage of parties, and an ungrateful people,
than by the fall from his horse," our author lost a kind friend and
powerful protector. Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe
took up his abode at Hackney, and resided there many years. Here
some of his children were born and buried. In the parish register is
the following entry:-" Sophia, daughter to Daniel De Foe, by Mary
his wife, was baptised, December 24, 1701."
The next important work of De Foe-a work that exercised the
greatest influence on his fortunes-was the Shortest Way with the
Dissenters; or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church; 1702."
In this work, the author, assuming the character of an Ultra High
Churchman, advocates the adoption of the severest measures against
the Dissenters. "'Tis vain," writes De Foe, "to trifle inthis matter.
The light, foolish handling of them by fines, is their glory and advan-
tage. If the gallows instead of the computer, and the galleys instead
of the fines, were the reward of going to a conventicle, there would
not be so many sufferers." These arguments found high favour with
both the Universities. The High Church Party never suspected the
sincerity of their partizan, and charmed and won by the fierce doc-
trines of their champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their
extravagance. It was, however, De Foe's hard fate to be misunder-
stood by both parties. Whilst the High Churchmen congratulated
themselves on the addition of another advocate, the Dissenters treated
him as a real enemy. The Church Party, however, fell into the trap
laid for them by De Foe; for, by expressing their delight at the fiery
sentiments of the author, they avowed them as their own true feel-
ings on the question. De Foe subsequently taunts the party thus:-
" We have innumerable testimonies," he says, "with which that party
embraced the proposal of sending all the Dissenting ministers to the
gallows and the galleys; of having all their meeting-houses demo-
lished; and being let loose upon the people to plunder and destroy
them." In another place, De Foe characteristically portrays the
common fate of the subtlety of wit, when judged by the multitude.
He says-" All the fault I can find with myself as to these people
(the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn the picture, I did not, like
the Dutchman with his man and bear, write under them, 'This is the
man,' and 'This is the bear,' lest the people should mistake me; and
having in a compliment to their judgment shunned so sharp a reflec-
tion upon their senses, I have left them at liberty to treat me like one
that put a value upon their penetration at the expense of my own."
The first detection of our author is said to have been owing to the
industry of the Earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state.

When the author's name was known, people were at no loss to
decipher his object; and those who had committed themselves by
launching forth in his praises were stung with madness at their own
folly. It was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe
by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought
concealment; when a proclamation was issued by the Government,
offering 50 for the discovery of his retreat, and advertised in "The
London Gazette," for January 10, 1702-3. It was as follows:-
"Whereas, Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing
a scandalous and'seditious pamphlet, entitled, 'The Shortest Way
with the Dissenters.' He is a middle-sized, spare man, about forty
years old; of a brown complexion, and dark brown coloured hair, but
wears a wig; a hook nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole
near his mouth: was born in London, and for many years was a hose-
factor in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill: and now is owner of the brick
and pantile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex: whoever shall dis-
cover the said Daniel De Foe to one of her Majesty's principal secre-
taries of state, or any of her Majesty's justices of peace, so he may be
apprehended, shall have a reward of 501., which her Majesty has
ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book be burnt
by the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard." The printer
of the work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe
issued forth from his retirement, to brave the storm, resolving, as he
expresses it, "to throw himself upon the favour of government, rather
than that others should be ruined by his mistake." De Foe was
indicted at the Old Bailey sessions, the 24th of February, 1703, and
proceeded to trial in the following July. It may be gathered from
his own account of the prosecution, that when his enemies had him in
their power, they were at a loss to know what to do with him. He
was therefore advised to throw himself on the mercy of the Queen,
with a promise of protection; which induced him to quit his defence,
and acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive work. On this,
De Foe was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen; to
stand three times in the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen's
pleasure, and to find sureties for his good behaviour for seven
The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence, he was guarded
to the pillory by the populace; and descended from it with the trium-
phant acclamations of the surrounding multitude. De Foe has him-
self related, that "the people, who were expected to treat him very
ill, on the contrary, pitied him, and wished those who set him there
were placed in his room, and expressed their affections by loud shouts

and acclamations when he was taken down." Tradition reports that
the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being in the middle of
summer. The odium intended for De Foe fell upon his persecutors,
and the pillory became to him a place of honour.
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe-a spirit
elevated and strengthened by its unconquerable love of truth-is
manifested by the fact, that on the very day of his exhibition to the
people, he published "A Hymn to the Pillory !" This poem, which
successively passed through several editions, being eagerly bought up
by the people, opens nobly as follows:-
Hail! hieroglyphic state machine,
Contrived to punish fancy in;
Men that are men, in thee can feel no pain,
And all thy insignificant% disdain.
Contempt, that false new word for shame,
Is, without crime, an empty name;
A shadow to amuse mankind,
But never frights the wise or well-fixed mind;
Virtue despises human scorn,
And scandals innocence adorn."

De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes, and a
prisoner. In consequence of his imprisonment, he could no longer
attend to his pantile works, which produced the chief source of his
revenue, and they were consequently given up. By this affair he lost,
as he himself informs us, 3,500; and he had now a wife and six
children dependent upon him, with no other resource for their sup-
port than the product of his pen. Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst
in Newgate, was not that of idleness or dissipation. Some of his
subsequent writings leave no doubt that he now stored his mind with
those facts relative to the habits and pursuits of the prisoners, which
he has detailed with so much nature as well as interest. A great part
of his time was devoted to the composition of political works which
our limits will not permit us to dwell upon. Itwas likewise whilst in
Newgate that he projected his "Review," a periodical work of four
quarto pages, which was published for nine successive years without
intermission; during the greater part of the time, three times a week,
and without having received any assistance whatever in its production.
Throughout this work, he carried on an unsparing warfare against
folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointed the way to the "Tat-
lers," "Spectators," and "Guardians," and may be referred to as
containing avast body of matter on subjects of high interest, written
with all the author's characteristic spirit and vigour.
The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe: but Newgate
had no terrors of him, and he continued at once their prisoner and
their assailant. Upon the accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own

politics not being dissimilar to those of De Foe, the minister made a
private communication to our author, with the view of obtaining his
support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between
them, as De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Not-
withstanding, it is most likely that the Queen became acquainted with
De Foe's real merits through the medium of the minister, and was
made conscious of the injustice of our author's sufferings, which she
now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this purpose, she sent money
to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to him a suffi-
cient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his
discharge from prison.
On his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds.
Party clamour, and party malice, however, pursued him there. On
the miserable libels issued at this time against him, he says, "I tried
retirement, and banished myself from the town. I thought, as the
boys used to say, 'twas but fair they should let me alone, while I did
not meddle with them. But neither a country recess, any more than
a stone doublet, can secure a man from the clamour of the pen." In
his elegy on the author of The True-born Englishman," he alludes to
the report that the Tories had exerted themselves in his favour. He
says, in answer:-
So I, by Whigs abandoned, bear
The Satyr's unjust lash;
Dye with the scandal of their help,
But never saw their cash."
It appears that in 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley to execute
some mission of a secret nature, which required his presence upon the
continent. The mission, whatever it was, appears to have been
attended with some danger, and to have required his absence for about
two months. Harley seems to have been so well satisfied, that upon
De Foe's return, he was rewarded with an appointment at home. In
1706, De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with
Scotland, which measure he advocated with all the strength of his
powers. This advocacy obtained for him a confidential mission to
Scotland, where he was received with great consideration. While in
Edinburgh, he published his "Caledonia," &c., a poem in honour of
Scotland and the Scots nation. Of the union, he says, in his Review,"
"I have told Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth, and shipping,
that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion of this affair; and
I am pleased doubly with this, that I am likely to be one of the first
men that shall give them the pleasure of the experiment." In 1708,
De Foe was rewarded with an appointment and a fixed salary. When
the union was completed, he published The Union of Great Britain."
In 1710, De Foe resided at Stoke-Newington, and appears to have

