Title Page
 Section I: Robinson's family, etc....
 Section II: First adventures at...
 Section III: Robinson's captivity...
 Section IV: He settles in the Brazils...
 Section V: Robinson finds himself...
 Section VI: Carries all his riches,...
 Section VII: Robinson's mode of...
 Section VIII: Robinson's journal...
 Section IX: Robinson obtains more...
 Section X: His recovery - His comfort...
 Section XI: Robinson makes a tour...
 Section XII: He returns to his...
 Section XIII: His manufacture of...
 Section XIV: Meditates his escape...
 Section XV: He makes a smaller...
 Section XVI: He rears a flock of...
 Section XVII: Unexpected alarm...
 Section XVIII: Precautions against...
 Section XIX: Robinson discovers...
 Section XX: Another visit of the...
 Section XXI: He visits the wreck...
 Section XXII - Robinson rescues...
 Section XXIII: Robinson instructs...
 Section XXIV: Robinson and Friday...
 Section XXV: Robinson releases...
 Section XXVI: Robinson discovers...
 Section XXVII: Atkins entreats...
 Section XXVIII: Robinson goes to...
 Section XXIX: Friday's encounter...
 Section XXX: He is seized with...
 Section XXXI: Robinson's ship relieves...
 Section XXXII: Relieves the crew...
 Section XXXIII: Robinson and Friday...
 Section XXXIV: The account continued...
 Section XXXV: The mutinous Englishmen...
 Section XXXVI: Several savages...
 Section XXXVII: Robinson learns...
 Section XXXVIII: Robinson's discourse...
 Section XXXIX: Atkins relates his...
 Section XL: Encounter with savages...
 Section XLI: The vessel touches...
 Section XLII: Meets with an English...
 Section XLIII: Jouney to Peking...
 Section XLIV: Route through Muscovy...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072804/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 248, 4 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Butler ( Engraver )
Baird, Henry Carey, 1825-1912 ( Publisher )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
T.K. & P.G. Collins (Firm) ( Printer )
Publisher: Henry C. Baird (successor to E.L. Carey)
Place of Publication: Philadelphia (No. 7 Hart's Building Sixth Street above Chestnut)
Manufacturer: T.K. & P.G. Collins
Publication Date: 1853
Edition: Complete ed., carefully rev.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: Gilt relief, ill. spine: Robinson Crusoe Complete Illustrated.
General Note: Some of smaller ill. signed: Butler, sc.
General Note: Printed in double columns.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, abridged and divided into numbered sections. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Library's copy imperfect: lacking plate at p. 40.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072804
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27871583

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Section I: Robinson's family, etc. - His elopement from his parents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Section II: First adventures at sea, and experience of a maritime life-voyage to Guinea
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Section III: Robinson's captivity at Sallee - Escape with Xury - Arrival at the Brazils
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Section IV: He settles in the Brazils as a planter - Makes another voyage, and is shipwrecked
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Section V: Robinson finds himself in a desolate island - Procures a stock of articles from the wreck - Constructs his habitation
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Section VI: Carries all his riches, provisions, etc. into his habitation - Dreariness of solitude - Consolatory reflections
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Section VII: Robinson's mode of reckoning time - Difficulties arising from want of tools - He arranges his habitation
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Section VIII: Robinson's journal - Details of his domestic economy and contrivances - Shock of an earthquake
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Section IX: Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck - His illness and affliction
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Section X: His recovery - His comfort in reading the scriptures - Makes an excursion into the interior of the island - Forms his "bower"
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Section XI: Robinson makes a tour to explore his island - Employed in basket making
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Section XII: He returns to his cave - His agricultural labours and success
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Section XIII: His manufacture of pottery, and contrivance for baking bread
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Section XIV: Meditates his escape from the island - Builds a canoe - Failure of his scheme - Resignation to his condition - Makes himself a new dress
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Section XV: He makes a smaller canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the island - His perilous situation at sea - He returns home
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Section XVI: He rears a flock of goats - His diary - His domestic habits and style of living - Increasing prosperity
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Section XVII: Unexpected alarm and cause for apprehension - He fortifies his abode
        Page 66
        Page 66a
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Section XVIII: Precautions against surprise - Robinson discovers his island has been visited by cannibals
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Section XIX: Robinson discovers a cave, which serves him as a retreat against the savages
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Section XX: Another visit of the savages - Robinson sees them dancing - Perceives the wreck of a vessel
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Section XXI: He visits the wreck and obtains many stores from it - Again thinks of quitting the island - Has a remarkable dream
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Section XXII - Robinson rescues one of their captives from the savages, whom he names Friday, and makes his servant
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Section XXIII: Robinson instructs and civilizes his man Friday - Endeavours to give him an idea of Christianity
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Section XXIV: Robinson and Friday build a canoe to carry them to Friday's country - Their scheme prevented by the arrival of a party of savages
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Section XXV: Robinson releases a Spaniard - Friday discovers his father - Accomodation provided for these new guests - Who are afterwards sent to liberate the other Spaniards - Arrival of an English vessel
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Section XXVI: Robinson discovers himself to the English captain - Assists him in reducing his mutinous crew - Who submit to him
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Section XXVII: Atkins entreats the captain to spare his life - The latter recovers his vessel from the mutineers - And Robinson leaves the island
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Section XXVIII: Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese captain, who renders him an account of his property in the Brazils - Sets out on his return to England by land
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124a
    Section XXIX: Friday's encounter with a bear - Robinson and his fellow travellers attacked by a flock of wolves - His arrangement of his affairs, and his marriage after his return to England
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Section XXX: He is seized with a desire to revisit his island - Loses his wife - Is tempted to go to sea again - Takes out a cargo for his colony
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Section XXXI: Robinson's ship relieves the crew of a French vessel that had caught fire
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Section XXXII: Relieves the crew of a bistol ship, who are starving - Arrives at his island
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Section XXXIII: Robinson and Friday go ashore - The latter meets with his father - Account of what passed on the island after Robinson's quitting it
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Section XXXIV: The account continued - Quarrels between the Englishmen - A battle between two parties of savages who visit the island - Fresh mutiny among the settlers
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Section XXXV: The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the island - Return with several captive savages - Take the females as wives - Arrival of savages
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Section XXXVI: Several savages killed; the remainder leave the island - A fleet of them afterwards arrive - A general battle - The savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 164a
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Section XXXVII: Robinson learns from the Spaniards the difficulties they had to encounter - He furnishes the people with tools, etc. - The French Ecclesiastic
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Section XXXVIII: Robinson's discourse with the ecclesiastic as to introducing marriages among the people - Marriages performed - Atkins converts his wife
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Section XXXIX: Atkins relates his conversation with his wife - The latter baptized by the priest - Account of the starving state of those on board the rescued vessel - Robinson's departure from the island
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    Section XL: Encounter with savages at sea - Friday's death - Robinson finds his former partner in the Brazils - Sails for the East Indies
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Section XLI: The vessel touches at Madagascar - Affray with the natives - Who are massacred by the crew - The sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his nephew, the captain, in Bengal
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Section XLII: Meets with an English merchant with whom he makes some trading voyages - They are mistaken for pirates - Vanquish their pursuers - Voyage to China - Recontre with the chocin-Chinese - Island of Formoso - Gulf of Nanquin - Apprehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Section XLIII: Jouney to Peking - Robinson joins a caravan proceeding to Moscow - Rencontres with the Tartars
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    Section XLIV: Route through Muscovy - Robinson and a Scots merchant destroy an idol - The whole caravan in great peril from the pursuit of the pagans - Tobolsci - Muscovite exiles - Departure from Tobolski - Encounter with a troop of robbers in the desert - Robinson reaches Archangel, and finally arrives in England
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
Full Text


Landing from the wreck.-p. 20.







"I have gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast variety of providence. I
have seen the rough side of the world as well as the smooth; and have in less than half a year tasted
the difference between the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate."


Printed by T. K & P. G. Codi




I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner of Bre-
men, named Kreutznaer, who settled first at
Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise,
and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and after whom I
was so called, that is to say, Robinson Kreut-
znaer; but, by the usual corruption of words
in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and
so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of
foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at
the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother, I never
knew, any more than my father and mother
did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not
bred to any trade, my head began to be filled
very early with rambling thoughts. My father,

who was very aged, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education
and a country free-school generally go, and
designed me for the law; but I would be satis-
fied with nothing but going to sea: and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the command of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me
serious and excellent counsel against what he
foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very war-niy
with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering incli-
nation, I had for leaving his house, and my
native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my for.
tune, by application and industry, with a life
of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men
of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of super


ror fortunes, on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in under-
taking of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the
most suited to human happiness; not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labour and
sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury,
ambition, and envy of the upper part of man-
kind: he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by one thing, viz. that this
was the state of life which al other people
envied: that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of two extremes, between the
mean and the great; that the wise mangave
his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have "neither
poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always
find, that the calamities of life were shared
among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicis-
situdes as the higher or lower part of mankind:
nay, they were not subjected to so many dis-
tempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were, who, by vicious living,
luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand,
or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natu-
ral consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of
a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diver-
sions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life;
that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it,
not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or-of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for
daily bread, or harassed with perplexed cir-
cumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and
the body of rest; not enraged with the passion
of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, slid-
ing gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter;
feelingg that they are happy, and barmng, by


every day's experience, to know it more sen
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in
the most affectionate manner, not to play the
young man, nor to precipitate myself into mi-
series which nature, and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and en-
deavour to enter me fairly into the station of
life which he had been just recommending to
me; and that ifl was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault,
that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer fir, having thus discharged
his dutyin warning she against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that
as he would do very kind things for me if 1
would stay and settle at home as he directed;
so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes as to give me any encouragement to
go away: and, to dose all, he told me I had
my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country
wars; but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though, he said, he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to
say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me; and I would have
leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neg-
lected his counsel, when there might be none
to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though, I suppose,
my father did not know it to be so himself; I
say, I observed the tears run down his face
very plentifully, especially when he spoke of
my brother who was killed; and that, when he
spoke ofmy having leisure to repent, and none
to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so
full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse,
as, indeed, who could be otherwise? and I re-
solved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home, according to my father's
desire. But alas! a few days wre it all off:
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. How-
ever, I did not act so hastily, neither, as my
first heat of resolution prompted; but I took
my mother, at a time when I thought her a
little pleasanterthan ordinary,and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely beat upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to any


thing with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his con-
sent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attor-
ney; that I *as sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me make but one voyage abroad,
if came home again, and did not like it, I
would go no more; and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion:
she told me she knew it would be to no pur-
pose to speak to my father upon any such a
subject; that he knew too well what was my
interest to give his consent to any thing so
much for my hurt; and that she wondered how
I could think of any such thing, after such a
discourse as I had from my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me: and that, in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it; that for her part, she would not
have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say, that my mother was
willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to
my father, yet, as I have heard afterwards,
she reported all the discourse to him; and
that my father, after showing a great concern
at it, said to her with a sigh, That boy might
be happy, if he would stay at home; but, if
he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no con-
sent to it.
It was not till almost a year after this that I
broke loose; though in the mean time I conti-
nued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling
to business, and frequently expostulating with
my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew
my inclinations prompted me to. But, being
one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement
at that time, and one of my companions then
going to London by sea in his father's ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the com-
mon allurement of searing men, viz. that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor motr any more, nor
so much as sent them word ofit; but left them
to hear of it as they might, without askingGod's
blessing, or my father's, without any conside-
ration ofcircumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows.



Ow the 1st of September, 1651, I went on
board a ship bound for London. Never any
young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, be-
gan younger, or continued longer, than mine.
The ship had no sooner got out of the Hum-
ber, than the wind began to blow, and the
waves to rise, in a most frightful manner; and
as [ had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind:
I began now seriously to reflect upon what I
had done, and how justly I was overtaken by
the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving
my father's house. All the good counsels of
my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
e-os- me with the contempt of advice,
anu the abandonment of my duty.

All this while the storm increased, and the
sea, which I had never been uponbefore, went
very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a
few days after; but, such as it was, enough to
affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known any thing of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down,
as I thought, in the trough or hollow ofthe sea,
we should never rise more; and in this agony
of mind I made many vows and resolution,
that if it would please God to spare my li
this voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry
land, I would go directly home to my father,
and never setit into a ship again while I lived;
that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodne of his observa-


tions about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
These wise and sober thoughts continued
during the storm, and indeed some time after;
but the next day, as the wind was abated,and
the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to
it. However, I was very grave that day, being
also a little seasick still: but towards night
the weather cleared up, the wind was quite
over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so
the next morning; and havinglittle or no wind,
and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that
I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now
no more seasick, but very cheerful, looking
with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so
calm and pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had indeed en-
ticed me away, came to me, and said, Well,
Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frightened,
wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-
full of wind ?-A cap-full, do you call it? said
1; 'twas a terrible storm.-A storm, you fool!
replies he, do you call that a storm? Why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and searoom, and we think nothing of such a
squall of wind as that: you are but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl
of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now? To make
short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I
was made drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repen-
tance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a
word, as the sea. was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of the storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehen-
sions of being swallowed up by the sea forgot-
ten, and the current of my former desires re-
turned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
I had made in my distress. I found, indeed,
some intervals of reflection; and serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I shook them off and
srused myself from them, as it were from a
distemper, and applying myself to drink and

company, soon mastered the return of those
fits,-for so I called them; and I had in five
or six days got as complete a victory over con-
science as any young sinner, that resolved not
to be troubled with it, could desire. But I
was to have another trial for it still; and Pro-
vidence, as in such cases generally it does, re-
solved to leave me entirely without excuse:
for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came
into Yarmouth roads; the wind having been
contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which
time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor
where the ships might wait for a wind for the
river Thames. We had not, however, rid
here so long, but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and
our ground tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehen-
sive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the
eighth day, in the morning, the wind increa-
sed, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts, and make every thing snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as pos-
sible. By noon the sea went very high in-
deed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought, once or twice,
our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet-anchor; so that
we rode with two anchors ahead, and the ca-
bles veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed,
and now I began to see terror and amazement
in the faces of even the seamen themselves,
The master was vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship; but, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
say to himselfseveral times, Lord, be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all
undone! and the like. During these first
hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe
my temper. I could ill reassume the firstpeni-
tence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against; I thought
that the bitter of death had been past, ead


that this would be nothing too, like the first:
but when the master himself came by me, as I
said just now, and said we should be all lost, I
was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my
cabin, and looted out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw; the sea went mountains high,
and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing
but distress around us; two ships, that rid
near us, we found had cut their masts by the
board, being deeply laden; and our men cried
out that a ship, which rid about a mile ahead
of us, was foundered. Two more siips, being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with
not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came
close by us, running away, with only their
spritsails out, before the wind. Toward
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the
foremast, which he was very loath to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship
so much, they were obliged to cut it away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I
must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been in such a fright be-
fore at but a little. But if I can express, at
this distance, the thoughts I had about me at
that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind
upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror
of the storm, put me into such a condition,
that I can by no words describe it, but the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden,
and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one re-
spect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However, the
storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others, more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of
the night, and under all the rest c" -lr dis-
tresses, one of the men, that had been down
on purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung a

leak; another said, there was four feet water
in the hold. Then all hands were called to
the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwash
upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, who was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another:
at which I stirred up and went to the pump,
and worked very heartily. While this was
doing, the master seeing some light colliers
who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised, that 1
thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful
thing had happened. In a word, I was so sur-
prised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when every body had his own life
to think of, no one minded me, or what was
become of me : but another man stepped up
to the pump, and thriutino me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in
the hold, it was apparent that the ship would
founder; and though the storm began to abate
a little, vet as it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a
light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured,a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for
the boat to lie near the ship's side; till at last
the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a
rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then
veered it out a great length, which they, after
great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let
her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore
as much as we could; and our master promised
them, that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master; so
partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of
an hour out four ship when we saw her sak1
and then I understood, for the first time, what
was meant by a ship foundering in the ea. I
must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to loI
up when the seamen told me, she was ankinkg,


for, from that moment, they rather put me into
the boat, than thatI might be said to go in.
My heart was, as it were, dead within me,
rtly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men
yet laboring at the oar to bring the boat near
the shore, we could see (when, our boat mount-
ing the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near; but we
made slow way towards the shore; nor were
we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward, towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as un-
fortunate men, we were used with great huma-
nity, as well by the magistrates of the town,
who assigned us.good quarters, as by the par-
ticular merchants and owners of ships; and
had money given us sufficient to carry us either
to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back
to Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy;
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Sa-
viour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was
cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was
not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I
had several times loud calls from my reason,
and my more composed judgment, to go home,
yet I had no power to do it.-I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret,
overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we rush upon it with
our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some
such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
and which it.was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instruc-
tions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me
before, and who was the master's son, was
now less forward than I: the first time be spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say,
the *rat time he saw me, it appeared his tone
Was altred, and, looking very melancholy, and
dating his head, he asked me how I did:

telling his father who I was, and how I had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to
go farther abroad. His father, turning to me,
with a grave and concerned tome, Young man,
says he, you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this far a plain and
visible token, that you are not to be a sea-
faring man.-Why, sir? said I; will you go
to sea no more ?-That is another case, said
he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you ofwhat
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this
has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah
in the ship ofTarshish.-Pray, continues he,
what are you, and on what account did you go
to sea ? Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out with a
strange kind of passion. What had I done,
said he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship! I would not set my foot
in the same ship with thee again for a thou-
sand pounds. This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits, which were yet agi-
tated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go.-However,
he afterwards talked very gravely to me; ex-
horted me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and,
young man, said he, depend upon it, if you do
not go back, wherever you go, you will meet
with nothing but disasters and, disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon
We parted soon after, for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more; which way
he went, I know not: as for me, having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life
I should take, andwhether I should go home or
go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed
the best motions that offered to my thoughts;
and it immediately occurred to me how I
should be laughed at among the neighbours,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even every body else.
From whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to
that reason which ought to guide them in such
cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to sin,
and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed
of the action, for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the return-
ing, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.


In this state of life, however, I remained
some time, uncertain what measures to take,
and what course of life to lead. An irresisti-
ble reluctance continued to going home; and as
I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress
I had been in wore off; and, as that abated,
the little motion I had in my desires to a return
wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my for-
tune, and that impressed those conceits so for-
cibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties, and even the com-
mands of my father; I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as
our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these
adventures I did not ship myself as a sailor ;
whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same
time, I had learned the duty and office of a
foremast-man, and in time might have quali-
fied myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not a
master: but as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money
in my pocket, and good clothes upon-my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentlemen; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my
lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company
in London; which does not always happen to
such loose and misguided young fellows as I
then was; the devil, generally, not omitting to
lay some snare for them very early. But it
was not so with me: I first fell acquainted
with the master of a ship, who had been on
the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again.
He, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, and

hearing me say I had a mind toesee the world,
told me, that if I would go the voyage with
him, I should be at no expense; I should be
his messmate and his- companion; and if I
could carry any thing with me, I should have
all the advantage of it that the trade would
admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement. I embraced the offer, and,
entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest and plaindealing
man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
a small adventure with me; which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain,
I increased very considerably; for I carried
about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as
the captain directed me to buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assist-
ance of some of my relations whom I corre-
sponded with; and who, 1 believe, got my father
or, at least, my mother, to contribute so much
as that to my first adventure. This was the
only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in. short, to
understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor : for, as he took delight
to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in
a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and
a merchant: for I brought home five pounds
nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since
so completed my ruin. Yet even in this voy-
age I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being -thrown into
a violent calenture by the excessive .h~ of
the climate; our .rinc:.pl irilir, bcin. upon
the coast, from the IiiudJ of f'iefia dereas
north, even to the line itself. ;



I WAs now set up for a Guinea trader; and mer voyage, and had now got the command
my friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
after his arrival, I resolved to go the same that ever manmade; for thoughI did not carry
voyage again; and I embarked in the same quite a hundred pounds of my new-gflned
vessel with one who was his mate in the for- wealth, so that I had two hundred pounds left,


and which I lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible
misfortunes in this voyage. and the first was
this, viz.-Our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was sur-
prised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turk-
ish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us
with all the sail she could make. We crowd-
ed also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns,
and the rover eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us; and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead
of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and
poured in a broadside upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near
two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack
us again, and we to defend ourselves; but
laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of
our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
The usage I had there was not so dreadful
as at first I-apprehended; nor was I carried
up the country to the emperor's court, as the
rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his business. At this surprising change of my
circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now
looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable, and
have none to relieve me; which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that it could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone, without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will ap-
pear in the sequel his story.
AS my new n, or master, had taken
me home to his e, so I was in hopes he


would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would, some time or
other, be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man of war, and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away ; for when he went to sea, he
left me on shore, to look after his little garden,
and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again
from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape,
and what method I might take to effect it, but
found no way that had the least probability in
it. Nothing presented to make the supposi-
tion of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me;
no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least encou-
raging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance
presented itself, which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which,
as I heard, was for want of money, he used
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fish-
ing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous
in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth, the Moresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish offish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing
in a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick,
that though we were not halfa league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we laboured
all day and all the next night, and when the
morning came, we found we had pulled off to
sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore:
however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labour, and some danger, for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster,
resolved to take more care of himself for the
future; and having lying by him the longboat
of our English ship he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a fishing any more without a
compass and some provision; so he ordered
the carpenter of the ship, who was an English


dave, to build a little state-room or cabin in
the middle of the logboat, like that of a bagge,
with a place to stand behind it, to steer and
haul home the main sheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-
mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top
of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,
and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some botles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particu-
larly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a
fishing, and as I was most dexterous to catch
fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened, that he had appointed to go out in
this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that
place, and for whom he had provided extraor-
dinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat, overnight, a larger store of provision
than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat washed
clean, her ensign and pendants out, and every
thing to accommodate his guests: when, by
and by, my patron came on board alone, and
told me his guests had put off going, upon
some business that fell out, and ordered me,
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out
wiJi the boat, and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his house; and
commanded, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house; all
which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions ofdeliver-
ance darted into my thoughts, for now I found
I was like to have a little ship at my command;
and my master being gone, I prepared to fur-
nish myself, not for a fishing business, but for
a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I should steer; for
any where, to get out of that place, was my
My first contrivance was to make a pro-
tence to speak to this Moor, to get something
for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our
patron's bread: he said, that was true; so he
brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and threejars with fresh water, into
the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which it was evident, by the
make, were taken out of some English prize,

and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also
a great lump ofbeeswax into the beat, which
weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw,
and a hammer, all which were of great use to
us afterwards, especially the wax, to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name
was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley: so I called to him, Moley, said I,
our patron's gun ae an board the boat, can
you not get a little powder and shot? it may
be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship.-Yes, says
he, I will bring some; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more, and another with shot, that had five or
six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat: at the same time I found some pow.
der of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one o the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus fuorished
with every thing needful, we sailed out of the
port to fish. The castle, which is at the e-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above
a mile out of the port, before we hauled in
oursail, and sat us down to fish. The wind
blew from NN. E. which was contrary to
my desire; for, had it blown southetly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at last reached to the bay of Cadiz: but
my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone fron the horrid plan
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched
nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I
would not pull them up, that he might et mee
them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther of He, thinking no harm.
agreed; and being at the head of theboat, m
the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the
boat near a league farther, and then brought
to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and I took him by surprise, with
my arm under his waist, and tossed him edear
overboard into the sea. He rose immd ,
for he swam like a cork, and called to m,
begged to be taken in, and told me he wuld
go all the world over with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would bha


reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him, I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet,
I would do him none: But, said I, you swim
well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is
calm: make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm: but if you come
near the boat, I will shoot you through the
head; for I am resolved to have my liberty.
So he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When
he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you
will be faithful to me I will make you a great
man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me, (that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father's beard,) I must throw you into the
sea too. The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust
him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go
all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth,
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do;) for who
would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where
whole nations of negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could never once go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merci-
less savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening,
I changed my course, and steered directly
south and by east, bending my course a little
toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that
I believe by the next day, at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I made the land, I could not
be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Mo-
rocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabout: for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had
of falling into their hands, that I would not
stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor,
the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in
manner five days; and then the wind shift-

ing to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
also would now give over: so I ventured to
make to the coast, and came to an anchor in
the mouth of a little river; I knew not what or
where, neither what latitude, what country,
what nation, or what river. I neither saw,
nor desired to see, any people; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to
swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country: but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of
the barking, roaring, and howling of wild cream.
tures, of we know not what kinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury, said I, then I will not; but it may
be we may see men by day, who will be as
bad to us as those lions.-Then we may give
them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing;
make them run away. Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and
I gave him a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night: I say,
still, for we slept none; for in two or three
hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not
what to call them) of many sorts, come down
to the seashore, and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves, for the pleasure
of cooling themselves; and they made such
hideous howling and yelling, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed
so was I too; but we were both more fright-
ened when we heard one of these mighty crea-
tures swimming towards our boat: we could
not see him, but we might hear him, by his
blowing, to be a monstrous, huge, and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried
to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
No, says I, Xury; we can slip our cable with
a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they cannot fol-
low us far. I had no sooner said so, but I
perceived the creature (whatever it was) within
two oars length, which something surprised
me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at
him; upon which he immediately turned about,
and swam to the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries and howling that
were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the


noise or report of the gun; a thing, I believe,
those creatures had never heard before. This
convinced me there was no going an shore for
us in the night upon that coast: and how to
venture on shore in the day, was another quest
tion too; for tohave fallen into the hands ofany
of the savages, had been as badas tohave fal-
len into thepaws oflions and tigers; at least we
were equally apprehensive ofthe danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go
on shore somewhere or other for water, for we
had not a pint left in the boat: when and
where to get it was the point. Xury said, if
I would let him go on shore with one of the
jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go; why I should not go, and he stay in
the boat. The boy answered with so much
affection, that he made me love him ever
after. Says he, If wild mans coae, they eat
me, you go way.-Well, Xury, said I, we will
both go; and if the wild mans come, we will
kill them; they shall eat neither of us. So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which
I mentioned before ; andwehauled inthe boat
as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but
our arms, and twojars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages
down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it; and, by and by, I saw him come
running towards me. I thought he was pur-
sued by some savage, or frightened by some
wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I
saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature that he had shot, like a
hare, but different in colour, and longer legs:
however, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat: but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found
good water, and seen no wild manq.
But we found afftwards, that we need not
take such pains for water; for a little higher
up the creek where we were, we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which
flowed but a little way up; so we filled our
jars, and, having a fire, feasted on the hare we
had killed; and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps f any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast be-
fore, I knew very well that the islands of the
Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also,
y not far from the coast. Butas I had no

instruments to take an obeevation, to ind
what latitude we were in; and did not mxacly
know, or at least remember, what latitude they
were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand ff to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily bund some
ofthese islands. But my hope was, that if
stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find me
of their vessels upon their usaal design ao
trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place
where I now was, must be that country which,
lying between the Emperor of Morocco's do.
minions and the negroes, lies waste, and un-
inhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south,
for fear ofthe Moor, and the Moors not think-
ing it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness: and, indeed, both forakingit because
of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leo-
pards, and other furious creatures which har-
bour there: so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two
or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed,
for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited
country by day, and beard nothing but howl
ings and raring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day time, I thought I
saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being the top oftlh
mountain Tenerife in the Canaries, and had
a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reach-
ing thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds; the sea also
going too high for my little vesel; so I re-
solved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land fr fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once,
in particular, being early in the morning, w
came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning
to flow, we lay still, to go farther in. Xury,
whose eyes were mre about him than, it
seems, mine were, calls sofly to me, and tells
me, that we had best go farther of the shore;
for, says he, Look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fat asleep.
r looked where he pointed, and saw a dread-
ful monster indeed, for it was a terrible grp
lion, that lay on the side of th shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill, that huo as
it were, over him. Xury, says I, you shal
go on shore and killhim. Xrylookdlfight-
ened, and said, Me kill! be eat me at ae
mouth: one mouthful he meant Howevr,
said no more to the boy, but bade him be still;


and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets;
and a third, for we had three pieces, I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim
I could with the first piece, to have shot him
in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised
a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his
leg about the knee, and broke the bone: he
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I
had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop, and make but little noise, but lie strug-
gling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. Well,
go, said r: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close
to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to
his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no
food; and I was very sorry to lose three
charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However,
Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the
hatchet: For what, Xury? said I. Me cut
off his head, said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one. I bethought myself, however, that
perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and
I went to work with him: but Xury was much
the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day; but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin,
the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made onto the southward
continually, for ten or twelve days, living very
sparingly on our provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water.
My design in this, was to make the river
Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say, any where
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and
if I did not, I knew not what course I had to

take, but to seek for the islands, o perish
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast
of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies,
made this cape, or those islands: and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this
single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about
ten days longer, as I have said, I began to see
that the land was inhabited; and in two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us: we could
also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on
shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, No go, no go. How-
ever, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them; and I found they ran along the
shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long, slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw
them a great way with good aim; so I kept at
a distance, but talked to them by signs, as
well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat: upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country; and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and some corn, such as is the pro-
duce of their country; but we neither knew
what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for
venturing on shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us: but they took a safe way
for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and
laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we
had nothing to make them amends: but an
opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully; for while we were lying by
the shore, came two mighty creatures, one
pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea;
whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell
whether it was usual or strange; but I believe
it was the latter, because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in
the night; and, in the second place, we found
the people terribly frightened, especially the


women. The man that had the lance, or dart,
did not fly from them, but the rest did; how-
ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon
any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion: at last, one of them
began to come nearer our boat than I at first
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As
soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly in the head : im-
mediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if
he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal
hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment
of these poor creatures,at the noise and fire of
my gun ; some of them were even ready to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs
to them to come to the shore, they took heart
and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood stain-
ing the water; and by the help of arope, which
I sAulg round him, and gave the negroes to
r.aul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the ne-
groes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature,frightened with the flash
of fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore,
and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that dis-
tance, know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this crea-
ture, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favour from me; which, when I made signs
to them that they might take him, they were
very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very
freely, and brought me a great deal more of
their provisions, which, though I did not un-
derstand, yet I accepted. I then made signs
to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to

show that it was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to
some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this
they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as' stark naked
as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn,
such as it was, and water; and leaving my
friendly negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near
the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me; and the sea
being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make
this point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to seaward: then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the
islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd
Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best
to do; for if I should be taken with a gale of
wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I
stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his
wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew
we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz.
that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered,
I was soon convinced they were bound some
other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to the shore: upon which, I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I
should not be able to come in their way, but
that they would be gone by before I could make
any signal to them; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me, by the help of their perspec-
tive glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, they supposed, must belong to
some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail,
to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron's ensign on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw;


for they told me they saw the smoke, though
they did not hear the gun. Upon these sig-
nals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours' time I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese,
and in Spanish and in French, but I understood
none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the
Moors, at Sallee: they then bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as
I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless condition as I was in; and I imme-

diately offered all I had to the captain of the
ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he
generously told me, he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe
to me, when I came to the Brazils. For, says
he, I have saved your life on no other terms
than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken
up in the same condition. Besides, said he,
when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a
way from your own country, if I should take
from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I
have given. No, no, Senhor Ingles, (Mr.
Englishman,) says he; I will carry you thither
in charity, and these things will help to buy
your subsistence and your passage home there



