Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072806/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner with an account of his travels round three parts of the globe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, 445 p., 18 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Cruikshank, George, 1792-1878 ( Illustrator )
Bogue, David, 1812-1856 ( Publisher )
Whittingham, Charles, 1795-1876 ( Printer )
Gorway, W ( Engraver )
Jackson, John, 1801-1848 ( Engraver )
Slader, S. V ( Engraver )
Williams, Thomas ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Bone & Son ( Binder )
Publisher: David Bogue
Place of Publication: London (Fleet Street)
Manufacturer: Chiswick Press, Printed by C. Whittingham
Publication Date: 1853
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Chiswick
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: with numerous engravings from drawings by George Cruikshank.
General Note: Gilt, illustrated spine with title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Some ill. engraved by: Gorway, Jackson, Slader, and Thos. Williams.
General Note: Date in form: MDCCCLIII.
General Note: Illustrations (except front.) are shown two to a page.
General Note: "The life of Daniel De Foe": p. iii-viii.
General Note: Last page has vignette only.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Binder's label inside back cover: Bound by Bone & Son, 76, Fleet Street, London.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072806
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19056342

Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 224a
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 234a
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 256a
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 294a
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 344a
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 366a
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 386a
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 404a
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 426a
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
Full Text

Discovers the print of a man's foot on the shore. p. 117.
:'-- :--"'-- d

Discversthe pri~ of ma's fot o theshor. .1]7

Crusoe receives his Father's counsel. p. i.

Ti -

Sf .

Crusoe threatens to shoot the Moor. p. 10.


I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull : he got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose rela-
tions were named Robinson, a very good family in that coun-
try, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-
manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at
the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became
of my second brother, I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country
free-school generally go, and designed me for the law; but
I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the
commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and
persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what be foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wan-
dering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house, and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and
had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and in-
dustry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
for men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes, on the other, who went abroad upon ad-
*. /

ventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that
these things were all either too far above me, or too far below
me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called
the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upl~er part of mankind: he told me, I might judge
of the happiness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that kings
have frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wish they had been placed in the
middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not sub-
jected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body
or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour, want of neces-
saries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living: that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune;
that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the
hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily
bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the
passion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without
the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, hot to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of. life I

was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread ; that he would do
well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had been just recommending to me; and that
if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my
mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
in warning me against measures which he knew would be to
my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very kind things
for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so
he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give
me any encouragement to go away: and to close all, he told
me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for
me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it
to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed : and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved,
that he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was so
full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to thing of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and,
in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither as my first heat of
resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her,
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to any thing with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eigh-
teen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away
from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage

abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go
no more, and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt;
and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after such a discourse as I had had with my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me ; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to
say, that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet,
as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to
him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it,
said to her with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he
would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the
most miserable wretch that was ever born; I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions then
going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting
me to go with them, with the common allurement of sea-faring
men, viz. that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father or mother any more, not so much as
sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in
an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September, 1651, I
went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinned longer than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out
of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the waves to
rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been
at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what
I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment
of Heaven for wickedly leaving my father's house, and aban-

. .-i9L. .

doing my duty. All the good counsel of my parents, my
father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to
God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I
saw a few days after: but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known any thing
of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
and in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God here to spare my life this one
voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the mid-
dle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea,
or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and indeed some time after; but the next day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured
to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being also
a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth
sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in a little time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had indeed
enticed me away, came to me and said, Well, Bob," clap-
ping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you were frightened, wasn't you, last night, when it blew but
a cap-full of wind?"-" A cap-full do you call it?" said I;
" it was a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replied
he, "do you call that a storm? why it was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing


of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll
forget all that ; do you see what charming weather it is now?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it ; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and all
my resolutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by
the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of
reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour
to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits, for so I called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience, as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire ; but I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse : for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. How-
ever, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day in the morning the wind increased,
and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make every thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we

thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we
rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to
the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several
times, "Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we
shall be all undone !" and the like. During thise first hurries
I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steer-
age, and cannot describe my temper : I could ill reassume
the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon,
and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be nothing, like the
first: but when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frighted: I got up out of my cabin, and looked out: but such
a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high,
and broke upon us every three or four minutes: when I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress around us: two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden: and our men cried out, that a ship
which rid about a mile a-head of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this
distance the thoughts that I had about me at that time, I was
in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was of death itself;
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me in such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst

was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out, she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the
bottom. In tlie middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men, that had been down on pur-
pose to see, cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said,
there was four foot water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side
of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and
run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered us to
fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what
that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I
was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was
a time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stept up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great
length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into
their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so

all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them,
that if the boat was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master: so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the sea-
men told me she was sinking; for from that moment they rather
put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in; my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand to assist us when
we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away
in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed un-
avoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and

against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered, and looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order
to go farther abroad; his father turning to me with a very
grave and concerned tone, Young man," says he, "you
ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for
a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring
man."-" Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more?"
" That is another case," said he; it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste heaven has given you of what you are to
expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues
he, what are you ; and on what account did you go to sea ?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion; "What had I
done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I
said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have au-
thority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely
to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of
heaven against me. And young man," said he, "depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more: which way he went, I know not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best notions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
every body else; from whence I have since often observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-

kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be
esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little notion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that harried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father: I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went
on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might in-
deed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the
same time I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-man;
and in time might have qualified myself for a' mate or lieu-
tenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on
board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any
business in the ship, or learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and un-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early: but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I-should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion ;
and if I could carry any thing with me, I should have all the
advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship

with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about forty
pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to
buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together by the as-
sistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with,
and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage in which I may say I was successful
in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of na-
vigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's course,
take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he took
delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant: for I
brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London at my return almost
three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees
north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in his former voyage, and had now
got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite one
hundred pounds of my new gained wealth, so that I had two
hundred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I-fell into terrible mis-
fortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz. our ship
making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the gray of the morning by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who
gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts
carry to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rover
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us,
and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead

of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our
guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadsidesipon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next
time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails
and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, pow-
der-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our
ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all pri-
soners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by thecaptain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption: but, alas! this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would sometime or
other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of
war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he
left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it: nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though
I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth of Moresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the
next night, and when the morning came we found we had
pulled *ff to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour and some
danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails:
she sailed-with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and
the boom gibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and particu-
larly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the bpat
over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had
ordered me to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship; for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pen-
dants out, and every thing to accommodate his guests; when
by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some tish, for that his friends were to
sup at his house; and commanded that as soon as I got some
fish I should bring it home to his house; all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was
my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I
told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread;
he said, that was true: so he brought a large basket of rusk
or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into
the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master: I conveyed also a great lump of bees wax into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also; his name was Ismael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called him: Moley," said I,
our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a
little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says he, I'll bring
some;" and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds,
with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same time
I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which
was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of the
port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us: and we were

not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N. N.E.
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our
master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the
boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where
the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behind
him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, told me he would go all over the world with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached me
very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I pre-
sented it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt, and if
he would be quiet I would do him none : But," said I, you
swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty :" so he turned
himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt
but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Maho-
met and his father's beard, I must throw you into the sea
too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits'
mouth; (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do) for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast,

where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us
with the canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once
go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land,
I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee; quite beyond the emperor of Morocco's dominions,
or indeed of any other king thereabout, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and come
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what,
or where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or what river : I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people;
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country; but, as soon as it
was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,"
said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we
give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, make them
run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took
it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say
still, for we slept none ; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts,
come down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I
never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could

not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a
monstrous huge and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor and row away: "No," says I,
" Xury; we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go
off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two
oars' length, which something surprised me ; however, I im-
mediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe
those creatures had never heard before: this convinced me that
there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day was another question
too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had
been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers;
at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat; when or where to get it, was the point: Xury said, if
I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked
him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in
the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that
made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury," said I,
" we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill
them, they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece
of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in
as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
to shore; carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a
hare, but different in colour, and longer legs; however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the


great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had
found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a
little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we
had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the. islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, and knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to
that part where the English traded, I should find some of
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having aban-
doned it, and gone father south for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodi-
gious number of tigers, lions, and leopards, and other furious
creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for
their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed, for near a hundred
miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howling
and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and


tells me that we had best go farther off the shore: "for," says
he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and
saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion
that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece
of the hill that hung as it were a little over him. Xury,"
says I, you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;"
one mouthful he meant: however, I said no more to the boy,
but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim
I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but
he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the
slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell
down again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave the
most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and, though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling for
life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go
on shore; Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said
I. Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; and I re-
solved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both
up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually

for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water: my design
in this was, to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to
say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I
knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape,
or those islands ; and in a word, I put the whole of my fortune
upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive
they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I
found they ran along the shore by me a good way: I ob-
served they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who
had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they would throw them a great way with a good aim;
so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well
as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch
me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less
than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of
their country; but we neither knew what the one or the other
was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying
by the shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,

but I. believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and
in the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion: at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat
than I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head : immediately
he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged
up and down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was: he immediately made to the shore; but between the
wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror ; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs for them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more rea-
dily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give
it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very
freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my

Xury discovers a distant Sail. p. 23.

Cruise is shipwrecked and thrown ashore. p. 33.

jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two women,
and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
suppose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and
I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three.
The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called,
from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at
a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to
do; for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might
neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a sail!"
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking
it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw,
not only the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a Por-
tuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other
way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which, I stretched out to sea as much as I could, re-
solving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them: but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it
was some European boat, which, they supposed, must belong
to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail, to let me
come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a
signal of-distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for
they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear
the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to,

and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came up
with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I an-
swered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such
a miserable, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and
I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as
a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. "For,"
says he, I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time
or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides," continued he, "when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from
you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese,"
(Mr. Englishman,) says he; "I will carry you thither in
charity, and these things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should offer to touch any thing I had: then he took
every thing into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so
much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it ? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in every thing, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,

if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
every thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to
me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me ; such as
the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
bees-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I
made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingeino as they call it, (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house.)
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar:
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there,
I would turn planter among them: endeavouring, in the
mean time, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a
plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than any thing else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our-land began
to come into order; so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.
But alas for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on; I had got
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly

contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree
of low life, which my father advised me to before; and which,
if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at
home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had
done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five
thousand miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a
wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear from any
part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: Seignior Inglese," says he, for so he always called
me, "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing,
at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders for but
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it mis-
carry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman

with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Por-
tuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effec-
tually to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
at the Brazils: among which, without my direction, (for I was
too young in my business to think of them,) he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary
for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English ma-
nufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might say, I had
more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought me
a Negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakiAgs beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the

happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of :
but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to'
my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and pursuing that
inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story :-You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the mer-
chants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my
discourses among them, I had frequently given them an ac-
count of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase on the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissars, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to 'me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make