been comfortable in his circumstances. In 1712 was closed the last
volume of the "Review." In a long preface to this volume, De Foe
has a most eloquent defence of this work, and of the mode in which
he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more
conclusive. In allusion to his sufferings during the progress of the
work, he says, "I have gone through a life of wonders, and am the
subject of a vast variety of providence; I have been fed more by
miracle than Elijah when the ravens were his purveyors. I have
some time ago summed up my life in this distich:-
No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.
In the school of affliction I have learnt more than at the academy, and
more divinity than from the pulpit; in prison, I have learnt to know
that liberty does not consist in open doors, and the free egress and
regress of locomotion. I have seen the rough side of the world as
well as the smooth, and have, in less than half a year, tasted the
difference between the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate."
This preface may be considered as a review,-a summing up of the
events of De Foe's political life, and as such is of the highest value
for the noble spirit of conscious truth breathing in and animating
every line of it. As a piece of English, it is exquisite for its innate
strength-the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe, however, was again
doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of Newgate, being committed
there upon the foolish charge of writing libels in favour of the
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political
writer for thirty years, retired from the thorny field to the more plea-
sant paths of instructive fiction. Whilst writing "An Appeal to
Honour and Justice," he was struck with apoplexy; he however
recovered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one
of his most valuable treatises, "The Family Instructor." In 1719
appeared the immortal "Robinson Crusoe! Nearly the whole circle
of booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. William
Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared a thousand
pounds by the work, which rose into immediate popularity, despite of
the rancorous assaults of the petty, vulgar minds abounding amongst
De Foe's political enemies. There can be no doubt that the idea of
the work was first suggested to De Foe by the story of Alexander
Selkirk, which had been given to the public seven years before. The
enemies of De Foe charged him with having obtained this man's
journal, and from its contents producing "Robinson Crusoe." The
truth is, De Foe was as much indebted to Selkirk for the materials
used in his immortal work, as was Vandyke for his portraits to the
colourman who furnished him with pigments. In a number of "The

Englishman," Sir Richard Steele gave the true and particular history
of Selkirk. The place in which Robinson Crusoe was composed
has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wilson)
that De Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke-Newington, where he
resided, during the principal part of Queen Anne's reign, in a large
white house, rebuilt by himself, and still standing in Church-street.
The work has been printed in almost every written language,-has
been the delight of men of all creeds and all distinctions-from the
London apprentice in his garret, to the Arab in his tent.
"Robinson Crusoe" was speedily followed by the "Account of
Dickory Crooke," the "Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton," the
"History of Duncan Campbell," the Fortunes and Misfortunes of
Moll Flanders," the "Life of Colonel Jacque," the "Memoirs of a
Cavalier," and that extraordinary work, the "Account of the Plague."
We might possibly have laid before the reader a correct list of the
multifarious productions of our author, many of them, until of late,
most difficult to be obtained, had not the spirit of the times called for
complete editions of De Foe's works, most welcome and valuable
offerings to the reading part of the nation.
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of compe-
tence, a most honourable competence, insured to him by his works,
and the rapidity with which editions followed editions. There is,
however, a too miserable proof of his sufferings, inflicted upon him by
the cruelty and undutifulness of his son, who, to quote a letter of De
Foe, written in his anguish, has both ruined my family and broken
my heart." De Foe adds,-" I depended upon him, I trusted him, I
gave up my two dear unprovided children into his hands; but he has
no compassion, and suffers them and their poor dying mother to beg
their bread at his door, and to crave, as if it were an alms, what he
is bound under hand and seal, besides the most sacred promises, to
supply them with; himself, at the same time, living in a profusion of
plenty. It is too much for me."
For some years before his death, De Foe was tormented with those
dreadful maladies, the gout and the stone, occasioned, in part, most
probably by his close application to study, whilst making posterity the
heirs of undying wisdom. De Foe expired on the 24th of April,
1731, when he was about seventy years of age, having been born in
the year 1661. The parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in which he
drew his first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He was
buried from thence, on the 26th of April, in Tindall's burial-ground,
now most known by the name of Bunhill Fields. His wife died at
the latter end of the following year. De Foe left six children, two
sons and four daughters, whose descendants are living at the present
The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his

noblest writings. As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and
the patience, the cheerfulness, with which he endured the obloquy and
persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a great working
benefactor to his race. His memory is enshrined with the memories
of those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of
human nature. As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperish-
able stores of the highest and the most useful wisdom. If he paint
vice, it is to show its hideousness; whilst virtue itself receives a new
attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguished for its
fine common sense; it has no flights-it never wraps us by its imagi-
nation, but convinces us by its terseness; by the irresistible eloquence
of its truth. De Foe's prose, though occasionally careless, is remark-
able for its simplicity and strength. What he has to say, he says in
the shortest manner, and in the simplest style. He does not-the
vice of our day-hide his thoughts under a glittering mass of words,
but uses words as the pictures of things. It is owing to this happy
faculty, this unforced power, that De Foe occasionally rises, as in
many instances in the golden volume now offered to the reader,
almost to the sublime. In his picture of the despair of Crusoe, we
have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous delineation of
the soul of man in a most trying and most terrible hour. De Foe is,
in the most emphatic sense of the word, an English writer. Cobbett
has been compared to him; and in many of the minor parts of author-
ship there is, certainly, a similitude; but Cobbett was singularly
deficient of imagination, the power which gave a colour and a beauty
to all that De Foe touched, even though of the homeliest and most
unpromising materials.




: WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen
w settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we
are now called,-nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of ,whom was lieutenant-coloner to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what
was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my
father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of
learning as far as house-education and a country free-school generally
go, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends,
that there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving my father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior

fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise
by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a
nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state,
or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of this
state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the mise-
rable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as
the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calami-
ties of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man-
kind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers, and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want
of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring
distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,
were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the
head not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to
have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had just been recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay

and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go
away: and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an
example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail,
his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he saidhe would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist m
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully,
especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that
when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me,
he was so moved that lie broke off the discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, 1 did not act quite so hastily as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney that I was sure,
if I did, I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no
more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the
time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew
it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such sub-
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent
to anything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father
had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me; but I might depend I should never have their con-
sent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh:

" That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, lie will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I
can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London in his father's ship, and prompting me
to go with them, with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing
or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651 I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, than the
wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner;
and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick
in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what 1 had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my
duty. All the good counsels of miy parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not vet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has come
since, reproached me witl the contempt of advice, and the breach of
my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a youig sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more: in this agony of
mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship azain while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now 1 saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore;
and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and Ibegan to be a little inured to it:
however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea.

sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight
was, as I thought the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me :
" Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night.
when it blew but a capful of wind ?" "A capful d'you call
it?" said I; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you,"
replies he; do you call that a storm ? why, it was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye
see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the way of all sailors ; the punch was
made, and I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the
sea was returned to its smoothness of su-face and settled calmness
by the abatement of that storm, so tile hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I
found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits-for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over my conscience, as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse;
for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-

tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves.
The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him
softly to himself say several times, "Lord, be merciful to us! we
shall be all lost; we shall be all undone !" and the like. During
these first hurries I was stupid lying still in my cabin, which was in
the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been
past; and that this would be nothing like the first; but when the
master himself came by me as I said just now, and said we should be
all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran moun-
tains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rid about
a mile a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the
best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail
out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he
did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook
the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make
a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at
but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, Iwas in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them
to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself! and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such
a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was
not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen

sUINSoN cRUsoE. 15
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However the storm was so violent, that I
saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting
every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me;
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not
able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the
sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship
had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
every body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what
was become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump and
thrusting me aside with his foot let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before t came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was appa-
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for help; and
a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to
help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and ventur-
ing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stem with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a geat length,
which they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only
to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and party driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
till we saw her sink, and then 1 understood for the first time what
was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking;
for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that

I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition,-the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore,-we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand to assist us when we should come
near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we
able to reach the shore, till, being past the light-house at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship
I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my rea-
son, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a
secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions
of my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three
days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I say,
the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, look-
ing very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did,
and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go farther abroad: his father turning to me,
with a very grave and concerned tone, "Young man," says he, you
"ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a
plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
" Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more ? That is ano-
ther case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has
all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.
Pray," continues he, "what are you; and on what account did you go
to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of

which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: "What had I
done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come into my
ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than be could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said he, depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him
no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of
life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to
my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I
have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational the com-
mon temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for
which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the
returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irre-
sistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's
house,-which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties
and even the commands of my father: I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa;
or as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a
little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt
the duty and office of a fore-mast man; and in time might have qua-
lified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it
was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any
business in the ship, nor learned to do any.
c 1-'

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in Lon-
don, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early; but it was not so with me. I first got
acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved
to go again: this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind
to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very consi-
derably; for I carried about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by the assist-
ance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with; and who,
I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much
as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 300,
and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick being thrown into a violent calenture by
the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north even to the line
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage again and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes; the first was
this-our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase
to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much

canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry to get clear;
but. finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight our ship having twelve
guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three m the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stem, as he intended, we brought eight of our
guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon hun, which
made him sheer of again, after returning our fire and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying
us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the
sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. How-
ever, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now
I looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I
should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption: but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so
I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for
when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in
it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I
had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me, no
fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself;
so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagi-
nation, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it
in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting

out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used,
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and, as he always took me and young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor one of his kinsmen, and the youth-the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which
way, we laboured all day, and all the next night, and when the
morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the
shore. However, we got well in again, though with a great deal of
labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat
of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go
a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave to build
a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that
of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the
main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work
the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail
and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It hap-
pened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place,
and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from
some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded that as soon
as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house: all which I
prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my
command: and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,

not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew not, neither
did I so muc as consider, whither I should steer,-anywhere to get
out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we
must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above
half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which
they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him :-" Moely," said I,
" our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot ? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like
our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores
in the ship. "Yes," says he, I'll bring some;" and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same
time, I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus fur-
nished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the en! rance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see
them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm
agreed and being in the head of the boat set the sails and, as I had
the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and then brought
her to as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for some-
thing behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immedi-
ately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, told me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin
and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told

him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him
none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself
about and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and
said to him, "Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,"
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must throw you
into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so inno-
cently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that
I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's domi-
nions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were m chase
of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, or where; neither what latitude, what country, what
nation, or what river. I neither saw, or desired to see any people;
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was
dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
" Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see men
by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we give
them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run wey."

Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of
our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xurys
advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and
they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed
heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
No" says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and
go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a
thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard
before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of
the savages, had been as bad to have fallen into the hands of lions
and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where
to get it, was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring
some to me. I asked him why he would go ? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat ? The boy answered with so much affection,
as made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury" said I, "we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us."
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
on shore; carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river but the boy seem a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it and by-and-by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something

hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,
like a bare but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were verylad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take
an observation to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly
knowing, or at least remembering what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes lies waste and uninhabited, except by
wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors: and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness: and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild
beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Tene-
riffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we
came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury,
whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly
to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; "for,
says he, look yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that
hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill

him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with
five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece
to have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little
above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke
fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had
not hit him on the head ; however, I took up the second piece imme-
diately, and though he legan to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.
Ihis was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. "For what, Xury ?" said I. Me cut off his
head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he
cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might,
one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off
his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how
to do it. Indeed it took us both up the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to
lie upon.
After this, we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were
obliged for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the River
Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd
where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands,
or perish tlr among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, whilsailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brasil, or to
the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that Imust
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in two or

three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was
my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However,
I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they
ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had no wea-
pons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which
Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way
with good aim; so 1 kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as 1 could; and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn,
such as is the produce of their country; but we neither knew what
the one or the other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully: for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion: at last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition and bade Xury load
both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as
if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal
hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of 9e poor crea-
tures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of thim were even
ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror but
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I
made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came,
and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood stain-

ing the water: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him
and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this
creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
which, when I made signs to them that they might take him they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they too off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, pointing out that I would give it them; but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me
a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
stand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called
immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed in the
sun; this they set down to me, as before and I sent Xury on shore
with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as naked as
the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side,
to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive I stepped into the cabin,
and sat down Xury having the helm when on a sudden, the boy
cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy
was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out
of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not
only the ship, t that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought,
was bound tole coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which 1 stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to

come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that
it was some European boat, which they supposed must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I
made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though
they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly
brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots
sailor, who was on board, called to me; and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors, at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to
the Brasils. "For" says he, "I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time
or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,"
said lie, when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No,
no," says he; "Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), "1 will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsist-
ence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
touch anything that I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told
me he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and asked me what I
would have for it ? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that 1 could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give me a
note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brasil; and
when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it
up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was unwilling tolet the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor oy's liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in

ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I
was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees'-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest:
in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo and with this stock, I went on shore m the Brasils.
I had not been long here before I was recommended to the house
of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio as they call it
(that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of plant-
ing and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and
how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to
settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolving, in the
mean time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settle-
ment; such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed
to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I
was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but low,
as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come: but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an
employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and
broke through all his good advice: nay I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised
me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world,
as I had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand

miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and
at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neigh-
bour; no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands and I
used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself. Bat how just has it been;
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led,
in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying en the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in providing
his lading, and preparing for his voyage, nearly three months; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice:-" Seignor Inglese," says he
(for so he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a
procuration in form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return: but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could
not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I
accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Por-
tugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what con-
dition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found
means, by some of the English merchants there, to send over, not the
order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her: whereupon she not only deli-
vered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him

at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils: among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in my business to
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great
use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
six years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except
a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture,
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor
neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the
first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and an European
servant also: I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with
great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among
my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon : and now increasing in business and in wealth, my head
began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such
as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had
I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a guiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of: but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now but I must go and leave the happy
view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again
into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or
perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state of health in the

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part
of my story:-You may suppose, that having now lived almost four
years in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among myfellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port;
and that, in my discourses among them, I had frequently given them
an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brasils, in
great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes;
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or permission
of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock;
so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning and told me they had
been musing very much upon what I had discoursed with them of
the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me;
and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants that as it
was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their-own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very consi-
derable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus
entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England; and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or
four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after
my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I

should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the pro-
bable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out,
and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st
of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried
six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself;
we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as
were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast, when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course in those days. We
had very good weather only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Auoustino; from whence,
keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of lan, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course
N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west,
and then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up;
nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made
an observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about
D o

eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees
of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustma; so that
he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brasil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroo-
noque, commonly called the Great River and began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for
Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the
bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our
ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W.
by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward
and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all
our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages, than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning cried out, Land!" and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished immediately; and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circum-
stances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven; whether an island or the main,-whether inhabited
or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking into pieces unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, con-
trary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and
had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could.

We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, m the next place,
she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea, so there
was no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how to get
her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat and
with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea: for though the
storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon
the shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call
the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at
the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going
to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the
sea. However, we committed our souls to God m the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the
least shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf,
or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have
run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing like this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, theland looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word
it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
not time to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water: for though 1 swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my feet and endeavoured to
make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
D 2

hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest
concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but 1 held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with
all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself raising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so,
yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and
till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with
what strength I had, further towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite
out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in the water: but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till
the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me
so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took, I got to the main land; where to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of the soul
are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I
do not wonder now at the custom, when a malefactor, who has the
halter about his neck, is tied up and just going to be turned off, and
has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring

a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of
it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him.
For suddenjoys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance;
making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe;
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats,
one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I east my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea bemin so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was
in, and what was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word. I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was
net, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink,
to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of
perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that
which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon,
either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
lipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
g-t up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
whatt death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any
fresh water to drink, which 1 did to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that if I
should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself more
refreshed with it than I think 1 ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the'rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being

within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might
save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the
wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on
my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the
oat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship.
And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe: that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to
be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was.
This forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in
that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my
clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water.
But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains
so low, that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of
that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost
to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And first, I
found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two
in the ship: I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as
many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying
every one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship's side and pulling them to me, 1 tied
four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very wel, but that it was

not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light. So I
went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what toload it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters; and in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to
see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon
the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon --as, first, tools to work
with on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two. of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail oar, or rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the
tide rising, and setting in to the shore 3rdly, what little wind there
was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put

to sea. For a mile or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into
it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of
the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little
that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and
so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against
the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again and I thrust her off with the oar
I had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a
strong current or tide running up. 1 looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, that reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep-that is to say, sloping,
-there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran
on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of
water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground,-one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side
near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.

I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that ill, where after I had with great labour and difficulty got
to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction viz., that I was i an
island environed on every side by the sea: no land to be seen except
some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, how-
ever, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird, which I
saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day: what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but
some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way
to supply myself except that I had seen two or three creatures, like
hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land ;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possi-
ble. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till 1
had got every thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I called
a council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I should take
back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared second raft; and,
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy,
nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very use-
ful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three
bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belonging to the

gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
1 was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
Oid she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled
at it, and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,-though I was obliged to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large casks,-I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose: and into
this tent 1 brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from
man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the
first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very
hard all day, to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them
on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the
ship sat upright in that posture, I thought 1 ought to get everhing
out of her that I could : so every day, at low water, I went on ard
and brought away something or other; but particularly the third
time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last; only that I was obliged to cut them m pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after

I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with;-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour: this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these
heavy goods, and came away but my good luck began now to leave
me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with in!i-
nite labour; for I had to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one
p:ir of hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought away
the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth time to go
on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low water I
went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so
effectually that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors,
and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives
and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money,
-some European coin, some Brasil, some pieces-of-eight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 0 drug !" said I
aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me,-no,
not the taking off the ground: one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving."
However, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all
in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pre-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my busi-

ness to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the roughness
of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where 1 lay, with all my
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satis-
factory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence,
to get everything out of her that could be useful to me; and that,
indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I
had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make,-whether I should make me
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth : and, in short, I resolved
upon both; the manner and description of which, it may not be
improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned:
2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun: 3rdly, security from raven-
ous creatures, whether men or beasts: 4thly, a view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side
of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a
house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way
in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad,
and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low
ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so
that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and
by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of the ground above five feet and a-half and sharpened
on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a-half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and
dnve them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world and consequently slept secure in the
ght, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
terwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me
from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I
made double, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved
among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought
on shore but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed
and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this,'I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my
tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace,
so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus
I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it
happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and
making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much

surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: O my powder! My
very heart sank within me when I thought that at one blast all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took
fire, I should never have known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder,
and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and
the rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at
least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as Icould, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfor-
tune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the ditlicultest thing in the world to come at them; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys
and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded that by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards, I took this method,-I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to which grieved
me heartily; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by
her, till I came and took her up; and not only so but when I carried
the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite
to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over mypale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat so I was forced to kill it, and ate
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to

provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did
or that, as also how 1 enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but I must now
give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent
storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great
way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determi-
nation of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin
its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so without
help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day, walking
with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were, expos-
tulated with me the other way, thus: "Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the ten ?
Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there ? And then I pointed to the sea.
All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened
(which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply and procure them ? "Particularly," said I,
aloud (though to myself), what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?"
and that now I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of
subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the begninng, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and strength
should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast,-I mean my powder being blown up by light-
ing; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books,
and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to
prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital
letters; and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where
I first landed, "I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one; and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing in its place for I carried both the cats with me; and as for
the dog he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day alter I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them
to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone 1 could not, for I could
not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstand-
ing all that 1 had amassed together; and of these, ink was one; as
also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it
was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or

surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long tune in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent some-
times two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one
of the iron crows which, however, though I found it, made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But whtt
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less,
every day.
I nowbegan to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
Sstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me, for I was likely to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind: and as my
reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort
myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I
stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,-the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible, de-
solate island, void of all hope of
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind,-
a solitaire; one banished from
human society.
I have not clothes to cover
I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