As he was charitable in this proposal, so he
was just in the performance, to a tittle ; for he
ordered the seamen, that none should offer to
touch any thing I had: then he took every thing
into his own possession, and gave me back
an exact inventory of them, that I might have
them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and
that he saw, and told me he would buy it of me
for the ship's use; and asked me what I
would have for it ? I told him, he had been so
generous to me in every thing, that I could
not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him: upon which he told me
he would give me a note of hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and
when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me
also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I
was not willing to let the captain have him, but
I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he
turnedd Christian: upon this, and Xury saying
he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils,
and arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days
after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself, I was
now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave
me, I can never enough remember: he would
take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused every thing I had in the ship
to be punctually delivered to me ; and what
I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such
as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo: and with this stock, I went
on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was re-
commended to the house of a good honest
man, like himself, who had an ingenio as they
call it, (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house.) I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of planting and of making sugar: and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how
they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could


get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them: endeavouring, in the
mean time, to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remit-
ted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
a letter ofnaturalization, I purchased as much
land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suit-
able to the stock which I proposed to myself
to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English parents, whose name was
Wells, and in much such circumstances as I
was. I call him my neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for
food than any thing else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each
of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come: but we both want-
ed help; and now I found, more thanbefore, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never
did right, was no great wonder. I had no
remedy, but to go on: I had got into an em-
ployment quite remote to my genius, and di-
rectly contrary to the life I delighted in, and
for which I forsook my father's house, and
broke through all his good advice: nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or
upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved
to go on with, I might as well have stayed at
home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world, as I had done: and I used often to say
to myself, I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five
thousand miles off to do it among strangers
and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a
distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody
to converse with, but now and then this neigh.
bour; no work to be done, but by the labour
ofmy hands: and I used to say, I lived just
like a man cast away upon some desolate island,
that had nobody there but himself But how
just has it been! and how should all men re-
flect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange, and
be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that

the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island
of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life which
I then led, in which, had I continued, I had,
in all probability, been exceeding prosperous
and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my mea-
sures for carrying on the plantation, before my
kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when, tel-
ling him what little stock I had left behind me
in London, he gave me this friendly and sin-
cere advice: Senhor Inglez, says he, (for so
he always called me,) if you will give me let-
ters, and a procuration here in form to me,
with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at
my return: but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders for but one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the
same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to for your sup-
ply. This was so wholesome advice, and
looked so friendly, that I could not but be con-
vinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman with whom I left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full
account of all my adventures ; my slavery, es-
cape, and how I had met with the Portuguese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when
this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found
means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a
full account of my story to a merchant at Lon-
don, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese
captain a very handsome present for his hu-
manity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hurn
dred pounds in English goods, such as the
captain had wrote for, sent them directly to
him at Lisbon, and he brought.them all safe
to me at the Brazils; among which, without
my direction, (for I was too young in my bu


iness to think of them,) he had taken care to
have all sorts oftools, iron work, and utensils,
necessary for my plantation, and which were
of great use to me. When this cargo arrived,
I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which
my friend had sent him as a present for him-
self, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little
tobacco, which I would have him accept, being
of my own produce. Neither was this all: but
my goods being all English manufactures, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage;
so that I might say, I had more than four times
the value of my first cargo, and was now infi-
nitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement ofmy plantation: for the first thing
I did, I bought me a negro slave, and a Euro-
pean servant also ; I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great suc-
cess in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bours : and these fifty rolls, being each of above
one hundred pounds weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon: and now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach; such as
are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads
in business. Had I continued in the station
I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, re-
tired life, and which he had so sensibly de-
scribed the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still
to be.the wilful agent of all my own miseries ;
and, particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which in
my future sorrows I should have leisure to
make, all these miscarriages were procured by
my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination, of wandering about, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures
of life, which nature and providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away
from my parents, so I could not be content

now, but I must go and leave the happy view I
had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immode-
rate desire of rising faster than the nature of
the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest golf of human mi-
sery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could
be consistent with life, and a state of health in
the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the par-
ticulars of this part of my story.-You may
suppose, that having now lived almost four
years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my plantation, I
had not only learned the language, but had
contracted an acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among
the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our
port; and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the man-
ner of trading with the negroes there, and how
easy it was to purchase on the coast for trifles--
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but ne-
groes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
They listened always very attentively to my
discourses on these heads, but especially to that
part which related to the buying negroes;
which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assiento, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed
from the public; so tha few negroes were
bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next morning,
and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them ofthe last
night, and they came to make a secret proposal
to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship
to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations: and,
in a word, the question was, whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and
they offered me that I should have an equal


share of the Negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be con-
fessed, had it been made to any one that had
not a settlement and plantation of his own to
look after, which was in a fair way of coming
to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered
and established, and had nothing to do but go
on as I had begun, for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England; and who, in that time
and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for
me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such cir-
cumstances, could be guilty of
But I, that was born to be my own de-
stroyer, could no more resist the offer, than I
could restrain my first rambling designs, when
my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, ifthey would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into
writings or covenants to do so; and I made a
formal will, disposing of my plantation and ef-
fects, in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship, that had saved my life, as before,
my universal heir; but obliging him to dispose
of my effects as I had directed in my will; one
half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to pre-
serve my effects, and to keep up my plantation:
had I used halfas much prudence to have look-
ed into myown interest,and have ,made ajudg-
ment of what I ought to have done and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away
from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards, to say nothing of the rea-
sons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly
the dictates of my fancy, rather than my rea-
son ; and accordingly, the ship being fitted out,
and the cargo furnished, and all things done
as by agreement, by my partners in the voy-
age, I went on board in an evil hour again, the
Ist of September, 1659, being ~hdtame day
eight years that I went from my either and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to
their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty

tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen
men, besides the master, his boy, and myself;
we had on board no large cargo of goods, ex-
cept of such toys as were fit for our trade with
the Negroes, such as beads, bis ofglaa, shells
and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went nn board, we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the Afri-
can coast. When they came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it
seems, was the manner of their course in those
days, we had very good weather, only ex-
cessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till
we came to the height ofCape St. Augustino;
from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N.E. by N. and leaving
those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days' time,
and were, by our last observation, in 7 de-
grees 22 minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge: it began from the south-
east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled in the north east; from whence it blew
in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve days
together, we could do nothing but drive, and,
scudding away before it, let it carry us whi-
ther ever fate and the fury of the winds di-
rected ; and, during these twelve day.. need
not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror
of the storm, one of our men died of the cal-
enture, and one man and a boy washed over-
board. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observa-
tion as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference,
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was got upon the coast of Guiana, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Ama-
zons, toward that ofthe river Oroonuque, com-
monly called the Great River; and began to
consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was going directly hck to the coast of
I was positively against ta *dlookingover
the charts of the sea-coasts of America with
him, we concluded there wau no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the cirleof the Caribbee islands, and


therefore resolved to stand away for Barba-
does; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid
the indraught of the bay or gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance, both to our
ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course,
and steered away N. W. by W. in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I
hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise
determined; for being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the very way of all human commerce, that had
all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very
hard, one of our men early in the morning,
cried out, Land' and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her mo-
tion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately; and we were imme-
diately driven into our close quarters, to shelter
us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been
in the like condition, to describe or conceive
the consternation ofmen in such circumstances:
we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inha-
bited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
wind, by a kind of miracle should imme-
diately turn about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man acting accordingly, as
preparing for another world; for there was
little or nothing more for us to do in this: that
which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our ex-
pectation, the ship did not break yet, and that
the master said the wind began to abate.
Now. though we thought that the wind did a
little abate, yet the ship having thus struck
upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the

storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next
place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from
her: we had another boat on board, but how
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid
hold of the boat, and with the help of the rest
of the men, they got her flung over the ship's
side : and getting all into her, let her go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadful high upon the shore, and might
be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call
the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed;
for we all saw plainly, that the sea went so
high, that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none; nor, if we had could we
have done any thing with it; so we worked at
the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution for we all
knew that when the boat came nearer to the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However,
we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us to-
wards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was-whethlr rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal-we knew not; the
only hope that could rationally give us the
least shadow of expection, was, if we might
happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the
land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; and as
we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about
a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a rag-
ing wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and separa-
ting us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0
God!" for we were all swallowed up in a mo
Nothing can describe the confusion of


thought which I felt, when' I sunk into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw my breath, till that wave having driven
me, or rather carried me, a vast way on to.
wards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had
so much presence of mind, as well as breath
left, that seeing myself nearer the main land
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and en-
deavoured to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the
water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to
preserve my breathing, and pilot myself to-
wards the shore, if possible; my greatest con-
cern now being, that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried
me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own
body ; and I could feel myself carried with a
mighty force and swiftness towards the shore,
a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all
my might. I was ready to burst with holding
my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up,
so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved
me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage.
I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding
the water had spent itself, and began to return,
I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments, to recover breath,
and till the water went from me, and then took
to my heels, and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which
came pouring in after me again; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh
been fatal to me; for the sea having hurried
me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that
with such force, that it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance;

for the blow taking my side and breast, beat
the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must
have been strangled in the water: but I reco-
vered a little before the return of the waves,
and seeing I should again be covered with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the
rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now as the waves were
not so high as the first, being nearer land, I
held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near
the shore, that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and thenext run I took, I got
to the main land; where, to my great comfort
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and
began to look up and thank God that my life
was saved, in a case wherein there were, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express, to the life,
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul
are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out
of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the
custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has
the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that
they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that the
surprise may not drive the animal spirits from
the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like grief, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my
hands, and my whole being, as I may say,
wrapped up in the contemplation of my deli-
verance; making athous and gestures and mo-
tions, which I cannot describe; reflecting
upon my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them
afterwards, or any sign of them, except three
of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were
not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when
the breach and froth of the sea being so big
I could hardly see it, it lay so faroff-and con-
sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the com-
fortable part ofmy condition, I began to look
round me, to see what kind ofa place I was in,
and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word


I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet,
had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either
to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perish-
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts: and that which was particularly afflict-
ing to me was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box.
This was all my provision; and this threw me
into such terrible agonies of mind, that, for a
while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot if there were
any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts,
at that time, was, to get up into ashick bushy
tree, like a fir, but thorny-which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night-and
consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked
about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy; and having drank, and put a
little tobacco into my mouth to prevent hunger,
I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-
deavoured to place myselfso, as that if I should
fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me
a short stick, like a truncheon, formy defence,
P took up my lodging; and having been ex-
cessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept
as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition; and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was
on such an occasion.



WHaE I waked it was broad day, the wea-
ther clear, and the storm abated, so that the
sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where
she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I at
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I
might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in
the tree, I looked about me again, and the first
thing I found was the boat; which lay, as the
wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to
have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of
water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for
the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for
my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very
calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could
come within a quarter of a mile of the ship:
wnd here found a fresh renewing of my griefs

for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we
had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears from my eyes again; but as there
was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water: but when I came to the ship, my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board; for as she lay aground, and high out
of the water, there was nothing within my reach
to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of a
rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by
the help of that rope got into the forecastle of
the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to
the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for
you may be sure my first work was to search
and to see what was spoiled and what was
free: and, first, I found that all the ship's


provisions were dry and untouched by the
water; and, being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose. I also found
some rum in the great cabin, of which I took
a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before
me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what
was not to be had, and this extremity roused
my application: we had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a
spare topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to
fall to work with these, and flung as many over-
board as Icould manage for their weight, tying
every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away.. 'When this was done, I went
down the ship's side, and pulling them to me,
I tied four of them fast together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon
them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light: so I
went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I
cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
My raft vfs now strong enough to bear any
reasonable weight. My next care was what
to load it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surfof the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what I most'wanted, I
got three of the seamen's che*s,, which I had
broken open and emptied, a6d lowered them
down upon my raft; these I filled with provi-
sions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats' flesh, (which we
lived much upon,) and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we had brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together, but, to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquor, I found several cases of bottles belong-
ing to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons
ofrack. These I stowed by themselves, there
being no need to put them into the chests, nor

any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swain on board in them, and my
stockiarn However, this put. me upon rum-
maging fr clothes, of which found enough,
butjook no more than I wanted for present use,
for Itnh other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore:
and it was after long searching that I found
the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and mucl more valuable
than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, even'
whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition
and arms. There were two very good fowling
pieces in the great cabin,and two pistols; these
I secured first, with some powderhorns and
a.small bag ofshot, and two old rusty sscbrds.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but kneir not where our gunner had
stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water. Those two I gottomyraft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capfull ofwind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth,
calm sea: 2dly, The tide rising, and setting
in to the shore: Sdly, What little wind there
was, blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belong-
ing to the boat, and besides the tools which
were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe,
and a hammer; and with this cargo I pot to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went
very well, only that I found it drive a little dim
tantfrom the place where I had landed before;
by which I perceived that there was som in-
draught of the water, andconsequently Ihoped
to find some creek or riverthere, which Imight
make use of as a part toet to land with my
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared
before me a little opening of the land, and I
found a strong current of the tide set into it;
so I guided my raft, as well as Icould, to get
into the middle of the stream. But here I had
like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the


coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat,
and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost,
by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength; neither durst I
stir from the posture I was in, but holding iup
the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time
the rising of the water brought me a little more
upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her
off with the oar I had into the channel, and
then driving up higher, I at length found myself
Sin the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
1 looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right
shore of the creek, to which, with great pain
and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep,
that is to say, sloping, there was no place to
land, but where one end of my float, if it ran
on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my
cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the
raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow
over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of
water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end: and thus I lay
till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and
seek a proper place for my habitation, and
where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet
knew not; whether on the continent, or on an
island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited;
whether in danger of wild beasts, or not.
There was a hill, not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, an-' which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay

as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowlingpieces, and one of the pis-
tols, and 2 horn of powder; and thus armed, I
travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill; where, after I had, with great labour and
difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to
my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island,
environed every way with the sea, no land to
be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great
way off, and two small islands, less than this,
which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe,
uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance
of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit
for food, and what not. At my coming back
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon
a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe
it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number of fowls,
of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I
knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak
resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common. Its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back
to my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo
on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day: what to do with myself at right I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid
to lie down on the ground, not knowing but
some wild beast might devour me; though, as
I afterwards found, there was really no need
for those fears. However, as well as I could,
I barricadoed myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet
get a great many things out of the ship, which
would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possi-
ble. And as I knew that the first storm that
blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart, till I
got every thing out of the ship that I could


get Then I called a council, that is to say,
in my thoughts, whether I should take back
the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so
I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down; and I did so, only that I stripped be-
fore I went from my hut; having nothing on
but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before. and pre-
pared a second raft; and having had expe-
rience of the first, I neither made this so un-
wieldly, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me: as, first,
in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three
bas,. of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that
most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured together, with several things
belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or
three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bag full of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so
heavy, I couhl not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side. Besides these things, I took all
the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare
foretopsail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions lest, during
my absence from the land, my provisions might
le devoured on shore: but when I came back,
I found no sign of any visiter; only there sat
a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran
away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me, I presented my gun to
her, but, as she did not understand it, she was
perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great: however,
I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore--
though I was fain to open the barrels of powder,
and bring them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large casks-I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some
poles, which I cut for that purpose; and into
this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled

all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the
door of the tent with some boards within, and
an empty chest set up on end without; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, 1 went to bed for the first
time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy; for the night be-
fore I ad slept little, and had laboured very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now
that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man:
but I was not satisfied still: for while the ship
sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought
to get every thing out of her that I could: so
every day, at low water, I went on board, and
brought away something or other: but parti-
cularly, the third time I went, 1 brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all
the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel
ofwet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away
all the sails first and last; only that I was fain
to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time as I could; for they were no more useful
to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more was,
that, last of all, after I had made five or six
such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, alier all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three
large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expect-
ing any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the
hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up,
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in aword, I got all this safe on
shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and
now having plundered the ship of what wa
portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I ,ot two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard
and the mizen-yard, and every thing I could,
to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods; and came away: but my good
luck began now to leave me; for this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen. that after I was


entered the little cove, where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as
Sfor myself, it was no great harm, for I was near
the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great
part of it lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me:
however, when the tide was out, I got most of
the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the
iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain
to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what
I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and
had been eleven times on board the ship; in
which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable
to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing, the
twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went
on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces ofeight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money:
0 drug! I exclaimed, what art thou good for?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off the ground; one of those knives is worth
all this heap: I have no manner of use for
thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to
the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving. However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and wrapping all this in a
piece of canvass, I began to think of making
another raft; but while I was preparing this, I
found the sky overcast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter ofan hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was
my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, or otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let my-
self down into the water, and swam across the
channel which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weightof the things I had about
me, and partly the roughness of the water; for

the wind rose very hastily, and before it wu
quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where
I lay, with all my wealth about me very se-'
cure. It blew very hard all that night, and in
the morning, when I looked out, behold, no
more ship was to be seen! I was a little sur.
prised, but recovered myself with this satisfac-
tory reflection, viz. that I had lost no time,
nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out
of her that could be useful to me, and that, in-
deed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the
ship, or of any thing out of her, except what
might drive on shore, from her wreck; as, in-
deed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed
about securing myself against either savages,
ifany should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make, whether 1 should make me
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth:
and, in short, I resolved upon both; the man-
ner and description of which, it may not be
improper to give an account of
I soon found the place I was in was not for
my settlement, particularly because it was upon
alow, moorish ground, near the sea, and I be-
lieved it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water
near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation,
which I found would be proper for me: first,
air and fresh water, I just now mentioned:
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun:
thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whe-
ther men or beasts: fourthly, view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my ex-
pectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found
a little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose
front towards this little plain was steep as a
house side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little
way in, like the entrance or door of a cave;
but there was not really any cave, or way into
the rock, at all.
On the flatof the green, just before this hol-
low place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This
plain was not above a hundred yards broad,
and about twice as long, and lay like a green


before my door, and, at the end of it, de-
scended irregularly every way down into the
low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.
N. W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered
from the heat every day, till it came to a W.
and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those
countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle
before the hollow-place, which took in about
ten yards in its semidiameter from the rock,
and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending. .
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of
strong stakes, driving them into the ground till
they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end
being out of the ground about five feet and a
half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one an-
Then I took the pieces of cable which I

cut in the ship, and laid them in rows, one
upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong, that nei-
ther man nor beast could get into it or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be
not by a door, but by a short ladder to go over
the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me; and so I was completely fenced
in and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done,
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution against the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.



INTO this fence, or fortress, with infinite la-
bour, I carried all my riches, all my provisions,
ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in
one part of the year are very violent there, I
made double, viz. one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it, and covered the up-
permost with a large tarpauling, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the
bed which I had brought on shore, but in a
hammock, which was indeed a very good one,
and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions,
and every thing that would spoil by the wet;
and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made
up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a
short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my
way into the rock, and bringing all the earth
and stones that I dug down out through my"
tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made
me a cave, just behind my tent, which served
me like a cellar to my house. It cost me much

labour and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I
must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave,
that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought, which darted into my mind as swift
as the lightning itself: 0 my powder! My
very heart sunk within me when I thought, that
at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defence only, but the pro-
viding me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me,
that after the storm was over, I laid-aside al.
my works, my building and fortifying, and ap-
plied myself to make bags and boxes, to sepa-
rate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might
come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart, that it should-not be pos-


sible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortiiight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about two hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing,
I went out at least once every day with my
gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill any thing fit for food; and, as near as
I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I pre-
sently discovered that there were goats upon
the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this mis-
fortune to me, viz. that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the
most difficult thing in the world to come at
them: but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one,
as it soon happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them: 1 observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away as in a terrible fright; but if
they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence I concluded, that by the position
of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects
that were above them: so, afterwards, I took
this method-I always climbed the rocks first,
to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she goat, which had a
little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell,
the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me, upon my shoulders,
the kid followed me quite to my enclosure;
upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would
not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved
my provisions (my bread especially) as much
as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found
it absolutely necessary to provide a place to
make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what
I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave,

and what conveniences I made, I shall giv a
full account of it in its proper place: but I
must first give some little account of myself,
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition;
for as I was not cast away upon that island
without being driven, as is said, by a violent
storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage; and a great way, viz. some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade
of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostu-
late with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin its creatures, and render them
so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without
help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon
me to check these thoughts, and to reprove
me: and particularly, one day, walking with
my gun in my hand, by the seaside, I was very
pensive upon ihe subject of my present condi-
tion,when reason, as it were, expostulated with
me the other way, thus: Well, you are in a
desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remem
ber, where are the rest of you? Did not you
come eleven of you into the boat ? Where are
the ten ? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why were you singled out? Is it
better to be here or there ? And then I point-
ed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what
worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well
I was furnished for my subsistence, and what
would have been my case if it had not hap.
opened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things
out of her: what would have been my case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without neces-
saries of life, or necessaries to supply and pro-
cure them ? Particularly, said I aloud (though
to myself) what should I have done without a
gun, without ammunition, without any tools to
make any thing, or to work with, without clothes,
bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quan-
tity, and was in a fair way to provide myself
in such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I


hada tolerable view ofmsubisting, without any
want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the beginning, how I would provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the
time that was to come, not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion
of my ammunition being destroyed at one
blast, I mean my powder being blown up by
lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thun-
dered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene d silent life, such, perhaps,
a was never bard of in the world before, I
shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It wps, by my acconat, the
90th of September, when, in the manner as
above aid, I first et foot upon this horrid
island; when the sun being p us in its atum-
nal equinox, was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myselfby observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two mi
hutes north ofthe line.



AraTE I had been there about ten or twelve
days, it came into my thoughts that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books,
and pen and ink, and should even forget the
sabbath days from the working days: but, to
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a
large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I setit up on the shore where
I first landed, viz. "I came on shore here on
the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides
of this square post Icut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one: and
thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not
at all less useful to me, which I found, some
time after, in rummaging the chests; as, in
particular, pens, ink, and paper; several par-
cels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and
carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
-oine mathematical instruments,dials, perspeo-
tives, charts, and books of navigation; all which
I huddled together, whether I might want them
or ,o: also I found three very good Bibles, which
came to me in my cargo from England, and
\ h ich I had packed up among my things; some
I ortu.guese books also, and, among them, two or
three popish prayer books, and several other
book-, all which I carefully securd. And I

must not forget that we had in the shipadog, and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place: for I
carried both the cats with me; and asfor the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on
shore tometbedayafter I went oshore withmy
first cargo, and was a trusty servant tome for
manyyears: I wanted nothing that becould fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to
me, I only wanted to hare him talk to me,
but that would not do. As I observed before,
I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while
my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but
after that was gone, I could not; for I could no
make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all I had amassed to-
geiher ; and of these, this of ink was one;
as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or
remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread;
as for linen, I oon learned to want that with.
out much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did
go on heavily: and it was near a whole year
before I had entirely finished my little pale, o-
surrounded myhabitation. Thepilesorstakes
which were as heavy a I could welllift, we
a long time in cutting and prparing in is
woods, and more, by far, in bringing houe; so
that 1 spent sometimes two days in cutting ad
bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at nt,


but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which. however, though I found itan-
swer, made driving these posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I
have been concerned at the tediousness of any
thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to
do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if
that had been over, at least that I could foresee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food;
which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began toconsider seriously my condi-
tion. and die circumstance I was reduced to ;
and I drew up the state ofmy affairs in writing,
not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me, (for I was like to have but few
heirs,) as to deliver my thoughts from daily
poring upon them, and afflicting my mind: and
as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse ; and I stated very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:



lam as. pon horrible, But I am alive; and not
desolrtu Islad, voitd l all drowned, aa all my .hip'i
sotp of rec-olry. s-mpluy "ore.
I amninled out and epa- But I am singled out too
reld1, .asiswere, fromalthe rom ill hesilp'a crew, to
World, to bee tpe-red from d.ith ; and
he thit milr.,il~laly s-aed
me foim ldeati, can deliver
me trom tlhi cuodiiuuu.
Sa divided from man- .. ,
kuud, a 'sahaire, one ia-
ished from human society. a* .
I have no clothes to cover But Iam in a hot climate,
me. wlie it I bId clothes, I
could hianly -u.r t(1o.
I am without any defence, B'ut I m ca oni an island
or mel to resist lilly vio- heore I see no wild be;ltus to
lerce I i mal or beast. thur me, as I maw .on ile
-a ,i o uAria: nd what[d i
had beeu hipwrecked (hre ?
I have no .oul to speak to, .
Orre-veme. th .
thee hIorelmt l hae tEL out
o many necetary UineS aas

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted tes-
timony, that there was scarce any condition in
he world so miserable, but there was some-
thing negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a di-
rection, from the experience of the most mise-
rable of all conditions in this world, that we
mr.y always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description
of good amd evil, on the credit side of the ac-

Having now brought my mind a little to roe
lish my condition, and given over looking out
to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giv-
ing over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation,
which was a tent under the side ofa rock, sur-
rounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about
about two feet thick on the outside: and after
some time (I think it was a year and a half)
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it wi ith boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the
rain; which I found, at sonic times of the year,
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all
my goods into this pale, and into the cave
which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap ofgoods, which, as they lay in no order,
o they took up all my place; I had no room
to turn myself: so I set myself to enlare my
cave, and work farther into the earth; fur it
was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily
to the labour I bestowed on it: and when I
found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey,
I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock, and then turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out in
the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress,
as it were, a backway to my tent and to my
storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make
such necessary things as I found I most wanted,
particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts
I had in the world; I could not write, or eat,
or do several things with so much pleasure,
without a table: so I went to work. And here
I must needs observe, that as reason is the sub-
stance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring every thing by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of
things, every man may be, iri time, master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a
tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last,
that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if[ had had tools. However, made
abundance of things, even without tools: and
some with no more tools than an adze and
a hatchet, which perhaps were never made
that way before, and that with infinite labour.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no


other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank,,and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board ofa whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had fur a prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board:
but my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table anda chair, as
I observed above, in the first place ; and this I
did out of the short pieces of boards that I
brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a
haif, one over another, all along one side of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at
large in their places, that I might easily come
at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of
the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been seen,
it looked like a general magazine of all neces-
sary things; and I had every thing so ready at
my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially
to find my stock ofall necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a
journal of every day's employment; for, in-
deed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only as to labour, but in much discomposure

of mind; and my journal would, too, have been
full of many dull things: for example, I must
have said thus-" Sept. O3th. After I had
got to shore, and had escaped &owning, in.
stead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into
my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I
ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my
misery, and cryisn ot, I was undone, undone!
till, tired and fai:it, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose; but durst not sleep,
for fear ofbeing devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been
on board the ship and got all that I could nut
of her, I could not firbear getting up to the top
of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in
hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a
vast distance, I spied a sail, please myselfwith
the hopes of it, and, after looking steadily, till
1 was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some
measure, and having settled my household stuff
and habitation, made me a table and a chair,
and all as handsome about me as I could, I be-
gan to keep my journal: of which I shall here
give you the copy, (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again,) as long as it
lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced
to leave it off.




SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I,poormiserable
Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during
a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore
on this dismal unfortunate island, which I
called the ISLAND or DESPAIR; all the rest
of the ship's company being drowned, and my-
self almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to, viz. I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me that I should either be devoured by

wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved
to death for want of food. At the approach of
night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
OCTOBER 1. In the morning I saw, to my
great surprise, the ship had floated with the
high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island; which, as it was some com-
fort on one hand, (for seeing her sit upright,
and not broken in pieces, I hoped, ifthe wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief,)
so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board, might have saved


the ship, or, at least, that they would not have Nov. S. I wentoutwithmy gun, andkilled
been all drowned, as they were; and that, had two fowls like ducks, which were very good
the men been saved, we might perhaps have food. In the afternoon I went to work to
built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to make me a table.
have carried us to some other part of the world. Nov. 4. This morning I began to order
I spent great part of this day in perplexing my- my times of work, of going out with my gun,
self on these things ; but, at length, seeing the time ofsleep, and time ofdiversion; viz. every
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as nearas morning I walked out with my gun for two or
I could, and then swam on board. Thisdayalso three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
it continued raining, though with no wind atall. myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
From the Ist of October to the 24th. All ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to
these days entirely spent in many several voy- two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
ages to get all I could out of the ship; which excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to
I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon work again. The working part of this day
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though and the next was wholly employed in making
with some intervals of fair weather; but it my table, for I was yet but a very sorry work-
seems this was the rainy season, man; though time and necessity made me a
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the complete natural mechanic soon after, as I be.
goods I had got upon it; but being in shoal lieve they would any one else.
water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my
recovered many of them when the tide was gun and dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin
out. pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: of
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
some gusts of wind, during which time the and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing a lit- shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowl which I
tie harder than before,) and was no more to be did not understand; but was surprised, and
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only almost frightened, with two or three seals;
at low water. I spent this day in covering and which, while I was gazing at them (not well
securing the goods which I had saved, that the knowing what they were,) got into the sea,
rain might not spoil them. and escaped me for that time.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went
all day, to find out a place to fix my habitation; to work with my table again, and finished it,
greatly concerned to secure myself from any though not to.my liking; nor was it long be-
attack in the night, either from wild beasts or fore I learned to mend it.
men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair
place, under a rock, and marked out a semi- weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of
circle for my encampment; which I resolved the 12th (for the Ilth was Sunday, according
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica- tomyreckoning,) I tookwhollyuptomakemea
tion, made of double piles, lined within with chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tole-
cables, and without with turf. rable shape, but never to please me; and, even
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very in the making, I pulled it in pieces several
hard in carrying all my goods to my new ha- times.
bitation, though some part of the time it rained Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
exceedingly hard. days; for, omitting my mark for them on my
The 31st, in the morning, I went out intothe post, I forgot which was which.
island with my gun, to seek for some food, and Nov. 13. This day it rained; which re-
discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, freshed me exceedingly, and cooled the earth;
and her kid followed me home, which I after- but it was accompanied with terrible thunder
wards killed also, because it would not feed. and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
November I. I set up my tent under a rock, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
and lay there for the first night; making it as over, I resolved to separate my stock of pow.
large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing der into as many little parcels as possible, that
my hammock upon. it might not be in danger.
Nov. 2. Isetup all my chests and boards, Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I
and the pieces of timber which made my nrf; spent in making little square chests or boxes,
and with them formed a fence round mei a which might hold about a pound, or two pounds
little within the place I had marked out for at mpst, ofpowder; and so, putting the powder
my fortification, in, I stowed it in places s secure and as re.


mote from one another as possible. On one
of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat; but I knew not what to
call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind
my tent, into the rock, to make room for my
farther convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work, viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a
wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As
for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy: but
the next thing was a shovel or spade; this
was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the
woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it,
which, in the Brazils, they call the iron tree,
from its exceeding hardness: of this, with
great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece; and brought it home, too, with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my
having no other way, made me a long while
upon this machine: for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or
spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long; however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient: for I wanted a basket,
or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make
by any means, having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make wicker-ware; at
least, none yet found out: and as to the wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of; neither did Iknow
how to go about it: besides, I had no possible
way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over:
and, for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod,
which the labourers carry mortar in for the
bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me
as the making the shovel: and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days; I mean, always excepting my
morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
homesomething fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having nqw stood

still, because of my making these tools, when
they were finished I went on; and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time, I worked to
make this room, or cave, spacious enough to
accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine,
a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As
for a lodging, I kept to the tent; except that
sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it
rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all
my place within my pale with long poles, and
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.
DECEMBER 10. I began now to think my
cave or vault finished; when on a sudden (it
seems I had made it too large) a great quantity
of earth fell down from the top and one side:
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and
not without reason too; for if I had been under
it, I should never have wanted a grave-digger.
Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.
DEc. 11. This day I went to work with it
accordingly; and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with twopieces of
board across over each post: this I' finished
the next day; and setting moYe posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof
secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
DEC. 17. From this day to the 30th, I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts, to hang every thing up that could be
hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
DEc. 20. I carried every thing into the
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set
up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another
DEC. 24. Much rain all night and all day
no stirring out.
DEC. 25. Rain all day.
DEC. 26. No rain; and the earth much
cooler than before, and pleasanter.
DEc. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed
another, so that I watched it, and led it home
in a string: when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke.