a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was
a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations:
and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their su-
percargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word,
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants
to do so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation
and effects, in case of my death; making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my
will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular mis-
fortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of


my fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority,
and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissars, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast. When they came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very good weather,
only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came
to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N. E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury
of the winds directed; and, during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor,
indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts

of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily
perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a
sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of
the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of
miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this:
that which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break
yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too
fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing

against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let her go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and might
be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done any thing
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all
knew that when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest man-
ner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared ; and as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God !"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and lving spent itself, went

back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means
or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself to-
wards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I
was covered again with water a good while, but not so long
but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a
few moments, to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to
my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in
the water: but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should again be covered with the water,
I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
Smy breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
Saves were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held



my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me


away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out
of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
were, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the custom,
viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a
surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or

any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off-and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
a place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was par-
ticularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of
mind, that; for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for
their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night-
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I
did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little to-
bacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that
if I should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast
asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition; and found myself the most refreshed
with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about

a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I
might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being
more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship: and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears
from my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my
clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water; but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach
to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time
I spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with
great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled
and what was free: and, first, I found that all the ship's pro-
visions were dry and untouched by the water; and, being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with manythings
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had several


Crusoe rescues mnaly things from the Ship. p. 37,

,.- _

Crusoe shoots a Goat. p. 47.

spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away.. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as;well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two
or three ~hort pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found
I could.valk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any, great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to
work, a with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into
three l1 ths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour fd pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which
I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some
barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I
found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room
for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon; as,
first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long search-
ing that I found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
,raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I

thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar,
nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset
all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting into the shore: 3dly, What
little wind there was, blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only
that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some indraft
of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, tr get into'
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft

ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting mny back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests, with all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at
sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in: but here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so
it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground; one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay
till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet
knew not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether
inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, aid which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-

cover up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great
labour and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, viz. that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day: what to do with myself at night I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour
me; though as I afterwards found, there was really no need
for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I
yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is
to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft;
but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a chequered
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's
stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grind-stone. All these I secured together,
with several things belonging to the gunner; particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not
hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore: but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor;
only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not
understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did
she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was
not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to
it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to
fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, lay-
ing my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by
me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I
had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to
fetch all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still:
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought
to get every thing out of her that I could: so every day, at
low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more, was, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large rundlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces, such
as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with
all the iron-work I could get: and having cut down the sprit-
sail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away; but my good luck began now to leave me, for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods,
not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it over-
set, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as
to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very
much. After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable

to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held,
I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as
that nothing could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces
of eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 0 drug !"
said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
or otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water;
for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her
that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of

the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and
description of which, it may not be improper to give an account
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter from the heat of the sun: 3dly,
Security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
4thly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the
rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea side. It was
on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five
feet and a half and sharpened on the top. The two rows did
not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence

was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or
over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, es-
pecially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place,
and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder,
when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was com-
pletely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of
which you have the account above; and I made a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz. one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the
uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a
very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship,
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all
my goods, I made up the entrance which till now I had left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a shtrt
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind
my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost
me much labour and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is natu-
rally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder! My very
heart sink within me when I thought, that at one blast, all
my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely de-

pended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger,
though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hopes that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in
all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that;
so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called
my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very
carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself,
as to see if I could kill any thing fit for food; and, as near
as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there

were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it

was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them:
but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had
found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them: I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight was
so directed downwards, that they did not readily see objects
that were above them: so, afterwards, I took this method-
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by
her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I
came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried
the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam,
and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved
my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full ac-
count of in its proper place: but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended
voyage; and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end
my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when
I made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why. Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so aban-
doned without help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me: and particularly, one


. 47

day, walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea side, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other
way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you ? Did not you
come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten ? Why
were not they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that
the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her: what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them ? Particularly, said I aloud (though to
myself,) what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make any thing, or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of
covering ?" and that now I had all these to a sufficient quan-
tity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner
as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent:
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want,
as long as I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how
I should provide for the accidents that might happen, and for
the time that was to come, not only after my ammunition
should be spent, but even after my health or strength should
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up. by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and con-
tinue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9
degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for

Crusoe sets up the date of his arrival on the Island. p. 49.



Crusoe reads his Bible, and prays. p. 73.

want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
sabbath days from the working days: but, to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters;
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed, viz. I came on shore here on the 30th
of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I
cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch
was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one: and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I found, some
time after, in rummaging the chests; as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's,
gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also I found three very
good bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and, among them, two or three popish
prayer books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place: for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went
on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me
for many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me, I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I ob-
served before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I.
could not; for I could not make any ink, by any means that
I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or

_ __~ ______._______

stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one
of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found it, yet it
made driving these posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work. But what need I have been concerned at the tedious-
ness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in ? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs,)
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have
something to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated
very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:

I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire; one banish-
ed from human society.
I have no clothes to cover

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any violence
of man or beast.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany were.
But I am singled out too
from all the ship's crew, to be
spared from death; and he
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing in a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beast to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa: and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

__C__IUI ___ __

I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out so
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world, that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy
a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began to apply
myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick
on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a year
and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I
bestowed on it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the
beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite out,
and made me a door to come out in the outside of my pale or
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few

comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I
went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as rea-
son is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring every thing by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in
time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board of a whole tree ;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for a prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me
up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
every thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure
to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in much discom-
posure of mind; and my journal would, too, have been full
of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus-
"Sept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water
which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a
little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating
py head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out,:

'I was undone, undone!" till, tired and faint, I was forced to
lie down on the ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for
fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could get out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast
distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household-stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could,
I began to keep my journal: of which I shall here give you
the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.