Butlam alive; and notdrowned,
as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death: and he that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and pe-
rishing on a barren place, afford-
in" no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Africa:
and what if I had been shipwrecked
But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out as many ne-
cessary things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was some-
thing negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let
this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable
of all conditions in this world: that we may always find in it some-
thing to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good
and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,-I say, giving
over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the
side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet think on the outside: and after
some time (I think it was a year and a-half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found
at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn
myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into
the earth for it was a loose sandy rock which yielded easily to the
labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand into the rock;
and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back-way
to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as
I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I
could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure,
without a table: so I went to work. And here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, m time, master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet,
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found at last that
I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had
tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools;
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which
perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy

Robibson Crusoe, to obsellc his r.ckoiin of time, erects a large alos, and
thereby distinguishes the Sabbath from his wookig-days.

for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one
way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in
the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that
I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out
some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate every-
thin at large into their places, that I might come easily at them. I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind;
and my journal would have been full of many dull things: for
example, I must have said thus, Sept. 30th.-After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great quantity of
salt water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little,
Iran about the shore, wringing my hands and beating my head and face;
exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, 'I was undone, undone!'
till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to
the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing
a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself
with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus
increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal; of which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be
told all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
September 30, 1659.-1, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called "The Island of
Despair;" all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house,
E 2

clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of any relief
saw nothing but death before me: either that I should be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island; which as it was some comfort, on one hand, for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief; so on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we
might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length,
seeing the ship almost dry, 1 went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent
in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I
brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also
in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems
this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon it;
but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I reco-
vered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of
her, and that only at low water. I spent this day m covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rin might not spoil
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from
any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with
cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.
The 31st in the morning I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also
because it would not feed.
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to
swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make
me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of going
out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every
morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did
not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock;
then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in the evening
to work again. The working part of this day and of the next were
wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft but her flesh good for nothing;
every creature that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before
Learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday), I took wholly
up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth but it was accompanied with terrible thunder
and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder.
As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at
most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in I stowed it in places
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to
make room for my further conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,

which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do not ing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make
I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree,
for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with diffi-
culty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hard-
ness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a long
while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped
like ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as
twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware--at least, none yet found
out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in, when
they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as
the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days, I mean always excepting my morning walk with my
gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home
something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely m widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
Note.-During al this time, I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to
the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it
rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in
the form of rafters leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side; so much
that, in short it frighted me, and not without reason, too; for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. I had now
a great deal of work to do over again, forI had the loose earth to

carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to
prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dee. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards
across over each post; this Ifinished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured,
and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off
the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up;
and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.--Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me:
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught
it, and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and
as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed
upon the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot was all
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was
no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent
in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I
found there were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to
come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and
set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was
said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time
than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to
another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in
the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days,
nay, sometimes weeks, together; but I thought I should never be
perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done with, especially the
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for made them much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a
turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed here-
after, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly I
found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking
some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so;
but when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps was at first
for want of feeding them, for 1 had nothing to give them; however,
I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat. And now, m the managing my household affairs,
I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was:
foi instance, 1 could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as 1 observed before, but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water; so 1 gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as
ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock I was obliged
to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that now; the
only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, 1 made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, 1 found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for the feeding of poultry,-not for this voyage but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder
of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats and I
saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for the fear of the lightning or some such use),
I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when about a month after, or
thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting out
of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen;

but I was surprised and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
peet green barley, of the same kind as our European-nay, as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or his order in governing events for the world. But after I
saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused his grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that
it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,
because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was
ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for
my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I
went all over that part of the island where I had been before, peermi
in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of it but I
could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that i shook
a bag of chickens' meat out in that place, and then the wonder began
to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that par-
ticular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang
up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that
tune, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up every
corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some
quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its
order; for I lost all that 1 sowed the first season, by hot observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which in
its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use,
or to the same purpose, to make me bread, or rather food; for I
found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some time.
But to return to my Journal:-
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into
it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be
no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside:
this was a complete inclosure to me; for within I had room enough,
and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all
my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was thus:
-As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance
into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising
thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of
what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was
fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill
which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped
down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned
the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible noise as
I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupified con-
dition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over
my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the
ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do.
All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought; nothing

but the common "Lord have mercy upon me!" and when it was over,
that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so
that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the
sea was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth; the shore
was covered with the breach of the water the trees were torn up by
the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours,
and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm,
and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to
revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent; but the ram was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my
head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave
for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, Iwent to my little store, and took
a small sup of rum which however, I did then and always very
sparingly owing I could have no more when that was gone. It
continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so
that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island
was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me
in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open
place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here,
and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I con-
cluded if I- staid where I was, I should certainly, one time or other,
be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it now stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of
the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent: and I spent the two next days, being the 19th and
20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence
was almost equal to it: but still, when I looked about and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the mean-
time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for
me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove
to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time; and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall
with piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up

in it, when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were ail full of notches
and dull, and though I haa a grindstone, I could not turn it and
grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a statesman
would have bestowed upon a grand point of polities, or a judge upon
the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
Note.-I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, though since 1 have observed it
is very common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large
and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while,
now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a
day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it
looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and
two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on
shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I
thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six
feet, and the stern which was broke in pieces and parted from the
rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was
tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to
her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as b this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship

was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of
the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together,
and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I
could from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
May 4.-I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I
caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as
much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and eat them
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and
brought three great fir-planks off from the decks, which I tied
together, and made to float on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her,
and other pieces of iron-work worked very hard, and came home
very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside
of the hold lay so open that I could see into it, but it was almost
full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the
body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the
crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead,
and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
.May 10-14.-Went everyday to the wreck; and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred
weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece
off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it
with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
* May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared
more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long m the
woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they
were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to
bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with
hard labour 1 loosened some things so much with the crow, that the

first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil
pork in it, but the salt water and the sand. had spoiled it. I con-
tinued this work every day to the 15th of June, except the time
necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this part of
my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out: and by this time I had got timber, and plank,
and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how;
and also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hun-
dred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I hap-
pened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds
of them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three score
eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of
goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew
was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition,-to be sick, and no help: prayed to God
for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I
said, or why; my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
June$3.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold
fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but
found myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat, and with much
difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain
have stewed it and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. 1 was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I
was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
"Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me Lord, have mercy upon me!"
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wear-
ing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding
thirsty; however, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced

to lie till morning and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I
had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground,
on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him: his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been
filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth,
but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me,-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood, was this:--" Seeing all these things have not brought thee to
repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which words, I thought he lifted
up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I
mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those
horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression that
remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were like myself, wicked and profane
to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time,
one thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards
God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a
certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened,
unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be sup-
posed to be: not having the least sense either of the fear of God, m
danger or of thankfulness to God, in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the
more easily believed, when 1 shall add, that through all the variety
of miseries, that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as
one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just punish-
ment for my sin. My rebellious behaviour against my father,-or
my present sins, which were great,--or so much as a punishment for
the general course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as
one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to
direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence,
acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the
dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I
was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,