N. B. I took such care of it that it lived;
and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever:
but, by nursing it so lon it grew tame, and
fed upon the little green at my door, and would
not go away. This was the first time that I
entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder anti shot was all spent.
DEc. 2S, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no
breeze; so that there was no stirring abroad,
except in the evening, for food: this tintm I
spent in putting all niy things in order within
JA.-UAn' 1. Very hot still; but I went
abroad earl, and late with my gtiu, and lay
still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was
plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard
to come at: however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats: but I was
mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by
somebody, I resolved to make very thick and
N. 1. This wall being described before, I
purposely omit what was said in the journal: it
is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time
than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April. working, finishing, and perfecting this
wall; though it was no more than about twenty-
five yards in length, being a half circle, from
one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being
in the centre. behind it.
All this time I worked very hard ; the rains
hindering me many days, nay, sometimes weeks
S.. I .t 1 thought I should never be per-
: ', till this wall was fnishd ; and it
is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
every thin', was done with, especially the
bringing piles oit of the woods, and driving
them into the ground ; for I made then much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the out-
side double fenced, with a turf wall raised up
close to it, I persuaded myself that if any peo-
ple were to come on shore there they would
not perceive any thing like a habitation: and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed
hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the
woods for game every day, when the rain per-

mitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in
these walks, of something or other to my ad-
vantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who build, not as woodpigeons, in a
tree, but rather as housepigeous, in the holes
of the rocks: and, taking some young ones. I
endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did
so; but when they grew older, they flew all
awav; which, perhaps, was at first for want of
feeding them, for I had nothing to give them:
however, I frequently found their nests, and
got their young ones, which were very good
meat. And now, in tie managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wantiing in any
things, which I thought at first it was impos-
sible for me to make; as indeed, as to some of
them, it was: for instance, I could never make
a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before; but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
thoTigh I spent many weeks about it: I could
neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold
water; so I gave that also over. In the next
place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that
as soon as it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remember the lump of bees-wax with which
I made candles in my African adventure ; but
I had none of that now: the only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat, 1 saved
the tallow; and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and
this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that in rummaging my
things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted
before, had been filled with corn, for the feed-
ing of poultry ; not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lis-
bon. What little remainder of corn had been
in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and
I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust;
and being willing to have the bag for some
other use, (I think, it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
some such use.) I shook the husks of corn out
of it, on one side of my fortification, under the
It was a little before the great rain just nosw
mentioned, thatI threw this stuffaway; taking
no notice of any thing, and not so much as re-
membering that I had thrown any thing there:
when about a month after, I saw some few
stalks of something green, shooting out of the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised, and per-


fectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment
and confusion of my thoughts on this occasion:
I had hitherto acted upon no religious founda-
tion at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any
sense of any thing that had befallen me,
otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or his order in governing events in the
world. But after I saw barley grow there, in
a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially as I knew not how it
came there, it startled me strangely; and I
began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of
seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought
tears out of my eyes; and I began to bless my-
self that such a prodigy of nature should hap-
Den upon my account: and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other strag.
gling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions
of Providence for my support, but, not doubt-
ing that there was more in the place, I went
over all that part of the island where I had
been before, searching in every corner, and
under every rock, for more of it; but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chick-
en's meat in that place, and then the wonder
began to cease: and I must confess, my reli-
gious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous: for it was really the work of Pro-
vidence, as to me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven;
as also, that I should throw it out in that par-
ticular place, where, it being in the shade of
a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it any where else, at
that time, it would have been burned up and

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you
may be sure, in their season, which was about
the end of June ; and, laying up every corn, 1
resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in
time, to have some quantity sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but spa-
ringly, as I shall show afterwards, in its order ;
for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by
not observing the proper time ; as I sowed just
before the dry season, so that it never came up
at all, at least not as it would have done; of
which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above,
twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I pre-
served with the same care; and whose use
was of the same kind, or to the same purpose,
viz. to make me bread, or rather food; for I
found ways to cook it up without baking, though
I did that also after some time.-But to return
to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or
four months, to get my wall done; and the 14th
of April I closed it up; contriving to get into
it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
APRIL 16. I finished theladder; so I went
up with the ladder to the top, and then pulled
it up after me, and let it down in the inside:
this was a complete enclosure to me; for within
I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my
The very next day after this wall was finished,
I had almost all my labour overthrown at once,
and myself killed; the case was thus:-As 1
was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was ter-
ribly frightened with a most dreadful surpri-
sing thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over
my head, and two of the posts I had set up in
the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what
really was the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had
done before: and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not think-
ing myself safe there neither, I got over my
wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I
expected might roll down upon me. I had no
sooner stepped down upon the firm ground,
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake:
for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes distance, with three such


shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood
on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a miles 'rom me,
next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I per-
ceived also that the very sea was put intoviolent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself
(having never felt the like, nor discoursed with
any one that had) that I was like one dead or
stupified; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were; and rousing me from
the stupified condition I was in, filled me with
horror, and I thought of nothing but the hill
falling upon my tent and my household goods,
and burying all at once; this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt
no more for some time, I began to take cou-
rage; yet I had not heart enough to go over
my wall again, for fear of being buried alive,
but sat still upon the ground greatly castdown,
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while, I had not the least serious religious
thought; nothing but the common Lord, have
mercy me! and when it was over, that went
away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast,
and grow cloudy, asif it would rain; and soon
after the wind rose by little and little, so that
in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden, co-
vered with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with a breach of the water; the trees
were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm
it was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and in two hours more it was
quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All
this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it
came into my thoughts, that these winds and
rain being the consequence of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With
this thought my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went
in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain was
so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it: and I was forced to get into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for
fear it should fall on my head. This violent
rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a
hole through my new fortification, like a sink,
to let the water go out, which would else have

drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave for some time, and found no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum;
which, however, I did then, and always, very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone. It continued raining all that
night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad: but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best
do; concluding, that if the island was subject
to these earthquakes, there would be no living
for me in a cave, but I must consider of build
ing me some little hut in an open place, which
I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men: for if I stayed where I was, I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove
my tent from the place where it now stood,
being just under the hanging precipice of the
hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the
two next days, being the 19th and 20th of
April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation. The fear of being swallowed
alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet;
and yet the apprehension of lying abroad,
without any fence, was almost equal to it: but
still, when I looked about, and saw how every
thing was put in order, how pleasantly I was
concealed, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove. In the mean time,
it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this; and that I must
be contented to run the risk where I was, till
I had formed a convenient camp, and secured
it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion
I composed myself for a time; and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build
me a wall with piles and cables, &c. in a circle
as before, and set up my tent in it when it
was finished; but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was ready, and fit to re-
move to. This was the 21st.
APRIL 22. The next morning I began to
consider of means to put this measure into
execution; but I was at a great loss about the
tools. I had three large axes, and abundance
of hatchets, (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians ) but with much chop-
ping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were
all full of notches, and dull: and though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my
tools too. This caused me as much thought


as a statesman would have bestowed upon a
grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life
and death of a man. At length I contrived a
wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot,
that I might have both my hands at liberty.
NoTE. I had never seen any such thing in
England, or at least not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is
very common there: besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This ma-

chine cost me a full week's work to bring it to
APRIL 28,29. These two whole days I took
up in grinding my tools, my machine or turn-
ing my grindstone performing very well.
APRIL S0. Having perceived that my bread
had been low a great while, I now took a sur-
vey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-
cake a day, which made my heart very



MAY 1. In the morning, looking toward the
seaside, the tide being low, I saw something
lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it
looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore
by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I
examined the barrel that was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder;
but it had taken water, and the powder was
caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it
farther on the shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it
strangely removed. The forecastle, which lay
before buried in sand, was heaved up at least
six feet: and the stern (which was broke to
pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force
of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging of
her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on
one side: and the sand was thrown so high on
that side next her stern, that I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out; where-
as there was a great piece of water before, so
that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded
it must be done by the earthquake; and as by
this violence the ship was more broke open
than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
the winds and water rolled by degrees to the
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the
design of removing my habitation; and I bu-

sled myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into
the ship: but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for all the inside of the
ship was choked up with sand. However, as
f had learned not to despair of any thing, I
resolved to pull every thing to pieces that I
could of the ship, concluding that every thing
I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
MAY 3. I began with my saw, and cut a
piece of a beam through, which I thought
held some of the upper part or quarterdeck
together; and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming
in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
MAY 4. 1 went a fishing, but caught not one
fish that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my
sport; when, just going to leave of, I caught
a young dolphin. I had made me a long line
of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I
frequently caught fish enough, as much as I
cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and
ate them dry.
MAY 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another
beam asunder, and brought three great fir
planks off from the decks; which I tied toge-
ther, and made swim on shore when the tide of
flood came on.
MAY 6. Worked on the wreck; got several
iron bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron
work; worked very hard, and came home very
much tired, and had thoughts f giving it over.
MAY 7. Went to the wreck again, but not
with an intent to work: but found the weight
of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams
being cut; that several pieces of the ship


seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but almost
full of water and sand.
MAY 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an
Iron crow to wrench up the deck, which lay
'low quite clear of the water and sand. I
wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow
in the wreck for next day.
MAY 9. Went to the wreck, and with the
crow made way into the body of the wreck,
and felt several casks, and loosened them with
the crow, but could not break them up. I felt
also a roll of English lead, and could stir it;
but it was too heavy to remove.
MAY 10 to 14. Went every day to the
wreck; and got a great many pieces of timber,
and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred
weight of iron.
MAY 15. 1 carried two hatchets, to try if I
could not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by
placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it
with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
MAY 16. It had blown hard in the night,
and the wreck appeared more broken by the
force of the water; but I stayed so long in the
woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the wreck that day.
MAY 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck
blown on shore, at a great distance, two miles
off me, but resolved to see what they were,
and found it was a piece of the head, but too
heavy for me to bring away.
MAY 24. Every day, to this day, I worked
on the wreck; and with hard labour I loosened
some things so much with the crow, that the
first blowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests: but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead,
which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
oalt water and the sand had spoiled it. I con-
tinued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food ;
which I always appointed, during this part of
my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out:
and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron work, enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how: and I also got, at
several times, and in several pieces, near one
hundred weight of the sheet lead.
JUaN 16. Going down to the seaside, I found
a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I
had seen: which, it seems, was only my mis.
frtune, not any defectof the place, or scarcity:

for had I happened to he on the other aide of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps
had paid dear enough for them.
JUNE 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I
found in her threescore eggs: and her flesh
was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that I ever tasted in my life; having
had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.
JUNE 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed
within. I thought, at this time, the rain felt
cold, and Iwas somewhat chilly; which Iknew
was not usual in that latitude.
JUNE 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the
weather had been cold.
JUNE 20. No rest all night; violent pains in
my head, and feverish.
JUNE 21. Very ill; frightened almost to
death with the apprehensions of my sad con-
dition, to be sick, and no help: prayed to God,
for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.
JUNE 22. A little better; but under dreadful
apprehensions of sickness.
JUNE 23. Very bad again; cold and shiver.
ing, and then a violent headache.
JUNE 24. Much better.
JUNE 25. An ague very violent: the fit held
me seven hours; cold fit, with faint sweats
after it.
JUNE 26. Better; and having no victuals to
eat, took my gun, but found myself very weak:
however, I killed a she-goat, and with much
difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,
and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and
made some broth, but had no pot.
JUNE 27. The ague again so violent that I
lay abed all day, and neither ate nor drank.
I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get my-
self any water to drink. Prayed to God again,
but was lightheaded: and when I was not, I
was so ignorant that I knew not what to say;
only lay and cried, Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours ; till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and
did not wake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I
had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep I had this terri-
ble dream: I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat
when the storm blew after the earthquake, and


that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon
the ground: he was all over as bright as a
fame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him: his countenance was most inex-
pressibly dreadful, impossible for words to de.
scribe: when he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake; and all
the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it
had been filled with flashes of fire. He had
no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or wea-
pon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke
to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it: all that
I can say I understood, was this: Seeing all
these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance, now thou shalt die; at which words, I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand, tokill me.
No one that shall ever read this account,
will expect that I should be able to describe
the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision;
I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that re-
mained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I
had received by the good instruction of my
father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and
profane to the last degree. I do not remem-
her that I had, in all that time, one thought
that so much as tended either to looking up-
ward towards God, or inward towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupid-
ity of soul, without desire of good, or con-
sciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened,
unthinking, wicked creature among our com-
mon sailors, can be supposed to be; not hav-
ing the least sense, either of the fear of God,
in danger, or of thankfulness to him, in deliver-
In the relating what is already past of my
story, this will be the more easily believed,
when I shall add, that through all the variety
of miseries that had to this day befallen me,
I never had so much as one thought of its
being the handof God, or that it was a just
punishment for my sin; either my rebellious
behaviour against my father, or my present
sins, which wee great; or even as a punish-

meut for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on
the desert shores of Africa, I never had a
much as one thought of what would become of
me; or one wish to God to direct me whither
I should go, or to keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well froa
voracious creatures as cruel savages: but I
was quite thoughtless of a God or a Provi-
dence; acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of
conunon sense only; and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by
the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt
with justly and honourably, as well as charity*
bly, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking
on it as a judgement: I only said to myself
often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born
to be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and
found all my ship's crew drowned, and myself
spared, I was surprised with a kind ofecstasy,
and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to
true thankfulness: but it ended where it began,
in a mere common flight ofjoy; or, as I may
say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of
the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved when all the
rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why Provi-
dence had been thus merciful to me: just the
same common sort of joy which seamen gene-
rally have, after they are go: safe ashore from
a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next
bowl of punch, and forgot almost as soon as it
is over: and all the rest of my life was like it
Even when I was, afterwards, on due consi-
deration, made sensible of my condition,-
how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of human kind, out of all hope of
relief, or prospect of redemption,-- soon as
I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all
the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began
to be very easy, applied myself to the works
proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condi-
tion, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the
hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head
The growing up of the orn, as is hised i
my Journal, had, at first, ome little ldme
upon me, and began to affect me with iserlo
ames, as long as I thoht it had amahing


miraculous in it; but as soon as that part of
the thought was removed, all the impression
which was raised from it wore off also, as I
have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its
nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the fright over, but the im-
pression it had made went off also. I had no
more sense of God, or his judgments, much
less of the present affliction of my circum-
stances being from his hand, than if I had
been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a lei-
sure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began
to sink under the burden ofa strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of
the fever; conscience, that had slept so long,
began to awake; and I reproached myself with
my past life, in which I had so evidently, by
uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice
of God to lay me under uncommon strokes,
and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence, as well of the fever as of the dread-
ful reproaches of my conscience, extorted from
me some words like praying to God: though I
cannot say it was a prayer attended either
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts
were confused; the convictions great upon my
mind; and the horror of dying in such a mi-
serable condition, raised vapours in my head

with the mere apprehension: and, in these
hurries of my soul, I knew not what my
tongue might express: but it was rather excla-
mation, such as, Lord, what a miserable crea-
ture am I! If I should be sick, I shall cer-
tainly die for want of help; and what will be-
come of me ? Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father
came to my mind, and presently his predic-
tion, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I should
have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none
to assist in my recovery. Now, said I, aloud,
-my dear father's words are come to pass; God's
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to
help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Pro-
vidence, which had mercifully put mein a sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it, myself, nor
learn from my parents to know the blessing of it.
I left them to mourn over my folly; and now I
am left to mourn under the consequences of it:
I refused their help and assistance, who would
have pushed me in the world, and would have
made every thing easy to me; and now I have
difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support; and no assistance, nc
comfort, no advice. Then I cried out, Lord,
be my help, for I am in great distress. This
was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to
my Journal.



.UNE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed
with the sleep I had had, and the tit being en-
tirely off, I got up; and though the fright and
(error of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to
get something to refresh and support myself
when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case-bottle with
water; and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed: and to take offthe chill or aguish dispo-
sition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together.
Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and

broiled iton the coals, but could eat very little;
I walked about; but was very weak, and
withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense
of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I
made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs
which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell: and this was the first bit
of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, as
I could remember in my whole life. After I
had eaten, I tried to walk; hut found myself
so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun,
(for I never went out without that;) so I went
but a little way, andsat down upon the ground,


cookingg out upon the sea, which was just
before me, and very calm and smooth. As I
sat here, some such thoughts as these occur-
red to me: What is this earth and sea, of
which I have seeno much? 'Whence is it
produced ? A l am I, and all the other
creatures, w e, human and brutal?
Whence are l rely, we are all made
by some secret per, who formed the earth
and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?
Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came
on, if God has made all these things, he guides
and governs them all, and all things that con-
cern them; for the power that could make all
things, must certainly have power to guide and
direct them: if so, nothing can happen in the
great circuit of his works, either without his
knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his know-
ledge, he knows that I am here, and am in
this dreadful condition: and if nothing hap-
pens without his appointment, he has appoint-
ed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to
my thought, to contradict any of these con-
clusions: and therefore it rested upon me
with the greatest force, that it must needs be
that God had appointed all this to befall me ;
that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by his direction, he having the sole
power, not of me only, but of every thing that
happens in the world. Immediately it fol-
lowed, Why has God done this to me? What
have I done to be thus used ? My conscience
S presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I

had blasphemed: and methought it spoke to
me like a voice, Wretch! dost thou ask what
thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
mispent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast
not done ? -Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the
fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man of war; devoured by the wild beasts on
the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when
all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask what thou hast done ? I was struck dumb
with these reflections, as one astonished, and
had not a word to say; no, not to answer to
myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went over my wall, as
if I had been going to bed: but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my
distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distem-
pers ; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests, which was quite cured;
and some also that was green, and not quite
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt: for
in this chest I found a cure both for soul and
body. I opened the chest, and found what 1
looked for, viz. the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure, o(


so much as inclination, to look into. I say,
I took it out, and brought both that and thel
tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make ofthe tobacco I knew not, as to my dis-
temper, nor whether it was good for it or not;
but I tried several experiments with it, as if 1
was resolved it should hit one way or other.
I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost
sit'[iied my brain; the tobacco being green and
strong, and such as I had not been much used to.
Then I took some and steeped it an hour or
two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose
of it when I lay down: and, lastly, I burnt
some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could
bear it; as well for the heat, as almost
for suffocation. In the interval of this ope-
ration, I look up the Bible, and began to read ;
but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ;
only, having opened the hook casually, the
first words that occurred to me were these:
" Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
These words were very apt to my case; and
made some impression upon my thoughts at
the time of reading them, though not so much
as they did afterwards; for, as for being de-
livered, the word had no sound, as I may say,
to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that, as the
children of Israel said when they were pro-
mised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?" so I began to say, Can
even God himself deliver me from this place ?
And as it was not for many years that any
hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon
my thoughts: but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused
upon them very often. It now grew late; and
the tobacco had, as I said, dazed my head so
much, that I inclined to sleep: so I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want
any thing in the night, and went to bed. But
before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I cal-
led upon him in the day of trouble he would
deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I
had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong
and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could
scarce get it down: immediately upon this I
went to bed. I found presently the rum flew
up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the
nun, it must necessarily he near three o'clock

in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this
hour I am partly of opinion, that I slept all
the next day and night, and till almost three
the day after; for otherwise, I know not how
I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the
days of the week, as it appeared some years
after I had done; for if I had lost it by cross-
ing and recrossing the line, I should hav, lost
more than one day; but certainly I lost a day
in my account, and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or ite other,
when I awaked I found myself exceedingly re-
freshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful.
when I got up, I was stronger than I tas the
day before, and my stomach better, for I was
hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better.
This was the 29th.
The 30h was my well day, of course; and
I went abroad with my gun, but did not care
to travel too far. I killed a seafiwl or two,
something like a brand goose, and brought them
home ; but was not very forward to eat then;
so I ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which
were very good. This evening I renewed tile
medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rurn;
only I did not take so Wuch as before, nor
did I chew any of the Iaifold my head
over the smoke: howevsvtj; not so well
the next day, which ofJuly, as I
hoped I should have been ; Tor I had a little of
the cold fit, but it was not much.
JULY 2. I renewed the medicine all the
three ways; and dosed myself with it as at
first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
JULY 3. I missed the fit for good and all,
though I did not recover my fill strength fir
some weeks after. While I was thus gath-
ering strength, my thoughts ran o:weedingly
upon this scripture, I will deliver thee ;"
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of rty ever ex-
pecting it: but as I was discouraging myself
with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind
that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded
the deliverance I had receive; and I was,
as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these, viz. Have I not been delivered, and
wonderfully too, from sickness; from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that
was so frightful to me ? and what notice have
I taken of it? Have I done my part? God
has delivered me, but I have not glorified
him; that is to say, I have not owned and
been thankful for that as a deliverance: and
how can I expect a greater deliverance? This


touched my heart very much; and immediate-
ly I knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud
for my recovery from my sickness.
JULY 4. In the morning I took the Bible;
and beginning at the New Testament, I be-
gan seriously to read it; and imposed upon
myself to read awhile every morning and every
night; not binding myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should
engage me. It was not long after I set seri-
ously to this work, that I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wick-
ednessof my past life. The impression of my
dream revived; and the words, All these
things have not brought thee to repentance, ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly
begging of God to give me repentance, when
it happened providentially, the very same day,
that, reading the scripture, I came to these
words, He is exalted a Prince and a Sa-
viour; to give repentance, and to give remis-
sion." I threw down the book; and with my
heart as well as my hands lifted up to hea-
ven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out
aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repent-
ance This was the first time in all my life I
could say, in the true sense of the words, that
I prayed; for nbw I prayed with a sense of
my condition, and-ith a true scripture view
of hope, funded on the encouragement of the
word ofGod: and from this time, I may say,
I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words men-
tioned above, "Call on me, and I will deliver
thee," in a different sense from what I had
ever done before; for then I had no notion of
any thing being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in: for
though I was indeed at large in the place, yet
the island was certainly a prison to me, and
that in the worst sense in the world. But
now I learned to take it in another sense: now
I looked back upon my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that
my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance
from the load of guilt that bore down all my
comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from
it, or think of it; it was all of no consideration,
in comparison with this. And I add this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that
whenever they come to a true-sense of things,
they will find deliverance from sin a much
greater blessing thandeliverance from affliction.
My condition began now to be, though not
less miserable as to my way of living, yet
much easier to my mind: and my thoughts

being directed, by constantly reading the scrip.
ture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within,
which, till now, 1 knew nothing of; also, as
my health and strength returned, I bestirred
me to furnish myself with every thing that I
wanted, and make my way of living as regular
as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was
chiiely employed in walking about with my
gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time,
as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weak-
ness I was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps
what had never cured an ague before; neither
can I recommend it to any one to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening
me; for I had frequent convulsions in my
nerves and limbs for some time: I learned from
it also this, in particular; that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing
to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came
in the dry season was almost always accom-
panied with such storms, so I found that this
rain was much more dangerous than the rain
which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above
ten months: all possibility of deliverance from
this condition seemed to be entirely taken from
me; and I firmly believed that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having
secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to
my mind, 1 had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet
knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to
take a more particular survey of the island
itself. I went up the crej first, wre, as I
hinted, I brought my rat on shore. I found,
after I came about tw e up, 't the tide
did not flow any higher id tt was no
more than a little brook rbhnming r, very
fresh and good: but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of
it; at least, not any stream. On the banks of
this brook I found many pleasant savannahs or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass: and on the rising parts of them, next to
the higher grounds, (where the water, as it
might be supposed, never overflowed,) I found
a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a very great and strong stalk: and there were


divers other plants, which I had no knowledge
of, or understanding about, and that might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I
could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate,
make their bread of; but I could find none.
I saw large plants of aloes, but did not under-
stand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but
wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect.
I contented myself with these discoveries for
this time; and came back, musing with myself
what course I might take to know the virtue
and goodness of any of the fruits or plants
which I should discover; but could bring it to
no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so
little observation while I was in the Brazils,
that I knew little of the plants in the field; at
least, very little that might serve me to any
purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same
way again; and after going something farther
than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook and the savannahs begin to cease, and
the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits; and parti-
cularly I found melons upon the ground, in
great abundance, and grapes upon the trees:
the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees,
and the clusters of grapes were now just in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a
surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them, but I was warned by my expe-
rience to eat sparingly of them; remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating
of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who
were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. I found, however, an excel-
lent use for these grapes; and that was, to cure
or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought
would be (as indeed they were) as wholesome
and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes were
to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not
back to 1ny habitation; which, by the way,
was the first night, s I might say, I had lain
from home. At night, I took my first contri-
vance, nd got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded on my
discovery, travelling near four miles, as I might
judge by the length of the valley; keeping still
due north, with a ridge of hills on the south
and north sides of me. At the end of this
march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the
side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that
is, due east; and the country appeared so

fresh, so green, so flourishing, every thing
being in a constant verdure, or flourish offspring,
that it looked like a planted garden. I de-
scended a little on the side of that delicious
vale, surveying it with a secret kind of plea-
sure, (though mixed with other afflicting
thoughts,) to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country in-
defeasibly, and had a right of possession; and,
if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, and orange, lemon, and citron trees; but
all wild, and very few bearing any fruit; at
least not then. However, the green limes that
I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water, which made it very whole-
some, and very cool and refreshing. I found
now I had business enough, to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish
myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching. In order to this, I gathered a
great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap
in another place; and a great parcel of limes
and lemons in another place; and, taking a few
of each with me, I travelled homeward; and
resolved to come again, and bring a bag or
sack, or what I could make to carry the rest
home. Accordingly, having spent three days in
this journey,I came home, (so I must now call
my tent and my cave:) but before I got thither,
the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the
fruits, and the weight of the juice, having
broken and bruised them, they were good for
little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring only a few.
The next day being the 19th, I went back,
having made me two small bags to bring home
my harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming
to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about,
some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded therewere
some wild creatures thereabouts which had
done this, but what they were I knew not. How-
ever, as I found there was no laying them up in
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack; but
that one way they would be destroyed, and the
other way they would be crushed with their own
weight; I took another course: I then gathered
a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out-branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the
limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I
could well stand under.


When I came home from this journey, I con-
templated with great pleasure the fruitfulness
of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situ-
ation; the security from storms on that side; the
water and the wood: and concluded that I had
pitched upon a place to fix my abode in, which
was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and to look out for a place equally
safe as where I was now situate; if possible,
in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran along in my head; and I
was exceeding food of it for some time, the
pleasantness of the place tempting me: but
when I came to a nearer view of it, I consi-
dered that I was now by the seaside, where it
was at least possible that something might
happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill
fate that brought me hither, might bring some
other unhappy wretches to the same place;
and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose
myself among the hills and woods in the centre
of the island, was to anticipate my bondage,
and to render such an affair not only impro-
bable, but impossible; and that therefore I
ought not by any means to remove. However,
I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remain-
ing part of the moth ofJuly; and though, upon
second thoughts, I resolved, as above stated,
not to remove, yet I built mea little kind of a
bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a
strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as
I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood. Here I lay very secure,
sometimes two or three nights together; always
going over it with a ladder, as before: so that
I fancied now I had my country and my sea-
coast house. This work took me up till the
beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and be-
gan to enjoy my labour, when the rains came
on, and made me stick close to my first habi-
tation: for though I had made a tent like the
other, with a piece of sail, and spread it very
well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep
me from storms, nor a cave behind me to
retreat into when the rains were extraordi-
About the beginning of August, as I said, I
had finished my bower, and began to enjoy
myself. The Sd of August, I found the grapes
I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed
were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I
began to take them down from the trees; and
it was very happy that I did so, as the rains
which flowed would have spoiled them, and

I should have lost the best part of my winter
food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner bad I taken them
all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain: and from henae,
which was the 14th ofAugust, it rained, e
or less, every day till the middle of October
and sometimes so violently, that I could not
stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with
the increase of my family. I had been con-
cerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran
away from me, or, as I thought, had been
dead; and I heard no more of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home with three kit-
tens. This was the more strange to me, be-
cause, about the end of August, though I had
killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun,
yet I thought it was quite different kind from
our European cats: yet the young cats were
the same kind of house-breed as the old one;
and both of my cats being females, I thought
it verystrange. But from these three, I after-
wards came to be so pestered with cats, that I
was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild
beasts, and to drive them from my house a
much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, inces-
sant rain; so that I could not stir, and was
now very careful not to be much wet. In this
confinement, I began to be straitened for food;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat, and the last day, which was the 26th,
found a very large tortoise, which was a treat
to me. My food was now regulated thus: I
ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a
pieceof the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, broiled,
for my dinner, (for, to my great misfortune, I
had no vessel to boil or stew any thing;) and
two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the
rain, I worked daily two or three hours at en-
larging my cave: and by degrees worked it on
towards one side, till I came to the outside of
the hill; and made a door, or way out, whica
came beyond my fence or wall: and I came
in and out this way. Blt I was n perfectly
easy at lying so open: for as I had managed
myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure;
whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I
had yet seen upon the island beings got.
SzPTXMBa 30. I was now come to the
unhappy anniversary of my landing, I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I
kept this day as a solemn fast; setting it apart


for religious exercise, prostrating myself on
the ground with the most serious humiliation,
confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his
righteous judgments upon me, and praying
to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refresh-
ment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun. I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as
I began it. I had all this time observed no
sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omir ted to distinguish the weeks, by making a
loner notch than ordinary for the sabbath-
day. and so did not really know what any of
the days were: but now having cast up the
days. as above, I found I had been there a
year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a sabbath: though I
found, at the end of my account, I had lost a
day or two in my reckoning. A little after
this, my ink beginning to fail me, I contented
myself to use it more sparingly; and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my
life, without continuing a daily memorandum
of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began
now to appear regular to me, and I learned to
divide them so as to provide for them accord-
ingly; but I bought all my experience before I
had it; and what I am going to relate was
one of the most discouraging experiments that
I had made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few
ears of barley, and rice, which I had so sur-
prisingly found sprung up, as I thought, of
themselves. I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I thought it a proper time to sow it after
the rains; the sun being in its southern posi-
tion, going from me. Accordingly I dug a
piece of ground, as well as I could, with my
wooden spade; and dividing it into two parts,
I sowed my grain; but, as I was sowing, it
casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know
when was the proper time for it; so I sowed
about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each: and it was a great comfort to
me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain
of what I sowed this time came to any thing;
for the dry month following, and the earth
having thus had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth,

and never came up at all till the wet season
had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed
did not grow, which I easily imagined was
from the drought, I sought for a moister piece
of ground to make another trial in; and I dug
up a piece of ground near my new bower, and
sowed the rest of my seed in February, a lit-
tle before the vernal equinox. This having
the rainy month of March and April to water
it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a
very good crop; but having only part of the
seed left, and not daring to sow all that I had,
I got but a small quantity at last, my whole
crop not amounting to above half peck ofeach
kind. But by this experiment 1 was made
master of my business, and knew exactly when
was the proper time to sow; and that I might
expect two seedtimes, and two harvests, every
While this corn was growing, I made a lit-
tle discovery, which was of use to me after-
wards. As soon as the rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about
the month of November, 1 made a visit up the
country to my bower; where, though I had not
been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge
that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes which I had cut out of some
trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out
and grown with long branches, as much as a
willow-tree usually shoots the first year after
lopping its head; but I could not tell what tree
to call it that these stakes were cut from. I
was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to
see the young trees grow; and I pruned them,
and led them to grow as much alike as I could
and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure
they grew into in three years: so that, though
the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five
yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I
might now call them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under
all the dry season. This made me resolve to
cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge
like this, in a semicircle round my wall, (I
mean that of my first dwelling,) which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double
row, at about eight yards distance from my
first fence, they grew presently ; and were at
first a fine cover to my habitation, and after-
wards served for a defence also; as I shall
observe in its order.