September 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I
called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I
should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the ap-
proach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which as it was some comfort
on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken in
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief,)
so, on. the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the
ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the

world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I
went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no
wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica-
tion, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to see for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts ; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I went
to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-

sion; viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next was wholly em-
ployed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman: though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any
one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand: but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals;
which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they
were) got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 1lth was Sunday,
according to my reckoning) I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained ; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dread-
fully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I
resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder: and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to
call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow, or basket; so
I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to sup-

ply these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe,
I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do
nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make
I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron tree, from its exceeding hardness : of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and
brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was ex-
ceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
my having no other way, made me a long while upon this
machine; for I worked it effectually, by little and little, into
the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient: for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware; at least, none yet found out: and as to the wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I
had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it:
besides, I had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and,
for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar
in for the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel: and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took me up no
less than four days; I mean, always excepting my morning
walk with my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom
failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other works having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for
a lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the
wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my

place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side :
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without
reason too: for if I had been under it, I should never have
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great
deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly;
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post; this I finished the
next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried every thing into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain: and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that
I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, S31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food:
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though

exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accord-
ingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him upon
the goats: but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he would not
come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall; though
it was no more than about twenty-five yards in length, being
a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place,
about twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the
centre, behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour every thing
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not
perceive any thing like a habitation: and it was very well I
did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my advan-
tage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who build,
not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in
the holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I endea-
voured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps, was at first
for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them:
however, I had frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing
my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as
indeed, as to some of them, it was : for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small rundlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it: I

could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to
one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also
over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of
bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat, I saved the tallow; and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened, that in rummaging my
things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry; not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag
was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some
other use (I think, it was to put powder in, when I divided it
for fear of the lightning, or some such use,) I shook the husks
of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of any thing, and not
so much as remembering that I had thrown any thing there:
when about a month after, I saw some few stalks of something
green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the
same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any thing
that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature


should happen upon my account: and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks
of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in
Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to
my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-meat in
that place, and then the wonder began to cease: and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but
what was common; though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous: for it was really the work of Providence, as to
me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of
corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all
the rest, as if it had been dropt from heaven; as also, that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it any where else, at that time, it would have
been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as
I shall show afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed
the first season, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed
just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at
least not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and whose
use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz. to make
me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up with-
out baking, though I did that also after some time.-But to
return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; con-
triving to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a
ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habi-
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it

down in the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case
was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on a
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what
really was the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground,
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake : for the ground
I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also that the
very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was
like one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise
of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and rousing
me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror,
and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and
my household goods, and burying all at once; this sunk my
very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common Lord, have mercy
upon me and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain; and soon after the wind rose by little, and
little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam

and froth; the shore was covered with a breach of the water;
the trees were- torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate;
and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequence of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade
me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent
rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my
new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which
would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the earth-
quake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to
support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
to my little store, and took a small sup of rum; which, how-
ever, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I could
have no more when that was gone. It continued raining all
that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not
stir abroad: but my mind being more composed, I began to
think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was
subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me
in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little hut
in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts
or men : for if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, being just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed alive
affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost equal
to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing
was put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the
mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal
of time for me to do this; and that I must be contented to run
the risk where I was, till I had formed a convenient camp, and
secured it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion I com-

posed myself for a time; and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c. in
a circle as before, and set up my tent in it when it was finished;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was ready,
and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this measure into execution; but I was at a great loss
about the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians;) but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull: and though I had a
grind-stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This
caused me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and
death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there: besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full
week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grind-stone performing
very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low
a great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to
one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel that
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as
hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on the shore for
the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet: and the stern (which was broke to pieces, and
parted from the rest, by the force of the sea, soon after I had
left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on
one side: and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was

out; whereas there was a great piece of water before, so that
I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck with-
out swimming. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many
things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship: but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of any thing, I resolved
to pull every thing to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that every thing I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quar-
ter deck together; and. when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay
highest; but the tide coining in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir-planks off from the decks; which I
tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
Ma! 6. Worked on the wreck: got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to
work: but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose ; and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see
into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way

into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy
to remove.
May 10-14. Went every day to the wreck; and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundred weight of iron.
- May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I staid
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests: but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out: and by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat,
if I had known how: and I also got, at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet lead.
June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place,
or scarcity: for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs: and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savoury and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life; having
had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. I thought,

at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help:
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all con-
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak: however, I killed a she
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of
it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst;
but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed: and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew
not what to say; only lay and cried, Lord, look upon me !
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off, I
fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ing thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habita-
tion, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep I had this terrible dream: I thought that
I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of
fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just hear to look towards him: his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe: when he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to my apprehension,
as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He had no sooner
landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me,

with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when
he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,
or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it: all that I can say I understood, was this:
" Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die;" at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this ter-
rible vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much
as tended either to looking upward towards God, or inward
towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain stu-
pidity of soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common
sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him,
in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all
the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my
rebellious behaviour against my father, or my present sins,
which were great; or even as a punishment for the general
course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate ex-
pedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as
one thought of what would become of me; or one wish to God
to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from vora-
cious creatures as cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless
of a God or a Providence; acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only;
and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up
at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with
justly and honourably, as well as charitably, I had not the
least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, J