and dealt justly and honourably wit, as well as charitably, I had not
the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was as
far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's
crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of
ccstacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended
where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the istin-
guished goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled
me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an
inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they
are got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all
the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of
relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of
living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from
Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at
first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in it;
but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all the
impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its
nature or more immediately directing to the invisible power which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over, but
the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of
God, or His judgments-much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from His hand-than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and
a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before
me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong
distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to
reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by
uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful
reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me like
praying to God, though 1 cannot say they were either a prayer

attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. My thoughts were confused, the convictions great
upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition
raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehension; and in
these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express.
But it was rather exclamation, such as, "Lord, what a miserable
creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me?" Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval,
the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz.
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist m my recovery. "Now,"
said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass, God's
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I
rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a
posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself, or learn to know the blessing of it
from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly and now I am
left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help and
assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, and would have
made everything easy to me. And now I have difficulties to struggle
with, too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance,
no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, "Lord, be my
help, for I am in great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may
call it so, that I had made for many years.
But to return to my Journal:-
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright
and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time
to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water,
and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the
chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece
of the goat's flesh and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very
little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper
of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat,
as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I
could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that, so I
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out
upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth.
As I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me;-what is
this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it
produced? And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and

tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ? Sure we are all made
by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that ? Then it followed most naturally, it is God that
has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely if God has made
all these things, He guides and governs them at, and all things that
concern them; for the power that could make all things must
certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can
happen in the great circuit of His works, either without His know-
ledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I
am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens
without his appointment, ,He has appointed all this to befal me.
Nothing occurred to my thought, to contradict any of these conclu-
sions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, that it
must needs be that God had appointed all this to befal me; that I
was brought into this miserable circumstance by His direction, He
having the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that hap.
opened in the world. Immediately it followed,-Why has God done
this to me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and
methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch! dost thou ask what
thou hast done ? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask
thyself, what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads; killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or
drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself ? Dost thou
ask, what have I done ?" I was struck dumb with these reflections,
as one astonished, and had not a word to say,-no, not to answer to
myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and
went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so
I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece
of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt, for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked fcr, the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there
too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which
to this time I had not found leisure, or inclination, to look into. I
say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which,
indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green
and strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take

a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan
of coals, -and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I
could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the
interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read, but
my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading,
at least at that time* only, having opened the book casually the first
words that occurred to me were these. Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These
words were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as they
did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I
may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did
when they were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in
the wilderness?" so I began to say, "Can God himself deliver me
from this place ?" And as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning
in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went to bed.
But before I lay down, I did what 1 never had done in all my life; I
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if
I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After
my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which
I had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon this I
went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it
must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day:
nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion, that I slept all the next day
and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know
not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it
by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheer-
ful; when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day before, and my
stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my
gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two,
something like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not
very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs,
which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
I had supposed did me good the day before, the tobacco steeped in
rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of
the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke; however, I was not so well
the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
T 2

July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover
my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering
strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, I will
deliver thee;" and the impossibilityof my deliverance lay much upon
my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as 1 was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so
much upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz.: Have I not been delivered, and
wonderfully too, from sickness ? from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? and what notice had
I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I
had not glorified Him ? that is to say, I had not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance: and how could I expect greater
deliverance ? This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon my-
self to read awhile every morning and every night not tying myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage
me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words,
" All these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously
in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give me repent-
ance, when it happened providentially, the very day that, reading the
Scripture, I came to these words, "He is exalted a Prince and a
Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I threw down
the book; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of
David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repent-
ance !" This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of
my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the word of God; and from this time, I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on me,
and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever
done before; for then I had no notion of anything being called
delirerance, but my being delivered from the captivity I was in. for
though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now
I learned to take it in another sense: now I looked back upon my
past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison to this. And I



add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from
sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:-
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my
way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being
directed, by a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to
things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which
till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength returned, I
stirredd myself to fursh myself with everything that I wanted, and
ake my way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walk-
ng about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a
nan that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it
s hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was
educed. The appTication which I made use of was perfectly new
md perhaps which had never cured an ague before; neither can I
recommend it to any one to practise, by this experiment: and though
t did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me;
or I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time;
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the
ainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could
e, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
urricaues of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was
most always accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain
as much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all
ssibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
ken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape had
ery set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation,
I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
rfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I
ght find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
rvey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
ted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found after I came about two
les up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no
ore than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good: but
is being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of
; at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be per-
aved. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the rising
rts of them, next to the higher grounds where the water, as might
supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco,
en, and growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were
vcrs other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about
at might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find
at. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
mate, make their bread of, but 1 could find none. I saw large
lints of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-

canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented
myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and good-
ness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could
bring it to no conclusion; for, in short I had made so little observa-
tion while I was in the Brasils, that I knew little of the plants in the
field; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now
in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again, and after
going something further than I hadgone the day before, I found the
brook and savannahs cease and the country became more woody
than before. In this part, I found different fruits, and particularly I
found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon
the trees; the vines had spread indeed over the trees and the clusters
of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was
a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that
when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of
our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes
and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
wholesome and agreeable to eat, when no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,
which, by theway, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into a
tree, where I slept well; and the next morning, proceeded upon my
discovery travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the.
south and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a
little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by
me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended
a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret
kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts, to
think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could
convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of
a manor m Enland. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange,
and lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any
fruit, at least, not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed
their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome and
very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough, to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a
great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and
a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few

of each with me, I travelled homewards: and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest
home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got
thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the
weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they were
good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I
could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th I went back having made me two
small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I
gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod to pieces, and
dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and
devoured. By this I concluded there was some wild creatures there-
abouts, which had done this; but what they were, I knew not. How-
ever, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight, I took another course for I gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I
carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the
situation; the security from storms on that side the water, and the
wood: and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation; and looking
out for a place equally safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in
that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it
for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when
I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something might happen to
my advantage; and, by the same ill fate that brought me hither
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and
though it was scarce probable that any such thing should ever
happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre
of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossible and that therefore I ought
not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this
place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the
remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon second
thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of
a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work
took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour,

when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habita-
tion; for though I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a
sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep
me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains
were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the
grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good
raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down from the trees,
and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter
food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No
sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home
to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my
cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran
away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more
tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home about the end
of August with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet
I thought it was a quite different kind from our European cats; but
the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one;
and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But from
these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that
I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive
them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was
the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and
my food was regulated thus:-I eat a bunch of raisins for my break-
fast- a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything; and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it
on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made
a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclo-
sure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and open for anything
to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon
the island being a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on
shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn

fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on
the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins
to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and pray-
ing to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and not
having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the
going down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no Sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distin-
guish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were;
but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had been there
a year, so 1 divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day
for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account, I had lost
a day or two in my reckoning. A little after tins, my ink began to
fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular
to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accord-
ingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am
going to relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that I
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of them-
selves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after
the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my
wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but
as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did
so, for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything; for
the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if
it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which
I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near
my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a
very good crop but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to
sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop
not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this experi-
ment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times,
and two harvests every year. -
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was

of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November,
I made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew there-
abouts, were all shot out, and grown with long branches, as much as
a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from.
I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees
grow: and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as
I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew
into in three years; so that though the edge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now
call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some
more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle round
my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing
the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance
from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also, as
I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
and the dry seasons, which were generally thus:-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April-
rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.
The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of
August-dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line.
The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October
-rainy, the sunbeing then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December, and Janu-
ary, and the half of February-dry, the sun being then to the south of
the Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After
I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in
the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand,
that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much
as possible during the wet months. This time I found much employ-
ment, and very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion
for many things which I had no way to furnish myself with but by
hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried many ways
to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excel-
lent advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take
great delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys
usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
in winch they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I
had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and I wanted

nothing but the materials, when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence 1 cut my stakes that grew might
possibly be as tough as the sallows willows, and osiers in England,
and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my
country-house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs,
I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon
I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These I set
up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use,
I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I em-
lloyed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
bot to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion;
and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took
care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I
made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead
of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about
it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I
had no vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets,
which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles,-some of the
common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil
anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and
which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to make broth,
and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing 1 fain would have
had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make one
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed
myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-
working all the summer or dry season, when another business took me
up more time than it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side
of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore
on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and
a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I
fairly described land,-whether an island or a continent I could not
tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a
very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by
all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions and per-
haps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I had
been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced
in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to
believe ordered everything for the best; I say 1 quieted my mind

with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being
Besides, after some thought upon this affair I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other,
see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it
was the savage coast between the Spanish country and Brasils, where
are found the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into
their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward; I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than
mine,-the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and
grass and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and
fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a
young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered
it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I could make him
speak; however, at last, I taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will
be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need to be
venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or
tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhal market could not
have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company;
and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause fdr
thankfulness, that I was not driven to any extremities for food, hut
had rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day,
or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where
I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either reposed myself in
a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature
could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed,
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the
other side T had found but three in a year and a half. Here was
also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which I had
seen and some which I had not seen before, and many of them very
good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my
powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I
could, which I could better feed on; and though there were many
goats here, more than on my side the island, yet it was with much
more difficulty that I could come near them, the country being flat

and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in
my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all tile while I
was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However,
I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose
about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore
for a mark, I concluded I would go home again, and that the next
journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from my
dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not
miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found
myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles I found
myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which
was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless
I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the day. It
happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for
three or four days while I was in the valley, and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged
to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I
went; and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other
things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it,
and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from
the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if 1 could, for I had
often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when
my powder and shot should be all spent. I made a collar for this
little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-yam,
which I always carried about me, I led him along, though with some
difficulty till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and left
him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my
old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering
journey, without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to
me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settle-
ment to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything about me
so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it
again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my
long journey; during which, most of the time was taken up in the
weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a
mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. Then I began to
think of the poor kid which I had penned in within my little circle,
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accord-
ingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get

out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs
of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it
over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied
it, for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the
creature became so loving so gentle, and so fond, that it became
from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I
kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before,
being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been
there two years, and no more prospect of being delivered than the
first day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies which my
solitary condition was attended with, and without which it might
have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty
thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me, that it was
possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in the liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of
the world: that he could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my
solitary state, and the want of human society, by his presence, and
the communications of his grace to my soul; supporting, comforting,
and encouraging me to depend upon his providence here, and hope for
his eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the
wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days;
and now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires
altered my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were
perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or, indeed for
the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me,
to think of the woods the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how
I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the
midst of the greatest composure of my mind, this would break out
upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like
a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and
I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could
burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief having exhausted itself would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, "I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee:"
immediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else
should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when
I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God and

man? "Well, then," said I, "if God does not forsake me, of what
ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should
all forsake me, seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world,
and should lose the favour and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss?"
From this moment, I began to conclude in my mind, that it was
possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition,
than it was probable I should ever have been in any other particular
state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks
to God for bringing me to his place. I know not what it was, but
something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak
the words. "How canst thou become such a hypocrite," said I,
even audibly, "to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which,
however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst
rather pray heartily to be delivered from?" So I stopped there
but though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I
sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever
afflicting providence, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible,
or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my
friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among
my goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind I began my third year; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first; yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very seldom idle, but having regularly divided
my time according to the several daily employment that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up
three hours in every morning when it did not rain; thirdly, the order-
ing, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed or caught
for my supply: these took up great part of the day; also, it is to be
considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed
to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours
of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad
with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work the many hours which for want
of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out
of my time: for example, I was full two and forty days in making a
board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two saw-
yers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was
three days in cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and
reducing it to a log, or'piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking

and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to
be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it
smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then turning that side
downward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank to be about
three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge
the labour of my hands in such a piece of work, but labour and
patience carried me through that, and many other things I only
observe this in particular, to show the reason why so much of my
time went away with so little work, viz., that what might be a little
to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required
a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding
this, with patience and labour I got through everything that my
circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what
I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up
for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by
sowing in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well,
when on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by
enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from
it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who,
tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, got it totally well fenced, in about three weeks'
time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my
dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the gate,
where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time, the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well,
and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade,
so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear;
for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little
crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood,
as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly
among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner
shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at
all, from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be
able to raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not tell; however,
I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though 1 should watch it
night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what
damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal
of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so
great, but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could
be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so;
for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their
sight, than they dropt down one by one into the corn again. I was
so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay till more came
on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might be
sad, a peck-loaf to me n the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we serve
notorious thieves in England-hanged them in chains, for a terror
to others. It is impossible to imagine that this should have such
an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I
could never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung
there. This I was very glad of, you maybe sure, and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the
broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great
difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket
which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the
end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of
barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread: and
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or
make meal of my corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if
made into meal, how to make bread of it and if how to make it, yet
I knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the meantime, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of provid-
ing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. I believe
few people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little
things necessaryin the providing producing, curing, dressing, making,
and finishing this one article of bread.
I that was reduced to a mere state of nature found this to my
daily discouragement, and was made more sensible of it every hour,
even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have
said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as
I observed before, but this did my work but m a wooden manner; and

though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron,
it not only wore out soon, but made my work the harder, and made
it be performed much worse. However, this I bore with, and was
content to work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of
the performance. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a
tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or
harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, I have observed already
how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it mow or reap it, cure
and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaf, and save it. Then I
wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it
into bread, and an oven to bake it, but all these things I did without,
as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me, too. All this, as I said, made everything labo-
rious and tedious to me, but that there was no help for; neither was
my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it a certain
part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quan-
tity by me I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by
labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the
performing all the operations necessary for making the corn, when I
had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's
work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a
sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to work
with it. However, I got through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my
mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which
were all cut off that wood which I had set before, and knew it would
grow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work did not
take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time
was the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors, that
is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found employment in
the following occupations,-always observing, that all the while I was
at work, I iverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching
him to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his own name, and
at last to speak it out pretty loud, Poll, which was the first word I
ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This,
therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work for now,
as I said, 1 had a great employment upon my hands, as follows : I
had long studied to make, by some means or other, some earthen
vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come
at them. However considering the heat of the climate, I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay I might make some pots that
might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to
bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be
kept so; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c.,
which was the thing I was doing, I resolved to make some as large