I FOUND now that the seasons of the year
might generally be divided, not into summer
and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy
seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus: From the middle of February
to the middle of April, rainy; the sun being
then onor near the equinox. From the middle
of April till the middle of August, dry; the
sun being then north of the line. From the
middle of August till the middle of October,
rainy; the sun being then come back to the
line. From the middle of October till the mid-
dle of February, dry; the sun being then to
the south of the line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer
and sometimes shorter, as the winds happened
to blow; but this was the general observation
I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the
rain, I took care to furnish myself withprovi,
sions beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out: and I sat within doors ap much as
possible during the wetmonths. This time I
found much employmentand very suitable also
to the time; for I found great occasion for
many things which I had no way to furnish
myself with but by hard labour and constant
application; particularly, I tried many ways
tomake myself a basket: but all the twigs I

could get for the purpose proved so brittle, that
they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that when I was a boy,
I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker's in the town where my father
lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and
being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner how
they worked tose things, and sometimes lend-
ing a hand, I had by these means full know-
ledge of the methods of it, so that I wanted
nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence
I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be
as.tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers, in
England; and I resolved to try. Accordingly,
the next day, I went to my country-house, as I
called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs,
I found them to my purpose as much as I could
desire: whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great
plenty,ofthem. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge; and when they were fit
for use, I carried them to my cave: and here,
during the next season, I employed myself in
making, as well as I could, several baskets
both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any
thing as I had occasion for. Though I did

- .fo


not finish tbem very handsomely, yet I made
them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose:
and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware de-
cayed, I made more; especially strong deep
baskets, to place my corn in, instead of sacks,
when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and em-
played a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
other wants. I had no vessel to hold any
thing that was liquid, except two runlets,
which were almost full of rum and some
glass bottles, some of the common size, and
others (which were case-bottles) square, for
the holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not
so much as a pot to boil any thing; except a
great kettle, which I saved out oftheship, and
which was too big for such use as I desired it,
viz. to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by
itself. The second thing I would fain have
had, was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossi-
ble for me to make one; however, I found a
contrivance for that too at last. I employed
myself in planting my second row of stakes or
piles, and also in this wicker-working, all the
summer or dry season; when another business
took me up more time than it could be ima-
gined I could spare.
I mentioned before, that I had a great mind
to see the whole island; and that I had travel-
led up the brook, and so on to where I had
built my bower, and where I had an opening
quite to the sea, on the other side of the island.
I now resolved to travel quite across to the
seashore, on that side: so taking my gun, a
hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of
powder and shot than usual; with two biscuit-
cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my
pouch, for my store; I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower
stood, as above, I came within view of the sea,
to the west; and it being a very clear day, I
fairly described land, whether an island or con-
tinent I could not tell; but it lay very high,
extending from W. to W. S. W. at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be
less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this
might be ; otherwise than that I knew it must
be part of America; and, as Iconcluded, by
all my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions; and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had
been in a worse condition than I was now. I
therefore acquiesced in the dispositions of
Providence, which I began now to own and to
believe ordered every thing for the best; I say,

I quieted my mind with this, and left off
afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being
there. Besides, after some pause upon this
affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way
or other; but if not, then it was the savage
coast between the Spanish country and the
Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst
of savages; for they are cannibals or men-
eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all
human beings that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, walking very
leisurely forward, I found this side of the is-
land, where I now was, much pleasanter than
mine; the open or savannah fields sweetly
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of
very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots;
and fain would have caught one, if possible, to
have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak
to me. I did, after taking some pains, catch
a young parrot; for I knocked it down with a
stick, and, having recovered it, I brought it
home: but it was some years before I could
make him speak; however, at last I taught
him to call me by my name very familiarly.
But the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly amused with this journey
I found in the low grounds hares, as I thought
them to be, and foxes: but they differed greatly
from all the other kinds I had met with
nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several. But I had no need to be
venturous: for I had no want of food, and of
that which was very good too; especially
these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and tur-
tle, or tortoise. With these, added to my
grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have
furnished a table better than I, in proportion
to the company; and though my case was de-
plorable enough, yet I had great cause for
thankfulness; as I was not driven to any ex-
tremities for food, but had rather plenty, even
to dainties.
I never travelled on this journey above two
miles outright in a day, or thereabout; but I
took so many turns and returns, to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary
enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down for the night; and then I either reposed
myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a
row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either
from one tree to another, or so as no wild
creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the seashore, I was
surprised to see that I had taken up my lot an
the worst side of the island: for herm inded


dte shore ws covered with innumerable turtles;
whereas, on the other side, I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also
an infinite number of fowls of many kinds;
some of which I had seen, and some of which
I had not seen before, and many of them very
good meat; but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but
was very sparing of my powder and shot; and
therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I
could, which I could better feed on. But
though there were many goats here, more
than on my side the island, yet it was with
much more difficulty that I could come near
them; the country being flat and even, and
they saw me much sooner than when I was
upon a hill.
I confess this side of the country was much
pleasanter than mine; yet I had not the least
inclination to remove; for as I was fixed in my
habitation, it became natural to jme, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. How-
ever, I travelled along the seashore towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and
then setting up a great pole upon the shore for

a mark, I concluded I would gobime again;
and that the next journey I took iould be on
the other side of the island, east from my
dwelling, and so round till I came to my port
again: of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that
I went, thinking I could easily keep so much
of the island in my view, that I could not miss
my first dwelling by viewing the country: but
I found myself mistaken; for being come about
two or three miles, I found myself descended
into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and these hills covered with wood, that
I could not see which was my way by any di-
rection but that of the sun, nor even then,
unless I knew very well the position of the sun
at that time of the day. And it happened to
my farther misfortune, that the weather proved
hasy.for three or four days while I was in this
valley; and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortable, and at
last was obliged to find out the seaside, look
for my post, and come back the same way I
went; and then by easy journeys I turned
homeward, the weather being exceeding hot.
and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other
things very heavy.



In this journey, my dog surprised a young
rid, and seized upon it; and running to take
hold of it, I caught it, and saved it alive from
the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home
if I could; for I had often been musing whe-
ther it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot
should be all spent. I made a collar for this
little creature, and with a string which I had
made of some rope-yar, which I always car-
ried about me, I led him along, though with
some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and
there I enclosed him and left him; for I was
very impatient to be at home, from whence I
had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was
to me to come into my old hutch, and lie down
in my hammock bed. This little wandering
journey, without a settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house,
as I called it to myself, was a perfect settle-

ment to me, compared to that; and it remnde
ed every thing about me so comfortable, that I
resolved I would never go a great way from it
again, while it should be my lot to stay on the
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and
regale myself after my long journey: during
which, most of the time was taken up in the
weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll,
who began now to be more domestic, and tc
be mighty well acquainted with me. Then I
began to think of the poor hid which I had
penned within my little circle, and resolved to
fetch it home, or give it some fod : accordingly
I went, and found it where Ileft it, (for indeed
it could not get out,) bat was almost starved
for want of food. I went and cut boughs ot
trees, and branches of such shrubs as I coul
find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I
tied it as I did before, to lead it away; butit
was so tame with being hungry, that I had no
need to have tied it, for it followed me like a


log: and as I continually fed it, the creature
Became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that
it was from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
was now come, and I kept the 90th of Septem-
ber in the same solemn manner as before,
being the anniversary of my landing on the
island; having now been there two years, and
no more prospect of being delivered than the
first day I came there. I spent the whole day
in humble and thankful acknowledgments for
the many wonderful mercies which my solitary
condition was attended with, and without
which it might have been infinitely more mi-
serable. I gave humble and hearty thanks to
God for having been pleased to discover to
me, that it was possible I might be more happy
even in this solitary condition, than I should
have been in the enjoyment of society, and in
all the pleasures of the world: that le could
fully make up to me the deficiencies of my
solitary state, and the want of human society,
by his presence, and the communications of
his grace to my soul; supporting, comforting,
and encouraging me to depend upon his provi-
dence here, and to hope for his eternal presence
It was now that I began sensibly to feel
how much more happy the life I now led was,
with all its miserable circumstances, than the
wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of mydays: and now I changed both
.m sorrows and my joys: my very desires
watered, my affections changed their gusts, and

my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming, or indeed for the two
years past. Before, as I walked about, either
on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would
break out upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the
woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in;
and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an un-
inhabited wilderness, without redemption. In
the midst of the greatest composures of my
mind, this would break out upon me like a
storm, and make me wring my hands, and
weep like a child; sometimes it would take me
in the middle of my work, and I would imme-
diately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together: this was
still worse to me; but if I could burst into
tears, or give vent to my feelings by words, it
would go off; and my grief being exhausted,
would abate.
But now Ibegan to exercise myselfwith new
thoughts; I daily read the word of God, and
applied all the comforts of it to my present
state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words," I will never leave
thee, nor forsake thee immediately it oc-
curred that these words were to me; why else
should they be directed in such a manner, just
at the moment when I was mowuoing over my
condition, as one forsaken of God and man?
Well then, said I, ifGod does not forsake me,
of what ill consequence can it be, or what
matters it, though the world should forsak me;


seeing, on the other hand, if I bad all the
world, and should lose the favour and blessing
of God, there would be no comparison in the
From this moment I began to conclude in
my mind, that it was possible for me to be
more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition,
than it was probable I should ever have been
in any other particular state in the world ; and
with this thought I was going to give thanks
to God for bringing me to this place. I know
not what it was, but something shocked my
mind at that thought, and I durst not speak
the words. How canst thou be such a hypo-
crite, said I, even audibly, to pretend to be
thankful for a condition, which, however thou
mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou
wouldest rather pray heartily to be delivered
from? Here I stopped: but though I could not
say I thanked God for being here, yet I sin-
cerely gave thanks toGod for openingmy eyes,
by whatever afflicting providence, to see the
former condition of my life, and to mourn for
my wickedness, and repent. I never opened
the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within
me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack
it up among my goods; and for assisting me
afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I be-
gan my third year; and though I have not
given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first, yet
in general it may be observed, that I was very
seldom idle; but having regularly divided my
time, according to the several daily employ-
ments that were before me; such as, first, My
duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for,
thrice everyday: secondly, Going abroad with
my gun for food, which generally took me up
three hours every morning, when it did not
rain: thirdly, Ordering, curing, preserving,
and cooking what I had killed or catched for
my supply; these took up great part of the
day; also it is to be considered, that in the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great
to stir out; so that about four hours in the
evening was all the time I could be supposed
to work in; with this exception, that some-
times I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning,
and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I
desire may be added the exceeding laborious-
ness of my work; the many hours which, for

want of tools, want of help, and want of skill,
every thing I did took up out of my time: for
example, I was full two and forty d(ys making
me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in
my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their
tools and a sawpit, would have cut six of them
out of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this; it was a large tree which
was to be cut down, because my board was
to be a broad one. This tree I was three
days cutting down, and two more in cutting eof
the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece
of timber. With inexpressible hacking and
hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into
chips, till it was light enough to move; them
I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and
flat as a board, from end to end; then turning
that side downward, cut the other side, till 1
brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one
may judge the labour of my hands in such a
piece of work; but labour and patience car-
ried me through that, and many other things:
I only observe this in particular, to show the
reason why so much of my time went away
with so little work, viz. that what might be a
little to be done with help and tools, was a vast
labour, and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand. Notwithstanding this,
with patience and labour I went through many
things; and, indeed, every thing that my cir-
cumstances made necessary for me to do, as
will appear by what follows.
I was now in the months of November and
December, expecting my crop of barley and
rice. The ground I had manured-or dug up
for them was not great; for, as I observed, my
seed ofeach was not above the quantity of half
a peck, having lost one whole crop by sowing
in the dry season: but now my crop promised
very well; when, on a sudden, I found I was
in danger of losing it all again by enemies of
several sorts, which it was scarce possible to
keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and
day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close,
that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
I saw no remedy for this, but by making an
enclosure about it with a hedge, which I did
with great deal of toil; and the more, because
it required speed. However, as my arable
land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it
tolerably well fenced in about three weeks'
time; and shooting some of the creatures in
the daytime, I set mydog to guard it in the
night, tying him up to a stake at the gate,
where e would stand and bark all nihtlnl;


so in a little time the enemies forsook the place,
and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while
my corn was in the blade, so the birds were as
likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear:
for going along by the place to see how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with
fowls, I know not of how many sorts, who
stood, as it were, watching till I should be
gone. I immediately let fly among them, (for
I always had my gun with me;) I had no
sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among
the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw
that in a few days they would devour all my
hopes; that I.should be starved, and never be
able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I
could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose
my corn, if possible, though I should watch it
night and day. In the first place, I went
among it, to see what damage was already
done, and found they had spoiled a good deal
of it; but that as it was yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great, but that the remain-
der was likely to be a good crop, if it could be
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then com-
ing away, I could easily see the thieves sitting
upon all the trees about me, as if they only
waited till I was gone away; and the event
proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if
gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than
they dropped down, one by one, into the corn
again. I was so provoked, that I could not
have patience to stay till more came on, know-
ing that every grain they eat now was, as it
might be said, a peck loaf to me in the conse-
quence; so coming up to the hedge, I fired
again, and killed three of them. This was
what I wished for; so I took them up, and
served them as we serve notorious thieves in
England, viz. hanged them in chains, for a ter-
ror to others. It is impossible to imagine that
this should have such an effect as it had; for
the fowls not only never came to the corn, but,
in short, they forsook all that part of the island,
and I could never see a bird near the place as
kng as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure; and about the
latter end of December, which was our second
harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to
cut it down: and all I could do was to make
one as well as I could, out of one of the broad-
swords, or cutlases, which I saved among the
arms out of the ship. However, as my first

crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to
cut it down: in short, I reaped it my way, for
I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it
away in a great basket which I had made, and
so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end
of all my harvesting, I found that out of my
half peck of seed I had near two bushels of
rice, and above two bushels and a half of bar-
ley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
However, this was great encouragement to
me; and I foresaw that, in time, it would
please God to supply me with bread; and yet
here I was perplexed again; for I neither knew
how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or
indeed how to clean it and part it; nor if made
into meal, how to make bread of it; and if
how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake
it: these things being added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure
a constant supply, 1 resolved not to taste any
of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the mean
time, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of pro-
viding myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for
my bread. It is a little wonderful, and what
I believe few people have thought much upon,
viz. the strange multitude of little things ne-
cessary in the providing, producing, curing,
dressing, making, and finishing this one article
of bread. I, that was reduced to a mere state
of nature, found this to my daily discourage-
ment, and was made more sensible of it every
hour, even after I had got the first handful of
seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up un-
expectedly, and indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth;
no spade or shovel to dig it: well, this I con-
quered, by making a wooden spade, as I ob-
served before; but this did my work in but a
wooden manner; and though itcost me a great
many days to make it, yet, for want of iron, it
not only wore out the sooner, but made my
work the harder, and performed it much worse.
However, this I bore with, and was content to
work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When the corn
was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to
go over it myself, and drag great heavy bough
of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be
called, rather than rake or harrow it. When
it was growing and grown, I have observed
already how many things I wanted to fence it,
secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thresh, part it from the chaff, and save
it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to


dressit, yeast andalt to make it into bread,
and an oven to bakeit; andyet all these things
I did without, as shall be observed; and the
corn was an inestimable comfort and advan-
tage to me: all this, as I said, made every
thing laborious and tedious to me, but that
there was no help for; neither was my time so
much loss to me, because, as I had divided it,

a certain part of it was every day appointed to
these works; and as I resolved to use none of
the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity
by me, I had the next six months to apply my-
self wholly,by labour and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing
all the operations necessary for making corn fit
for my use.



Bur now I was to prepare more land; for
I had seed enough to sow above an acre of
ground. Before I did this, I had a week's
work at least to make me a spade; which,
when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed,
and very heavy, and required double labour to
work with it: however, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of
ground, as near my house as I could find them
to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
edge; the stakes of which were all cut off
that wood which I had set before, and knew it
would grow; so that, in one year's time, I
knew I should have a quick or living hedge,
that would want but little repair. This work
took me up full three months; because a great
part of the time was in the wet season, when
I could not go abroad. Within doors, that is,
when it rained, and I could not go out, I found
employment on the following occasions; always
observing, that while I was at work, I diverted
myself with talking to my parrot, and teach-
ing him to speak; and I quickly learned him
to know his own name, and at last to speak it
out pretty loud, Poll; which was the first word
I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth
but my own. This, therefore, was not my
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as
I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some
means or other, to make myself some earthen
vessels, which indeed I wanted much, but
knew not where to come at them: however,
considering the heat of the climate, I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might
botch up some sch pot as might, being dried
in the sm, be hard and strong enough to bear
handling, and to hold any thing that was dry,
and required to be kept so; and as th was
necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &e.
which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to

make some as large as I could, and fit only tr*
stand like jars, to hold what should be put intd
It would make thg reader pity me, or rather
laugh at me, to tell how many awkward ways
I took to raise this pastil; what odd, misshapen,
ugly things I made; how many of them fell in,
and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff
enough to bear its own weight; how many
cracked by the over violent heat of the sun,
being set out too hastily; and how many fell in
pieces with only removing, as well before as
after they were dried: and, in a word, how,
after having laboured hard to find the clay, to
dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work
it, I could not make above two large earthen
ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about
two months' labour.
However, as the sm baked these two very
dry and hard, I lifted them very gently up, and
set them down again in two great wicker bas-
kets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and as between the
pot and the basket there was a little room to
spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw; and these two pots being to stand always
dry, I thought would hold my dry eam, and
perhaps the meal, when the arn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design
for large pots, yet I made several mailer thing
with better success; such as little round pots,
flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkina, and any
thing my band turned to; and the heat of the
sun baked them very hard.
But all this wod not answer my end,which
was to get an earthen pot to hold lqids, and
bear the fire, which ma dfthese emU d It
happened some time after, is a palty
large fre for cooking y mas, a m I I st
to put it out after I had done with it, I ,au
a beoke piece of one of my earthenware ve-


sels in the fire. burnt as hard as a stone, and
red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to
see it; and said to myself, that certainly they
might be made to bum whole, if they would
burn broken.
This set me to study bow to order my fire,
so as to make it bum some pots. I had no
notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or
of glazing them with lead, though I had some
lead to do it with; but I placed three large
pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one
upon another, and placed my firewood all round
it, with a great heap of embers under them.
I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the out-
side, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in
the inside redhot quite through, and observed
that they did not crack at all: when I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat
about five or six hours, till I found one of them,
though it did not crack, did melt or run; for
the sand which was mixed with the clay
melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass, if 1 had gone on; so I
slacked my fire gradually, till the pots began to
abate of the red colour; and watching them all
night, that I might not let the fire abate too
fast, in the morning I had three very good, I
will not say handsome, pipkins, and two other
earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired;
and one of them perfectly glazed with the run-
ning of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I
wanted no sort of earthenware for my use;
but 1 must needs say, as to the shapes of them,
they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, as I had no way of making them but
as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman
would make pies that never learned to raise
paste. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature
was ever equal to mine, when I found I had
made an earthen pot that would bear the fire;
and I had hardly patience to stay till they were
cold, before I set one on the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which
it did admirably well; and with a piece of a
kid I made some very good broth; though I
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredi-
ents requisite to make it so good as I would
have had it been.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar
to stamp or beat some corn in; for as to the
mill, there was no thought of arriving to that
perfection of art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss; for, of
all trades in the world, I was as perfectly un-
qualified for a stonecutter as for any what-
ever; neither had I any tools to go about it
with. I spent many a day to find out a great

stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit
for a mortar; but could find none at all, except
what was in the solid rock, and which I had no
way to dig or cut out: nor, indeed, were the
rocks in the island of sufficient hardness, as
they were all of a sandy crumbling stone,
which would neither bear the weight of a
heavy pestle, nor would break the corn with-
out filling it with sand: so, after a great deal
of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it
over, and resolved to look out a great block of
hard wood, which I found indeed much easier;
and getting one as big as I had strength to stir,
I rounded it, and formed it on the outside with
my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help
of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place
in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their
canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called iron-wood;
and this I prepared and laid by against I had
my next crop of corn, when I proposed to my-
self to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or
search, to dress my meal, and to part it from
the bran and the husk, without which I did not
see it possible I could have any bread. This
was a most difficult thing, even but to think on;
for I had nothing like the necessary thing to
make it; I mean fine thin canvass or stuff, to
search the meal through. Here I was at a
full stop for many months; nor did I really
know what to do; linen I had none left, but
what was mere rags; I had goats'-hair, but
neither knew how to weave it nor spin it; and
had I known how, here were no tools to work it
with: all the remedy I found for this was, at
last recollecting I had, among the seamen's
clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin, with some pieces
of these I made three small sieves, proper
enough for the work; and thus I made shift for
some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show
in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be
considered, and how I should make bread
when I came to have corn: for, first, I had no'
yeast: as to that part, there was no supplying
the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it; but for an oven I was indeed puzzled.
At length I found out an expedient for that
also, which was this; I made some earthen
vessels, very broad, but not deep, that is to
say, about two feet diameter, and not above
nine inches deep: these I burned in the fire,
as I had done the other, and laid them by;
and when I wanted to bake, I made a great
fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with


some square tiles, of my own making and burn.
ing also; but I should not call them square.
When the firewood was burned into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon the hearth,
so as to cover it all over, and there let them
lie till the hearth was very hot; then sweep-
ing away all the embers, I set down my loaf,
or loaves, and covering them with the earthen
pot, drew the embers all round the outside of
the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world,
I baked my barley loaves, and became, in a
little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain ;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings
of the rice; but made no pies, as I had no-
thing to put into them except the flesh of fowls
or goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these
things took me up most part of the third year
of my abode here; for, it is to be observed,
in the intervals of these things, I had my new
harvest and husbandry to manage: I reaped

my corn in its season, and carried it home as
well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in
my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out;
for I had no floor to thresh it on, or instrument
to thresh it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increas-
ing, I really wanted to build my barns bigger:
I wanted a place to lay it up in; for the in-
crease of the corn now yielded me so much,
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels,
and of rice as much, or more, insomuch that
now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for
my bread had been quite gone a great while:
I resolved also to see what quantity would be
sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but
once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels
of barley and rice were much more than I
could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow
just the same quantity every year that I sowed
the last, in hopes that such a quantity would
fully provide me with bread, &c.



ALL the while these things were doing, you
may be sure my thoughts ran many times
upon the prospect of land which I had seen
from the other side of the island; and I was
not without some secret wishes that I was on
shore there; fancying, that seeing the main
land, and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther.
and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance for
the dangers of such a condition, and that I
might fall into the bands ofsavages, and per-
haps such as I might have reason to think far
worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; that
if I once came in their power, I should run a
hazard of more than a thousand to one of being
killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had
heard that the people of the Caribbean coast
were cannibals, or maneates; and I knew,
by the latitude, that I could not be far off from
that shore. Then supposing they were not
cannibals, yet that they might kill me, as they
had many Europeans who had fallen into their
hands, even when they have been tenor twenty
together; much more I, who was but one, and
could make littleornodefence; all these things,

I say, which I ought to have considered wel
of, and did cast up in my thoughts afterwards,
took up none of my apprehensions at first; yet
my head ran mightily upon the thought of get-
ting over to the shore.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the
longboat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with
which I sailed above a thousand miles on the
coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then
I thought I would go and look at our ship's
boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way, in the storm,
when we were first cast away. She lay nearly
where she did at first, but not quite: hav-
ing turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high
ridge of beachy rough sand; but no water
about her, as before. If I had had hands to
have refitted her, and to have launched her
into the water, the boat would have done very
well, and I might have gone back into the
Brazils with her easily enough; but I might
have foreseen, that I could no more turn her
and set her upright upon her bottom, than I
could remove the island; however, I went to
the woods, and cut levers and rolled, nd


brought them to the boat, resolving to try what
Could do: suggesting to myself, that if I could
but turn her down, and repair the damages she
had received, she would be a very good boat,
and I might venture to sea in her.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of
fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or four
weeks about it: at last, finding it impossible
to heave her up with my little strength, I fell
to digging away the sand, to undermine her,
and so as to make her fall down, setting pieces
of wood to thrust and guide her right in the
fall. But when I had done this, I was unable
to stir her up again, or to get under her, much
less to move her forward towards the water;
so I was forced to give it over: and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my
desire to venture over the main increased,
rather than diminished, as the means for it
seemed impossible.
At length, I began to think whether it was
not possible to make myself a canoe, or peria-
gua, such as the natives of those climates make,
even without tools, or, as I might say, with-
out hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This
I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased
myself extremely with the idea of imaling it,
and with my having much more convenience
for it than any of the Negroes or Indians; but
not at all considering the particular incon-
veniences which I lay under more than the In-
dians did, viz. the want of hands to move it into
the water when it was made, a difficulty much
narder for me to surmount than all the conse-
quences of want of tools could be to them: for
what could it avail me, if. after I had chosen
my tree, and with much trouble cut it down,
and might he able with my tools to hew and
dub the outside into the proper shape ofa boat,
and burn or cut out the inside to make it hol-
low, so as to make a boat of it; if, after all
this, I must leave it just where I found it, and
was not able to launch it iruo the water?
One would imagine, if I had had the least re-
flection upon my mind of my circumstances
while I was making this boat, I should have im-
mediately thought how I was to get it into the
sea: but my thoughts were so intent upon my
voyage in it, that I never once considered how
I should get it off the land ; and it was really,
in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it
over forty-five miles of sea, than the forty-five
ftthoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat
in the water.
I went to work upon this boat the most like
a fool that ever man did, who had any of his
senses awake. I pleased myself with the de-
sign, without determining whether I was able

to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of
launching my boat came often into my head;
but I put a stop to my own inquiries into it,
by this foolish answer: Let us first make it; I
warrant I will find some way or other to get
it along when it is done.
This was a most preposterous method; but
the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to
work I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I
question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the building of the Temple at
Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches diameter
at the lower part next the stump, and four feet
eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two
feet, where it lessened, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour
that I felled this tree; I was twenty days hack-
ing and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen
more getting the branches and limbs, and the
vast spreading head of it, cut off: after this, it
cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom
ofa boat, that it might swim upright as it ought
to do. It cost me near three months more to
clear the inside, and work it out so as to make
an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, with-
out fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the
dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be
a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six-and-twenty men, and conse-
quently big enough to have carried me and all
my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was
extremely delighted with it. The boat was
really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or
a periagua, that was made of one tree, in my
life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you
may be sure; and there remained nothing but
to get it into the water ; vich, had I accom-
plished, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most un-
likely to be performed, that ever was undertaken. -
But all my devices to get it into the water
failed me; though they cost me inexpressible
labour too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more; but the first in-
convenience was, it was up hill towards the
creek. Well, to take away this discourage-
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the
earth, and so make a declivity: this I began,
and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains
(but who grudge pains that have their deli-
verance in view?) when this was worked
through, and this difficulty managed, it was
still much the same, for I could no more stir
the canoe than I could the other boat. Then
I measured the distance of ground, and resol-
ved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water


up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the
canoe down to the water. Well, I began this
work; and when I began to enter upon it,
and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how
broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found by the number of hands I had, having
none but my own, that it must have been ten
or twelve years before I could have gone
through with it; for the shore lay so high, that
at the upper end it must have been at least
twenty feet deep; this attempt, though with
great reluctancy, I was at length obliged to
give over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw,
though too late, the folly of beginning a work
before we count the cost, and before we judge
rightly of our own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work, 1 finished my
fourth year in this place, and kept my anniver-
sary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as before; for, by a constant study and
serious application to the word of God, and by
the assistance of his grace, I gained a different
knowledge from what I had before; I enter-
tained different notions of things; I looked
now upon the world as a thing remote, which
I had nothing to do with, no expectation from,
and, indeed, no desires about: in a word, I
had nothing to do with it, nor was ever likely
to have; I thought it looked, as we may per-
haps look upon it hereafter, viz. as a place I
had lived in, but was come out of it; and well
might I say, as father Abraham to Dives," Be-
tween me and thee is a great gulf fixed."
In the first place, I was here removed from
all the wickedness of the world ; I had neither
the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the
pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had
all that I was now capable of enjoying: I was
lord of the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I
might call myself king or emperor over the
whole country which I had possession of;
there were no rivals; I had no competitor,
none to dispute sovereignty or command with
me: I might have raised ship-loadings of corn,
but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow
as I thought enough for my occasion. I had
tortoise or turtle enough, but now and then one
was as much as I could put to any use: I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships;
and I had grapes enough to have made wine,
or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded
that fleet when it had been built.
But all I could make use of was all that was
valuable; I had enough to eat and supply my
wants, and what was the rest to me ? If I
killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must
eat it, or vermin; if I sowed more corn than



I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that
I cut down were lying to rot on the ground; I
could make no more use of them than for fuel,
and that I had no other occasion for but to
dress my food.
In a word, the nature and experience of
things dictated to me, upon just reflection, that
all the good things of this world are of no far-
ther good to us than for our use; and that
whatever we may heap up to give others, we
enjoy only as much as we can use, and no
more. The most covetous griping miser in
the world would have been cured of the vice
of covetousness, if he had been in my case;
for I possessed infinitely more than I knew
what to do with. I had no room for desire,
except it was for things which I had not, and
they were comparatively but trifles, though in-
deed of great use to me. I had, as I hinted
before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver,
about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there
the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay: I had no
manner of business for it; and I often thought
within myself, that I would have given a hand-
ful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a
hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have
given it all for sixpenny worth of turnip and
carrot seed from England, or for a handful of
peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it
was, I had not the least advantage by it, or be-
nefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and
grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the
wet season; and if I had had the drawer full
of diamonds, it had been the same case,-they
had been of no manner of value to me, because
of no use.
I had now brought my state of life to be
much more comfortable in itself than it was at
first, and much easier to my mind, as well as
to my body. I frequently sat down to meat
with thankfulness, and admired the hand of
God's providence, which had thus spread my
table in the wilderness: I learned to look nore
upon the bright side of my condition, and less
upon the dark side, and to consider what I en-
joyed, rather than what I wanted: and this
gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that
I cannot express them; and which I take no-
tice of here, to put those discontented people
in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably
what God has given them, because they see
and covet something that he has not given them.
All our discontents about what we want, ap-
peared to me to spring from the want of thank-
fulness for what we have.
Another reflection was of great use to me,
and doubtless would be so to any one that
should fall imo such distress as mine was; and


this was, to compare my present condition with
what I at first expected it would be; nay, with
what it would certainly have been, if the good
providence of God had not wonderfully ordered
the ship to be cast up near to the shore, where
I not only could come at her, but could bring
what I got out of her to the shore, for my
relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence,
and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.
1 spent whole hours, I may say whole days,
in representing to myself, in the most lively
colours, how I must have acted if I had got
nothing out of the ship. I could not have so
much as got any food, except fish and turtles;
and that, as it was long before I found any of
them, I must have perished; that I should have
lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage;
that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any
contrivance, I had no way to flay or open it,
or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels,
or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my
teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.
These reflections made me very sensible of
the goodness of Providence to me, and very
thankful for my present condition, with all its
hardships and misfortunes; and this part also
I cannot but recommend to the reflection of
those who are apt, in their misery, to say, Is
any affliction like mine? Let them consider
how much worse the cases of some people are,
and their case might have been, if Providence
had thought fit.
I had another reflection, which assisted me
also to comfort my mind with hopes; and this
was, comparing my present condition with what
I had deserved, and had therefore reason to
expect from the hand of Providence. I had
lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the
knowledge and fear of God. I had been well
instructed by my father and mother; neither
had they been wanting to me, in their endea-
yours to infuse an early religious awe of God
into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what
the nature and end of my being required of me.
But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life,
which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the
fear of God, though his terrors are always be-
fore them; I say, fallingearly into the seafaring
life, and into seafaring company, all that little
sense of religion which I had entertained was
laughed out of me by my messmates; by a
hardened despising of dangers, and the views
of death, which grew habitual to me; by my
long absence from all manner of opportunities
to converse with any thing but what was like
myself, or to hear any thing that was good, or
tending towards it.