was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I
only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre-
served when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: just the same com-
mon sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over:
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was,
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condi-
tion,-bow I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach
of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from heaven, or as the hand. of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had,
at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something mira-
culous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-
diately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs
such things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impres-
sion it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God,
or his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from his hand, than if I had been in the
most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to
be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon

strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the.violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God: though I cannot say it was a prayer
attended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapours in my
head with the mere apprehension: and, in these hurries of my
soul, I knew not what my tongue might express: but it was
rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a miserable creature
am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me ?" Then the tears burst out
of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In
this interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind,
and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the begin-
ning of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might
be none to assist in my recovery. Now," said I, aloud,
" my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected
the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a
station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but
I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my parents to
know the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly;
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it: I
refused their help and assistance, who would have pushed me
in the world, and would have made every thing easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no
advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may call it so,
that I had made for many years. But I return to my journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case-bottle with water; and set it
upon my table, in reach of my bed: and to take off the chill
or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me
a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could
eat very little. I walked about;, but was very weak, and

withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense of my miser-
able condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next
day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's
eggs; which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in
the shell: and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without
that;) so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me,
and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts
as these occurred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which
I have seen so much ? Whence is it produced? And what am
I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal? Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by some
secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them; for the power that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and direct
them: if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition: and if
nothing happens without his appointment, he has appointed all
this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought, to contra-
dict any of these conclusions: and therefore it rested upon me
with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole
power, not of me only, but of every thing that happens in the
world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this to
me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience pre-
sently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed;
and methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch! dost
thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast not done? Ask,
why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war; devoured
by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here,
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask what
thou hast done ?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as
one astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer
to myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to bed:

but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclina-
tion to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the
return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their to-
bacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured; and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by heaven no doubt: for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz. the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the bibles
which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I
took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to
my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not; but I
tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupified my
brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had
not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an
hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down: and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I
could bear it; as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the bible, and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words were
very apt to my case; and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so
impossible in my apprehension of things, that, as the children
of Israel said when they were promised flesh to eat, Can
God spread a table in the wilderness?" so I began to say,
Can even God himself deliver me from this place? And as it
was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this' pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It now grew late; and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want any thing in the
night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I

never had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken
and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I
had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down: immediately
upon this I went to bed. I found presently the rum flew up
into my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and
waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o'clock in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour
I am partly of opinion, that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know not
how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of
the week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if
I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the Line, I should
have lost more than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my
account, and never knew which way. Be that, however, one
way or the other, when I awaked I found myself exceedingly
refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful: when I got up,
I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate
some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum;
only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of
the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke: however, I was
not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I
hoped I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit,
but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this scripture, I will deliver thee;" and the impossibility of
my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made

to ask myself such questions as these, viz. Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness; from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to
me? and what notice have I taken of it? Have I done my
part? God has delivered me, but I have not glorified him;
that is to say, I have not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance: and how can I expect a greater deliverance ?
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I knelt
down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and
imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and every
night; not binding myself to the number of chapters, but as
long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after
I set seriously to this work, that I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past
life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words.
"All these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the
very same day, that, reading the scripture, I came to these
words, "He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour; to give
repentance, and to give remission." I threw down the book;
and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in
a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son
of David Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me
repentance !" This was the first time in all my life I could
.say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed; for now I
prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture
view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of
God : and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call
on me, and I will deliver thee," in a very different sense from
what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any
thing being called deliverance, but my being delivered from
the captivity I was in: for though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that
in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take
it in another sense: now I looked back upon my past life
with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of
guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life.
it was nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered
from it, or think of it; it was all of no consideration, in com-
.parison with this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever

shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of
things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction. But, leaving this
part, I return to my Journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by constantly reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a
great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of; also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me
to furnish myself with every thing that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any
one to practise, by this experiment: and though it did carry
off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I
had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some
time: I learned from it also this, in particular; that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to
my health that could be, especially in those rains which came
attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain
which came in the dry season was almost always accompanied
with such storms, so I found that this rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months:
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not
flow any higher; and that it was no more than a little brook
of running water, very fresh and good: but this being the
dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it;
at least, not any stream. On the banks of this brook I found
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass: and on the rising parts of them, next to

the higher grounds (where the water as it might be supposed,
never overflowed,) I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a very great and strong stalk: and there were
divers other plants, which I had no knowledge of, or under-
standing about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of their
own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread
of; but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but
did not understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but
wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented
myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I
should discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in
short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field; at least,
very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and after going something farther than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs began to cease,
and the country become more woody than before. In this part
I found different fruits; and particularly I found melons
upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees: the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the
clusters of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and
rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them, but I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them ; remembering that when I was ashore in
Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen,
who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. I found, however, an excellent use for these grapes;
and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them
as dried grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought would be
(as indeed they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. At night, I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the
next morning proceeded on my discovery, travelling near four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping
still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north
sides of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill
by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country.

appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every thing being
in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like
a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that
delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure
(though mixed with other afflicting thoughts,) to think that
this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I
could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely
as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of
cocoa trees, and orange, lemon, and citron trees, but all wild,
and very few bearing any fruit; at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat,
but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with
water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and
refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and
carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place; and a great parcel of limes and melons in
another place; and, taking a few of each with me, I travelled
homeward; and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or
sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home. Accord-
ingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home
(so I must now call my tent and my cave:) but before I got
thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits,
and the weight of the juice, having broken and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring only a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags, to bring home my harvest; but I was
surprised, when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so
rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread
about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I con-
cluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts which had
done this, but what they were I knew not. However, as I
found there was no laying them up in heaps, and no carrying
them away in a sack; but that one way they would be de-
stroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their
own weight; I took another course: I then gathered a large
quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches
of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as
for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could
well stand under.
When I came home from this journey. I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-

ness of the situation; the security from storms on that side;
the water and the wood: and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode in, which was by far the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally
safe as where I was now situate; if possible, in that pleasant
fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head; and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempt-
ing me: but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered
that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible
that something might happen to my advantage, and, by the
same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was
scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet
to enclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of
the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such
an affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that there-'
fore I ought not by any meanstto remove. However, I was
so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the month of July; and
though, upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above stated;
not to remove; yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood. Here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
three nights together; always going over it with a ladder, as
before: so that I fancied now I had my country and my
sea-coast house. This work took me up till the beginning of
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to
my first habitation: for though I had made a tent like the
other, with a piece of sail, and spread it very well, yet I had
not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed
were excellent good raisins of the sun: so I began to take
them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did
so, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and
I should have lost the best part of my winter food; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I
taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain: and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the

middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could
not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of
my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my
cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead ;
and I heard no more of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because, about the end of August, though I had killed a wild
cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a
different kind from our European cats: yet the young cats
were the same kind of house-breed as the old one; and both
of my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts,
and to drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain: so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus: I ate
a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh,
or of the turtle, broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great mis-
fortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew any thing;) and two
or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by
degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came to the
outside of the hill; and made a door, or way out, which came
beyond my fence or wall: and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open: for as I had
managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas
now, I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive
that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature
that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.
September 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found
I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I
kept this day as a solemn fast; setting it apart for religious
exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging
his righteous judgments upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the
least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this
time observed no sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense

of religion upon my mind, I bad, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary
for the sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of
the days were: but now having cast up the days, as above,
I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a sabbath: though I
found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in
my reckoning. A little after this, my ink beginning to fail
me, I contented myself to use it more sparingly; and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without
continuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
for them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before
I had it; and what I am going to relate was one of the most
discouraging experiments that I had made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley,
and rice, which I had so surprisingly found sprung up, as I
thought, of themselves. I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought
it a proper time to sow it after the rains; the sun being in its
southern position, going from me. Accordingly I dug a
piece of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade;
and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but, as I
was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the
proper time f9r it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed,
leaving about a handful of each: and it was a great comfort
to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of what
I sowed this time came to any thing; for the dry month fol-
lowing, and the earth having Lthus had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never
came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it
grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed
did not grow, which I easily imagined was from the drought,
I sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial
in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and
sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox. This having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a
very good crop; but having only part of the seed left, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I got but a small quantity at last,
my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when was the proper time to sow; and that I
might expect two seed-times, and two harvests, every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which

was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over,
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month
of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower;
where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I
had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I
had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot
out, and grown with long branches, as much as a willow tree
usually shoots the first year after lopping its head; but I could
not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I
was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young
trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to grow as much
alike as I could: and it is scarce credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge
made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the
trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry
season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and
make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle round my wall (I
mean that of my first dwelling,) which I did; and placing the
trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance
from my first fence, they grew presently; and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence
also; as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally
thus: From the middle of February to the middle of April,
rainy; the sun being then on or near the equinox. From the
middle of April till the middle of August, dry; the sun being
then north of the line. From the middle of August till the
middle of October, rainy; the sun being then come back to the
line. From the middle of October till the middle of February,
dry; the sun being then-to the south of the line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and sometimes
shorter, as the winds happened to blow; but this was the
general observation I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to
furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be
obliged to go out: and I sat within doors as much as possible
during the wet months. In this time I found much employ-
ment, and very suitable also to the time; for I found great
occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish myself
with, but by hard labour and constant application: particu-
larly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket: but all the
twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle, that they
would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me

now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basket-maker's in the town where my father lived,
to see them make their wicker-ware; and being as boys usually
are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
how they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand,
I had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, so
that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my
stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
willows, and osiers, in England: and I resolved to try. Ac-
cordingly, the next day, I went to my country house, as I
called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much as I could desire: whereupon I came
the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These
I set up to dry within my circle or hedge; and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave: and here, during the
next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could,
several baskets; both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up
any thing as I had occasion for. Though I did not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose: and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more:
especially strong deep baskets, to place my corn in, instead of
sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see if possible, how to
supply two other wants. I had no vessel to hold any thing
that was liquid, except two rundlets, which were almost full of
rum; and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and
others (which were case-bottles) square, for the holding of
waters, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil any
thing; except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and
which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz. to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I
would fain have had, was a tobacco-pipe ; but it was impossible
for me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for that
too at last. I employed myself in planting my second row of
stakes or piles, and also in this wicker-working, all the summer
or dry season; when another business took me up more time
than it could by imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the whole
island; and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to
where I had built my bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore, on that side: so taking