as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put
into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me to tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, mis-
shapen, ugly things I made; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight;
how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only removing, as well
before as after they were dried; and in a word, how, after having
laboured hard to find the clay-to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it-I could not make above two large earthen ugly
things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted
them very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker
baskets, which I had made on purpose for them that they miAht not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a little room
to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw and these two
pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
made several smaller things with better success; such as little round
pots, flat dishes pitchers and pipkins and any things my hand
turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them quite hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen
pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire; which none of these
could do. It happened after some time, making a pretty large fire
for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after 1 had done
with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was
agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself, that certainly they
might be made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in,
or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with;
but I placedthree large pipkins, and two or three pots in a pile one
upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with a great heap
of embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the
outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when I
saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
colour, and watching them all night, that 1 might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning 1 had three very good (I will not say
handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of

earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of
them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had
no way of making them, but as the children make dirt pies, or as a
woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire;
and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
on the fire again, with some Water in it, to boil me some meat, which
it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very
good broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it as good as I would have had it been.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at
that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want, I
was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the world, I was as per-
fectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for any whatever; neither had
I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and
could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which
I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the
island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone
which neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would
break the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great deal of
time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look
out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much
easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it,
and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then,
with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as
the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great
heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood;. and this
I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, which I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound,into meal, to make bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or scarce, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk; without which I
did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing, even to think on, for to be sure 1 had nothing like the
necessary thing to make it; 1 mean fine thin canvas, or stuff, to
searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many
months; nor did I really know what to do. Linen I had none left,
but what was mere rags; I had goats'-hair but neither knew how to
weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here were no tools to work
it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did
remember I had, among the seamen's clothes which were saved out
of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some
pieces of these I made three small sieves, proper enough for the
work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwards,
I shall show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I
should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no
yeast; as to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not
concern mys elf much about it. But for an oven, I was indeed in great

pain. At length, I found out an experiment for that also which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is
to say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep;
these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by;
and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and
burning also; but I should not call them square.
When the fire-wood was burned pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-
loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-cook into the bargain;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; but I made
no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here for, it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things, I had my new harvest and hus-
bandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for Ihad no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more, insomuch
that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had been
quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would
be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice
were much more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to
sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes
that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island and I was not without secret wishes that
I were on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main land, and an
inhabited country, I might find some way or other to convey myself
farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such
an undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than the lions
and tigers of Africa; that if I once came in their power, I should
run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being killed, and
perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the Carib-
bean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I knew by the latitude
that I could not be far from that shore. Then, supposing they were
not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had

fallen into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten
or twenty together-much more I, that was but one, and could make
little or no defence; all these things, I say, which I ought to have
considered well, and did come into my thoughts afterwards, yet gave
me no apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily upon the
thought of getting over to the shore.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I thought I would
go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast
away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom
upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough;
but I might have foreseen that I could no more turn her and set her
upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island; however,
I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to
the boat, resolving to try what I could do; suggesting to myself, that
if I could but turn her down, I might repair the damage she had
received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in
her very easily.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent,
I think, three or four weeks about it at last, finding it impossible to
heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand
to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it right in the fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to
get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of
the boat, my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than
decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.
This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not possible
to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
clima es make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but
easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts of making it,
and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the particularincon-
vemences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of
hands to move it, when it was made, into the water-a difficulty
much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want
of tools could be to them; for what was i' to me, if when I had
chosen a vast tree in the woods, and with much trouble cut it down,
if I had been able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the
proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so to make a boat of it-if, after all this, I must leave it just
there where I found it, and not be able to launch it into the water P
One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection

upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but
I should have immediately thought how I should get it into the sea;
but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it
that I never once considered how I should get it off of the land: and
it was really in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over
forty-five miles in sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it
lay, to set it afloat in the water.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake it;
not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my
head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
which I gave myself: "Let me first makeit; I warrant I will find
some way or other to get it along when it is done."
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I
question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at
the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for awhile, and
then parted into branches. It was not without infinite labour that
I felled this tree; I was' twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the
bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and
the vast spreading head cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with axe and hatchet, with inexpressible labour: after this, it cost
me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something
like the bottom of a boat, that it might swun upright as it ought to
do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work
it out so as to make an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, without
fire by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I
had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to
have carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe
or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure: and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they
cost me infinite labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the
water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek. Well to take away this discouragement, I
resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity:
this I begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who
grudge pains that have their deliverance in view?); but when this
was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much
the same for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other
boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could

not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work;
and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep it was to
be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that,
by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have
been ten or twelve years before I could have gone through with it;
for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been at
least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great reluctancy, I
gave this attempt over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly
of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge
rightly of our own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place,
and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious applica-
tion to the Word of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained
a different knowledge from what I had before. I entertained differ-
ent notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing
remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation from, and,
indeed, no desires about: in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with
it, nor was ever likely to have; so I thought it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but was
come out of it; and well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives,
"Between me and thee is a great gulf fixed."
In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the
world here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of the eye,
or the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was
now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I
pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole country
which I had possession of; there were no rivals; I had no compe-
titor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with me: I might have
raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little
grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle
enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any
use: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had
rapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to
have loaded that fleet when it had been built.
But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had
enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was all the rest to
me? If I killed more flesh then I could eat, the dog must eat it, or
vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled
the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground; I could
make no more use of them but for fuel, and that I had no occasion for
but to dress my food.
In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me upon
just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no farther
good to us than they are for our use; and that, whatever we may
heap up to give others, we enjoy just as much as we can use and no
more. The most covetous, griping miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for
I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do with. I had no
room for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and they

were but trifles, th&gh indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I
hinted before, a parcel o money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-
six pounds sterling. Alas! there the sorry, useless stuff lay; I had
no manner of business for it; and I often thought with myself, that I
would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes; or
for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for a
a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a
handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not
the least advantage by it or benefit from it; but there it lay in a
drawer and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet seasons;
and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same
case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.
I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than
it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I
frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand
of God's providence which had thus spread my table in the wilder-
ness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather
than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret com-
forts, that I cannot express them; and which I take notice of here,
to put those discontented people in mind of it who cannot enjoy com-
fortably what God has given them, because they see and covet some-
thing that he has not given them. All our discontents about what we
want appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for
what we have.
Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be
so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and
this was, to compare my present condition with what I at first
expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly have been,
if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship
to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could come at her
but could bring what I got out of her to the shore, for my relief and
comfort; without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons
.for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.
I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, m representing to
myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got
nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so much as got any
food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long before I found
any of them, I must have perished first that I should have lived, if I
had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a
fowl, by any contrivance 1 had no way to flay or open it, or part the
flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it
with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.
These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Provi-
dence to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its
hardships and misfortunes: and this part also I cannot but recom-
mend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to say,
"Is any affliction like mine ? Let them consider how much worse
the cases of some people are, and their case might have been, if
Providence had thought fit.
I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind

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