So void was I of every thing that was good,
or of the least sense of what I was, or was to
be, that in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed,
(such as my escape from Sallee, my being taken
up by the Portuguese master of a ship, my be-
ing planted so well in the Brazils, my receiving
the cargo from England, and the like,) I never
had once the words, Thank God, so much as
on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the great-
est distress had I so much as a thought to pray
to him, or so much as to say, Lord, have mercy
upon me! no, nor to mention the name of
God, unless it was to swear by, and blas-
pheme it.
I had terrible reflections upon my mind for
many months, as I have already observed, on
account of my wicked and hardened life past;
and when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providence had attended me
since my coming into this place, and how God
had dealt bountifully with me,-had not only
punished me less than my iniquity had deserved,
but had so plentifully provided for me,-this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was
accepted, and that God had yet mercies in
store for me.
With these reflections, I worked my mind
up, not only to a resignation to the will of God
in the present disposition of my circumstances,
but even to a sincere thankfulness for my con-
dition; and that I, who was yet a living man,
ought not to complain, seeing I had not the
due punishment of my sins; that 1 enjoyed so
many mercies which I had no reason to have
expected in that place, that I ought never more
to repine at my condition, but to rejoice, and to
give daily thanks for that daily bread, which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have
brought; that I ought to consider I had been
fed by a miracle, even as great as that of feed-
ing Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series of
miracles: and that I could hardly have named
a place in the uninhabitable part of the world
where I could have been cast more to my ad-
vantage; a place where, as I had no society,
which was my affliction on one hand, so I found
no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers,
to threaten my life; no venomous or poisonous
creatures, which I might feed on to my hurt;
no savages, to murder and devour me. In a
word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way,
so it was a life ofmercy another; and I wanted
nothingtomake it a life of comfort, but to make
myself sensible of God's goodness to me, and
care over me in this condition; and after I did
make a just improvement of these things, I
went awayf and was no more sad.
I had now been here so long, that many


things which I brought on shore for my help
were either quite gone, or very much wasted,
and near spent.
My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it
scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it
to minute down the days of the month on which
ant remarkable thing happened to me: and,
first. by casting up times past, I remember
that there was a strange concurrence of days
in the various providence which befell me,
and which, if I had been superstitiously in-
climeld to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I
miiht have had reason to have looked upon
with a great deal of curiosity.
First, I had observed, that the same day
that I broke away from my father and my
friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go
to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken
by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave;
the same day of the year that I escaped out
of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth Roads,
that same day-year afterwards I made my
escape from Sallee in the boat: and the same
day of the year I was born on, viz. the 30th
of September, that same day I had my life so
miraculously saved twenty-six years after,
when I was cast on shore in this island: so
that my wicked life and my solitary life began
both on one day.
The next thing to my ink beingwasted, was
that of my bread, I mean the biscuit which I
brought out of the ship: this I had husbanded
to the last degree, allowing myself but one
cake of bread a day for above a year; and
yet I was quite without bread for near a year
before I got any corn of my own; and great
reason I had to be thankful that I had any at
all, the getting it being, as has been already
observed, next to miraculous.
My clothes, too, began to decay mightily:
as to linen, I had none for a great while, ex-
cept some chequered shirts which I found in
the chests of the other seamen, and which I
carefully preserved, because many times I
could bear no clothes on but a shirt; and it
was a very great help to me that I had, among
all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three
dozen of shirts. There were also, indeed se-
veral thick watchcoats of the seamen's which
were left, but they were too hot to wear: and
though it is true that the weather was so vio.
lently hot that there was no need of clothes,
yet I could not go quite naked, no, though I
had been inclined to it, which I was not, nor
could I abide the thought of it, tough I wa

all alone. The reason why I could not gc
quite naked was, I could not bear the heat of,
the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blis-
tered my skin: whereas, with a shirt on, the air
itself made some motion, and whistling under
the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it.
No more could I ever bring myself to go out in
the heat of the sun without a cap or hat; the
heat of the sun beating with such violence as
it does in that place, would give me the head-
ach presently, by darting so directly upon my
head, without a cap or hat on, so that I could
not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it
would presently go away.
Upon these views, I began to consider about
putting the few rags I had, which I called
clothes, into some order: I had worn out all
the waistcoats I had, and 'my business was
now to try if I could not make jackets out of
the great watchcoats that I had by me, and
with such other materials as I had; so I set
to work a tailoring, or rather, indeed, a botch-
ing, for I made most piteous work of it. How-
ever, I made shift to make two or three new
waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a
great while: as for breeches or drawers, I made
but a very sorry shift indeed, till afterwards.
I have mentioned, that I saved the skins of
all the creatures that I killed, I mean four-
footedones; and Ihad hung them up, stretched
out with sticks, in the sun, by which means
some of them were so dry and hard that they
were fit for little, but others I found very useful.
The first thing I made of these was a great
cap for my bead, with the hair on the outside,
to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so
well, that after this I made me a suit ofclothes
wholly of the skins, that is to say, a waistcoat,
and breeches, open at the knees, and both
loose; for they were rather wanting to keep
me cool than warm. I must not omit to
acknowledge that they were wretchedly
made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a
worse tailor. However, they were such as I
made very good shift with; and when I was
abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of my
waistcoat and capbeing uppermost, I was kept
very dry.
After this, I spent a great deal of time and
painstomake mean umbrella: I was indeed in
great want of one, and had a great mind to make
one; I had seen them made in the Brazils,
where they were very useful in the great heats
which are there; and I felt the heats every jot
as great here, and greater too, being nearer the
equinox: besides, as I was obliged to be much
abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, a


well for the rains as the heats. I took a
world of pains at it, and was a great while be-
fore I could make any thing likely to hold;
nay, after I thought I had hit the way,Ispoilea
two or three before I made one to my mind
but at last I made one that answered indiffer-
ently well; the main difficulty I found was to
make it to let down: I could make it spread, but
if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was
not portable for me any way but just over my
head, which would not do. However, at last,
as I said, I made one to answer, and covered
it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast
off the rain like a penthouse, and kept off the
sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the

hottest of the weather with greater advantage
than I could before in the coolest; and when
I had no need of it, could close it, and carry
it under my arm.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind
being entirely composed by resigning to the
will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon
the disposal of his providence. This made my
life better than sociable; for when I began to
regret the want of conversation, I would ask
myself, whether thus conversing mutually with
my own thoughts, and, as I hope I may say,
with even God himself, by ejaculations, was
not better than the utmost enjoyment of human
society in the world 7



I CAPNOT say that after this, for five years,
any extraordinary thing happened to me, but
I lived on in the same course, in the same
posture and place, just as before; the chief
things I was employed in, besides my yearly
labour of planting my barley and rice, and
curing my raisins, of both which I always
kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of
one year's provision beforehand; I say, besides
this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of
going out with my gun, I had one labour, to
make me a canoe, which at last I finished: so
that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide,
and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek,
almost half a mile. As for the first, which
was so vastly big, as I made it without consid-
ering before hand, as I ought to do, how I should
be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring
it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was
obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memo-
randum to teach me to be wiser the next time:
indeed, the next time, though I could not get a
tree proper for it, and was in a place where I
could not get the water to it at any less dis-
tance than, as I have said, near half a mile,
yet as I saw it was practicable at last, I never
gave it over: and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in
hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was
finished, yet the size of it was not at all an-

swerable to the design which I had in view
when I made the first; I mean, of venturing
over to the terra firma, where it was above
forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness
of my boat assisted to put an end to that design,
and now I thought no more of it. As I had a
boat, my next design was to make a cruise
round the island; for as I had been on the other
side in one place, crossing, as I have already
described it, over the land, so the discoveries
I made in that little journey made me very
eager to see other parts of the coast; and now
I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing
round the island.
For this purpose, that I might do every
thing with discretion and consideration, I fit-
ted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail
to it out of some of the pieces of the ship's sails
which lay in store, and of which I had a great
stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail,
and tried the boat, I found she would sail very
well: then I made little lockers, or boxes, at
each end of my boat, to put provisions, neces-
saries, ammunition, &c. into, to be kept dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a
little long hollow place I cut in the inside of
the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a
flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the
stern, like a mast, to stand over my head, and
keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awn-


ing; and thus I every now and then took a
little voyage upon the sea, but never went far
out, nor far from the little creek. At last, be-
ing eager to view the circumference of my little
kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise; and ac-
cordingly, I victualled my ship for tie voyage,
putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should
rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen
pot full of parched rico, (a food I ate a great
deal of,) a little bottle ofrum, halfa goat, and
powder and shotfor killing more, and two large
watchcoats, of those which, as I mentioned
before, I had saved out of the seamen's chests;
these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to
cover me in the night.
It was the sixth of November, in the sixth
year of my reign, or my captivity, which you
please, that I set out on this voyage, and I
found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet
when I came to the east side of it, I found a
great ledge ofrocks lie out about two leagues
into the sea, some above water, some under
it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry
half a league more, so that I was obliged to
go a great way out to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going
to give over my enterprise, and come back
again, not knowing how far it might oblige me
to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting how I
should get back again; so I came t6 an anchor;
for I had made me a kind of an anchor with a
piece of a broken grappling which I got out
of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun an
went on shore, climbing up on a hill, which
seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the
full extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill where
I stood, I perceived a strong, and indeed a
most furious current, which ran to the east, and
even came close to the point; and I took the
more notice of it, because I saw there might be
some danger, that when I came into it, I
might be carried out to sea by the strength of
it, and not be able to make the island again:
and, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill,
I believe it would have been so; for there was
the same current on the other side the island,
only that it set off at a farther distance, and I
saw there was a strong eddy under the shore;
so I had nothing to do but to get out of the
first current, and I should presently be in an
I lay here, however, two days, because the
wind blowing pretty fresh at E. S. E. and
that being just contrary to the said current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the point;
-so that it was not safe for me to keep too close
to the shore, for the breach, nor to go too far
off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind
having abated over night, the sea was calm,
and I ventured: but I am a warning-piece
again to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no
sooner was I come to the point, when I was
not even my boat's length from the shore, but
I found myself in a great depth of water, and


current like the sluice of a mill; it carried my
boat along with it with such violence, that all I
could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther
and farther out from the eddy, which was on
my left hand. There was no wind stirring to
help me, and all I could do with my paddles
signified nothing: and now I began to give
myself over for lost; for as the current was on
both sides of the island, I knew in a few
leagues' distance they must join again, and
then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see
any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no
prospect before me but of perishing, not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving
for hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on
the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and
had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great
jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my
earthen pots; but what was all this to being
driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure,
there was no shore, no main land or island,
for a thousand leagues at least ?
And now I saw how easy it was for the pro.
evidence of God to make even the most miser-
able condition of mankind worse. Now I looked
back upon my desolate solitary island, as the
most pleasant place in the world; and all the
happiness my heart could wish for was to be
but there again. I stretched out my hands to
it, with eager wishes: 0 happy desert! said I,
I shall never see thee more. 0 miserable
creature! whither am I going! Then I re-
proached myself with my unthankful temper,
and how I had repined at my solitary condi-
tion; and now what would I give to be on
shore there again! Thus we never see the
true state of our condition till it is illustrated
to us by its contraries, nor know how to value
what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is
scarce possible to imagine the consternation
I was now in, being driven from my beloved
island (for so it appeared to me now to be)
into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and
in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard, till indeed
my strength was almost exhausted, and kept
my boat as much to the northward, that is,
towards the side of the current which the
eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about
noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I
thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my
See, springing up from S. S.E. This cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in
about half an hour more,it blew a pretty gentle
gale. By this time I was got at a frightful
distance from the island, and had the least
cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been

undone another way too; for I had no compta
on board, and should never have known how
to have steered towards the island, if I had
but once lost sight of it; but the weather con-
tinuing clear, I applied myself to get up my
mast again, and spread my sail, standing away
to the north as much as possible, to get out of
the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the
boat began to stretch away, I saw even by the
clearness of the water some alteration of the
current was near; for where the current was
so strong, the water was foul; but perceiving
the water clear, I found the current abate; and
presently I found to the east, at about a half
a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks:
these rocks I found caused the current to part
again, and as the main stress of it ran away
more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-
east, so the other returned by the repulse of
the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran
back again to the northwest, with a very
sharp stream.
They who know what it is to have a reprieve
brought-to them upon the ladder, or t, be res-
cued from thieves just going to murder them
or who have been in such-like extremities,
may guess what my present surprise of joy
was, and how gladly I put my boat into the
stream of this eddy; and the wind also fresh.
ening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, run-
ning cheerfully before the wind, and with a
strong tide or eddy under foot.
This eddy carried me about a league in my
way back again, directly towards the island,
but about two leagues more to the northward
than the current which carried me away at
first: so that when I came near the island, I
found myself open to the northern shore of it,
that is to say, the other end of the island,
opposite to that which I went out from.
When I had made something more than a
league of way by the help of this current or
eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no
farther. However, I found that being between
two great currents, viz. that on the south side,
which had hurried me away, and that on the
north, which lay about a league on the other
side; I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found tie water at least still,
and running no way; and having still a breeze
of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly
for the island, though not making such fresh
way as I did before.
About four o'clock in the evening, being
then within a league of the island, I found the
point of the rocks which occasioned this disas-
ter, stretching out, as is described before, to


de southward, and casting offthe current more
southerly, had, of course, made another eddy to
the north; and this I found very strong, but not
directly setting the way my course lay, which
was due west, but almost full north. How-
ever, having a fresh gale, I stretched across
this eddy, slanting northwest: and, in about
an hour, came within about a mile of the shore,
where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees,
and gave God thanks for my deliverance, re.
solving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliver-
ance by my boat; and refreshing myself with
such things as I had, I brought my boat close
to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied
under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being quite spent with the labour and fatigue
of the voyage.
I was now at a great loss which way to get
home with my boat: Ihad run somuch hazard,
and knew too much of the case, to think of
attempting it by the way I went out; and what
might be at the other side (I mean the west
side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to run
any more venture; so I only resolved in the
morning to make my way westward along the
shore, and to see if there was no creek where I
might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have
her again, if I wanted her. In about three
miles, or thereabout, coasting the shore, I
came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very
little rivulet or brook, where I found a very
convenient harbour for my boat, and where
she lay as if she had been in a little dock made
on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having
stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore, to
look about me, and see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by the
place where I had been before, when I tra-
velled on foot to that shore; so taking nothing
out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for
it was exceeding hot, I began my march. The
way was comfortable enough after such a voy-
age as I had been upon, and I reached my old
bower in the evening, where I found every
thing standing as I left it; for I always kept it
in good order, being, as I said before, my
country house. I got over the fence, and laid
me down in the shade, to rest my limbs, for I
was very weary, and fell asleep: but judge
you, if you can, that read my story, what a
surprise I must be in when I was awakened.
out f my sleep by a voice, calling me by my
name several times, Robin, Robin, Robin
Crusoe; poor Robin Crusoe! Where are
you, RobinCrusoe? Whereare you? Where
have you been ?

I was so dead asleep at fint, being fatigued
with rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the
first part of the day, and with walking the lat.
ter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but
dozing between sleeping and waking, thought
I dreamed that somebody spoke to me; butas
the voice continued to repeat Robin Crusoe,
Robin Crusoe, at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened,
and started up in the utmost consternation;
but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw
my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and
immediately knew it was he that spoke to me;
for just in such bemoaning language Ihad used
to talk to him, and teach him; and he had
learned it so perfectly, that he would sit upon
my finger, and lay his bill close to my face,
and cry, PoorRobin Crusoe! Whereareyou?
Where have you been ? How came you here
and such things as I had taught him.
However, even though I knew it was the
parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody else,
it was a good while before I could compose
myself. First, I was amazed how the crea-
ture got thither, and then, how he should just
keep about the place, and no where else: but
as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my
hand, and calling him by his name, Poll, the
sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my
thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking
to me, Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I
come here? aqd where had I been? just as if
he had been overjoyed to see me again: and
so I carried him home along with me.
I now had enough of rambling to sea for
some time, and had enough to do for many
days, to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I
had been in. I would have been very glad to
have had my boat again on my side of the
island; but I knew not how it was practicable
to get it about. As to the east side ofthe island,
which I had gone round, I knew well enough
there was no venturing that way; my very
heart would shrink, and my very blood run
chill, but to think of it; and as to the other
side of the island, I did not know how it might
be there; but supposing the current ran with
the same force against the shore at the east as
it passed by it on the other, I might run the
same risk of being driven down the stream,
and carried by the island, as I had been be-
fore of being carried away from it; so, with
these thoughts, I contented myself to be with*
out any boat, though it had been the product
of so many month's labour to make it, and of
so many more to get it into the sea.
In this government of my temper I remained


near a year, lived a very sedate, retired life,
as you may well suppose; and my thoughts
being very much composed, as to my condi-
tion, and fully comforted in resigning myself
to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I
lived really very happily in all things, except
that of society.
I improved myself in this time in all the
mechanic exercises which my necessities put
me upon applying myself to; and I believe I
could, upon occasion, have made a very good
carpenter, especially considering how few tools
I had.
Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected
perfection in my earthenware, and contrived
well enough to make them with a wheel, which
I found infinitely easier and better; because
I made things round and shapeable, which be-
fore were filthy things indeed to look on. But
I think I was never more vain of my own per-
formance, or more joyful for any thing I found
out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-
pipe; and though it was a very ugly clumsy
thing when it was done, and only burned red,
like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and
firm, and would draw the smoke, I was ex-
ceedingly comforted with it, for I had been
always used to smoke: and there were pipes
in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not
thinking that there was tobacco in the island;

and afterwards, when I searched the ship
again, I could not come at any pipes at all.
In my wicker-ware also I improved much,
and made abundance of necessary baskets, as
well as my invention showed me; though not
very handsome, yet they were such as were
very handy and convenient for my laying things
up in, or fetching things home. For example,
if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in
a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces,
and bring it home in a basket; and the like by
a turtle: I could cut it up, take out the eggs,
and a piece or two of the flesh, which was
enough for me, and bring them home in a
basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also
large deep baskets were the receivers of my
corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it
was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets.
I began now to perceive my powder abated
considerably; this was a want which it was
impossible for me to supply, and I began seri-
ously to consider what I must do when I should
have no more powder; that is to say, how I
should do to kill any goats. I had, as is ob-
served, in the third year of my being here,
kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and 1
was in hopes of getting a he-goat: but I could
not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew an old goat; and as I could never find in
my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere age.



BEIIG now in the eleventh year of my re-
sidence, and, as I have said, my ammunition
growing low, I set myself to study some art to
trap and snare the goats, to see whether I
could not catch some of them alive ; and parti-
cularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young.
For this purpose, I made snares to hamper
them; and I do believe they were more than
once taken in them; but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found
them broken, and my bait devoured. At
length I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug
several large pits in the earth, in places where
I had observed the goats used to feed, and
over those pits I placed hurdles, of my own
making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry
nee, without setting the trap; and I could

easily perceive that the goats had gone in and
eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks
of their feet. At length I set three traps in
one night, and going the next morning, I
found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten
and gone; this was very discouraging. How-
ever, I altered my traps; and, not to trouble
you with particulars, going one morning to
see my traps, I found in one of them a large
old he-goat, and in one of the others three
kids, a male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do
with him; he was so fierce, I durst not go
into the pit tohim; that is to say, to go about
to bring him away alive, which was what I
wanted: I could have killed him, but that was
not my business, nor would it answer my end;
so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if


he had been frightened out of his wits. But I
had forgot then, what I had learned afterwards,
that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him
stay there three or four days without food, and
then have carried him some water to drink,
and then a little corn, he would have been as
tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty
sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are
well used. However, for the present I let
him go, knowing no better at that time : then
I went to the three kids, and taking them one
by one, I tied them with strings together, and
with some difficulty brought them all home.
It was a good while before they would feed;
but throwing them some sweet corn, it tempted
them, and they began to be tame. And now
I found that if I expected to supply myself with
goat's flesh when I had no powder or shot left,
breeding some up tame was my only way;
when, perhaps, I might have them about my
house like a flock of sheep. But then it oc-
curred to me, that I must keep the tame from
the wild, or else they would always run wild
when they grew up: and the only way for this
was, to have some enclosed piece of ground,
well fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep
them in so effectually, that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.
This was a great undertaking for one pair
of hands; yet as I saw there was an absolute
necessity for doing it, my first work was to
find out a proper piece of ground, where there
was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water
for them to drink, and cover to keep them from
the sun.
Those who understand such enclosures will
think I had very little contrivance, when I
pitched upon a place very proper for all these,
(being a plain open piece of meadow land, or
savannah, as our people call it in the western
colonies,) which had two or three little drills
of fresh water in it, and at one end was very
woody; I say, they will smile at my forecast,
when I shall tell them, I began my enclosing
this piece of ground in such a manner, that
my hedge or pale must have been at least two
miles about. Nor was the madness of it so
great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles
about, I was like to have time enough to do it
in; but I did not consider that my goats would
be as wild in so much compass as if they had
had the whole island, and I should have so
much room to chase them in, that I should
never catch them.
My hedge was begun and carried on, I be-
lieve about fifty yards, when this thought
occurred to me; so I presently stopped short,
and, for the first beginning, I resolved to en-

close a piece of about one hundred and fifty
yards in length, and one hundred yards in
breadth; which, as it would maintain as many
as I should have in any reasonable time, so,
as my stock increased, I could add more
ground to my enclosure.
This was acting with some prudence, and I
went to work with courage. I was about three
months hedging in the first piece; and, till I
had done it, I tethered the three kids in the
best part of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and
very often I would go and carry them some
ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed
them out of my hand: so that after my enclo-
sure was finished, and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after
me fur a handful of corn.
This answered my end; and in about a year
and a half I had a flock of about twelve goats,
kids and all; and in two years more, I had
three and forty, besides several that I took and
killed for my food. After that I enclosed five
several pieces of ground to feed them in, with
little pens to drive them into, to take them as
I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground
into another.
But this was not all; for now I not only had
goats' flesh to feed on when I pleased, but
milk too; a thing which, indeed, in the be-
ginning, I did not so much as think of, and
which, when it came into my thoughts, was
really an agreeable surprise: for now I set up
my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two
of milk in a day. And as Nature, who gives
supplies of food to every creature, dictates
even naturally how to make use of it, so I,
that had never milked a cow, much less a goat,
or seen butter or cheese made, only when I
was a* boy, after a great many essays and
miscarriages, made me both butter and cheese
at last, and also salt, (though I found it partly
made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon
some of the rocks of the sea,) and never
wanted it afterwards. How mercifully canour
Creator treat his creatures, even in those con-
ditions in which they seemed to be over-
whelmed in destruction! How can he sweeten
the bitterest providence, and give us cause to
praise him for dungeons and prisons! What
a table was here spread for me in a wilder-
ness, where I saw nothing, at first, but to
perish for hunger!
It would have made a stoic smile, to have
seen me and my little family sit down to din-
ner: there was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island; I had the lives of
all my subjects at my absolute command; I


could bang, draw, give liberty, and take it
away; and no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a king I dined too, all
alone, attended by my servants: Poll, as if he
had been my favourite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was
now grown very old and crazy, and had found
no species to multiply his kind upon, sat al-
ways at my right hand; and two cats, one on
one side of the table, and one on the other,
expecting now and then a bit from my hand,
as a mark of special favour.
But these were not the two cats which I
brought on shore at first, for they were both of
them dead, and had been interred near my
habitation by my own hand; but one of them
having multiplied by I know not what kind of
creature, these were two which I had pre-
served tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the
woods, and became indeed troublesome to me
at last; for they would often come into my
house, and plunder me too, till at last I was
obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great
many; at length they left me.-With this
attendance, and in this plentiful manner, I
lived; neither could I be said to want any
thing but society: and of that, some time after
this, I was like to have toomuch.
I was something impatient, as I have ob-
served, to have the use of my boat, though very
loath to run any more hazards; and therefore
sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her
about the island, and at other times I sat my-
selfdown contented enough without her. But
I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island, where, as I
have said, in my last ramble, I went up the
hill to see how the shore lay, and how the cur-
rent set, that I might see what I had to do:
this inclination increased upon me every day,
and at length I resolved to travel thither by
land, following the edge of the shore. I did so;
but had any one in England been to meet such
a man as I was, it must either have frightened
him, or raised a great deal of laughter: and as
I frequently stood still to look at myself, I could
not but smile at the notion of my travelling
through Yorkshire, with such an equipage, and
in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch
of my figure, as follows:
I had a great high shapeless cap, made of
a goat's skm, with a flap hanging down behind,
as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck: nothing
being so hurtful in these climates as the rain
upon the flesh, under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts
coming down to about the middle of the thighs,

and a pair of open-kneed breecthsofthesame,
the breeches were made of the skin of an old
he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length
on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached
tothe middle of my legs; stockings and shoes
I bad none, but had made me a pair ofsome-
things, I scarce know what to call them, like
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either
side like spatterdashes: but of a most barba-
rous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried,
which I drew together with two thongs of the
same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a
frog on either side of this, instead of a sword
and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet;
one on one side, and one on the other. I had
another belt, not so broad, and fastened in the
same manner, which hung over my shoulder;
and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung
two pouches, both made of goat's skin too; in
one of which hung my powder, in the other my
shot. At my back I carried my basket, and on
my shoulder my gun; and over my head a great
clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella, but which,
after all, was the most necessary thing I had
about me, next to my gun. As for my face,
the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from man not at all care-
ful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees
of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered
to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard
long; but as I had both scissors and razors suf-
ficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what
grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed
into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such
as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee;
for the Moors did not wear such, though the
Turks did: of these mustachios or whiskers, I
will not say they were long enough to hang my
hat upon them, but they were ofa length and
shape monstrous enough, and such as, in Eng-
land, would have passed for frightful.
But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure,
I had so few to observe me that it was of no
manner of consequence; so I say no more to
that part. In this kind of figure I wentmy new
journey, and was out five or six days. I tra-
velled first along the seashore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to an anchor,
to get upon the rocks; and having no boat now
to take care of, I went over the land, a nearer
way, to the same height that I was upon before;
when looking forward to the point of the rocks
which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as is said above, I wa
surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet
no rippling, no motion, no current, any mor


there than in any other places. I was at a
strange loss to understand this, and resolved to
spend some time in the observing it, to see if
nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned
it; but I was presently convinced how it was,
viz. that the tide of ebb setting from the west,
and joining with the current of waters from
some great river on the shore, must be the
occasion of this current; and that according as
the wind blew more forcibly from the west, or
from the north, this current came nearer, or
went farther from the shore; for waiting there-
abouts till evening, I went up to the rock again,
and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it ran
farther off, being near half a league from the
shore; whereas, in my case, it set close upon
the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along
with it; which, at another time, it would not
have done.
This observation convinced me, that I had
nothing to do but to observe the ebbing and the
flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring
my boat about the island again: but when I
began to think of putting it in practice, I had
such a terror upon my spirits at the remem-
brance of the danger I had been in, that I could
not think of it again with any patience; but,
on the contrary, I took up another resolution,
which was more safe, though more laborious;
and this was, that I would build, or rather make
me another periagua or canoe; and so have one
for one side of the island, and one for the other.
You are to understand, that now I had, as
I may call it, two plantations in the island;
one, my little fortification or tent, with the
wall about it, under the rock, with the cave
behind me, which, by this time, I had en-
larged into several apartments or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the
driest and largest, and had a door out beyond
my wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond
where my wall joined to the rock, was all
filled up with the large earthen pots, of which
I have given an account, and with fourteen or
fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or
six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of
provision, especially my corn, some in the ear,
cut off short from the straw, and the other
rubbed out with my hand.
As for my wall, made, as before, with long
stakes or piles, those piles grew all like trees,
and were by this time grown so big, and
spread so very much, that there was not the
least appearance, to any one's view, of any
habitation behind them.
Near this dwelling of mine, but a little far-
ther within the land, and upon lower ground,

lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept
duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly.
yielded me their harvest in its season: and
whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had
more land adjoining as fit as that.
Besides this, I had my country seat; and I
had now a tolerable plantation there also: for,
first, I had my little bower, as I called it,
which I kept in repair; that is to say, I kept
the hedge which encircled it in constantly
fitted up to its usual height, the ladder stand-
ing always in the inside: I kept the trees,
which at first were no more than my stakes,
but were now grown very firm and tall, always
cut so, that they might spread and grow thick
and wild, and make the more agreeable shade;
which they- did effectually to my mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always stand-
ing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles,
set up for that purpose, and which never wanted
any repair or renewing; and under this I had
made me a squab or couch, with the skins of
the creatures I had killed, and with other so
things; and a blanket laid on them, such as
belonged to our sea bedding, which I had saved,
and a great watchcoat to coverme; and here,
whenever I had occasionao be absent from my
chiefseat, I took up my country habitation.
Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for
my cattle, that is to say, my goats; and as I
had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to
fence and enclose this ground, I was so anxi-
ous to see it kept entire, lest the goats should
break through, that I never left ff, till, with
infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the
hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to
one another, that it was rather a pale then a
hedge, and there was scarce room to put a
hand through betweenthem; which afterward,
when those stakes grew, as they all did in the
next rainy season, made the encosure strong
like a wall,-indeed, stronger than any wail.
This will testify for me that I was not idle,
and that I spared no pains to bring to pas
whatever appeared necessary for my comfort-
able support; for I considered the keeping up
a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand
would be a living magazine of lesh, milk,
butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in
the place, if it were to be forty years; and
that keeping them in my reach depended en-
tirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to such
a degree, that I might be sure of keeping thea
together; which, by this method, indeed, I as
efeetually secured, that when these little stakes
began to grow, I had planted them so very
thick, that I was forced to pull some of them
up again.


In this place also I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter
store of raisins, and which I never failed to
preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet: and, indeed,
ihey were not only agreeable, but medicinal,
.lvolesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the
last degree.
As this was also about half-way between imy
other habitation and the place where I had
laid up miy uoat, I generally stayed and lay

here in my way thither; for I used frequently
to visit my boat; and I kept all things
about, or belonging to her, in very good
order: sometimes I went out in her to di-
vert myself, but no more hazardous voyages
would I go, nor scarce ever above a stone's
cast or two from the shore, I was so appre-
hensive of being hurried out of my knowledge
again by the currents or winds, or any other
accident. But now I come to a new scene
of my life.



IT happened one day, about noon, going
towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised
with the print of a man's naked foot on the
shore, which was very plain to be seen in the
sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if
I had seen an apparition; I listened, I looked
round me, but I could hear nothing, nor see
anything; I went up to a rising ground, to
look farther; I went up the shore, and down
the shore, but it was all one; I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to it
again to see if there were any more, and to
observe if it might not be my fancy; but there
was no room for that, for there was exactly the
print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a
foot: how it came thither I knew not, nor
could I in the least imagine; but, after innu-
merable fluttering thoughts, like a man per-
fectly confused and out of myself, I came
home to my fortification, not feeling, as we
say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the
last degree: looking behind me at every two
or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree,
and fancying every stump at a distance to be
a man. Nor is it possible to describe how
many various shapes my affrighted imagina-
tion represented things to me in, how many wild
ideas were found every moment in my fancy,
and what strange unaccountable whimsies
came into my thoughts by the way.
When I came to my castle, (for so I think I
called it ever after this,) I fled into it like one
pursued; whether I went over by the ladder,
as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the
rock, which I had called a door, I cannot re-
member; no, nor could I remember the next
morning; for never frightened hare fled to

cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind
than I to this retreat.
I slept none that night; the farther I was
from the occasion of my fright, the greater my
apprehensions were; which is something con-
trary to the nature of such things, and espe-
cially to the usual practice of all creatures in
fear; but I was so embarrassed with my own
frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed no-
thing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off it. Some-
times I fancied it must be the Devil, and rea-
son joined in with me upon this supposition ;
for how should any other thing in human shape
come into the place ? Where was the vessel
that brought them? \Vhat marks were there
of any other footsteps? And how was it pos-
sible a man should come there ? But then to
think that Satan should take human shape upon
him in such a place, where there could be no
manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print
of his foot behind him, and that even for no
purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it,-this was an amusement the other way.
I considered that the Devil might have found
out abundance of other ways to have terrified
me than this of the single print of a foot; that
as I lived quite on the other side of the island,
he would never have been so simple as to
leave a mark in a place where it was ten thou-
sand to one whether I should ever see it or not
and in the sand too, which the first surge of the
sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced
entirely: all this seemed inconsistent with the
thing itself, and with all the notions we
usually entertain of the subtlety of the Devil.
Abundance of such things as these assisted

Discovering a foot-print.-p. 66.

.**'.,. .' A ..-^ .;.