my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder
and shot than usual; with two biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch
of raisins in my pouch, for my store; I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I
came within view of the sea, to the west; and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or conti-
nent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from W.
to W. S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess, it could
not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be; other-
wise than that I knew it must be part of America; and, as I
concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions; and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where,
if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition than
I was now. I therefore acquiesced in the dispositions of Provi-
dence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered every
thing for the best; I say, I quieted my mind with this, and
left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time
or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but
if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and the Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst of
savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to
murder and devour all human beings that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward,
I found this side of the island, where I now was, much plea-
santer than mine; the open or savannah fields sweetly adorned
with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw
abundance of parrots; and fain would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after taking some pains, catch a young parrot: for
I knocked it down with a stick, and, having recovered it, I
brought it home: but it was some years before I could make
him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though
it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I found in
the low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes: but
they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with;
nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several.
But I had no need to be venturous: for I had no want of food,
and of that which was very good too; especially these three
sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise. With these,
added to my grapes, ,Leadenhall-market could not have fur-
nished a table better than I, in proportion to the company;


and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness; as I was not driven to any extremities
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled on this journey above two miles outright
in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns,
to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough
to the place where I resolved to sit down for the night; and
then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself
with a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island: for
here indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles;
whereas, on the other side, I had found but three in a year and
a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many
kinds; some of which I had seen, and some of which I had not
seen before, and many of them very good meat; but such as I
knew not the names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to kill
a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on. But though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I4 could come near
them; the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was upon a hill.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; yet I had not the least inclination to remove; for as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey.
and from home. However, I travelled along the sea-shore
towards the 'east, I suppose about twelve miles; and then
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded
I would go home again; and that the next journey I took
should be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again: of which in its
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep so much of the island in my view, that I
could not miss my first dwelling by viewing the country: but
I found myself mistaken; for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but
so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the
position of the sun at that time of the day. And it happened
to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for


three or four days while I was in this valley; and not being
able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and
at last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my post,
and come back the same way I went; and then by easy jour-
neys I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.
In this journey, my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it; and running to take hold of it, I caught it, and saved
it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if
I could; for I had often been musing whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a
string which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till 1
came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him; for
I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and
it rendered every thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never go a great way from it again, while it should
be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey : during which, most of the time was taken
up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Pol, who
began now to be more domestic, and to be mighty well ac-
quainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned within my little circle, and resolved to
fetch it home, or give it some food: accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it (for indeed it could not get out,) but
was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs
of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw
it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no
need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog: and as I
continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it was from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island;
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the

Crusoe brings home the Kid which his Dog has caught. p. 84.

Crusoe makes a Boat. p. 97.

~;8~ ,
~~ ~~

whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have been infinitely
more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks to God for
having been pleased to discover to me, that it was possible I
might be more happy even in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world : that he could fully make up to me the
deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society,
by his presence, and the communications of his grace to my
soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon his providence here, and to hope for his eternal presence
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days: and now I changed both my sorrows
and my joys: my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming or indeed for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart
would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains,
the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up with
the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wil-
derness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind, this would break out upon me like a
storm, and make me wring my hands, and weep like a child:
sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I
would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together: this was still worse to
me; but if I could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings
by wordJ it would go off; and my grief being exhausted,
would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I
daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it
to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, I will never leave thee, nor
forsake thee:" immediately it occurred that these words were
to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken of God and man ? Well then," said I, "if
God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or
what matters it, though the world should forsake me; seeing
on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the

A -.1

favour and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in
the loss ?"
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind, that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world; and with this thought I
was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst
thou be such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, to pretend
to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest
endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldest rather pray
heartily to be delivered from?" Here I stopped: but though
I could not say I thanked God for being here, yet I sincerely
gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting
providence, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the
Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for
directing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to
pack it up among my goods; and for assisting me afterwards
to save it out of the wreck of the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third
year; and though I have not given the reader the trouble of
so particular an account of my works this year as the first, yet
in general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle;
but having regularly divided my time, according to the several
daily employment that were before me; such as, first, My
duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I con-
stantly set apart some time for, thrice every day: secondly,
Going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me
up three hours every morning, when it did not rain: thirdly,
Ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed
or catched for my supply: these took up great part of the
day; also it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day,
when the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was
too great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening
was all the time I could be supposed to work in; with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with
my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be
added the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many
hours which, for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill,
every thing I did took up out of my time: for example, I
was full two and forty days making me a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with

their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of
the same tree in half a day.
My case was this; it was a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I
was three days cutting down, and two more in cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of
it into chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board, from
end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other
side, till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick,
and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of
my hands in such a piece of work; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things:- I only
observe this in particular, to show the reason why so much of
my time went away with so little work, viz. that what might
be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour,
and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand.
Notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I went through
many things; and, indeed, every thing that my circumstances
made necessary for me to do, as will appear by what follows:
I was now in the months of November and December, ex-
pecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had ma-
nured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed,
my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck,
having lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but
now my crop promised very well; when, on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep from it; as, first,
the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and ate it so close, that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalk.
I saw no remedy for this, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the
more, because it required speed. However, as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably well fenced
in about three weeks' time; and shooting some of the crea-
tures in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand
and bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook
the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began
to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it
was in the ear: for going along by the place to see how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, I know

not of how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I
should be gone. I immediately let fly among them (for I
always had my gun with me;) I had no sooner shot, but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all,
from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved,
and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I
could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if
possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first
place, I went among it, to see what damage was already done,
and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it
was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great, but that
the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about
me, as if they only waited till I was gone away; and the event
proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if gone, I was no
sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down, one by
one, into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not
have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every
grain they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me
in the consequence; so coming up to the hedge, I fired again,
and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so I
took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves
in England, viz. hanged them in chains, for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect
as it had; for the fowls not only never came to the corn, but,
in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung
there. This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about
the latter end of December, which was our second harvest of
the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down:
and all I could do was to make one as well as I could, out of
one of the broad swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among
the arms out of the ship. However, as my first crop was but
small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down: in short, I
reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and car-
ried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so
rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed I had near
two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of
barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and I fore-
saw, that, in time, it would please God to supply me with