.6 argue me out of all apprehensions or Its be-
ing the Devil; and I presently concluded then,
that it must be some more dangerous creature,
viz. that it must be some of the savages of the
main land over against me, who had wandered
out to sea in their canoes, and either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made
the island, and had been on shore, but were
gone away again to sea; being as loath, per-
haps, to have stayed in this desolate island as
I would have been to have had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my
mind, I was very thankful in my thoughts that
I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that
Ame, or that they did not see my boat, by
which they would have concluded that some
inhabitants had been in the place, and per-
haps have searched farther for me: then terri-
ble thoughts racked my imagination about
their having found my boat, and that there
were people here; and that if so, I should cer-
tainly have them come again in greater num-
bers, and devour me; that if it should happen
so that they should not find me, yet they
would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn,
and carry away all my flock of tame goats,
and I should perish at last for mere want.
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope,
all that former confidence in God, which was
founded upon suchwonderfulexperience as I had
had of his goodness, as if he that had fed me
by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by his
power, the provision which he had made for
me byhis goodness. I reproached myself with
my laziness, that would not sow any more corn

one year than would just serve me till the next
season, as if no accident would intervene to
prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the
ground; and this I thought so just a reproof,
that I resolved for the future to have two or
three years' corn beforehand; so that whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of
How strange a chequer-work of Providence
is the life of man! and by what secret different
springs are the affections hurried about, as
different circumstances present! Today we
love what tomorrow we hate; today we seek
what tomorrow we shun; today we desire
what tomorrow we fear, nay, even tremble at
the apprehensions of; this was exemplified in
me, at this time, in the most lively manner
imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was
that I seemed banished from human society,
that I was alone, circumscribed by the bound-
less ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned
to what I called silent life; that I was as one
whom heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the
rest of his creatures; that to have seen one of
my own species would have seemed to me a
raising me from death to life, and the greatest
blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme
blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that
I should now tremble at the very apprehensions
of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the
ground at but the shadow'or silent appearance
of a man's having set his foot in the island.
Such is the uneven state of human life; and
it afforded me a great many curious specula-



tions afterwards, when I had a little recovered
my first surprise. I considered that this was
the station of life the infinitely wise and good
providence of God had determined for me ;
that as I could not foresee what the ends of
divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was
not to dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was
his creature, had an undoubted right, by crea-
tion, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as
he thought fit; and who, as I was a creature
that had offended him, had likewise a judicial
right to condemn me to what punishment he
thought fit; and that it was my part to submit
to bear his indignation, because I had sinned
against him. I then reflected, that as God,
who was not only righteous, but omnipotent,
had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me,
so he was able to deliver me; that if he did
not think fit to do so, it was my unquestioned
duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely
to his will; and, on the other hand, it was
my duty also to hope in him, pray to him, and
quietly to attend the dictates and directions of
his daily providence.
These thoughts took me up many hours,
days, nay, I may say, weeks and months; and
one particular effect of my cogitations on this
occasion I cannot omit: One morning early,
lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about
my danger from the appearances of savages, I
found it discomposed me very much; upon
which these words of the Scripture came into
my thoughts, "Call upon me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me." Upon this, rising cheerfully out
of my bed, my heart was not only comforted,
but I was guided and encouraged to pray ear-
nestly to God for deliverance: when I had done
praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it
to read, the first words that presented to me
were, Wait on the Lord, and be of good
cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart; wait,
I say, on the Lord." It is impossible to ex-
press the comfort this gave me. In answer, I
thankfully laid down the book, and was no more
sad, at least on that occasion.
T In the middle of these cogitations, appre-
hensions, and reflections, it came into my
thoughts one day, that all this might be amere
chimera of my own, and that this foot might be
the print of my own foot, when I came on shore
from my boat: this cheered me up a little too,
and I began to persuade myself it was all a
delusion; that itwas nothing else but my own
foot: and why might I not come that way from
the boat, as well as I was going that way to
the boat? Again, I considered also, that I
could by no means tell, for certain, where I

had trod, and where I had not; and that if, at
last, this was only the print of my own foot, [
had played the part of those fools who try to
make stories of spectres and apparitions, and
then are frightened at tnem more than any body
Now I began to take courage, and to peel
abroad again, for I had not stirred out of mI
castle for three days and nights, so that I be
gan to starve for provisions; for I had little or
nothing within doors but some barley cakes
and water: then I knew that my goats wanted
to be milked too, which usually was my even-
ing diversion; and the poor creatures were
in great pain and inconvenience for want of it;
and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them,
and almost dried up their milk. Encouraging
myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet,
and that.I might be truly said to start at my
own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and
went to my country house to milk my flock: but
to see with what fear I went forward, how
often I looked behind me, how I was ready,
every now and then, to lay down my basket,
and run for my life, it would have made any one
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience,
or that I had been lately most terribly frightened;
and so, indeed, I had. However, as I went
down thus two or three days, and having seen
nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to
think there was really nothing in it but my
own imagination; but I could not persuade
myself fully of this till I should go down to the
shore again, and see this print of a foot, and
measure it by my own, and see if there was
any similitude or fitness, that I might be as-
sured it was my own foot: but when I came
to the place, first, it appeared evidently to me,
that when I laid up my boat, I could not pos-
sibly be on shore any where thereabout: se-
condly, when I came to measure the mark with
my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a
great deal. Both these things filled my head
with new imaginations, and gave me the va-
pours again to the highest degree, so that I
shook with cold like one in an ague; and I
went home again, filled with the belief that
some man or men had been on shore there;
or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and
I might be surprised before I was aware; and
what course to take for my security I knew not.
0 what ridiculous resolutions men take when
possessed with fear! It deprives them of the
use of those means which reason offers for
their relief. The first thing I proposed to my-
self was, to throw down my enclosures, aut
turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods,
lest the enemy should find them, and then fre*


quent the island in prospect of the same or the
like booty: then to the simple thing of digging
up my two corn fields, lest they should find
such a grain there, and still be prompted to
frequent the island: then to demolish my bower
and tent, that they might not see any vestiges
of habitation, and be prompted to look farther,
in order to find out the persons inhabiting.
These were the subject of the first night's
cogitations after I was come home again, while
the apprehensions which had so overrun my
mind were fresh upon me, and my head was
full ofvapours, as above. Thus fear of danger
is ten thousand times more terrifying than
danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and
we find the burden of anxiety greater, by
much, than the evil which we are anxious about:
and, which was worse than all this, I had not
that relief in this trouble from the resignation
I used to practise, that I hoped to have. I
looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained
not only that the Philistines were upon him,
but that God had forsaken him; for I did not
now take due ways to compose my mind, by
crying to God in my distress, and resting upon
his providence, as I had done before, for my
defence and deliverance; which, ifI had done,
I had at least been more cheerfully supported
under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.
This confusion of my thoughts kept me
awake all night; but in the morning I fell
asleep; and having, by the amusement of my
mind, been, as it were tired, and my spirits
exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked
much better composed than I had ever been
before. And now I began to think sedately;
and, upon the utmost debate with myself, I
concluded that this island, which was so ex-
ceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from
the main land than as I had seen, was not so
entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that
although there were no stated inhabitants who
lived on the spot, yet that there might some-
times come boats off from the shore, who,
either with design, or perhaps never but when
they were driven by cross winds, might come
to this place; that I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least sha-
dow or figure of any people yet; and that if at
any time they should be driven here, it was
probable they went away again as soon as ever
they could, seeing they had never thought fit to
fix here upon any occasion; that the most I
could suggest any danger from, was from any
casual accidental landing of straggling people
from the main, who, as it was likely, if they
were driven hither, were here against their

wills, so they made no stay here, but went off
again with all possible speed; seldom staying
one night on shore, lest they should not have
the help of the tides and daylight back again;
and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to
consider of some safe retreat, in case I should
see any savages land upon the spot.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug
my cave so large as to bring a door through
again, which door, as I said, came out beyond
where my fortification joined to the rock: upon
maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved
to draw me a second fortification, in the same
manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of
trees about twelve years before, of which I
made mention: these trees having been planted
so thick before, they wanted but few piles to
be driven between them, that they might be
thicker and stronger, and my wall would be
soon finished: so that I had now a double wall,
and my outer wall was thickened with pieces
of timber, old cables, and every thing I could
think of, to make it strong; having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put my arm
out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my
wall to about ten feet thick, with continually
bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at
the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and

through the seven holes I contrived to plant the
muskets, of which I took notice that I had got
seven on shore out of the ship,; these I planted
like my cannon, and fitted them into frames,
that held them like a carriage, so that I could
fire all the seven guns in two minutes' time
this wall I was many a weary month in finish
ing, and yet never thought myself safe till it
was done.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground
without my wall, for a great length every way,
as full with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like
wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they
could well stand; insomuch, that I believe I
might set in near twenty thousand of them,
leaving a pretty large space between them and
my wall, that I might have room to see an
enemy, and they might have no shelter from
the young trees, if they attempted to approach
my outer wall.
Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick
grove; and in five or six years time I had a
wood before my dwelling, growing s~ mn-
strous thick and strong, that it was indeed per
fectly impassable; and no men, of what kind
soever, would ever imagine that there was any
thing beyond it, much lea a habitation. As
for the way which I proposed to myself to go
in and out, (for I left no avenue,) it was by



setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low, and then broke in, and left
room to place another ladder upon that; so
when the two ladders were taken down, no man
living could come down to me without doing
himself mischief; and if they had come down,
they were still on the outside of my outer
Thus I took all the measures human pru-
dence could suggest for my own preservation;
and it will be seen, at length, that they were
not altogether without just reason; though I
foresaw nothing at that time more than my
mere fear suggested to me.
While this was doing, I was not altogether
careless of my other affairs; for I had a great
concern upon me for my little herd of goats;
they were not only a ready supply to me on
every occasion, and began to be sufficient for
me, without the expense of powder and shot,
but also without the fatigue of hunting after the
wild ones; and I was loath to lose the advan-
tage of them, and to have them all to nurse up
over again.
For this purpose, after long consideration, I
could think of but two ways to preserve them:

one was, to find another convenient place to
dig a cave under ground, and to drive them
into it every night; and the other was, to en-
close two or three little bits of land, remote
from one another, and as much concealed as I
could, where I might keep about halfa dozen
young goats in each place; so that if any dis-
aster happened to the flock in general, I might
be able to raise them again with little trouble
and time: and this, though it would require a
great deal of time and labour, I thought was
the most rational design.
Accordingly, I spent some time to find out
the most retired parts of the island; and I
pitched upon one, which was as private, indeed,
as my heart could wish for: it was a little
damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hol-
low and thick woods, where, as is observed, I
almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to
come back that way from the eastern part of
the island. Here I found a clear piece of land,
near three acres, so surrounded with woods,
that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at
least, it did not want near so much labour to
make it so as the other pieces of ground I had
worked so hard at.



I IMMEDIATELY went to work with this observe, with grief too, that the discomposurr
piece of ground, and in less than a month's of my mind had too great impressions also upon
time I had so fenced it round, that my flock, the religious part of my thoughts: for the dread
or herd, call it which you please, who were not and terror of falling into the hands of savages
so wild now as at first they might be supposed and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I
to be, were well enough secured in it: so, seldom found myself in a due temper for appli-
without any farther delay, I removed ten young cation to my Maker, at least not with the se-
she-goats, and two he-goats to this piece; and date calmness and resignation of soul which I
when they were there, I continued to perfect was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as
the fence, till I had made it as secure as the under great affliction and pressure of mind,
other; which, however, I did at more leisure, surrounded with danger, and in expectation
and it took me up more time by a great deal. every night of being murdered and devoured
All this labour I was at the expense of purely before morning; and I must testify from my
from my apprehensions on the account of the experience, that a temper of peace, thankful-
print of a man's foot which I had seen; for, ness, love, and affection, is much the more
as yet, I never saw any human creature proper frame for prayer than that of terror and
come near the island; and I had now lived discomposure; and that under the dread of
twoyears under this uneasiness,which, indeed, mischief impending, a man is no more fit for
made my life much less comfortable than it a comforting performance of the duty of pray-
was before, as may be well imagined by any ing to God, than he is for a repentance on a
who knows what it is to live in the constant sick-bed; for these discomposures affect the
snare of the fear of man. And this I must mind, as the others do the body; and the di-


composure of the mind must necessarily be as
great a disability as that of the body, and much
greater; praying to God being properly an act
of the mind, not of the body.
But to go on: after I had thus secured one
part of my little living stock, I went about the
whole island, searching for another private
place to make such another deposit; when,
wandering more to the west point of the island
than I had ever done yet, and looking out to
sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at
a great distance. I had found a perspective
glass or two in one of the seamen's chests,
which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not
about me; and this was so remote, that I could
not tell what to make of it, though I looked
at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look
any longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do
not know, but as I descended from the bill I
could see no more of it; so I gave it over;
only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket When I was
come down the hill to the end of the island,
where, indeed, I had never been before, I was
presently convinced that the seeing the print of
a man's foot was not such a strange thing in
the island as I imagined: and, but that it was
a special providence that I was cast upon the
side of the island where the savages never
came, I should easily have known that nothing
was more frequent than for the canoes from the
main, when they happened to be a little too far
out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the
island for harbour: likewise, as they often met
and fought in their canoes, the victors, having
taken any prisoners, would bring them over to
this shore, where, according to their dreadful
customs, being all cannibals, they would kill
and eat them; of which hereafter.
When I was come down the hill to the
shore, as I said above, being the southwest
point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed; nor is it possible for me to ex-
press the horror of my mind, at seeing the
shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other
bones of human bodies; and, particularly, I
observed a place where there had been a fire
.made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a
cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon
the bodies of their fellow-creatures.
I was so astonished with the sight of these
things, that I entertained no notions of any
danger to myself from it for a long while: all
my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality,
and the horror of the degeneracy of human
nature, which, though I had heard of it often,



yet I never had so near a view of before: in
short, I turned away my face from the horrid
spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was
just at the point of fainting, when nature dis-
charged the disorder from my stomach; amd
having vomited with uncommon violence, I
was a little relieved, but couldn't bear to stay
in the place a moment; so I got me up the
hill again with all the speed I could, and walked
on towards my own habitation.
When I came a little out of that part of the
island, I stood still awhile, as amazed, and
then recovering myself, I looked up with the
utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood
of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that
had cast my first lot in a part of the world
where I was distinguished from such dreadful
creatures as these; and that, though I had es-
teemed my present condition very miserable,
had yet given me so many comforts in it, that
I had still more to give thanks for than to com-
plain of: and this, above all, that I had, even
in this miserable condition, been comforted
with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope
of His blessing; which was a felicity more
than sufficiently equivalent to all the misery
which I had suffered, or could suffer.
In this frame of thankfulness, I went home
to my castle, and began to be much easier
now, as to the safety of my circumstances,
than ever I was before: for I observed that
these wretches never came to this island in
search of what they could get; perhaps not
seeking, not wanting, or ot expecting, any
thing here; and having often, no doubt, been
up in the covered woody part of it, without
finding any thing to their purpose. I knew I
had been here now almost eighteen years, and
never saw the least footsteps of human cream
tures there before; and I might be eighteen
years more as entirely concealed as I was
now, if I did not discover myself to them,
which I had no manner of occasion to do; it
being my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a better
sort of creatures than cannibals to make my-
selfknown to. Yet I entertained such an ab-
horrence of the savage wretches that I have
been speaking of, and of the wretched inhu-
man custom of their devouring and eating one
another up, that I continued pensive and sad,
and kept cose within my own circle, for almost
two years after this; when I say my own cir-
cle, I mean by it my three plantations,viL my
castle, my country seat, which I called my
bower, and my enclosure in the woods: nor
did I look after this for any other use than U
an enclosure for my goats; for the avera


which nature gave me to these hellish wretches
was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them
as of seeing the Devil himself. I did not so
much as go to look after my boat all this time,
but began rather to think of making me another;
for I could not think of ever making any more
attempts to bring the other boat round the
island to me, lest I should meet with some of
these creatures at sea; in which if I had hap-
pened to have fallen into their hands, I knew
what would have been my lot.
Time. however, and the satisfaction I had
that I was in no danger of being discovered by
these people, began to wear off my uneasiness
about them; and I began to live just in the
same composed manner as before; only with
this difference, that I used more caution, and
kept my eyes more about me, than I did before,
lest I should happen to be seen by any ofthem ;
and particularly, I was more cautious of firing
my gun, lest any of them being on the island
should happen to hear it. It was therefore a
very good providence to me that I had fur-
nished myself with a tame breed of goats, and
that I had no need to hunt any more about the
woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch
any of them after this, it was by traps and
snares, as I had done before: so that for two
years after this, I believe I never fired mygun
once off, though I never went out without it;
and, which was more, as I had saved three
pistols out of the ship, I always carried them
out with me, or at least two of them, sticking
them in my goat's-skin belt. I also furbished
up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of
the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also;
so that I was now a most formidable fellow to
look at when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself, the particular of
two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging
at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.
Things going on thus, as I have said, for
some time, I seemed, excepting these cautions,
to be reduced to my former calm sedate way
of living. All these things tended to show
me, more and more, how far my condition
was from being miserable, compared to some
others; nay, to many other particulars of life,
which it might have pleased God to have
made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how
little repining there would be among mankind
at any condition of life, if people would rather
compare their condition with those that were
worse, in order to be thankful, than be always
comparing them with those which are better,
to assist their murmurings and complaining.
As in my present condition there are not
leallv many things which I wanted, so, indeed

I thought that the frights I had been in about
these savage wretches, and the concern I had
been in for my own preservation, had taken off
the edge of my invention for my own conve-
niences; and I had dropped a good design,
which I had once bent my thoughts too much
upon, and that was, to try ifI could not make
some of my barley into malt, and then try to
brew myself some beer. This was really a
whimsical thought, and I reproved myselfoften
for the simplicity of it; for I presently saw
there would be the want of several things ne-
cessary to the making my beer, that it would
be impossible for me tosupply: as, first, casks
to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as
I have observed already, I could never com-
pass; no, though I spent not only many days,
but weeks, nay, months, in attempting it, but
to no purpose. In the next place, I had no
hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it
work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and
yet, with all these things wanting. I verily be-
lieve, had not the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages intervened, I had under-
taken it, and perhaps brought it to pass too;
for I seldom gave any thing over without ac-
complishing it, when once I had it in my head
to begin it. But my invention now ran quite
anotherr-ay ; for, night and day, I could think
of nothing but how I might destroy some of
these monsters in their cruel, bloody enter-
tainment, and, if possible, save the victim they
should bring hither to destroy. It would take
up a larger volume than this whole work is
intended to be, to set down all the contrivances
I hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my
thoughts, for the destroying these creatures, or
at least frightening them so as to prevent their
coming hither any more: but all this was ab-
ortive ; nothing couldbe possible to take effect,
unless I was to be there to do it myself: and
what could one man do among them, when
perhaps there might be twenty or fhirty of
them together, with their darts, or their bows
and arrows, with which they could shoot as
true to a mark as I could with my gun ?
Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under
the place where they made their fire, and put-
ting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which
when they kindled their fire, would conse-
quently take fire, and blow up all that was near
it: but as, in the first place, I should be un-
willing to waste so much powder upon them,
my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going
off at any certain time, when it might surprise
them; and, at best, that it would do little more
than just blow the fire about their ears, and


fright them, but not sufficient to make them
forsake the place: so I laid it aside ; and then
proposed that I would place myself in ambush
in some convenient place, with my three guns
all double-loaded, and, in the middle of their
bloody ceremony, let fly at them, when I
should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or
three at every shot; and then falling in upon
them with my three pistols, and my sword, I
made no doubt but that if there were twenty
I should kill them all. This fancy pleased
my thoughts for some weeks; and I was so
full of it, that I often dreamed of it, and some-
times that I was just going to let fly at them
in my sleep. I went so far with it in my
imagination, that I employed myself several
days to find out proper places to put myself
in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them;
and I went frequently to the place itself, which
was now grown more familiar to me but
while my mind was thus filled with thoughts
of revenge, and a bloody putting twenty or
thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it,
the horror I had at the place, and at the signals
of the barbarous wretches devouring one ano-
ther, abetted my malice. Well, at length, I
found a place in the side of the hill, where I
was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw
any of their boats coming: and might then,
even before they would be ready to come on
shore, convey myself, unseen, into some thick-
ets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely; and
there I might sit and observe all their bloody
doings, and take my full aim at their heads,
when they were so close together as that it
would be next to impossible that I should miss
my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or
four of them at the first shot In this place,
then, I resolved to fix my design; and, accord-
ingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordi-
nary fowlingpiece. The two muskets I loaded
with a brace of slugs each, and four or five
smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-bullets;
and the fowlingpiece I loaded with near a
handful of swan-shot of the largest size: I also
loaded my pistols with about four bullets each;
and in this posture, well provided with am-
munition for a second and third charge, I pre-
pared myself for my expedition.
After I had thus laid the scheme of my de-
sign, and, in my imagination, put it in prac-
tice, I continually made my tour every morn-
ing up to the top of the hill, which was from
my castle, as I called it, about three miles,
or more, to see if I could observe any boats
upon the sea, coming near the island, or
standing over towards it: but I began to tire



of this hard duty, after I bad, for two or three
months, constantly kept my watch, but came
always back without any discovery; there
having not, in all that time, been the least
appearance, not only on or near the shore, but
on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or
glasses could reach every way.
As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill
to look out, so long also I kept up the vigour
of my design, and my spirits seemed to be
all the while in a suitable form for so outra-
geous an execution as the killing twenty or
thirty naked savages, for an offence which I
had not at all entered into a discussion of in
my thoughts, any farther than my passions
were at first fired by the horror I conceived at
the unnatural custom of the people of that
country; who, it seems, had been suffered by
Providence, in his wise disposition of the
world, to have no other guide than that of
their own abominable and vitiated passions;
and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had
been so for some ages, to act such horrid
things, and receive such dreadful customs, as
nothing but nature, entirely abandoned by
Heaven, and actuated by some hellish dege-
neracy, could have run them into. But now,
when, as I have said, I began to be weary of
the fruitless excursion which I had made so
long and so far every morning in vain, so my
opinion of the action itself began to alter;
and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts,
to consider what I was going to engage in;
what authority or call I had to pretend to be
judge and executioner upon these men as
criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for
so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on,
and to be, as it were, the executioners of his
judgments one upon another. How far these
people were offenders against me, and what
right I had to engage in the quarrel of that
blood which they shed promiscuously upon
one another, I debated this very often with
myself, thus: How do I know what God him-
self judges in this particular case ? It is cesr
tain these people do not commit this as a
crime; it is not against their own consciences
reproving, or their light reproaching them;
they do not know it to be an offence, and then
commit it in defiance of divine justice, as we
do in almost all the sins we commit. They
thing it no more a crime to kill a captive
taken in war, than we do to kill an ox; nor to
eat human flesh, than we do to eat mutton.
When I considered this a little, it followed
necessarily that I was certainly in the wrong
in it; that these people were not murderers in
the sense that I had before condemned them


in my thoughts, any more than those Chris-
tians were murderers who often put to death
the prisoners taken in battle; or more fre-
quently, upon many occasions, put whole
troops of men to the sword, without giving
quarter, though they threw down their arms
and submitted. In the next place, it occurred
to me, that although the usage they gave one
another was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it
was really nothing to me; these people had
done me no injury: that if they attempted me,
or I saw it necessary, for my immediate pre-
servation, to fall upon them, something might
be said for it; but that I was yet out of their
power, and they really had no knowledge of
me, and consequently no design upon me;
and therefore it could not be just for me to fall
upon them: that this would justify the conduct
of the Spaniards in all their barbarities prac-
tised in America, where they destroyed mil-
lions of these people: who, however they were
idolaters and barbarians, and had several
bloody and barbarous rites in their customs,
such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols,
were yet, as tothe Spaniards, very innocent peo-
ple; and that the rooting them outofthe country
is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and
detestation by even the Spaniards themselves at
this time, and by all other Christian nations in
Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody and
unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either
to God or man; and for which the very name
of a Spaniard is reckoned to be friWtful and
terrible to all people of humanity, or of Chris-
tian compassion; as if the kingdom of Spain
were particularly eminent for the produce of
a race of men who were without principles of
tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to
the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark
of generous temper in the mind.
These considerations really put me to a
pause, and to a kind of a full stop; and I be-
gan, by little and little, to be off my design,
and to conclude I had taken wrong measures
in my resolution to attack the savages; and
that it was not my business to meddle with
them, unless they first attacked me; and this
it was my business, if possible, to prevent;

but that if I were discovered and attacked by
them, I knew my duty. On the other hand, I
argued with myself, that this really was the
way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin
and destroy myself; for unless I was sure to
kill every one that not only should be on shore
at that time, but that should ever come on
shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped
to tell their country-people what had happened,
they would come over again by thousands to
revenge the death of their fellows, and I should
only bring upon myself a certain destruction,
which, at present, I had no manner ofoccasion
for. Upon the whole, I concluded, that neither
in principle nor in policy, I ought, one way or
other, to concern myself in this affair: that my
business was, by all possible means, to con-
ceal myself from them, and not to leave the
least signal to them to guess by that there were
any living creatures upon the island, I mean of
human shape. Religion joined in with this
prudential resolution; and I was convinced
now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of
my duty when I was laying all my bloody
schemes for the destruction of innocent crea-
tures, I mean innocent as to me. As to the
crimes they were guilty of towards one ano-
ther, I had nothing to do with them ; they
were national, and I ought to leave them to
the justice of God, who is the governor of
nations, and knows how, by national punish-
ments, to make a just retribution for national
offences, and to bring public judgments upon
those who offend in a public manner, by such
ways as best please him. This appeared so clear
to me now, that nothing was a greater satis-
faction to me than that I had not been suffered
to do a thing which I now saw so much reason
to believe would have been no less a sin than
that of wilful murder, if I had committed it;
and I gave most humble thanks on my knees
to God, that had thus delivered me from
bloodguilliness; beseeching him to grcnt me
the protection of his providence, that I might
not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or
that I might not lay my hands upon them,
unless I had a more clear call from Heaven
to do it, in defence of my own life.




In this disposition I continued for near a
year after this; and so far was I fromdesiring
an occasion for falling upon these wretches,
that in all that time I never once went up the
hill to see whether there were any of them in
sight, or to know whether any of them had
been on shore there or not, that I might not be
tempted to renew any ofmy contrivances against
them, or be provoked, by any advantage which
might present itself, to fall upon them: only
this I did, I went and removed my boat, which
I had on the other side of the island, and car-
ried it down to the east end of the whole
island, where I ran it into a little cove, which
I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages
durst not, at least would not, come with their
boats, upon any account whatever. With my
boat I carried away every thing that I had
left there belonging to her, though not neces-
sary for the bare going thither, viz. a mast and
sail which I had made for her, and a thing like
an ane#or, but which, indeed, could not be
called either anchor or grapnel; however, it
was the best I could make ofits kind: all these
I removed, that there might not be the least
shadow of any discovery, or any appearance
of any boat, or of any human habitation, upon
the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I
said, more retired than ever, and seldom went
from my cell, other than upon my constant
employment, viz. to milk my she-goats, and
manage my little flock in the wood, which, as
it was quite on the other part of the island,
was quite out of danger; for certain it is, that
these savage people, who sometimes haunted
this island, never came with any thoughts of
finding any thing here, and consequently never
wandered off from the coast; and I doubt not
but they might have been several times on
shore after my apprehensions of them had
made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed,
I looked back with some horror upon the
thoughts of what my condition would have
been if I had popped upon them and been
discovered before that, when, naked and un-
armed, except with one gun, and that loaded
aften only with small shot, I walked every

where, peeping and peering about the island
to see what I could get; what a surprise
should I have been in, if, when I discovered
the print of a man's foot, I had, instead ofthat,
seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them
pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their run-
ning, no possibility of my escaping them?
The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very
soul within me, and distressed my mind as
much, that I could not soon recover it, to
think what I should have done, and how I
should not only have been unable to resist
them, but even should not have had presence
of mind enough to do what I might have done;
much less what now, after so much conside-
tion and preparation, I might be able to do.
Indeed, after serious thinking of these things,
I would be very melancholy, and sometimes
it would last a great while; but I resolved it
all, at last, into thankfulness to that Provi-
dence which had delivered me from so many
unseen dangers, and had kept from me those
mischief which I could have no way been the
agent in delivering myself from, because I had
not the least notion of any such thing depend.
ing, or the least supposition of its being pos.
sible. This renewed a contemplation which
often had come to my thoughts in former tiam
when first I began to see the merciful disposi*
tions of Heaven, in the dangers we run through
in this life; how wonderfully we are delivered
when we know nothing of it; how, when we are
in (a quandary, as we call it) a doubt or hesi-
tation, whether to go this way, or that way,
a secret hint shall direct us this way, when
we intended to go that way: nay, when sene,
our own inclination, and perhaps businea, has
called to go the other way, yet a strange im-
pression upon the mind, from we know not
what springs, and by we know not what
power, shall overrule us to go this way; and it
shall afterwards appear, that had we gone that
way which we should have gone, and even to
our imagination ought to have gone, we should
have been ruined and los. Upon these, and
many like reflection, I afterwards made it a
certain rule with me, that whenever I fumd
those secret hints or presings of mid, *t


doing or not doing any thing that presented, or
going this way or that way, I never failed to
obey the secret dictate; though I knew no other
reason for it than that such a pressure, or such
a hint, hung upon my mind. I could give many
examples of the success of this conduct in the
course of my life, but more especially in the
latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy
island; besides many occasions which it is
very likely I might have taken notice of, if I
had seen with the same eyes then that I see
with now. But it is never too late to be wise;
and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraor-
dinary incidents as mine, or even though not
so extraordinary, not to slight such secret inti-
mations of Providence, let them come from
what invisible intelligence they wilL That I
shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot account
for; but certainly they are a proof of the con-
verse of spirits, and a secret communication
between those embodied and those unembo-
died, and such a proof as can never be with-
stood; of which I shall have occasion to give
some very remarkable instances in the re-
mainder of my solitary residence in this dis-
mal place.
I believe the reader of this will not think
it strange if I confess that these anxieties,
these constant dangers I lived in, and the con-
cern that was now upon me, put an end to all
invention, and to all the contrivances that I
had laid for my future accommodations and
conveniences. I had the care of my safety
more now upon my hands than that of my food.
I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of
wood now, for fear the noise I might make
should be heard; much less would I fire a gun,
for the same reason: and, above all, I was
intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the
smoke, which is visible at a great distance in
the day, should betray me. For this reason I
removed that part of my business which required
fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c.
into my new apartment in the woods; where,
after I had been some time, I found, to my
unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave
in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at
the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to ven-
ture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but
one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as
a safe retreat.
The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom
of a great rock, where by mere accident, (I
would say, if I did not see abundant reason to
ascribe all such things now to Providence,) I
was cutting down some thick branches of trees

to make charcoal; and, before I go on, I must
observe the reason of my making this charcoal,
which was thus: I was afraid of making a
smoke about my habitation, as I said before;
and yet I could not live there without baking
my bread, cooking my meat, &c.; so I con-
trived to bum some wood here, as I had seen
done in England, under turf, till it became
chark, or dry coal: and then putting the fire
out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and
perform the other services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. But this
is by the by:-While I was cutting down some
wood here, I perceived that behind a very thick
branch of low brushwood, or underwood, there
was a kind of hollow place: I was curious to
look in it, and getting with difficulty into the
mouth of it, I found it was pretty large: that is
to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it,
and perhaps another with me: but I must con-
fess to you that I made more haste out than I
did in, when, looking farther into the place,
and which was perfectly dark, I saw two
broad shining eyes of some creature, whether
devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like
two stars; the dim light from the cave's mouth
shining directly in, and making the reflection.
However, after some pause, I recovered my-
self, and began to call myself a thousand fools,
and to think, that he that was afraid to see the
devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island
all alone; and that I might well think there
was nothing in this cave that was more fright-
ful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my
courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed
again, with the stick flaming in my hand; I
had not gone three steps in, but I was almost
as much frightened as I was before; for I
heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in
some pain, and it was followed by a broken
noise, as of words half expressed, and then a
deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was in-
deed struck with such a surprise, that it put
me into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat
on my head, I will not answer for it, that my
hair might not have lifted it off. But still
plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and
encouraging myself a little with considering
that the power and presence of God was every
where, and was able to protect me, upon this
I stepped forward again, and by the light of
the firebrand, holding it up a little over my
head, I saw lying on the ground a most mon-
strous, frightful, old he-goat, just making his
will, as we say, and gasping for life; and
dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him
a little to see if I could get him out, and he
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise


himself; and I thought with myself he might
evenjia there; for if he had frightened me, so
be would certainly fright any of the savages, if
any of them should be so hardy as to come in
there while he had any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and
began to look round me, when I found the cave
was but very small, that is to say, it might be
about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, neither round nor square, no hands
having ever beel employed in making it but
those of mere Nature. I observed also that
there was a place at the farther side of it that
went in further, but was so low that it required
me to creep upon my hands and knees to go
into it, and whither it went I knew not: so
having no candle, I gave it over for that time;
but resolved to come again tho next day, pro-
vided with candles and a tinder-box, which I
had made of the lock of one of the muskets,
with some wildfire in the pan. y)
Accordingly, the next day Icame provided
with six large candles of my own making, (for
I made very good candles now of goats' tallow,
but was hard set for candle-wick, using some-
times rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the
dried rind of a weed like nettles;) and going
into this low place, I was obliged to creep upon
all fours, as I have said, almost ten yards;
which, by the way, I thought was a venture
bold enough, considering that I knew not how
far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When
I had got through the strait, 1 found the roof
rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet; but
never was such a glorious sight seen in the
island, I dare say, as it was, to look round the
sides and roof of this vault or cave; the wall
reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from
my two candles. What it was in the rock,
whether diamonds, or any other precious stones,
or gold, which I rather supposed it to be, I
knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity or grotto of its kind, as could
be expected, though perfectly dark; the floor
was dry and level, and had a sort of a small
loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nau-
seous or venomous creature to be seen, neither
was there any damp or wet on the sides or
roof: the only difficulty in it was the entrance;
which, however, as it was a place of security,
and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that
was a convenience; so that I was really re-
joiced at the discovery, and resolved, without
any delay, to bring some of those things which
I was most anxious about to this place; par-
ticularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine
of powder, and all my spare arms, viz. two
fowlingpieces, for I had three in all, and three

muskets, for of them I had eight in all: so I
kept at my castle only five, which stood ready
mounted, like pieces of cannon, on my outmost
fence; and were ready also to take out upon
any expedition. Upon this occasion ofremov
ing my ammunition, I happened to open the
barrel of powder which I took up out of the
sea, and which had been wet; and I found that
the water had penetrated about three or four
inches into the powder on every side, which,
caking and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kemrl in the shell; so that I had
near sixty pounds of very good powder in the
centre of the cask: this was a very agreeable
discovery to me at that time; so I carried all
away thither, never keeping above two or three
pounds of powder with me in my castle, for
fear of a surprise of any kind: I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets,
I fancied myself now like one of the ancient
giants, which were said to live in caves and
holes in the rocks, where none could come at
them; for I persuaded myself, while I was
here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt
me, they could never find me out; or, if they
did, they would not venture to attack me here.
The old goat, whom I found expiring, died in
the mouth of the cave the next day after I made
this discovery: and I found it much easier to dig
a great hole there, and throw him in and cover
him with earth, than to drag him out; so I in-
terred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.
I was now in the twenty-third year of my
residence in this island; and was so naturalized
to the place, and the manner of living, that
could I have but enjoyed the certainty that no
savages would come to the place to disturb me,
I could have been content to have capitulated
for spending the rest of my time there, even to
the last moment, till I had laid me down and
died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also
arrived to some little diversions and amuse-
ments, which made the time pass a great deal
more pleasantly with me than it did before:
as, first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted
before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly,
and talked so articulately and plain, that it was
very pleasant to me; for I believe no bird ever
spoke plainer; and he lived with me noles
than six-and-twenty years: how long he might
have lived afterwards I know not, theou I
know they have a notion in the Brazil that
they live a hundred years. My dog was a
very pleasant and loving companion to me fr
no less than sixteen years of my time, and thea
died of mere old age. As for mycats, tey
multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree
that I was obliged to shoot several of them at


first, to keep them from devouring me and all I
had; but, at length, when the two old ones I
brought with me were gone, and after some-
time continually driving them from me, and
letting them have no provision with me, they
all ran wild into the woods, except two or three
favourites, which I kept tame, and whose
young, when they had any, I always drowned;
and these were part of my family. Besides
these, I always kept two or three household
kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of
my hand; and [ had two more parrots, which
talked pretty well, and would all call Robin
Crusoe, but none like my first; nor, indeed did
I take the pains with any of them that I had
done with him.' I had also several tame sea-
fowls, whose names I knew not, that I caught
upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the
little stakes which I had planted before my
castle wall being now grown up to a good thick

grove, these fowls all lived among thee low
trees, and bred there, which was very agree-
able to me; so that, as I said above, I began
to be very well contented with the life I led, if
I could have been secured from the dread of
the savages. But it was otherwise directed;
and it may not be amiss for all people who shall
meet with my story, to make this just obser-
vation from it, viz. How frequently, in the
course of our lives, the evil which in itself we
seek most to shun, and which, when we are
fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is often-
times the very means or door of our deliver-
ance, by which alone we can be raised again
from the affliction we are fallen into. I could
give many examples of this in the course of
my unaccountablelife; but in nothing was it
more particularly remarkable than in the cir-
cumstances of my last years of solitary resi-
dence in this island.



IT was now the month of December, as I
said above, in my twenty-third year; and this,
being the southern solstice, (for winter I cannot
call it,) was the particular time of my harvest,
and required my being pretty much abroad in
the fields: when going out pretty early in the
morning, even before it was thorough daylight,
I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of
about two miles, towards the end of the island
where I had observed some savages had been,
as before; and not on the other side, but, to my
great affliction, it was onmy side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight,
and stopped short within my grove, not daring
to go out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I
nad no more peace within, from the apprehen-
sions I had that if these savages, in rambling
over the island, should find my corn standing
or cut, or any of my works and improvements,
they would immediately conclude that there
were people in the place, and would then never
give over till they had found me out. In this
extremity, I went back directly to my castle,
pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things
without look as wild and natural as I could.
Then I prepared myselfwithin, putting my-
self in a posture of defence: I loaded all my

cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my
muskets, which were mounted upon my new
fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to
defend myself to the last gasp; not forgetting
seriously to commend myself to the divine pro-
tection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver
me out of the hands of the barbarians. I con-
tinued in this posture about two hours; and
began to be mighty impatient for intelligence
abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After
sitting awhile longer, and musing what I should
do in this, I was not able to bear sitting in
ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder
to the side of the hill, where there was a flat
place, as I observed before, and then pulling
the ladder up after me, I set it up again and
mounted to the top of the hill; and pulling
out my perspective glass, which I had taken on
purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on
the ground, and began to look for the place. I
presently found there were no less than nine
naked savages, sitting round a small fire they
had made, not to warm them, for they had no
need of that, the weather being extremely hot,
but, as I supposed, to dress some of their bar-
barous diet of human flesh, which they had
brought with them, whether alive or dead I
could not tell.



They had two canoes with tnem, which
they had hauled up upon the shore; and as it
was then tide of ebb, they seemed to me to
wait for the return of the flood to go away
Again. It is not easy to imagine what con-
fusion this sight put me into, especially seeing
them come on my side of the island, and so
near me too; but when I considered their
coming must be always with the current of
the ebb, I began, afterwards, to be more sedate
m my mind, being satisfied that I might go
abroad with safety all the time of the tide of
flood, if they were not on shore before; and
having made this observation, I went abroad
about my harvest work with the more com-
As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as
the tide made to the westward, I saw them all
take boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it)
away. I should have observed, that for an
hour or more before they went off, they went
a dancing; and I could easily discern their
postures and gestures by my glass. I could
not perceive, by my nicest observation, but
that they were stark naked, and had not the
least covering upon them; but whether they
were men or women, I could not distinguish.
As soon as I saw them shipped and gone,
I took two guns upon my shoulders, and two
pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by
my side, without a scabbard, and with all the
speed I was able to make, went away to the
hill where I had discovered the first appear-
ance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which
was not in less than two hours (for I could not
go apace, being so loaden with arms as I was)
I perceived there had been three canoes more
of savages at that place; and looking out

farther, I saw they were all at sea together,
making over for the main. This was a dread-
ful sight to me, especially as, going down to the
shore, I could see the marks of horror, which
the dismal work they had been about had left
behind it, viz. the blood, the bones, and part
of the flesh of human bodies, eaten and de-
voured by those wretches with merriment and
sport. I was so filled with indignation at the
sight, that I now began to premeditate the
destruction of the next that I saw there, let
them be whom or how many soever. It seemed
evident to me that the visits which they made
thus to this island were not very frequent, for
it was above fifteen months before any more
of them came on shore there again; that is to
say, I neither saw them, nor any footsteps or
signals of them, in all that time; for, as to the
rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come
abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while
I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the con-
stant apprehensions of their coming upon me
by surprise: from whence I observe, that the
expectation of evil is more bitter than the suf-
fering, especially if there is no room to shake
off that expectation, or those apprehensions.
During all this time I was in the murdering
humour, and took up most of my hours, which
should have been better employed, in contriving
how to circumvent and fall upon them, the very
next time I should see them; especially if ihey
should be divided, as they were the last i-mr,
into two parties: nor did I consider at all, that
if I killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen, I
was still the next day, or week, or month, to
kill another, and so another, even ad irfinitum,
till I should be at length no less a murderer
than they were in being man-eaters, and per.


haps much more so. I spent my days now in
great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expect-
ing that I should, one day or other, fall into
he hands of these merciless creatures; and if
I did at any time venture abroad, it was not
without looking round me with the greatest
care and caution imaginable. And now I found,
to my great comfort, how happy it was that I
provided for a tame flock or herd of goats; for
I durst not, upon any account, fire my gun,
especially near that side of the island where they
usually came, lest I should alarm the savages;
and if they had fled from me now, I was sure
to have them come again, with perhaps two
or three hundred canoes with them, in a few
days, and then I knew what to expect. How-
ever, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages,
and then I found them again, as I shall soon
observe. It is true, they might have been
there once or twice, hut either they made
no stay, or at least I did not see them: but in
the month of May, as near as I could calculate,
and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a
very strange encounter with them; of which
in its place.
The perturbation of my mind, during this
fifteen or sixteen months' interval, was very
great; I slept unquiet, dreamed always fright-
ful dreams, and often started out of my sleep
in the night: in the day, great troubles over-
whelmed my mind; and in the night, I dreamed
often of killing the savages, and of the reasons
why I might justify the doing of it. But, to
wave all this for a while.-It was in the mid-
dle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as
well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon,
for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it
was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a
very great storm of wind all day, with a great
deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul
night it was after it. I knew not what was
the particular occasion of it, but as I was
reading in the Bible, and taken up with very
serious thoughts about my present condition,
I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea. This was, to be sure,
a surprise quite of a different nature from any
I had met with before; for the notions this put
into my thoughts were quite of another kind.
I started up in the greatest haste imaginable,
and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the mid-
dle place of the rock, and pulled it after me;
and mounting it the second time, got to the
top of the hill the very moment that a flash of
fire bid me listen for a second gun. which ac-
cordingly, in about half a minute, I heard;
and, by the sound, knew that it was from that


part of the sea where I was driven down the
current in my boat. I innediately considered
that this must be some ship in distress, and
that they had some comrade, or some other
ship in company, and fired these guns for sig-
nals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the
presence of mind, at that minute, to think,
that though I could not help them, it might be
they might help me: so I brought together all
the dry wood I could get at hand, and making
a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the
hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely ;
and though the wind blew very hard, yet it burnt
fairly out; so that I was certain, if there was
any such thing as a ship, they must needs see
it; and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever
my fire blazed up I heard another gun, and
after that several others, all from the same
quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till day-
break; and when it was broad day, and the air
cleared up, I saw something at a great dis-
tance at sea, full east of the island, whether a
sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not
with my glass; the distance was so great, and
the weather still something hazy also; at least,
it was so out at sea.
I looked frequently at it all that day, and
soon perceived that it did not move; so I pre-
sently concluded that it was a ship at anchor;
and being eager, you may be sure, to be satis-
fied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran to-
wards the south side of the island, to the rocks
where I had formerly been carried away with
the current; and getting up there, the weather
by this time being perfectly clear, I could
plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of a
ship, cast away in the night upon those con-
cealed rocks which I found when I was out in
my boat; and which rocks, as they checked
the violence of the stream, and made a kind of
counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of
my recovering from the most desperate, hope-
less condition that ever I had been in, all my
life. Thus, what is one man's safety is ano-
ther man's destruction; for it seems these men,
whoever they were, being out of their know-
ledge, and the rocks being wholly underwater,
had been driven upon them in the night, the
wind blowing hard at E. N. E. Had they
seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose
they did not, they must, as I thought, have
endeavoured to have saved themselves on shore
by the help of their boat; but their firing off
guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filledme with many thoughts
First, I imagined that upon seeing my light,
they might have put themselves into their boat,
and endeavoured to make the shore; but that


the sea going very high, they might have been
cast away: other times I imagined that they
might have lot their boat before, as might be
the case many way; as, particarly, by the
breaking of the sea opo their ship, which
many times obliges men to stave, or take in
pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it
overboard with their own hands: other times I
imagined they had some other ship or ships in
company, who, upon the signals of distress
they had made, had taken them up and carried
them off: other times I fancied they were all
gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried
away by the current that I had been formerly
in, were carried out into the great ocean, where
there was nothing but misery and perishing;
and that, perhaps, they might by this time be
starving, and in a condition to think of eating
one another.
As all these were but conjectures at best,
so, in the condition I was in, I could do no
more than look on upon the misery of the poor
men, and pity them; which had still this good
effect on my side, that it gave me more and
more cause to give thanks to God, who had so
happily and comfortably provided for me in
my desolate condition; and that of two ships'
companies who were now cast away upon this




THERE are some secret moving springs in
the affections, which, when they are set a going
by some object in view, or, though not in
view, yet rendered present to the mind by
the power of imagination, that motion carries
out the soul, by its impetuosity, to such vio-
lent, eager embracing of the object, that the
absence of it is insupportable. Such were
these earnest wishing that but one man had
been saved. I believe I repeated the words,
O that it had been but one! thousand times;
ani ay desires were so moved by it, that when
I spoke the words my hands would clinch toge-
ther, and my fingers would press the palms of
my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in
my hand, it would have crushed it involuntarily;
and the teeth in my head would strike toge-
ther, and set against one another so strong, tha
or omnetimel comldnotpartthemagain. Let

the naturalists explain these things, and the rea
son and manner ofthem: all I can say to them
is, to describe the fact, which was even sur
prising to me, when I found it, though I knew
not from whence it proceeded: it was douts
less the effect of ardent wishes, and ofstrng
ideas formed in my mind, realizing the coomfot
which the conversation of ne of my flow
Christians would have been to me.-But it
was not to be; either their fate or mine, or
both, forbade it: for, tiD the last year of my
being on this island, I never knew whether
any were saved out of that ship or no; anudad
only the affliction, sme days after, to sete
corpse of a drowned boy come on sore at d
end of the island which wasamt the sipwmk.
He had no clothes on but a sma='s wmi
cot, a pair of opewkad lia drsomant
a blue ha shirt; but sathing tdk*Ia" ',


pat of theworld, not oe life should be spred
but mine. I learned here again to observe,
that it is very rare that the providence of God
cast us into ny condition of life so low, r
any misery so great, but we may ee me.
thing or other to be thankful for, and may a
others in worse circumstances than our own.
Such certainly was the case of these men, eo
whom I could not so much a see room to
suppose any of them were saved; nothing
could make it rational so much as to wish or
expect that they did not all perish there, ea.
cept the possibility only of their being taken
up by another ship in company; and this was
but mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the
least sign or appearance of any such thing. I
cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing or hankering of
desires I felt in my soul upon this sight, break
ing out sometimes thus-O that there had
been but one or two, nay, or but one souli
saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me,
that I might but have had one companion, one
fellow creature to have spoken to me, and to
have conversed with! In all the time of my
solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow creature,
or so deep a regret at the want of it.


much as to guess what nation he'was of: he
had nothing in his pockets but two pieces-of-
eight and a tobacco-pipe;-the last was to me
often times more value than the first.
It was now calm, and I had a great mind to
venture out in my boat to this wreck, not
doubting but I might find something on board
that might be useful to me: but that did not
altogether press me so much as the possibility
that there might be yet some living creature
on board, whose life I might not only save, but
might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
the last degree; and this thought clung so to
my heart, that I could not be quiet night or
day, but I must venture out in my boat on
board this wreck; and committing the rest to
God's providence, I thought the impression
was so strong upon my mind that it could not
be resisted, that it must come from some invi-
sible direction, and that I should be wanting
to myself if I did not go.
Under the power of this impression, I has-
tened back to my castle, prepared every thing
for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a
great pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by,
a bottle ofrum, (for I had still a great deal of
that left,) and a basket of raisins: and thus,
loading myself with every thing necessary, I
went down to my boat, got the water out of her,
put her afloat, loaded all my cargo in lier, and
then went home again for more. My second
cargo was a great bag of rice, the umbrella to
set up over my head for a shade, another large
pot of fresh water, and about two dozen of my
small loaves, or barley-cakes, more than before,
with a bottle of goat's milk and a cheese: all
which, with great labour and sweat, I carried
to my boat; and praying to God to direct my
voyage, I put out; and rowing, or paddling,
the canoe along the shore, came at last to the
utmost point of the island on the northeast
side. And now I was to launch out into the
ocean, and either to venture or not to venture.
I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
stantly on both sides of the island at a distance,
and which were very terrible to me, from the
remembrance of the hazard I had been in be-
fore, and my heart began to fail me; for I fore-
saw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a great way out
to sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or sight
of the island again; and that then, as my boat
was but small, if any little gale of wind should
rise, I should be inevitably lost.
These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that
I began to give over my enterprise; and
having hauled my boat into a little creek on
the shore, I stepped out, and sat me down

upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire, about my
voyage; when, as I was musing, I could per-
ceive that the tide was turned, and the flood
come on; upon which my going was imprac-
ticable for so many hours. Upon this, pre-
sently it occurred to me, that I should go up to
the highest piece of ground I could find, and
observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide, or
currents, lay when the flood came in, that 1
might judge whether, if I was driven one way
out, I might not expect to be driven another
way home, with the same rapidness of the cur-
rents. This thought was no sooner in my
head than I east my eye upon a little hill,
which sufficiently overlooked the sea both
ways, and from whence I had a clear view of
lle currents, or sets of tie tide, and which way
I was to guide myself in my return. Here I
found, that as the current of the ebb set out
close by the south point of the island, so the
current of the flood set in close by the shore of
the north side; and that I had nothing to do
but to keep to the north side of the island in
my return, and I should do wellenough.
Encouraged with this observation, I resolved,
the next morning, to set out with the first of
the tide ; and reposing myself for the night
in my canoe, under the great watchcoat I
mentioned, I launched out. I first made a
little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel
the benefit of the current, which set eastward,
and which carried me at a great rate; and yet
did not so hurry me as the current on the south
side had done before, so as to take from me
all government of the boat; but having a strong
steerage with my paddle, I went at a great
rate directly for the wreck, and in less than two
hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight
to look at: the ship, which, by its building, was
Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks; all the stern and quarter of her were
beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her fore-
castle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on
with great violence, her mainmast and fore-
mast were brought by the board, that is to say,
broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound,
and the head and bow appeared firm. When
I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her,
who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and
as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea
to come to me; I took him into the boat, but
found him almost dead with hunger and thirst.
I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured
it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving
a fortnight in the snow: I then gave the poor
creature some fresh water, with which, if I
would have let him, he would have burst him.


self. After this, I went onboard; but the first
sight I met with was two men drowned in
the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with
their arms fast about one another. I concluded,
as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck,
it being in a storm, the sea broke so high, and
so continually over her, that the men were
not able to bear it, and were strangled with
the constant rushing in of the water, as much
as if they had been under water. Besides the
d .. there was nothing left in the ship thathad
]i, nor any goods, that I could see, but what
were spoiled by the water. There were some
casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew
not, which lay lower in the hold, and which,
the water being ebbed out, I could see; but
they were too big to meddle with. I saw se-
veral chests, which I believedbelonged to some
of the seamen; and I got two of them into the
boat, without examining what was in them.
Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the
forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might
have made a good voyage; for, by what I found
in these two chests, I had room to suppose the
ship had a great dealof wealth on board: and,
if I may guess from the course she steered,
she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres,
or the Rio de Ia Plata, in the south part of
America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havanna,
in the Gulfof Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain.
She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but
of no use, at that time,to any body; and what
became of her crew, I then knew not.
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full
of liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got
into my boat with much difficulty. There were
several muskets in the cabin, and a great pow-
derhcrn, with about four pounds of powder in
it; as for the muskets, I had no occasion for
them, so Ileftthem, but took the powderhorn.
I took a fireshovel and tongs, which I wanted
extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron :
and with this cargo, and the dog, I came away,
the tide beginning to make home again; and
the same evening, about an hour within night,
I reached the island again, weary and fatigued
to the last degree. I reposed that night in the
boat; and in the morning I resolved to harbour
what I had got in my new cave, and not carry
it home to my castle. After refreshing my-
self, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to
examine the particulars. The cask of liquor
I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as
we had at the Brazils, and, in a word, not at
all good; but when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me: for
example, I found in one a fine case of bottles,

of an extraordinary kind, and filled with cor-
dial waters, fine and very good; the bottles
held about three pints each, and were tipped
with silver. Ifoundtwo potsofvery good suc-
cades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the
top, that the salt water had not hurt them; and
two more of the same, which the water had
spoiled. I found some very good shirts, which
were very welcome to me ; and about a dozen
and. a half of white linen handkerchiefs and
coloured neckcloths; the former were also very
welcome, being exceeding refreshing to wipe
my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I
came to the till in the chest, I fo;nd there three
great bags of pieces-of-eight, which held about
eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of
them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of
gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold;
I suppose they might all weigh near a pound.
In the other chest were some clothes, but of
little value; but, by the circumstances, it must
have belonged to the gunner's mate; though
there was no powder in it, except two pounds
of fine glazed powder, in three small flasks,
kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-
pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got
very little by this voyage that was of any use
to me; for, as to the money, I had no manner
of occasion for it; it was to me as the dirt
under my feet; and I would have given it all
for three or four pair of English shoes and
stockings, which were things I greatly wanted,
but had none on my feet for many years. I
had indeed got two pair of shoes now, which
I took off the feet of the two drowned men
whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair
more in one of the chests, which were very
welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, either for ease or service, being
rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found
in this seaman's chest about fifty pieces-of-
eight in rials, but no gold: I suppose this be.
longed to a poorer man than the other, which
seemedto belong to some officer. Well, how-
ever, I lugged this money home to my care,
and laid it up, as I had done that before which
I brought from our own ship: but it was a great
pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship
had not come to my share; for I am satisfied
I might have loaded my canoe several times
over with money ; and, thought I, if I ever es-
cape to England, it might lie here safe enough
till I may come again and fetch it.
Having now brought all my things on shore
and secured them, I went back to my boat,
and rowed or paddled her along the shore to
her old harbour, where I laid her up, and
made the best of my way to my old habitation,



where I found every thing safe and quiet. I
began now to repose myself, live after my old
fashion, and take care of my family affairs;
and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only
that I was more vigilant than I used to be,
looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so
much; and if at any time I did stir with any
freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the
savages never came, and where 1 could go
without so many precautions, and such a load
of arms and ammunition as I always carried
with me if I went the other way. I lived in
this condition near two years more; but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know
it was born to make my body miserable, was
all these two years filled with projects and de-
signs, how, if it were possible, I might get
away from this island: for sometimes I was
for making another voyage to the wreck,
though my reason told me that there was
nothing left there worth the hazard of my
voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way,
sometimes another ; and I believe verily, if I
had had the boat that I went from Sallee in,
I should have ventured to sea, bound any
where, I knew not whither. I have been, in
all my circumstances, a memento to those who
are touched with the general plague of man-
kind, whence, for aught I know, one half of
their miseries flow; I mean that of not being
satisfied with the station wherein God and
nature hath placed them: for, not to look back
upon my primitive condition, and the excellent
advice of my father, the opposition to which
was, as I may call it, my original sin, my sub-
sequent mistakes of the same kind had been
the means of my coming into this miserable
condition; for had that Providence, which so
happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter,
blessed me with confined desires, and I could
have been contented to have gone on gradually,
I might have been, by this time, I mean in the
time of my being in this island, one of the most
considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I
am persuaded, that by the improvements I had
made in that little time I lived there, and the
increase I should probably have made if I had
remained, I might have been worth a hundred
thousand moidores: and what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plan-
tation, improving and increasing, to turn su-
percargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when
patience and time would have so increased
our stock at home, that we could have bought
them at our own door from those whose busi-
ness it was to fetch them; and though it had
cost us something more, yet the difference of

that price was by no means worth saving at so
great a hazard? But as this is usually the
fate of young heads, so reflection upon the
folly of it is as commonly the exercise of more
years, or of the dearbought experience of
time: so it was with me now; and yet so
deep had the mistake taken root in my temper,
that I could not satisfy myself in my station,
but was continually poring upon the means
and possibility of my escape from this place:
and that I may, with the greater pleasure to
the reader, bring on the remaining part of my
story, it may not be improper to give some
account of my first conceptions on the subject
of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how,
and upon what foundation, I acted.
I am now to be supposed retired into my
castle, after my late voyage to the wreck, my
frigate laid up and secured under water, as
usual, and my condition restored to what it
was before; I had more wealth, indeed, than
I had before, but was not at all the richer; for
I had no more use for it than the Indians of
Peru had before the Spaniards came there.
It was one of the nights in the rainy season
in March, the four-and-twentieth year of my
first setting foot in this island of solitude, I was
lying in my bed, or hammock, awake; very
well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no
uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of
mind, more than ordinary, but could by no
means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep;
no, not a wink all night long, otherwise than as
follows:-It is impossible to set down the in-
numerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare of the brain,
the memory, in this night's time: I ran over
the whole history of my life in miniature, or
by abridgment, as I may call it, to my com-
ing to this island, and also of that part of my
life since I came to this island. In my reflec-
tions upon the state of my case since I came
on shore on this island, I was comparing the
happy posture of my affairs in the first years
of my habitation here, compared to the life of
anxiety, fear, and care, which I had lived in,
ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the
sand; not that I did not believe the savages
had frequented the island even all the while,
and might have been several hundreds of them
at times on shore there; but I had never
known it, and was incapable of any apprehen-
sions about it; my satisfaction was perfect,
though my danger was the same, and I was as
happy in not knowing my danger as if I had
never really been exposed to it. This fur-
nished my thoughts with many very profita-
ble reflections, and particularly this one: How



infinitely good that Providence is, which has
provided, in its government of mankind, such
narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of
things; and though he walks in the midst of
so many thousand dangers, the sight of which,
ifdiscovered to him, would distract his mind
and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and
calm, by having the events of things hid from
his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers
which surround him.
After these thoughts had for some time en-
tertained me, I came to reflect seriously upon
the real danger I had been in for so many years
in this very island, and how I had walked
about in the greatest security, and with all
possible tranquillity, even when perhaps no-
thing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the
casual approach of night, had been between
me and the worst kind of destruction, viz. that of
falling into the hands of cannibals and savages,
who would have seized on me with the same
view as I would on a goat or a turtle, and have
thought it no more a crime to kill and devour
me, than I did a pigeon or curlew. I would
unjustly slander myself, if I should say I was
not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged,
with great humility, all these unknown deli-
verances were due, and without which I must
inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.
When these thoughts were over, my head
was for some time taken up in considering the
nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the
savages, and how it came to pass in the world,
that the wise Governor of all things should give
up any of his creatures to such inhumanity,
nay, to something so much below even brutal-
ity itself, as to devour its own kind: but as
this ended in some (at that time) fruitless
speculations, it occurred to me to inquire what
part of the world these wretches lived in ? how
far off the coast was from whence they came ?
what they ventured over so far from home for ?
what kind of boats they had? and why I might
not order myself and my business so, that I
might be as able to go over thither as they
were to come to me.
I never so much as troubled myself to consi-
der what I should do with myself when I went
thither; what would become of me, if I fell
into the hands of the savages; or how I should
escape from them, if they attacked me; no, nor
so much as how it was possible for me to reach
the coast, and note attacked by some or other
of them, without any possibility of delivering
myself; and if I should not fall into their hands,
what I should do for provision, or whither I
should bend my course: none ofthese thoughts,

I say, so much as came in my way; but my
mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my
passing over in my boat to the main land. I
looked upon my present condition as the most
miserable that could possibly be; that I was
not able to throw myself into any thing, but
death, that could be called worse; and if I
reached the shore of the main, I might perhaps
meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I
did on the African shore, till I came to some
inhabited country, and where I might find
some relief; and after all, perhaps, I might
fall in with some Christian ship that might
take me in; and if the worst came to the-worst,
I could but die, which would put an end to all
these miseries at once. Pray note, all this
was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient
temper, made desperate, as it were, by the
long continuance of my troubles, and the dis-
appointments I had met in the wreck I had
been on board of, and where I had been so
near obtaining what [ so earnestly longed for,
viz. somebody to speak to, and to learn some
knowledge from them of the place where I was,
and of the probable means of my deliverance.
I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all
my calm of mind, in my resignation to Provi-
dence, and waiting the issue of the disposi-
tions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and
I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts
to any thing but to the project of a voyage to
the main; which came upon me with such
force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that
it was not to be resisted.
When this had agitated my thoughts for
two hours or more, with such violence that it
set my very blood into a ferment, and my
pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely
with the extraordinary fervour of my mind about
it, nature, as if 1 had been fatigued and ex-
hausted with the very thought of it, threw me
into a sound sleep. One would have thought
I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor
of any thing relating to it: but I dreamed that
as I was going out in the morning, as usual,
from my castle, I saw upon the shore two
canoes and eleven savages coming to land, and
that they brought with them another savage,
whom they were going to kill, in order to eat
him; when, on a sudden, the savage that they
were going to kill jumped away, and ran for
his life; and I thought, in 'my sleep, that he
came running into my little thick grove before
my fortification, to hide himself; and that I
seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the
others sought him that way, showed myself to
him, and smiling upon hin, encouraged him
that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray


me to assist him; upon which I showed him
my ladder, made him go up, and carried him
into my cave, and he became my servant: and
that as soon as I had got this man, I said to
myself, Now I may certainly venture to the
main land; for this fellow will serve me as a
pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither
to go for provisions, and whither not to go for
fear of being devoured; what places to ven-
ture into, and what to shun. I waked with this
thought; and was under such inexpressible
impressions ofjoy at the prospect ofmy escape
in my dream, that the disappointments which
I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that
it was no more than a dream, were equally
extravagant the other way, and threw me into
a very great dejection ofspirits.
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion;
that my only way to go about to attempt an
escape was, if possible, to get a savage into
my possession; and, if possible, it should be
one of their prisoners whom they had con-
demned to be eaten, and should bring hither to
kill. But these thoughts still were attended
with this difficulty, that it was impossible to
effect this without attacking a whole caravan
of them, and killing them all; and this was
not only a very desperate attempt, and might
miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly
scrupled the lawfulness of it to myself; and
my heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding
so much blood, though it was for my deliver-
ance. I need not repeat the arguments which
occurred to me against this, they being the
same mentioned before: but though I had
other reasons to offer now, viz. that those men
were enemies tomy life, and would devour me
if they could; that it was self-preservation, in
the highest degree, to deliver myself from this
death of a life, and was acting in my own
defence as much as if they were actually as-
saulting me, and the like; I say, though these
things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shed-
ding human blood for my deliverance were

very terrible to me, and such as I could by no
means reconcile myself to for a great while.
However, at last, after many secret disputes
with myself, and after great perplexities about
it, (for all these arguments, one way and ano-
ther, struggled in my head a long time,) the
eager prevailing desire of deliverance at
length mastered all the rest; and I resolved,
if possible, to get one of those savages into
my hands, cost what it would. My next thing
was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed
was very difficult to resolve on : but as I could
pitch upon no probable means for it, so I re-
solved to put myself upon the watch, to see
them when they came on shore, and leave
the rest to the event; taking such measures
as the opportunity should present, let what
would be.
With these resolutions in my thoughts, I
set myself upon the scout as often as possible,
and indeed so often, that I was heartily tired
of it; for it was above a year and a half that
I waited; and for great part of that time went
out to the west end, and to the southwest
corner, of the island, almost every day, to look
for canoes, but none appeared. This was
very discouraging, and began to trouble me
much; though I cannot say that it did in this
case (as it had done some time before) wear
off the edge of my desire to the thing; but
the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more
eager I was for it: in a word, I was notat
first so careful to shun the sight of these sa-
vages, and avoid being seen by them, as I
was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I
fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two
or three savages, if I had them, so as to make
them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I
should direct them, and to prevent their being
able at any time to do me any hurt. It was a
great while that I pleased myself with this
affair; but nothing still presented; all my fan-
cies and schemes came to nothing, for no
savages came near me for a great while.



AnOUT a year and a nalf after I entertained was surprised, one morning early, with seeing
these notions, (and by long musing had, as it no less than five canoes all on shore together
were, resolved them all mito nothing, for want on my side the island, and the people who
of an occasion to put them into execution,) I belonged to them all landed, and out of my


sight. The umber of them broke al my
measwes; for seeing o many, and knowing
that they always eame four or si, or some.
times more, in a hot, I codd not tell what to
think of it, or how to take my measures, to at-
tack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so
lay still in my castle, perplexed and discom-
forted: however, I put myselfinto all the same
postures for an attack that I had formerly pro-
vided, and was just ready for action, if any
thing had presented. Having waited a good
while, listening to hear if they made any noise,
at length being very impatient, I set my guns
at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to
the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual;
standing so, however, that my head did not
appear above the hill, so that they could not
perceive me by any means. Here I observed,
by the help of my perspective glass, that they
were no less than thirty in number; that they
had a fire kindled, atd that they had meat
dressed. How they hadcooked it I knew not,
or what it was; but they were all dancing, in
I know not how many barbarous gestures and
figures, their own way, round the fire.
While I was thus looking on them. I per-
ceived, by my perspective, two miserable
wretches dragged from the boats, where, it
seems, they were laid by, and were now
brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one
of them immediately fall, being knocked down,
Isuppose, with a club or wooden sword, for
that was their way, and two or three others
were at work immediately, cutting him open
for their cookery, while the other victim was
left standing by himself, till they should be
ready for him. In that very moment, this
poor wretch seeing himself a little at liberty,
and unbound, nature inspired him with hopes
of life, and he started away from them, and
ran with incredible swiftness along the sands,
directly towards me, I mean towards that part
of the coast where my habitation was. I
was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge,
when I perceived him run my way, and es-
pecially when, as I thought I saw him pur-
sued by the whole body: and now I expected
that part of my dream was coming to pass, and
that he would certainly take shelter in my
grove: but I could not depend, by any means,
upon my dream for the rest of it, viz. that the
other savages would not pursue him thither,
and find him there. However, I kept my
station, and my spirits began to recover, when
I found that there was not above three men
that followed him; and still more was I en-
couraged when I found that he outstripped
them exceedingly in running, and gained

ground of them; so that ifhe eald but ldk
it for halfan hour, I saw easily he weM
fairly get away frmn them ai.
There was between them and my emna
the creek, which I mentioned oee in the
first part ofmy story, where I handed my ear-
goes out of the ship; ad this I saw plainly
he must necessarily swim over, or the poor
wretch would be taken thee: but when the
savage escaping came thither, he made no-
thing ofit, though the tide was then up; but
plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran an
with exceeding strength and swiftem.
When the three person came to the creek,
I found that two of them could swim, but the
third could not, and that, standing on the other
side, he looked at the others, but went as
farther, and son after went soily back again;
which, as it happened, was very well for him
in the end. I observed thatthe two whoswa
were yet more than twice as long swimming
over the creek as the fellow was that fled m
them. It came now very warmly upon my
thoughts, and indeed inrestibly, that now
was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps
a companion or assistant, and that I wa
called plainly by Providence to save this poor
creature's life. I immediately ran down the
ladders with all possible expedition, fetched
my two guns, for they were both at the fhot
of the ladders, asI observed above, and getting
up again, with the same haste, to the topof
the hill, I crossed toward the sea, and having
a very short cut, and all down hill, placed
myselfin the way between the puruers and
the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that Bfd,
who, looking back, was at first, perhaps, as
much frightened at me as at them; bat I
beckoned with my hand to him to come bank;
and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced to-
wards the two that followed; then rushing at
once upon the foremost, I knocked him down
with the stock of my piece. I was loath to
fire, because I would not have the rest hear;
though, at that distance, it would not have been
easily heard, and being out of sight of the
smoke too, they would not have easily known
what to make of it. Having knocked this
fellow down, the other who pursued him
stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I
advanced apace towards him: but asI came
nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow
and arrow, and was fittingit to shoot at me;
so I was then necessitated to shoot at him
first, which I did, and killed him at the rt
shot. The poor savage who fled but had
stopped, though he saw both his enemis U


len and killed, as he thought, yet was so
frightened with the fire and noise of my piece,
that he stood stockstill, and neither came for-
ward nor went backward, though he seemed
rather inclined still to fly, than to come on. I
hallooed again to him, and made signs to come
forward, which he easily understood, and came
a little way; then stopped again, and then a
little farther, and stopped again; and I could
then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he
had been taken prisoner, and had just been to
be killed, as his two enemies were. I beck-
oned to him again to come to me, and gave
him all the signs of encouragement that I
could think'of; and he came nearer and nearer,
kneeling down every ten or twelve steps,
in token of acknowledgment for saving his
life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly,
and beckoned to him to come still nearer: at
length he came close to me; and then he
kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and
laid his head upon the ground, and taking me
by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this,
it seems, was in token of swearing to be my
slave for ever. I took him up, and made much
of him, and encouraged him all I could. But
there was more work to do yet; for I perceived
the savage whom I knocked down was not
killed, but stunned with the blow, and began
to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and
showed him the savage, that he was not dead ;
upon this he spoke some words to me, and
though I could not understand them, yet I
thought they were pleasant to hear ; for they
were the first sound of a man's voice that I
had heard, my own excepted, for above twen-
ty-five years. But there was no time for such
reflections now; the savage who was knocked
down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon
the ground, and I perceived that my savage
began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I
presented my other piece at the man, as if I
would shoot him: upon this my savage, for so
I call him now, made a motion to me to lend
him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by
my side, which I did. He no sooner had it,
but he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow,
cut off his head so cleverly, no executioner in
Germany could have done it sooner or better;
which I thought very strange for one who, I
had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his
life before, except their own wooden swords:
however, it seems, as I learned afterwards,
they make their wooden swords so sharp, so
heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will
cut off heads even with them, ay, and arms,
and that at one blow too. When he had done
this, he comes laughing to me, in sign of tri-

umph, and brought me the sword again, and
with abundance of gestures, which I did not
understand, laid it down, with the head of the
savage that he had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most, was to
know how I killed the other Indian so far off:
so pointing to him, he made signs to me to
let him go to him; so I bade him go, as well
as I could. When he came to him, he stood
like one amazed, looking at him, turning him
first on one side, then on the other, looked
at the wound the bullet had made, which, it
seems, was just in his breast, where it had
made a hole, and no great quantity of blood
had followed; but he had bled inwardly, for
he was quite dead. He took up his bow and
arrows, and came back; so I turned to go
away, and beckoned him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them.
Upon this, he made signs to me that he
should bury them with sand, that they might
not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and
so I made signs to him again to do so.
He fell to work; and, in an instant, he had
scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged
him into it, and covered him; and did so by
the other also: I believe he had buried them
both in a quarter of an hour. Then calling
him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but
quite away to my cave, on the farther part of
the island: so I did not let my dream come
to pass in that part, viz. that he came into my
grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and
a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of
water, which I found he was indeed in great
distress for, by his running; and having re-
freshed him, I made signs for him to go and
lie down to sleep, showing him a place where
I had laid some rice straw, and a blanket up-
on it, which I used to sleep upon myselfsome-
times; so the poor creature lay down, and
went to sleep.
He was a comely, handsome fellow, per-
fectly well made, with straight strong limbs,
not too large, tall, and well shaped; and, as I
reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had
a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly
aspect, but seemed to have something very
manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweet-
ness and softness ofan European in his coun-
tenance too, especially when he smiled. His
hair was long and black, not curled like wool;
his forehead very high and large; and a great
vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
The colour of his skin was not quite black, but
very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nau-
seous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians,


and other natives of America are, but of a
bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it
something very agreeable, though not very easy
to describe. His face was round and plump;
his nose small, not flat like the negroes; a very
good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well
set, and as white as ivory.
After he had slumbered, rather than slept,
about half an hour, he awoke again, and came
out of the cave to me, for I had been milking
my goats, which I had in the enclosure just
by: when he espied me, he came running to
me, laying himselfdown again upon the ground,
with all the possible signs ofan humble thank-
ful disposition, making a great many antic ges-
tures to show it. At last, he lays his head flat
upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my
other foot upon his head, as he had done be-
fore; and after this, made all the signs to me
of subjection, servitude, and submission ima-
ginable, to let me know how he would serve me
so long as he lived. I understood him in many
things, and let him know I was very well
pleased with him. In a little time I began to
speak to him, and teach him to speak to me;
and, first, I let him know his name should be
FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life:
I called him so for the memoryof the time. I
likewise taught him to say, Master; and then
let him know that was to be my name: I like-
wise taught him to say Yes and No, and to
know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink
it before him, and sop my bread in it; and
gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which
he quickly complied with, and made signs that
it was very good for him. I kept there with
him all that night; but as soon as it was day,
I beckoned to him to come with me, and let
him know I would give him some clothes; at
which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he
had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to
the place, and showed me the marks that he
had made to find them again, making signs to
me that we should dig them up again, and eat
them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed
my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit
at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my
hand to him to come away; which he did im-
mediately, with great submission. I then led
him up to the top of the hill, to see if his ene-
mies were gone; and pulling out my glass, I
looked, and saw plainly the place where they
had been, but no appearance of them or their
canoes; so that it was plain they were gone,
and had left their two comrades behind them,
without any search after them.

But I was not content witn this discovery,
but having now more courage, andconsequently
more curiosity, I took my man Friday with
me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the
bow and arrows at his back, which I found he
could use very dexterously, making him carry
one gun for me, and I two for myself; and away
we marched to the place where these creatures
had been; for I had a mind now to get some
fuller intelligence of them. When I came
to the place, my very blood ran chill in my
veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the
horror of the spectacle; indeed, it was adread-
ful sight, at least it was so tome, though Friday
made nothing of it. The place was covered
with human bones, the ground dyed with their
blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and
there, hal-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and,
in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over
their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands,
and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and
abundance of other parts of the bodies; and
Friday, by his signs, made me understand that
they brought over four prisoner to feast upon;
that three of them were eaten up, and that he,
pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there
had been a great battle between them and their
next king, whose subjects, it seems, he had
been one o4 and that they had taken a great
number of prisoners; all which were carried
to several places by those who had taken them
in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was
done here by these wretches upon those they
brought hither.
I caused Friday to gather all the kulls,
bones, flesh, and whatever remained, and lay
them together in a heap, and make a great fire
upon it, and bur them all to ashes. I found
Friday had still a hankering stomach after some
of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his
nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence
at the very thoughts of it, and at the least ap-
pearance of it, that he durst not discover it:
for I had, by some means, let him know, that
I would kill him ifhe offered it.
When he had done this, we came back to
our castle; and there I fell to work for my man
Friday: and, first of all, I gave him a pair of
linen drawers, which I had out ofthe poor gun-
ner's chest I mentioned, which 1 found in the
wreck; and which, with a little alteration,
fitted him very well: and then I made him a
jerkin of goat's skin, as well as my skill would
allow, (for I was now grown a tolerable good
tailor;) and I gave him a cap, which I made
of hare's skin, very convenient and fashionable
enough: and thus he was clothed for the pre-


sent, tolerably well, and was mighty well
pleased to see himself almost as well clothed
as his master. It is true, he went awkwardly
in these clothes at first; wearing the drawers
was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of
the waistcoat galled his shoulders, and the in-
side of his arms; but after a little easing them
where lie complained they hurt him, and using
himself to them, he took to them at length
very well. y
The ned day after I came home to my
hutch with him, I began to consider where I
should lodge him; and that I might do well
for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I
made a little tent for him in the vacant place
between my two fortifications, in the inside of
the last and in the outside of the first. As
there was a door or entrance there into my
cave, I made a formal framed doorcase, and a
door to it of boards, and set it up in the pas-
sage, a little within the entrance; and causing
the door to open in the inside, I barred it up
in the night, taking in my ladders too; so that
Friday could no way come at me in the inside
of my innermost wall, without making so
much noise in getting over that it must needs
waken me; for my first wall had now a com-
plete roof over it of long poles, covering all
my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill;
which was again laid across with smaller sticks,
instead of laths, and then thatched over a great
thickness with the rice straw, which was
strong, like reeds; and at the hole or place
which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I
had placed a kind of trapdoor, which, if it had
been attempted on the outside, would not have
opened at all, but would have fallen down, and
make a great noise: as to weapons, I took
them all into my side every night. But I
needed none of all this precaution; for never
man had a more faithful, loving, sincere ser-
vant, than Friday was to me; without pas-
sions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged
and engaged; his very affections were tied to
me, like those of a child to a father; and I
dare say, he would have sacrificed his life for
the saving mine, upon any occasion whatso-
ever: the many testimonies he gave me of this
put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me
that I needed to use no precautions, as to my
safety on his account.
This frequently gave me occasion to observe,
and that with wonder, that however it had
pleased God, in his providence, and in the
government of the works of his hands, to take
from so great a part of the world of his crea-
tures the best uses to which their faculties and
Ibe powers of their souls are adapted, yet that

he has bestowed upon them the same powes,
the same reason, the same affections, the same
sentiments of kindness and obligation, toe
same passions and resentments of wrongs, the
same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity
and all the capacities of doing good, and re-
ceiving good, that he has given to us; and
that when he pleases to offer them occasions
of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more
ready, to apply them to the right uses for which
they were bestowed, than we are. This made
me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting,
as the several occasions presented, how mean
a use we make of all these, even though we
have these powers enlightened by the great
lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by
the knowledge of his word added to our un-
derstanding; and why it has pleased God to
hide the like saving knowledge from so many
millions of souls, who, if I might judge by
this poor savage, would make a much better
use of it than we did. From hence, I some-
times was led too far, to invade the sovereignty
of Providence, and as it were arraign the jus
tice of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that
should hide that light from some, ind reveal
it to others, and yet expect a like duty from
both; but I shut it up, and checked my
thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we
did not know by what light and law these
should be condemned; but that as God was

necessarily, and, by the nature of his being,
infinitely holy and just, so it could not be, but
if these creatures were all sentenced to ab-
sence from himself, it was on account of sin-
ning against that light, wlich, as the Scripture
says, was a law to themselves, and by such
rules as their consciences would acknowledge
to be just, though the foundation was not dis-
covered to us; and, secondly, That still, as we
all are the clay in the hand of the potter, no
vessel could say to him, Why hast thou formed
me thus?
But to return to my new companion:-I was
greatly delighted with him, and made it my
business to teach him every thing that was
proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful;
but especially to make him speak, and under-
stand me when I spoke: and he was the aptest
scholar that ever was; and particularly was
so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me
understand him, that it was very pleasant to
me to talk to him. Now my life began to be
so easy, that I began to say to myself, that
could I but have been safe from more savages,
I cared not if I was never to remove from the
place where I lived.




ArrTw I had been two or three days re-
turned to my castle, I thought that, in order to
bring Friday off from his horrid way of feed-
ing, and from the relish of a cannibal's stomach,
I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took
him out with me one morning to the woods. I
went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my
own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but
as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down
in the shade, and two young kids sitting by
her. I catchedhold ofFriday;-Hold, said I;
stand still; and made signs to him not to stir:
immediately I presented my piece, shot, and
killed one of the kids. The poor creature, who
had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the
savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine, how it was done, was sensibly sur-
prised, trembled and shook, and looked so
amazed, that I thought he would have sunk
down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or
perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his
waistcoat, to feel whether he was not wounded;
and, as I found presently, thought I was resolv-
ed to kill him: for he came and kneeled down
to me, and embracing my knees,.said a great
many things I did not understand; but I could
easily see the meaning was, to pray me not to
kill him.
I soon found a way to convince him that I
would do him no harm; and taking him up by
the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the
kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did: and while he was
wondering, and looking to see how the crea-
ture was killed, I loaded my gun again. By
and by, I saw a greatfowl, like a hawk, sitting
upon a tree, within shqt; so, to let Friday un-
derstand a little what I would do, I called him
to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was
indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been
a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, andto
my gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to
let him see I would make it fall, I made him
understand that I would shoot and kill that
bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him look,
and immediately he saw the parrot fall. He
stood like one frightened again, notwithstand-
ing all I had said to him; and I found he was
the more amazed, because he did not see me
put any thing into the gun, but thought that

there must be some wonderful fund of death
and destruction in that thing, able to kill
man, beast, bird, or any thing near or far off;
and the astonishment this created in him was
such, as could not wear off for a long time;
and I believe, if I would have let him, he
would have worshipped me and my gun. As
for the gun itself he would not so much as
touch it for several days after; but he would
speak to it, and talk to it, as if it had answered
him, when he was by himself; which, as I
afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not
to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was
a little over at this, I pointed to him to run
and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did,
but stayed some time: for the parrot, not be-
ing quite dead, had uttered away a good dis-
tance from the place where she fel: however,
he found her, took her up, and brought her to
me; and as I had perceived his igMnrance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to
charge the gun again, and not to let him see
medo it, that Imight be ready for any other
mark that might present; but nothing more
offered at that time: so brought home the kid,
and the same evening I took the skin off, and
cut it out aswell as I could; and having a ot
fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of
the flesh, and made some very good broth.
After I had begun to eat some, 1 gave some to
my man, who seemed very glad ofit, and liked
it very well: but that which was strangest to
him, was to see me eat salt with it. He made
a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat;
and putting a little into his own mouth, he
seemed to naseate it, and would spit and
spotter at it, washing his mouth with fresh
water after it: on the other hand, I took some
meat into my mouth without salt, and I pretend-
ed to spit and sputter for wnt of salt, as fast
as he had done at the sal; but it would not do;
he would never cae fr salt with his met or
in his broth; at least, not far a great while,
and then but a very little.
Having thus fed him with boiled meat and
broth, I was resolved to feast him the next
day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I
did, by hanging it before the fire an a string,
as I had seen many people do in England,
setting two poles up, e oneach side of the


fire, and one across on the top, and tying the
string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn
continually This Friday admired very much;
but when he came to taste the flesh, he took
so many ways to tell me how well he liked it,
that I could not but understand him: and at
last he told me, as well as he could, he would
never eat man's flesh any more, which I was
very glad to hear.
The next day, I set him to work to beating
some corn out, and sifting it in the manner I
used to do, as I observed before; and he soon
understood how to do it as well as I, especially
after he had seen what the meaning of it was,
and that it was to make bread of it; for after
that I let him see me make my bread, and bake
it too; and in a little time Friday was able to
do all the work for me, as well as I could do
it myself.
I began now to consider, that having two
mouths to feed instead of one, I must provide
more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger
quantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence
in the same manner as before, in which Friday
worked not only very willingly and very hard,
but did it very cheerfully: and I told him what
it was for; that it was for corn to make more
bread, because he was now with me, and that
I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let
me know that he thought I had much more
labour upon me on his account, than [ had for
myself; and that he would work the harder
for me, if I would tell him what to do.
)This was the pleasantest year of all the life
I led in this place; Friday began to talk pretty
well, and understand the names of almost every
thing I had occasion to call for, and.of every
place I had to send him to, and talked a great
deal to me; so that, in short, I began now to
have some use for my tongue again, which,
indeed, I had very little occasion for before,
that is to say, about speech. Besides the
pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular
satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple
unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and
more every day, and I began really to love the
creature; and, on his side, I believe he loved
me more than it was possible for him ever to
love any thing before.
I had a mind once to try if he had any han-
kering inclination to his own country again;
and having taught him English so well that he
could answer me almost any question, I asked
him whether the nation that he belonged to
never conquered in battle? at which he smiled,
and said, Yes, yes, we always fight the better:

that is, he meant, always get the better in
fight; and so we began the following dis-
MASTER. You always fight the better? how
came you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?
FaRDAY. My nation beat much, for all that.
MASTER. How beat? If ydur nation beat
them, how came you to be taken?
FaIDAY. They more many than my nation
in the place where me was; they take one,
two, three, and me; my nation overheat then
in the yonder place, where me no was; there
my nation take one, two, great thousand.
MASTER. But why did not your side recover
you from the hands of your enemies then?
FRIDAY. They run one, two, three, and
me, and make go in the canoe; my nation have
no canoe that time.
MASTER. Well, Friday, and what does
your nation do with the men they take? Do
they carry them away and eat them, as these
FRIDAY. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat
all up.
MAsTER. Where do they carry them ?
FRIDAY. Go to other place, where they
MASTER. Do they come hither?
FRIDAY. Yes, yes, they come hither; come
other else place.
MASTER. Have you been here with them?
FRIDAY. Yes, I have been here; (points to
the N. W. side of the island, which, it seems,
was their side.)
By this I understood that my man Friday
had formerly been among the savages who used
to come on shore on the farther part of the
island, on the same maneating occasions he
was now brought for; and, some time after,
when I took the courage to carry him to that
side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was
there once when they eat up twenty men, two
women, and one child: he could not tell twenty
in English, but he numbered them, by laying
so many stones in a rdw, and pointing to me
to tell them over.
I have told this passage, because it intro-
duces what follows; that after I had this dis-
course with him, I asked him how far it was
from our island to the shore, and whether the
canoes were not often lost. He told me there
was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that,
after a little way out to sea, there was a cur-
rent and wind, always one way in the morning,
the other in the afternoon. This I understood
to be no more than the sets of the tide, as going
out or coming in, but I afterwards understood


it was occasioned by the great draft and refux He looked very grave, and with a perfect look
of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or ofinnoence said, AnthingsyOtohim. I
gulf of which river, as I found afterwards, our asked him if the people who die in his country
island lay; and that this land whicif I pereiv- went away any where? He said, Ye; they
ed to the W.and N. W. was the great island all went to Benamuckee: then I asked him
Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of whether these they eat up went thither too?
the river. I asked Friday a thousand ques- He said, Yes. -/
tions about the country, the inhabitants, the From thee things I began to instruct him
sea, the coast, and what nations were near: in the knowledge of the true God: I told him
he told me all he knew, with the greatest open- that the great Maker of all things lived up
ness imaginable. I asked him the names of there, pointing rp towards heaven; that he
the several nations of his sort of people, but governed the world by the same power and
could get no other name than Caribs: from providence by which he made it; that he was
whence I easily understood, that these were omnipotent, and could do every thing for us,
the Caribbees, which our maps place on the give every thing to us, take every thing from
part ofAmerica which reaches from the mouth us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes.
of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards He listened with great attention, and received
to St. Martha. He told me that up a great with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being
way beyond the moon, that was, beyond the sent to redeem us, and of the manner of mak-
setting of the moon, which must be west from ing our prayers to God, and his being able to
their country, there dwelt white bearded men, hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, that if our God could hear us up beyond the
which I mentioned before; and that they had sun, he must needs be a greaterGod than their
killed much mans, that was his word: by all Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off,
which I understood, he meant the Spaniards, and yet could not hear till they went up to the
whose cruelties in America had been spread great mountains where he dwelt to speak to
over the whole country, and were remembered him. I asked him if ever he went thither to
by all the nations, from father to son. speak to him? He said, No; they never went
I inquired if he could tell me how Imight that were young men; none went thither but
go from this island and get among those white the old men, whom he called their Oowokakee;
men: he told me, Yes, yes, you may going two that is, as I made him explain it to me, their
canoe. I could not understand whathe meant, religious, or clergy; and that they went to say
or make him describe to me what he meant O, (so he called saying prayers,) and then
by two canoe; till, at last, with great difficulty, came back, and told them what Benamuckee
I found he meant it must be in a large boat, as said. By this I observed, that there is priest-
big as two canoes. This part of Friday's dis- craft even among the most blinded, ignorant
course began to relish with me very well; and pagans in the world; and the policy of making
from this time I entertained some hopes that, a secret ofreligion, in order to preserve the
one time or other, I might find an opportunity veneration of the people to the clergy, is not
to make my escape from this place, and that only to be found in the Roman, but perhaps
this poor savage might be a means to helpme. among all religions in the world, even among
During the long time that Friday had now the most biutish and barbarous savages.
been with me, and that he began to speak to I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my
me, and understand me, I was not want- man Friday; and tld him, that the pretence
ing to lay a foundation of religious know- of their old men going up to the mountains to
ledge in his mind: particularly I asked him one say 0 to their god Benamckee was a cheat;
time, who made him? The poor creature did and their bringing word frm thence what he
not understand me at all, but thought I had said was much more so; that if they met with
asked him who wa s father: but I took it up any answer, or spake with any ne there, it
by another handle, and asked him who made must be with anevil spirit: and then I entered
the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills into a long discourse with him about the devil,
and woods! He told me, it was one old Be the original of him, his rebellion against God,
namuekee, that lived beyond all; he could his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting
describe nothing of this great person, but that himself up in the dark parts of the world to
he was very old, much older, he said, than the worshipped instead of God, and as God, and
a orthe land, than the mo or the sta. the the many stratagems he made se of to de
ased him theo, if this old perao had made mankind to their roni; how he had a serat
al things, why did not all things whip him? access to our passions and to oa aectim,


and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so
as to cause us even to be our own tempters,
and run upon our destruction by our own choice.
I found it was not so easy to imprint right
notions in his mind about the devil, as it was
about the being of a God: nature assisted all
my arguments to evidence to him even the ne-
cessity of a great First Cause, and overruling,
governing Power, a secret, directing Provi-
dence, and of the equity and justice of paying
homage to him that made us, and the like; but
there appeared nothing of this kind in the no-
tion of an evil spirit; of his original, his being,
his nature, and, above all, of his inclination to
do evil, and to draw us in to do so too: and
the poor creature puzzled me once in such a
manner, by a question merely natural and in-
nocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him.
I had been talking a great deal to him of the
power of God, his omnipotence, his aversion
to sin, his being a consumingfire to the workers
of iniquity; how, as he had made us all, he
could destroy us and all the world in a moment;
and he listened with great seriousness to me
all the while. After this, I had been telling
him how the devil was God's enemy in the
hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill
to defeat the good designs of Providence, and
to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and
the like. Well, says Friday, but you sayGod
is so strong, so great; is he not much strong,
much might as the devil?-Yes, yes, says I,
Friday, God is stronger than the devil: God is
above the devil, and therefore we pray to God
to tread him down under our feet, and enable
us to resist his temptations, and quench his
fiery darts.-But, says he again, ifGod much
stronger, much might as the devil, why God
no kill the devil, so make him no more do
wicked ? I was strangely surprised at this
question; and, after all, though I was now an
old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill
qualified for a casuist, or a solver ofdifficulties;
and, at first, I could not tell what to say; so
I pretended not to bear him, and asked him
what he said; but he was too earnest for an
answer, to forget his question, so that he re-
peated it in the very same broken words as
above. By this time I had recovered myself
little, and I said, God will at last punish him
severely; he is reserved for the judgment, and
is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell
with everlasting fire. This did not satisfy
Friday; but he returns upon me, repeating my
words, Reserve at ls: me no understand; but
why not kill the devil now; not kill great ago?
-You may as well ask me, said I, why God
does not kill you and me, when we do wicked

things here that offend him? We ars pre-
served to repent and be pardoned. He miued
some time on this: Well, well, says he, mighty
affectionately, that well: so you, I, devil, all
wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.
Here I was run down again by him to the last
degree; and it was a testimony to me, how the
mere notions of nature, though they will guide
reasonable creatures to the knowledge of aGod,
and of a worship or homage due to the supreme
being of God, as the consequence of our na-
ture, yet nothing but divine revelation can
form the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of
redemption purchased for us, ofa Mediator of
the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the
footstool of God's throne; I say, nothing but
a revelation from Heaven can form these in
the soul; and that, therefore, the Gospel of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the
Word of God, and the Spirit of God, promised
for the guide and sanctifier of his people, are
the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls
of men in the saving knowledge of God, and
the means of salvation.
I therefore diverted the present discourse
between me and my man, rising up hastily, as
upon some sudden occasion of going out; then
sending him for something a good way off, I
seriously prayed to God that he would enable
me to instruct savingly this poor savage; as-
sisting, by his Spirit, the heart of the poor
ignorant creature to receive the light of the
knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling him
to himself, and would guide me to speak so to
him from the word of God, as his conscience
might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his
soul saved. When he came again to me, I
entered into a long discourse with him upon
the subject of the redemption of man by the
Saviour of the world, and of the doctnne of the
Gospel preached from heaven, viz. ofrepentance
towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord
Jesus. I then explained to him, as well as I
could, why our blessed Redeemer took not on
him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abra-
ham; and how, for that reason, the fallen an.
gels had no share in the redemption; that he
came only to the lost sheep of the house of
Israel, and the like.
I had,God knows, more sinceeity than know,
ledge in all the methods I took for this poor
creature's intructioo, and must acknowledge,
what I believe all that act upon the sam prin-
ciple will find, that in laying things open to
him, I really informed and instructed myself in
many things that either I did not know, or had
not fully considered before, but which ocumrrd
naturally to my mind upon searching into them


for thgnformation ofthis poor savage; andI had
more affection in my inquiry after things upon
this occasion than ever I felt before: so that,
whether this poor wild wretch was the better
for me or no, I had great reason to be thank-
ful that ever he came tome; my grief sat lighter
upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to
me beyond measure: and when I reflected,
that in this solitarylife which I had been con-
fined to, I had not only been moved to look up
to Heaven myself, and to seek to the hand that
had brought me here, but was now to be made
an instrument, under Providence, to save the
life, and, for aught I knew, the soul, of a poor
savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of
religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that
he might know Christ Jesus, in whom is life
eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these
things, a secret joy ran through every part of
my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I
was brought to this place, which I had so often
thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that
could possibly have befallen me.
I continued in this thankful frame all the
remainder of my time; and the conversation
which employed the hours between Friday and
me was such, as made the three years which
we lived there together perfectly and completely
happy, if any such thing as complete happi-
ness can be formed in a sublunary state. This
savage was now a good Christian, a much bet-
ter than'I; though I have reason to hope, and
bless God for it, that we were equally penitent,
and comforted, restored penitents. We had
here the word of God to read, and no farther
off from his Spirit to instruct, than if we
had been in England. I always applied my-
self, in reading the Scriptures, to let him know,
as well as I could, the meaning of what I read;
and he again, by his serious inquiries and

questioning, made me, as I said before, a
much better scholar in the Scripture-knowledge
than I should ever have been by my own mere
private reading. Another thing I cannot re-
frain from observing here also, from experience
in this retired part of my life, viz.'how infinite
and inexpressible a blessing it is that the know-
ledge of God, and of the doctrine of salvation
by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the
word ofGod, so easy to be received and un-
derstood, that, as the bare reading the Scrip-
ture made me capable of understanding enough
of my duty to carry me directly on to the great
work of sincere repentance for my sins, and
laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation,
to a stated reformation in practice, and obe-
dience to all God's commands, and this with-
out any teacher or instructor, I mean human;
so, the same plain instruction sufficiently served
to the enlightening this savage creature, and
bringing him to be such a Christian, as I have
known few equal to him in my life.
As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and
contention, which have happened in the world
about religion, whether niceties in doctrines,
or schemes of church government, they were
all perfectly useless to us, and, for aught I can
yet see, they have been so to the rest of the
world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz.
the word of God; and we had, blessed be God,
comfortable views of the Spirit of God teach-
ing and instructing us by his word, leading us
into all truth, and making us both willing and
obedient to the instruction of his word. And
I cannot see the least use that the greatest
knowledge of the disputed points of religion,
which have made such confusions in the world,
would have been to us, if we could have ob-
tained it.-But I must go on with the historical
part of things, and take every part in its order.



AFTER Friday and I became more inti-
mately acquainted, and that he could understand
almost all I said to him, and speak pretty flu-
ently, though in broken English, to me, I ac-
quainted him with my own history, or at least
so much of it as related to my coming to this
place; how I had lived here, and how long: I
let him into the mystery, for such it was to

him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him
how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he
was wonderfully delighted with; and I made
him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in
England we wear hangers in; and in the frog,
instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which
was not only as good a weapon, in some cases,
but much more useful upon other occasions.


I described to him the country ofEurope, par-
ticularly England, which I came from; how we
lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved
to one another, and how we traded in ships to all
parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had been on board of, and showed
him, as near as I could, the place where she
lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before,
and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat,
which we lost when we escaped, and which I
could not stir with my whole strength then;
but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon
seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing. I asked him what it
was he studied upon ? At last, says he, Me
see such boat like come to place at my nation.
I did not understand him a good while; but,
at last, when I had examined farther into it, I
understood by him, that a boat, such as that
had been, came on shore upon the country
where he lived; that is, as he explained it,
was driven thither by stressof weather. Ipre-
sently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the
boat might get loose, and drive ashore; but
was so dull, that I never once thought of men
makingtheir escape from a wreck thither, much
less whence they might come: so I only in-
quired after a description of the boat.
Friday described the boat to me well enough;
but brought me better to understand him when
he added, with some warmth, We save the
white mans from drown. Then I presently
asked him, if thre- were any white mans, as
he called them, in the boat? Yes, he said;
the boat full of white mans. I asked him
how many ? He told upon his fingers seven-
teen. I asked him then what became of them ?
He told me, They live, they dwell at my na-
This put new thoughts into my head; for I
presently imagined that these might be the
men belonging to the ship that was cast away
in the sight of my island; as I now called it;
and who, after the ship was struck on the rock,
and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved
themselves in their boat, and were landed upon
that wild shore among the savages. Upon
this, I inquired of him more critically what
was become of them; he assured me they
lived still there; that they had been there
about four years; that the savages let them
alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I
asked him how it came to pass they did not
kill them, and eat them? He said, No, they
make brother with them; that is, as I under-
stood him, a truce; and then he added, They
o eat mans but when make the war fight;

that is to say, they never eat any men but
such as come to fight with them, and ae taken
in battle.
It was after this some considerable time,
that being upon the top of the hill, at the east
side of the island, from whence, as I have said,
I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or
continent of America, Friday, the weather be-
ing very serene,looks very earnestly towards the
main land, and, in a kind of surprise, falls a
jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for
I was at some distance from him. I asked him
what was the matter ? 0 joy! says he ; 0 glad!
there see my country, there my nation! I
observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure
appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled,
and his countenance discovered a strange
eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own
country again. This observation of mine put
a great many thoughts into me, which made
me at first not so easy about my new man,
Friday, as I was before; and I made no doubt
but that if Friday could get back to his own
nation again, he would not only forget all his
religion, but all his obligation to me, and would
be forward enough to give his countrymen an
account of me, and come back perhaps with a
hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon
me, at which he might be as merry as he used
to be with those of his enemies, when they
were taken in war. But I wronged the poor
honest creature very much, for which I was
very sorry afterwards. However, as my jea-
lousy increased, and held me some weeks, I
was a little more circumspect, and notso fami-
liar and kind to him as before: in which I was
certainly in the wrong too; the honest, grate-
ful creature, having no thought about it, but
what consisted with the best principles, both as
a religious Christian, and as a grateful friend;
as appeared afterwards, to my full satisfaction.
While my jealousy of him lasted, you may
he sure I was every day pumping him, to see
if he would discover any of the new thoughts
which I suspected were in him: but I found
every thing he said was so honest and so inno-
cent, that I could find nothing to nourish my
suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness,
he made me at last entirely his own again; nor
did he, in the least, perceive that I was un-
easy, and therefore I could not smpect him of
One day, walking up the same hill, but the
weather being hazy at sea, o that we could
not see the continent, I called to him, and said,
Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, y6ur own nation?-Yes, he said, I be
much 0 glad to be at my own nation.-What

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