bread; and yet here I was perplexed again; for I neither
knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or indeed how
to clean it and part it; nor if made into meal, how to make
bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to
bake it: these things being added to my desire of having a
good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all
for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this
great work of providing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It
is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have
thought much upon, viz. the strange multitude of little things
necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing,
making, and finishing this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible of it
every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or
shovel to dig it: well, this I conquered by making a wooden
spade, as I observed before; but this did my work but in a
wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner,
but made my work the harder, and performed it much worse.
However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out
with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance.
When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to
go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over
it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or har-
row it. When it was growing and grown, I have observed
already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow
or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the
chaff, and save it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it; and yet all these things I did without, as shall be
observed; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and ad-
vantage to me: all this, as I said, made every thing laborious
and tedious to me, but that there was no help for; neither
was my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it,
a certain part of it was every day appointed to these works;
and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a
greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply
myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish myself with
utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary
for making corn fit for my use.

But now I was to prepare more land; for I had seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a
week's work at least to make me a spade; which, when it was
done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and re-
quired double labour to work with it: however, I went
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of
ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind,
and fenced them in with a good hedge; the stakes of which
were all cut off that wood which I had set before, and knew it
would grow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should
have a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair.
This work took me up full three months; because a great part
of the time was in the wet season, when I could not go abroad.
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out,



I found employment on the following occasions; always ob-
serving, that while I was at work, I diverted myself with
talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly
learned him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out
pretty loud, Pol; which was the first word I ever heard
spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This, there-
fore, was not my work, but an assistant to my work; for now,
as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as fol-
lows: I had long studied, by some means or other, to make
myself some earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted much,
but knew not where to come at them: however, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out
any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being
dried in the sun, be hard and strong enough to bear handling,
and to hold any thing that was dry, and required to be kept

so: and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c.
which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as
large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what
should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me,
to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this pastil;
what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them
fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough
to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the over violent
heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell
in pieces with only removing, as well before as after they
were dried: and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard
to find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and
work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things
(I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley-straw; and these two pots being to stand
always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps
the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any
thing my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them
very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none of
these could do. It happened some time after, making a pretty
large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after
I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my
earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and
red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it; and said to
myself, that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if
they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead
to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins and two or
three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood
all round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied
the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top,
till I saw the pots in the inside red hot quite through, and
observed that they did not crack at all: when I saw them

clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours,
till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by
the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I
had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots
began to abate of the red colour; and watching them all night,
that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I
had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins, and
two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired;
and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort
of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the
shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, as I had no way of making them but as the children
make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were
cold, before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it,
to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and with
a piece of a kid I made some very good broth; though I
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to
make it so good as I would have had it been.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of ar-
riving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss; for, of all trades in the
world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stonecutter, as for
any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I
spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar; but could find none at all,
except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to
dig or cut out: nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of
sufficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy crumbling
stone, which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle,
nor would break the corn without filling it with sand: so,
after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave
it over, and resolved to look out a great block of hard wood,
which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as
I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the out-
side with my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of fire,
and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians
in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called iron-wood; and this I

prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when
I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress
my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without
which I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This
was a most difficult thing, even but to think on; for I had
nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin
canvass or stuff, to searce the meal through. Here I was at a
full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do;
linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats'
hair, but neither knew how to weave it nor spin it; and had
I known how, here were no tools to work it with: all the
remedy I found for this was, at last recollecting I had, among
the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin, with some pieces of these I
made three small sieves, proper enough for the work; and
thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I
shall show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn: for, first,
I had no yeast: as to that part there was no supplying the
want, so I did not concern myself much about it; but for an
oven I was indeed puzzled. At length I found out an ex-
pedient for that also, which was this; I made some earthen
vessels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two
feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep: these I burned
in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and
when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making
and burning also; but I should not call them square.
When the fire-wood was burnt into embers, or live coals, I
drew them forward upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over,
and there let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves,
and covering them with the earthen pot, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat;
and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked iny
barley loaves, and became, in a little time, a good pastry-cook
into the bargain ; for I made myself several cakes and pud-
dings of the rice; but made no pies, as I had nothing to put
into them except the flesh of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be
observed, in the intervals of these things, I had my new
harvest and husbandry-to manage: I reaped my corn in its
season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up

in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out;
for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger: I wanted a place to lay it
up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much,
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of rice as
much, or more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use
it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great while: I
resolved also to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a
whole year, and to sow but once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so
I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I
sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully pro-
vide me with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I
had seen from the other side of the island; and I was not
without some secret wishes that I was on shore there; fancying,
that seeing the main land, and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps
at last find some means of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of
such a condition, and that I might fall into the hands of savages,
and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse
than the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came in their
power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand to one
of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard
that the people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or
man-eaters; and I knew, by the latitude, that I could not be
far off from that shore. Then supposing they were not can-
nibals, yet that they might kill me, as they had many Euro-
peans who had fallen into their hands, even when they have
been ten or twenty together; much more I, who was but one,
and could make little or no defence; all these things, I say,
which I ought to have considered well of, and did cast up in
my thoughts afterwards, took up none of my apprehensions
at first; yet my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting
over to the shore.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I
thought I would go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I
have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where
she did at first, but not quite; having turned, by the force of

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs