Title Page
 Biographical memoir of Daniel De...
 Robinson Crusoe: Part I
 Robinson Crusoe: Part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072802/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xx, 460 p., <6> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Browne, Hablot Knight, 1815-1882 ( Illustrator )
Evans, Edmund, 1826-1905 ( Engraver )
G. Routledge & Co ( Publisher )
Woolley and Cook ( Printer )
Publisher: George Routledge and Co.
Place of Publication: London (Soho Square)
Manufacturer: Woolley and Cook
Publication Date: 1850
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe ; with a life of the author ; illustrated by Phiz.
General Note: Ill. engraved by E. Evans.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072802
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17577742

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Biographical memoir of Daniel De Foe
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
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        Page xix
        Page xx
    Robinson Crusoe: Part I
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Robinson Crusoe: Part II
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Full Text







J .. .







DANIEL FOE, or De Foe, as he subsequently styled himself,
was born in the parish of St. Giles's Cripplegate, in the year
1691, where his father, James Foe, had previously followed
the trade of a butcher, for many years. Of the earlier
members of his family little or nothing is known, all our
information respecting them being supplied by the slight
incidental allusions found in the writings of our author.
From this source it appears that his ancestors were yeomen
who farmed their own estate, at Elton in Northamptonshire;
they also contrived to maintain a pack of hounds, from
which it may be inferred that their means were above com-
petency. In an anecdote illustrative of the once prevalent
custom among country gentlemen in discordant times of
bestowing party names upon their dogs, he thus makes
mention of his grandfather. "I remember my grandfather,"
says De Foe, had a huntsman who used the same fami-
liarity with his dogs; and he had his Roundhead, and his
Cavalier, and his Goring, and his Waller, and all the generals
of both armies were hounds in his pack; till the times turn-
ing, the old gentleman was fain to scatter the pack, and
make them up of more dog-like surnames." He appears
to have had several collateral relatives, to whom he alludes
occasionally, but with too much brevity to ascertain the
degree of kindred. His parents were noncomformists, and
under the guidance and the ministrations of the Rev. Dr.
Annesly, a presbyterian minister, who had been ejected from

the living of Cripplegate, he was early initiated in those
moral and religious principles, which so strongly charac-
terised his after life and writings. While yet a boy, he
manifested a cheerfulness, vivacity, and buoyancy of spirits,
with such remarkable courage, as was soon displayed in that
spirit of independence, and unconquerable love of liberty
which characterized his long and singularly chequered life.
In one of his "Reviews"-a work which we shall often
have to quote-he says of himself: From a boxing English
boy I learned this early piece of generosity, not to strike my
enemy when he is down;" a disposition that he maybe said
to have cherished in his literary contests. An anecdote,
illustrative of the times of his youth, may here be given.
During that part of the reign of King Charles II., when
the nation was under strong apprehensions of a Roman-
catholic government, and it was feared that religious persons
would become the victims of persecution, and that all printed
Bibles would be destroyed or else locked up in an unknown
tongue, many honest silly people, struck with the alarm,
employed themselves in copying the Bible into short-hand.
To this task young De Foe applied himself, and he tells us,
" that he worked like a horse until he had written out the
whole Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that he was will-
ing to risk the rest." The influences of pious example, and
the blessings of a liberal religious education, were developed
in all his after circumstances. Brought up among dissenters,
he embraced their views of politics and religion; he wrote
and suffered in their cause; and a fuller and clearer view of
their history and progress is perhaps nowhere to be found
than in his "Reviews," and others of his publications.
At the age of fourteen, he was removed from school to
the academy of the Rev. Charles Morton, at Newington
Green, noted in his day as "a polite and refined scholar,"
who was subsequently defended by his pupil, some aspersions
having been cast upon the master, by an ungrateful scholar
who had deserted to the Church. De Foe writes: I must
do that learned gentleman's memory the justice to say, that
neither in his system of politics, government, and discipline,
nor in any other of the exercises of that school, was there
anything taught or encouraged that was anti-monarchical,
or destructive to the constitution of England." Shut out
by law from the universities, this was one of the institutions
the dissenters had as substitutes. His progress here is not
known; but it is to be gathered from his writings, that "he

had been master of five languages; that he had studied the
mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography, and
history." In this academy he went through a course of
theology, and studied politics as a science. If his active
habits prevented him from becoming a profound scholar,
he acquired sufficient learning to become a formidable rival
to the writers of that disputatious age. That he was intended
for the ministry is certain, as he says in one of his "Reviews"
-" It is not often that I trouble you with any of my divinity;
the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster first to
be set apart for, and then to be set apart from, the honour
of that sacred employ;" what made him change his course
does not distinctly appear. However, his genius following
another bent, and his necessities compelling him, he entered
on a succession of employment, the details of which illus-
trate the history of half a century.
At the age of twenty-one, he commenced as author, and
with all the ardour of youthful blood, espoused the popular
side in politics. Soon after, taking part in the Duke of
Monmouth's hapless expedition, from which he escaped
with better fortune than many of the insurgents, he engaged
himself in commercial affairs, with a determination never
again to enter the stormy region of politics. The nature of
his business has been variously represented; by some he is
styled a hosier, but more probably it was that of a hose-
factor, a middle dealer between the manufacturer and retailer.
This agency concern he carried on in Freeman's Court,
Cornhill, and to it he devoted a part of his time during ten
years; according to Mr. Chalmers from 1685 to 1695. In
January 1688, he was admitted a liveryman of London.
His name in the Chamberlain's book, is written "Daniel
Foe." But he was not successful in business; the times
were too stormy for his active spirit to keep quiet at the
counter; and he was drawn out into company, and spent
too many of his hours in coffee-houses and taverns, engaging
eagerly in the controversial subjects which then interested
all classes. He set himself in determined opposition to one
of the current opinions which was then embraced by great
numbers of all parties, that kings derive their dignity and
power directly from heaven, and are not accountable to
men for their actions. It was for many years together,"
says our author, "and I am witness to it, that the pulpit
sounded nothing but the duty of absolute submission,
obedience without reserve, subjection to princes as God's

vicegerents, accountable to none, and to be withstood in
nothing, and by no person. I have heard it publicly
preached, that if the king commanded my head, and sent
his messengers to fetch it, I was bound to submit, and stand
still while it was cut off."
The Revolution and the accession of King William com-
menced a new era in the life of De Foe. He annually
commemorated the 4th of November: "a day," says he,
"famous on various accounts, and every one of them dear to
Britons who love their country, value the Protestant interest,
or have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this
day he (King William) was born; on this day he married
the daughter of England; and on this day he rescued the
nation from a bondage worse than that of Egypt; a bondage
of soul, as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the ambition
and raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice,
cruelty, and blood." We can now smile at this eulogistic
rhapsody, but De Foe always evinced a kind of idolatry for
his Protestant patron, and displayed a spirit of knight-
errantry in defence of his character and memory whenever
it was assailed.
In the prosecution of his commercial speculations, De Foe
appears to have made more than one voyage to Spain, since
in one of his Reviews" he alludes to an old Spanish pro-
verb, which," says he, "I learned when I was in that
country." His intercourse, it likewise seems, was sufficiently
protracted to allow him opportunity to make himself master
of the language.
De Foe's failure in business appears to have been acce-
lerated by some considerable and frequent losses by ship-
wreck; though the occupations of trade, according to his
own confession, assort ill with literary feelings. A wit
turned tradesman!" he exclaims; "no apron strings will
hold him, 'tis in vain to lock him in behind the counter, he
is gone in a moment." He concludes: "A statute of bank-
rupt is his exeunt omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue
in the Fleet Prison or Mint." In allusion to the misfortunes
of our author, Mr. Chalmers observes: "With the usual
imprudence of genius, he was carried into companies who
were gratified with his wit. He spent those hours with a
small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-
house. Being obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692,
he naturally attributed those misfortunes to the war which

were probably owing to his own misconduct. An angry
creditor took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was
soon superseded, on the petition of those to whom he was
indebted, who accepted a composition on his single bond.
This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied dili-
gence; but some of his creditors who had been thus satisfied,
afterwards falling into distress themselves, De Foe volun-
tarily paid them their whole claim, being then in rising
circumstances in consequence of King William's favour."
De Foe being subsequently assailed by Lord Haversham
for mercenary conduct, he tells him, in 1705, that, with a
numerous family, and no help but his own industry, he had
forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence, through a set
of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of compo.
sition, from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand
Wounds." It must not be forgotten that, in the days of
e Foe, our laws against bankrupts were as inhuman as
they were foolish. "The cruelty of our laws against
debtors," observes our author, "without distinction of
honest or dishonest, are the shame of our nation. I am
persuaded the honestest man in England, when by necessity
he is compelled to break, will early fly out of the kingdom
rather than submit. To stay here, this is the consequence:
as soon as he breaks he is proscribed as a criminal, and has
from thirty to sixty days to surrender both himself and all
that he has to his creditors. If he fails to do it, he has
nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit of
clergy. If he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be
thrown into gaol for life by the commissioners, only on
pretence that they doubt his oath! what must the man do?"
De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors,
appears to have fixed his residence at Bristol. "A friend
of mine in that city," says Mr. Wilson, in his Life and
Times of Daniel De Foe,' "informs me that one of his
ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him
walking in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion
of the times, with a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a
sword by his side; also, that he obtained the name of the
Sunday gentleman,' because, through fear of the bailiffs, he
did not dare to appear in public upon any other day." It
was during his residence at Bristol, that De Foe composed
his celebrated Essay on Projects," though it was not
published till some years afterwards.
In 1695 De Foe obtained the situation of accountant to

the glass commissioners, which he lost in 1699 by the termi-
nation of the commission, the tax being then suppressed.
It was about this time that he became secretary to the pantile
and brick-kiln works, established at Tilbury on the banks
of the Thames. This manufacture had hitherto always
been imported from Holland, and its introduction into this
country was doubtless productive of a great benefit. De
Foe, however, did not profit by it; the speculation eventually
proved unsuccessful; and it is asserted that he lost by its
failure no less than three thousand pounds. In 1701, he
produced his most popular poem, the True-born English-
man," which ran through several editions. It opens with
some lines which have passed into a proverb-
"Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation."
The "True-born Euglishman" was caused by an attack
upon King William, in which his faults were summed up in
the epithet of "foreigner," which then had a very oppro-
brious kind of sound and meaning.
To this poem De Foe was indebted for his personal intro-
duction to King William, who was so flattered by his
defence, that he made him a present of a sum of money,
and subsequently employed him in many services where he
could turn his talents and integrity to good account.
Of the success of this satire, we have the testimony of
De Foe himself, who thus writes, about thirty years after
its first appearance:-" National mistakes, vulgar errors,
and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just
satire. None of our countrymen have been known to boast
of being true-born Englishmen, or so much as to use the
word as a title or appellation, ever since a late satire upon
that national folly was published, though almost thirty years
before." It was about this time also that he drew up thecele-
brated "LEGION Paper," on the occasion of five Kentish
gentlemen being committed for presenting a petition to the
House of Commons. In what manner it was communicated
to the House does not appear upon the journals. It was
reported at the time, that De Foe, disguised as a woman,
presented it to the Speaker as he entered the House. His
" Reasons against a War with France," also appeared at this
time, and has been characterized as one of the best political
tracts in the English language.

By the death of the king, De Foe lost a true and powerful
patron, and his gratitude was only equal to his admiration
of his character. In the new reign he could expect no
favors from the government; he had always been obnoxious
to the House of Stuart and its adherents. This source of
profit then being dried up, without much chance of its
re-opening, he betook himself diligently to his pen. to which
alone he could safely trust for his subsistence. From this
time De Foe became exceedingly prolific, and tract after
tract poured from the press, upon almost every topic that
started into notice: it would be endless to enumerate them.
Among these was the celebrated piece of grave irony entitled,
The Shortest Way with the Dissenters; or, Proposals for
the Establishment of the Church: 1702,"-(anonymous)-
by which all parties were at first imposed upon. But when
the author's name was known, people were at no loss to
decipher his object; and those who had committed them-
selves by launching forth in his praises, were stung with
madness at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the
party in power to crush De Foe by a State prosecution. In
the height of the storm our author sought concealment;
when the following proclamation was published by the
Secretary of State, offering 501. for the discovery of his
retreat, and advertised in the "London Gazette," for
January 10, 1702:-" Whereas, Daniel Foe, alias De Foe,
is charged with writing a scandalous and seditious pamphlet,
entitled The Shortest Way with the Dissenters.' He is a
middle-sized spare man, about forty years old; of a brown
complexion, and dark brown coloured hair, but wears a wig;
a hook nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, with a large mole near
his mouth; was born in London, and for many years was a
hose-factor in Freeman's ard, Cornhill, and now is owner
of the brick and pantile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex.
Whoever shall discover tne said Daniel De Foe to one of
her Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, or any of her
Majesty's justices of the peace, so he may be.opprehended,
shall have a reward of 501., which her Majesty has ordered
immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
It was resolved by the House of Commons, that the book
" be burnt by the hands of the common hangman, in New
Palace Yard." The printer and bookseller being taken into
custody, De Foe surrendered. Nothing but weakness, or
wickedness, on the part of the bar, bench, and jury, can

account for the issue of the trial. Party feeling pervaded
even the seat of justice, as was apparent in the severity of
the sentence, which was, "that he pay a fine of 200
marks to the Queen; stand three times in the pillory; be
imprisoned during the Queen's pleasure; and find sureties
for his good behaviour for seven years." The pillory was
no disgrace to him, for, contrary to the expectations of his
enemies, he was greeted with triumphant acclamations by
the populace; and the mob, instead of pelting him, resorted
to the unmannerly act of drinking his health. Tradition
reports that the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being
the middle of summer. De Foe, undaunted, published on
the day of his exhibition, A Hymn to the Pillory." In
this ode," says Mr. Chalmers, "the reader will find satire
pointed by his sufferings, generous sentiments arising from
his situation, and an unexpected flow of easy verse." In
this he had ample revenge upon his enemies.
Till this befel him, and his being imprisoned, De Foe
was in good circumstances, and could keep his coach; but
he was now ruined in business, and lost 35001., with a wife
and six children dependent upon him, with no other resource
for their support than the product of his pen. While in
Newgate, he studied the habits and pursuits of the prisoners,
which he made so good use of on future occasions; and
engaged himself in the composition of various political
works. It was while in prison that he projected his
" Review," a periodical work of four quarto pages, which
was published for nine successive years, without intermis-
sion, during the greater part of the time three times a week,
and without having received any assistance whatever in its
production; an extraordinary undertaking for one man,
when his various literary and other employment are taken
into account. Throughout this work he carried on an
unsparing warfare against vice and folly, in all their forms
and disguises, and but for the mass of temporary matter
with which ijs encumbered, it would have long outlived its
day. It pointed the way to the Tatlers, Spectators, and
Guardians, and may be referred to as containing a vast body
of matter on subjects of high interest, written with great
spirit and vigour.
Newgate had no terrors for De Foe. He continued to
write his Review" in an unsubdued tone. The Tories,
mortified by his wit and satire, tried hard to enlist him in
their service; but he preferred poverty to the shame of

serving a cause that his soul abhorred, and remained in
durance while they were in power. Some time after Har-
ley's accession to office, the Queen, through him, became
acquainted with De Foe's merits, and was made conscious
of the injustice of his punishment, which she now desired to
mitigate. For this purpose, she sent relief to his wife and
family, through Lord Godolphin; and sent him a sufficient
sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending
his discharge from prison.
Almost any other man than De Foe would have sunk
under the trials and persecutions to which he was hourly
and daily exposed for many years by the unceasing malice
of his political enemies. Not only was he subjected to
their slander and abuse, but threatened with violence. His
writings were misquoted, even reprinted in the most garbled
manner to suit party purposes. His works pirated and
hawked about to prevent his receiving emolument from
them; his property intercepted and made away with in the
most lawless manner. He was obliged to withhold his name
from his works to ensure their reaching the public. His
"Reviews were stolen out of the coffee-houses to prevent
their being read. His printer and publisher were threatened
with extinction for their connexion with him. His debts
were bought up that proceedings might be had against him.
However, with undaunted courage, he set his face against
all that came across his path, and continued to lash the vices
of the age with an unsparing hand.
On his release from prison, De Foe sought retirement
from political strife, and repaired to Bury St. Edmunds.
Party clamour and party malice, however, pursued him
De Foe, in 1706, wrote voluminously on the subject of
the union with Scotland, and acquired ministerial favour,
which opened the way for him to be received into the service
of the Queen. His acquirements and general knowledge
pointed him out as a fit person to be employed in a mission
to Scotland; and he was received there as a character almost
diplomatic. His labours in that country procured him great
approbation. While in Edinburgh, he published "Cale-
donia, etc.; a Poem in honour of Scotland, and the Scots
Nation." Of the Union, he says in his Review"-" I have
told Scotland of improvements in trade, wealth, and ship-
ping, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion of
this affair; and I am pleased doubly with this, that I am

likely to be one of the first men that shall give them the
pleasure of the experiment." During his residence in Scot-
land, the Review continued to be regularly published.
De Foe returned to London in 1708, and was rewarded
with an appointment and a fixed salary; but he visited
Scotland several times during that and the following year.
When the Union was settled, he published in Scotland the
first edition of "The Union of Great Britain," folio, pp.
685. In 1710, De Foe was residing at Stoke Newington,
in comfortable circumstances. In 1712, was closed the last
volume of the Review." The discourses upon trade, which
appeared in that publication, excited at the time an unusual
degree of interest. Of the unproductive classes of society,
he writes: "When I am describing the people, I mean not
the passive, good-for-nothing, who walk starving through
the thoroughfare of life, and have no share in the active
part of it, leaving no notice to posterity that ever they have
been here; but the people who labour, or employ those that
labour; trade, or assist those that trade; enjoy, or assist
them that enjoy this life, like men, like benefactors to their
country, and like Christians; assisting futurity by laying
up funds of wealth, and improvements for posterity, and a
posterity instructed to manage them." In a long preface to
the concluding volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence
of this work, and of the mode in which he had conducted it.
Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive. In
reference to his sufferings, during the progress of the work,
he says: I have gone through a life of wonders, and am
the subject of a vast variety of providence; I have been fed
more by miracle than Elijah, when the ravens were his pur-
veyors. I have some time ago summed up my life in this
No man has tasted different fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.'
In the school of affliction I have learned more than at the
academy, and more divinity than from the pulpit; in prison
I have learned to know that liberty does not consist in open
doors, and the free egress and regress of locomotion. I
have seen the rough side of the world as well as the smooth;
and have, in less than half a year, tasted the difference
between the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate."
The following is a curious picture of the times during
the latter portion of Anne's reign, when the public mind
was absorbed in polemical warfare. The women lay aside

their tea and chocolate, leave off visiting after dinner, and,
forming themselves in cabals, turn privy councillors, and
settle offices of state. Every lady of quality has her head
more particularly full of business than usual; nay, some of
the ladies talk of keeping female secretaries, and none will
be fit for the office, but such as can speak French, Dutch,
and which is worse, Latin. Gallantry and gaiety are now
laid aside for business; matters of government and affairs
of state are become the province of the ladies; and no
wonder they are too much engaged to concern themselves
about the common impertinences of life. Indeed, they have
hardly leisure to live, little time to eat and sleep, and none
at all to say their prayers. If you turn your eye to the
park, the ladies are not there; even the church is thinner
than usual, for you know the mode is for privy councils to
meet on Sundays. The very playhouse feels the effect of
it; and the great Betterton died a beggar on this account.
Nay, the Tatler, the immortal Tatler, the great Bickerstaff
himself, was fain to leave off talking to the ladies during the
Doctor's trial,* and turn his sagacious pen to the dark
subject of death and the next world; though he has not
decided the ancient debate, whether Pluto's regions were in
point of government a kingdom or a commonwealth."
The following is a curious specimen of how his conduct
was watched and punished, even by private individuals.
"On board of a ship," says he, I loaded some goods.
The master is a Whig, of a kind more particular than ordi-
nary. He comes to the port, my bill of lading is produced,
my title to my goods undisputed; no claim, no pretence, but
my goods cannot be found. The ship sailed again; and I
am told my goods are carried back, and all the reason given
is, that they belong to De Foe the author of the Review,
and he is turned about, and writes for keeping up the public
credit! Thus gentlemen, I am ready to be assassinated,
arrested without warrant, robbed and plundered on all sides;
I can neither trade nor live, and what is this for? Only as
I can yet see, because there being faults on both sides, I tell
both sides of it too plainly." In the midst of his other
avocations De Foe now gave to the world a considerable
work, "The present State of Parties in Britain, etc." The
attacks in his political pamphlets now, a second time, got
him into difficulties; for two papers, one entitled What if
the Queen should die?" the other called What if the Pre-
The trial of the celebrated Dr. Sacheverel.

tender should come?" he was fined 8001., and in default of
payment again committed to Newgate: but the government
took the matter out of the hands of the instigator, and he
was soon released.
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a
political writer for thirty years, gradually left that field to
others, beating out for himself a new path to fame. In bid-
ding adieu to politics, De Foe considered he had an account
to settle at parting. The ill-usage he had received from
both friends and enemies, was greatly aggravated by the
misconstruction put upon his writings, he therefore furnishes
a defence of his life and writings in an "Appeal to Honour
and Justice," but before he had fully completed it, he was
struck with apoplexy. His friends however published the
tract. De Foe eventually recovered from the attack, and
regained sufficient health and vigour of mind to delight the
world by his writings.
In 1715 appeared "The Family Instructor," one of his
most valuable treatises. To afford entertainment by tales of
fiction was his present task, and he now put forth the first
part of the immortal Robinson Crusoe," (1719) which in
four months passed through as many editions, though it had
previously made a fruitless circuit of the trade for a pub-
isher. William Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to
have cleared a thousand pounds by the work. This charm-
ing tale is now translated into most languages of Europe,
and gives delight even to the Arab.* De Foe, now sixty
years of age, lived to be the author of nearly fifty different
works, which our space will not permit us to enumerate. In
many of his latter writings he assumes the name of Andrew
Moreton, Esq., that his own name might not mar the success
and usefulness that might otherwise attend them. When in
his sixty-seventh year, in the preface to a pamphlet, he
alludes to his age and infirmities,-" I hope the reader will
excuse the vanity of an officious old man, if, like Cato, I
inquire whether or no I can yet do any thing for the service
of my country."
The celebrated and enterprising Buckhardt tells us, that when his
Arab friends came in the cool of the evening to sit at his gate, he used to
amuse them by reading a portion of his translation of Robinson Crusoe,
when all expressed equal delight; and even the most bigoted lovers of
oriental literature could not help confessing, that the Frankish storyteller
had afforded them as much amusement as the historian of Sinbad, without
even having recourse to any thing in the smallest degree improbable, and
without ever writing one sentence less pregnant with instruction than

The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of
competence, a most honourable competence, insured to him
by his works, and the rapidity with which editions followed
editions. There is, however, a too miserable proof of his
sufferings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and undutiful-
ness of his son, who, to quote a letter of De Foe, written in
his anguish, "has both ruined my family and broken my
heart." De Foe adds,-" I depended upon, I trusted him, I
gave up my two dear unprovided children into his hands;
but he has no compassion, and suffers them and their poor
dying mother to beg their bread at his door, and crave as if
it were an alms, what in duty he is bound under hand and
seal, besides the most sacred promises, to supply them with,
himself at the same time living in a profusion of plenty. It
is too much for me."
De Foe died at the age of seventy, on the 24th of April,
1731, in the parish of St. Giles's Cripplegate. He left a
widow and several children, among whom was Norton De
Foe, the author of Memoirs of the Princes of the House
of Orange," who is thus satirised in Pope's Dunciad:-
'Norton from Daniel and Ostrcea sprung,
Bless'd with his father's front, and mother's tongue.'
Sophia, the youngest daughter of Daniel De Foe, pub-
lished two treatises on the Microscope. She married Henry
Butler, a man of considerable learning.
De Foe's character will stand the severest test. His
numerous writings proclaim his worth, and posterity will
bestow on him the credit and fame that his contemporaries
denied him. In the storms that he had to withstand, he
maintained a serenity of mind, inspired by conscious recti-
tude. "He that cannot live above the scorn of scoundrels,"
says he, "is not fit to live; dogs will bark, and so they shall,
without lessening one moment of my tranquillity." It has
been thought by some to detract from the merit of his Rob-
inson Crusoe, that the idea was not originally his own: but
really the story of Selkirk, which had been published a few
years before in Woodes Rogers' Voyage round the World,
appears to have furnished our author with so little beyond
the bare idea of a man living upon an uninhabited island,
that it appears quite immaterial whether he took his hint
from that, or from any other similar story, of which many
were then current. In order to enable our readers to judge
how very little De Foe has been assisted by Selkirk's nar-
rative, we have extracted the whole from Woodes Rogers'


ON February 1st, 1709, we came before the island of Juan
Fernandez, having had a good observation the day before,
and found our latitude to be 34 degrees 10 minutes south.
In the afternoon we hoisted out our pinnace; and Captain
Dover, with the boat's crew, went in her to go ashore,
though we could not be less than four leagues off. As soon
as the pinnace was gone I went on board the Duchess, who
admired our boat attempting going ashore at that distance
from land. It was against my inclination; but, to oblige
Captain Dover, I let her go. As soon as it was dark, we
saw a light ashore. Our boat was then about a league off
the island, and bore away for the ships as soon as she saw
the lights. We put our lights aboard for the boat, though
some were of opinion, the lights we saw were our boat's
lights; but, as night came on, it appeared too large for that.
We fired our quarter-deck gun and several muskets, shewing
lights in our mizen and fore-shrouds, that our boat might
find us whilst we were in the lee of the island: about two in
the morning our boat came on board, having been two hours
on board the Duchess, that took them up astern of us; we
were glad they got well off, because it began to blow. We
were all convinced the light was on the shore, and designed
to make our ships ready to engage, believing them to be
French ships at anchor, and we must either fight them or
want water. All this stir and apprehension arose, as we
afterwards found, from one poor naked man, who passed in
our imagination, at present, for a Spanish garrison, a body
of Frenchmen, or a crew of pirates. While we were under
these apprehensions, we stood on the back side of the island,
in order to fall in with the southerly wind, till we were past
the island; and then we came back to it again, and ran close
aboard the land that begins to make the north-east side.
We still continued to reason upon this matter; and it is
in a manner incredible, what strange notions many of our
people entertained from the sight of the fire upon the island.
It served, however, to shew people's tempers and spirits;
and we were able to give a tolerable guess how our men would
behave, in case there really were any enemies upon the
island. The flaws came heavy off the shore, and we were
forced to reef our topsails when we opened the middle bay,

where we expected to have found our enemy; but saw all
clear, and no ships, nor in the other bay next to the north-
east end. These two bays are all that ships ride in, which
recruit on this island; but the middle bay is by much the
best. We guessed there had been ships there, but that they
were gone on sight of us. We sent our yawl ashore about
noon, with Captain Dover, Mr. Fry, and six men, all armed;
meanwhile we and the Duchess kept turning to get in, and
such heavy flaws came off the land, that we were forced to
let go our topsail sheet, keeping all hands to stand by our
sails, for fear of the winds carrying them away; but when
the flaws were gone, we had little or no wind. These flaws
proceeded from the land, which is very high in the middle
of the island. Our boat did not return; we sent our pinnace
with the men armed, to see what was the occasion of the
yawl's stay; for we were afraid that the Spaniards had a
garrison there, and might have seized them. We put out
a signal for our boat, and the Duchess shewed a French
ensign. Immediately our pinnace returned from the shore,
and brought abundance of cray-fish, with a man clothed in
goats' skins, who looked wilder than the first owners of
them. He had been on the island four years and four
months, being left there by Captain Stradling in the Cinque-
ports; his name was ALEXANDER SELKIRK, a Scotchman,
who had been master of the Cinque-ports, a ship that came
here last with Captain Dampier, who told me that this was
the best man in her. I immediately agreed with him to be
a mate on board our ship; it was he that made the fire last
night when he saw our ships, which he judged to be English.
During his stay here he saw several ships pass by, but only
two came to anchor. As he went to view them, he found
them to be Spaniards, and retired from them, upon which
they shot at him; had they been French, he would have
submitted; but chose to risk his dying alone on the island,
rather than fall into the hands of Spaniards in these parts;
because he apprehended they would murder him, or make a
slave of him in the mines; for he feared they would spare no
stranger that might be capable of discovering the South Seas.
The Spaniards had landed, before he knew what they
were; and they came so near him, that he had much ado
to escape; for they not only shot at him, but pursued him
to the woods, where he climbed to the top of a tree, at the
foot of which they took water, and killed several goats
just by, but went off again without discovering him. He

told us that he was born in Scotland, and was bred a sailor
from his youth. The reason of his being left here, was a
difference between him and his captain; which, together
with the ship's being leaky, made him willing rather to stay
here, than go along with him at first; but when he was at
last willing to go, the captain would not receive him. He
had been at the island before, to wood and water, when two
of the ship's company were left upon it for six months, till
the ship returned, being chased thence by two French
South Sea ships. He had with him his clothes and bed-
ding, with a firelock, some powder, bullets, and tobacco, a
hatchet, a knife, a kettle, a Bible, some practical pieces, and
his mathematical instruments and books. He diverted and
provided for himself as well as he could; but for the first
eight months, had much ado to bear up against melancholy,
and the terror of being left alone in such a desolate place.
He built two huts with pimento trees, covered them with
long grass, and lined them with the skins of goats, which
he killed with his gun as he wanted, so long as his powder
lasted, which was but a pound; and that being almost
spent, he got fire by rubbing two sticks of pimento wood
together upon his knee. In the lesser hut, at some distance
from the other, he dressed his victuals; and in the larger
he slept, and employed himself in reading, singing psalms,
and praying: so that he said, he was a better Christian,
while in this solitude, than ever he was before, or than, he
was afraid, he should ever be again.
At first he never ate anything till hunger constrained
him, partly for grief, and partly for want of bread and salt:
nor did he go to bed, till he could watch no longer; the
pimento wood, which burnt very clear, served for both fire
and candle, and refreshed him with its fragrant smell. He
might have had fish enough, but would not eat them for
want of salt, because they occasioned a looseness, except
cray-fish, which are as large as our lobsters, and very good:
these he sometimes boiled, and at other times broiled, as he
did his goats' flesh, of which he made very good broth, for
they are not so rank as ours. He kept an account of 500
that he killed while there, and caught as many more, which
he marked on the ear, and let go. When his powder failed,
he took them by speed of feet; for his way of living, con-
tinual exercise of walking, and running cleared him of all
gross humours; so that he ran with wonderful swiftness
through the woods, and up the rocks and hills, as we per-



ceived when we employed him to catch goats for us: we
had a bull-dog, which we sent with several of our nimblest
runners, to help him in catching goats; but he distanced
and tired both the dog and the men, caught the goats, and
brought them to us on his back.
He told us, that his agility in pursuing a goat had once
like to have cost him his life; he pursued it with so much
eagerness, that he caught hold of it on the brink of a pre-
cipice, of which he was not aware, the bushes hiding it from
him, so that he fell with the goat down the precipice, a
great height, and was so stunned and bruised with the fall,
that he narrowly escaped with his life; and when he came
to his senses, found the goat dead under him: he lay there
about twenty-four hours, and was scarce able to crawl to his
hut, which was about a mile distant, or to stir abroad again
in ten days.
He came at last to relish his meat well enough without
salt or bread, and in the season had plenty of good turnips,
which had been sowed there by Captain Dampier's men,
and have now overspread some acres of ground. He had
enough of good cabbage from the cabbage-trees, and
seasoned his meat with the fruit of the pimento-trees, which
is the same as Jamaica pepper, and smells deliciously. He
found also a black pepper, called Malageta, which was
very good to expel wind, and against cholic.
He soon wore out all his shoes by running in the woods;
and at last, being forced to shift without them, his feet be-
came so hard, that he ran everywhere without difficulty;
and it was some time before he could wear shoes after we
found him; for, not being used to any so long, his feet
swelled when he came first to wear them again.
After he had conquered his melancholy, he diverted him-
self sometimes with cutting his name on the trees, and the
time of his being left, and continuance there. He was at
first much pestered with cats and rats, that bred in great
numbers, from some of each species which had got ashore
from ships that put in there to wood and water. The rats
gnawed his feet and clothes whilst asleep, which obliged
him to cherish the cats with his goats' flesh, by which many
of them became so tame, that they would lie about him in
hundreds, and soon delivered him from the rats. He like-
wise tamed some kids; and, to divert himself, would now
and then sing and dance with them, and his cats : so that,

by the favour of Providence, and vigour of his youth,
being now but thirty years old, he came, at last, to conquer
all the inconveniences of his solitude, and to be very easy.
When his clothes were worn out, he made himself a coat
and a cap of goat-skins, which he stitched with little thongs
of the same, that he cut with his knife. He had no other
needle but a nail; and when his knife was worn to the back,
lie made others, as well as he could, of some iron hoops that
were left a shore, which he beat thin, and ground upon
stones. Having some linen cloth by him, he sewed him
some shirts with a nail, and stitched them with the worsted
of his old stockings, which he pulled out on purpose. He
had his last shirt on, when we found him in the island.
At his first coming on board us, he had so much forgot
his language, for want of use, that we could scarce under-
stand him; for he seemed to speak his words by halves.
We offered him a dram; but he would not touch it, having
drank nothing but water since his being there: and it was
some time before he could relish our victuals. He could
give us an account of no other product of the island than
what we have mentioned, except some black plums, which
are very good, but hard to come at; the trees which bear
them growing on high mountains and rocks. Pimento
trees are plenty here: and we saw some of sixty feet high,
and about two yards thick; and cotton trees higher, and
near four fathoms round in the stock. The climate is so
good, that the trees and grass are verdant all the year
round. The winter lasts no longer than June and July,
and is not then severe, there being only a small frost, and a
little hail: but sometimes great rains. The heat of the
summer is equally moderate; and there is not much
thunder, or tempestuous weather of any sort. He saw no
venomous or savage creature on the island; nor any sort of
beasts but goats, the first of which had been put ashore
here, on purpose for a breed, by Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard,
who settled there with some families, till the continent of
Chili began to submit to the Spaniards; which, being more
profitable, tempted them to quit the island, capable, how-
ever, of maintaining a good number of people, and being
made so strong, that they could not be easily dislodged
from thence.




LWAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
O ". '




I WAS born in the year 163, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good
estate by merchandise, and, leaving off his trade, lived after-
wards at York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom was called Robinson Kreutz-
naer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England,
we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,
Crusoed and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What be-
came of my second brother, I never knew, any more than my
father and mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-
school generally go, and designed me for the law but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands

of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject : he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house, and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and
had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and in-
dustry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
for men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes, on the other, who went abroad upon adven-
tures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long expe-
rience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition and envy of
the upper part of mankind : he told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle
of two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind : nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and ex-
travagancies, on one hand, or by hard labour, want of neces-
s:ries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring
distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of
their way of living; that the middle station of life was calcu-

lated for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments ; that
peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune;
that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the bless-
ings attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of
the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things ; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling
that they are happy, and learning, by every day's experience,
to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under
no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for
me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been just recommending to me ; and that if I
was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my
mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt: In a word, that as he would do very kind things for
me if I would stay and settle at home, as he directed, so he
would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me
any encouragement to go away: and, to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed;
and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter,
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might
be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know it
to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure

to repent, ana none to assist me, he was so moved, that he
broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full. he
could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home, according to my
father's desire. But, alas a few days wore it all off: and, in
short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in
a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily, neither, as my first heat of
resolution prompted; but I took my mother, at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to any thing with resolution enough
o go through with it, and my father had better give me his
,'onsent than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
.rade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I
should never serve out my time, and I should certainly run
sway from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me make but one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I
would go no more; and I would promise, by a double dili-
gence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion : she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such a subject; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est to give his consent to any thing so much for my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after
such a discourse as I had from my father, and such kind and
tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me:
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help
for me; but .I might depend I should never have their consent
to it: that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say, that my
mother was willing when my father was not. "
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him;
and that my father, after shewing a great concern at it, said to
her with a sigh, That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home; but, if he goes abroad, he will be the most mi-
serable wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose;
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all

proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulat-
ing with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But, being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time, and one of my companions then going to London by sea
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them by the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz. that it should cost
me nothing for my passage," I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
left them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.
On the st of September 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I
believe, began earlier, or continued longer, than mine. The
ship had no sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most frightful manner;
and as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body and terrified in mind: I began now seriously to
reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind j and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardiness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach of
my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but, such as it was, enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it
would please God to spare my life this voyage, if ever I got
my foot once on dry land, I would go directly home to my
father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into. such mi-
series as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of
his observations abouttbe middle station of life; how easy, how
comfortable he had lived all his days, and never had been ex-

posed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and indeed some time after; but the next day, as the wind was
abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave that day, being also a little sea-
sick still : but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun
went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that I
ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me,
and said, Well, Bob," clapping me on the shoulder, how
do you do after it ? I warrant you were frightened, wa'n't you,
last night, when it blew but a capfull of wind ?"-" A cap-
full, do you call it ?" said I ; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A
storm, you fool !" replies he, do you call that a storm ?
Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob ; come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was
made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections
upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises I had made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them, as it were from a distemper.
and, applying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits,-for so I called them; and I had in five or

six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire
But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy
of. The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yarmouth
roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the River. We had not, however
rid here so long, and should have tided up the river, but that
the wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle
very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morn-
ing, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our topmasts, and make every thing snug and close, that
the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went
very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our anchor had
come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor ; so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I be-
gan to see terror and amazement in the faces of even the sea-
men themselves. The master was vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship; but, as he went in and out of his cabin
by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several times,
" Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone !" and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill re-assume the first peni-
tence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against; I thought that the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would be nothing too, like the first: but
when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and
said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got

up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I
never saw ; the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress around us; two ships, that rid
near us, we found had cut their masts by the board, being
deeply laden; and our men cried out that a ship, which rid
about a mile a-head of us, was foundered. 'In nore ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to
sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, run-
ning away, with only their spritsails out, before the wind. To-
ward evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very
loth to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut it away also,
aid make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express, at this dis-
tance, the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convic-
tions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I
had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst
was not come yet ; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out, she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder," till I in-
quired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others,
more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting
every moment the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one
of the men, that had been down on purpose to see, cried out,
' we had sprung a leak ;" another said, there was four feet
water in the hold." Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word, my heart, as I thought, died within me;
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sat in

the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me,
" that I," who was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another:" at which I stirred up and went to
the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
the master seeing some light colliers who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and
would not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so
surprised, that 1 thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful
thing had happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell
down in a swoon. As this was a time when every body had
his own life to think of, no one minded me, or what was be-
come of me; but another man stept up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead; and it was a great while before I came to my-
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the
ship's side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and ven-
turing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stem with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great
length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of,
and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in
the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as
much as we could ; and our master promised them, that if
the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to
their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood, for the
first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the sea-
men told me, she was sinking;" for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to
go in. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly

with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near : but we made slow way towards
the shore ; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the
light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth ; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships ; and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy; and my father, an em-
blem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the
fatted calf for me ; for, hearing the ship I went in was cast
away in Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me onwith an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from
my reason, and my more composed judgement, to go home,
yet I had no power to do it.-I know not what to call this,
nor will I urge that it is a secret, over-ruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with
our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed,
unavoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I : the first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did : telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial

in order to go farther abroad. His father, turning to me, with
a grave and concerned tone, Young man," says he, you
ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for
a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring
man."-" Why, Sir?" said I; will you go to sea no more ?"-
" That is another case," said he; it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see
what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect
if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.-Pray," continues he,
" what are you, and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion. What had I
done," said he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said,
an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
-However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me; ex-
horted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence
to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of Heaven
against me; and, young man," said he, depend upon it,
if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went, I know not: as for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea.' As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even every body else. From whence I
have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz. that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of lite to lead.

An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and, as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage. That evil in-
fluence which carried me first away from my father's house,
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising
my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the en-
treaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the same
influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of
all enterprises to my view ; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it,
a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might in-
deed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same
time, I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-man,
and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieu-
tenant, if not a master : But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket,
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board
in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, or learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all,
to fall into pretty good company in London; which does not
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I
then was ; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare
for them very early. But it was not so with me : I first fell
acquainted with the master of a ship, who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success there,
was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conver-
sation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hear-
ing me say I had a mind to see the world," told me, that if
I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no expence
I should be his mess-mate and his companion; and if I could
carry any thing with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and, entering
into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me; which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very consider-
ably; for I carried about 401. in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This 40'. 1 had mustered toge-

tier by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-
sponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of na-
vigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's course,
take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a
word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant : for I
brought home 5 lb. g oz. of gold-dust for my adventure, which
yielded me in London, at my return, almost 00ool. and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin. Yet even in this voyage I had my mis-
fortunes too; particularly, that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
latitude of 15 degrees north, even to the Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made ; for though I did not
carry quite ool. of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 2ool.
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage : and the first was this, viz.-our ship, making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the grey of
the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight, our ship having 12 guns, and the rogue 18. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near 200oo men which he had on board,

However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend our-
selves; but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered 60 men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We played
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the
captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed and now I
looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me ;" which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that it could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone, without redemption. But, alas this
was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other,
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war,
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of
mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore, to look after his little garden, and do the common
drudgery of slaves about his house ; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet
I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard,
was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Moresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore : However, we
got well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an
English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle
of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand be-
hind it, to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and room be-
fore for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed
with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail, and the boom
gibb'd over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened, that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, over-
night, a larger store of provision than ordinary, and had ordered

me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which were
on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling
as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants
out, and every thing to accommodate his guests : when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were
to sup at his house; and commanded, that as soon as I had
got some fish, I should bring it home to his house : all which
I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer ; for any where, to get out of that place, was my
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread :
he said, that was true ; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which
it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of
great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also: his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley:
so I called to him, Moley," said I, our patron's guns are
on board the boat, can you not get a little powder and shot ?
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the
ship."-" Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;" and accordingly
he brought a great leather pouch, which hela about a pound
and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat : at the same time I found some powder of my master's

,in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles
in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with every thing needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us ; and we were not above a mile out of the port, before
we hauled in our sail. and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from N. N. E. which was contrary to my desire; for,
had it blown southerly. I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at last reached to the bay of Cadiz : but my re-
solutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from the horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther
off." He, thinking no harm, agreed ; and being at the head
of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the
boat near a league farther, and then brought to, as if I would
fish. Then giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor was, and I took him by surprise, with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the
sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, and told me he would go all
tie world over with me. He swam so strong after the boat,
that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching
one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at him, and told him,
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do
him none: But," said I, you swim well enough to reach
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way
to shore, and I will do you no harm : but if you come near
the boat, I will shoot you through the head; for I am resolved
to have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful
to me I will make you a great man; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me, (that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father's beard), I must throw you into the sea too." The
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I cculd

not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all
over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Strait's
mouth, (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do) ; for who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could
not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other kinr
thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and th,
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, tha,
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over : so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to
an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not what or
where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw, or desired to see, any people ; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country: but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I,
" then I will not; but it may be we may see men by day,
who will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we may
give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing; make them
run way." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and
I gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to cheese

him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it.
We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night: I say,
still, for we slept none ; for in two or three hours we saw vast
creatures, (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of
these mighty creatures swimming towards our boat: we could
not see him, but we might hear him, by his blowing, to be a
monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so, for aught I know ; but poor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor, and row away. No," says I,
" Xury; we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go oft
to sea : they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so,
but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stept to the cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam to the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and cowlings that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was no going on
shore for us in the night upon that coast: and how to venture
on shore in the day, was another question too; for to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as
to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least, we
were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat: when and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if
I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked
him why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat. The boy answered with so much affection,
that he made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go way."-" Well, Xury," said
I, we will both go ; and if the wild mans come, we will kill
them; they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece
of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of

bottles, which I mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat
as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded to
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
and, by and by, I saw him come running toward me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by some wild
beast, and I therefore ran forwards to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs; however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat : but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards, that we need not take such pains
for water ; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed
but a little way up ; so we filled our jars, and, having a fire,
feasted on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our
way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that
part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had no in-
struments to take an observation, to find what latitude we
were in ; and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now
have easily found some of these islands. But my hope was,
that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part where
the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the Negroes having abandon'
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-
ness : and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures
which harbour there : so that the Moors use it for their hunt-
ing only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand
3en at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles toge-

other upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring
of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day time, I thought I saw the Pic
of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place ; and once, in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me,
that we had best go farther off the shore; for, says he,
" look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hil-
lock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that
lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the
hill, that hung, as it were, over him. Xury," says I, you
shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frightened, and
said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth:" one mouthful he
meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be
still; and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musquet
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets ; and a third, for we had three pieces, I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the
first piece, to have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with
his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee, and broke the bone: he started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head ; however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in
the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,
and would have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said
I: so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun
in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and
shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food ; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet: For what, Xury ?" said
I. Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head ; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself,
however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his
skin, if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day ; but
at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to
say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brasil,
or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands : and,
in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and
in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us : we could also perceive they
were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found
they run along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long,
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a dis-
tance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, an I
particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat :

upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them run up into the country; and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, such as is the produce of their country ; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us : but they took a safe
way for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and laid it
down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends: but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains to-
wards the sea ; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange;
but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place, we found the people terribly frightened, especially
the women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall
upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion : at
last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun
with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others.
As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot
him directly in the head : immediately he sunk down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was : he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound, which was his
mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just be-
fore he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun ; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water;

and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave
the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that dis-
tance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were
for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs
to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had
no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could
have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did
not understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for
some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it
bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted
to have it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel
made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun ; this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea.
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the
sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point
At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the
Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence, Cape
de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor the
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a

sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, think-
ing it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
"ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a Po tuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore : upon which, I stretched out
to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them: but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail, to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign
on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they their
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as 1 esteemed it, from such
a miserable, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in ; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brasils. For," says
he, I have saved your life on no other terms than 1 would
be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said
he, when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have,

you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life
I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese," (Mr. Englishman),
says he; I will carry you thither in charity, and these things
will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the'
performance, to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch any thing I had : then he took every
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact in-
ventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him, he had been so gener-
ous to me in every thing, that I could not offer to make any
price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon which, he
told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brasil ; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered
me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I
was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian:
upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let
the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
every thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the
case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
bees'-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I
made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo, and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the

house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it, (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house.) I live
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and making of sugar: and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them: endeavouring, in the mean time, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, re-
mitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of Eng-
lish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plan-
tation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted
for food than any thing else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come into order;
so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each
of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the
year to come : but we both wanted help; and now I found
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice : nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before ; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done :
and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me."
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour ; no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but

himself. But how just has it been; and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the ex-
change, and be convinced of their former felicity by their ex-
perience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all pro-
bability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he-gave me this friendly and sincere
advice : Seignior Inglese," says he, (for so he always called
me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return :
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders for but one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that if it come safe, you may order the
rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take ; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary direc-
tions for my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effec-
tually to her : whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds ir

ROBINSON CRc sog. 29
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
at the Brasils : among which, without my direction, (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all : but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as clothes, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might say, I had
more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation : for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also ; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had dis-
posed of for necessaries among my neighbours ; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above 1oo lb. were well cured, and laid
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now in-
creasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase my
fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to
my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that
inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing my-
self good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and

those measures of life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story :-You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port ; and that, in my discourses
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading
with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase on
the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissars,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea
grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but negroes, for the service of the
Brasils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by
the Assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes were
bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secresy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations: and,

in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super.
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea ? and they offered me that I should have an equal share
of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-
ling, and that increasing too ; for me to think of such a voyage
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such cir-
cumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dis-
pose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my
will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation : had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked intomy own interest, and have made a
judgement of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy, rather than my reason : and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in
an evil hour again, the first of September 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and mother

at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interest.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast. When they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days, we had very good weather, only
excessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came to
the height of cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N. E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the Line in anout twelve days time, and
were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge : it began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury
of the winds directed; and during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up ; nor, in-
deed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from
cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brasil, beyond the river
Amazons, toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with me what
course he should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts ot
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to
sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise de-
termined; for being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages thaa ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men, early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in tne world we were, but the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition, to describe or conceive the consternaton of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of
the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of
miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment;
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for anothe-
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this: that which was our present comfort, and all the comfort
we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand and sticking too
fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved, by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hcpe
from her: we had another boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no

room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and, with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let her go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated con-
siderably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee," as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done any thing
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all
knew that when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might
happen into some bay or gulph, or the mouth of some river,
where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water.
But there was nothing of this appeared ; and as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it oversee
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God !'
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went

back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on to-
wards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold my breath,
and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swim-
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being, that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it
gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore, a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it re-
lieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and
felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried forwards
as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat
the breath, as it were, quite out of my body ; and had it re-
turned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water: but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and seeing I should again be covered with the water, I re-

solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
w-ere not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away ; and the next run I took, I got to the main land ; where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out
of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
were, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the grave and I did not wonder now at the custom,
viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a
surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
out myself; for as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or
any sign of them. except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the beach and
froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off-and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get
on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance : for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts : and that which was par-

ticularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision ; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night-and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth, to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I should
sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and having
been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as com-
fortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition;
and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever
was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as be-
fore; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was
lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by
the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand up-
right still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet,
of water between me and the boat, which was about half a
mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for
my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a pile
of the ship : and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water: but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold
of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that, with great
difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold ; but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free : and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no
time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of
which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough
of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which
I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application : we had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship ; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I
found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able

to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light : so I went
to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve
what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon
it that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I got three of the seamens' chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft; these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh, (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it
all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters ; and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any
room for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began
to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon
the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my
stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon ; as, first, tools to work with on shore : and it was after
long searching that I found the carpenter's chest, which was
indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. I
got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols ; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed then; but with much search I found

them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder ; and the least capfull of wind would have overset all
my navigation.
I had three encouragements : 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore : Sdly, What
little wind there was, blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before ; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek
or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was : there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground
at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the pos-
ture I was in, but holding up the chests with all my might, I
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, 1 at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore,
for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping,
in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I

aoBIzsoN caUsoE. 41
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my
cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was
at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to
hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot
of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end : and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether in-
habited, or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to over-top
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great
labour and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, viz. that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none ; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour

and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day : what to do with myself at night I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour
me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need
for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
solved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to
say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped be-
fore I went from my hut; having nothing on but a chequered
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me : as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that
most useful thing called a grind-stone. All these I secured
together, with several things belonging to the gunner ; par-
ticularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more ; a large bag-full ot small shot,
and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy, I
could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore: but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor;
only there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not un-
derstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was
not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to
it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more;
but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she marched
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to make me
a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy ; for the night before I had slept
little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still:
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get every thing out of her that I could : so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and brought away something
or other : but particularly, the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gun-powder. In a word, I brought away all the sails frst
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could ; for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me still more was, that, lasi of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me,
because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead
of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of
the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe
on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods; and
came away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods,
not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it over-
set, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for my-
self, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which
I expected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.
1 had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring; though I believe verily, nad the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole snip, piece by piece; but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors,
and one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brasil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money : 0 drug! said
I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me,
no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is-not worth saving. However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I
began to think of making another raft; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky over-cast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began, or otherwise
I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let
myself down into the water, and swam across the channel which
lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me,
and partly the roughness of the water ; for the wind rose very
hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no time,
nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her that could
be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any
thing o,,t of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts,
if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it : so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me : 1st, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter from the heat of the sun:
3dly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
4thly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock,
at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea side. It was
on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driv-
ing them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and an half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and an
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man or beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I
was in, I lifted over after me ; and so I was completely fenced
in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and con

sequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done ; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz. one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a
foot and an half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labour and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder My very heart
sunk within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I
was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once.

and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
and I think my powder, which in all was about 240 lb. weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy,
I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see
if I could kill any thing fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats upon
the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it
was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so
shy, so subtile, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult
thing in the world to come at them : but I was not discouraged
at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as
it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I
laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in
the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of
me; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects that were above them : so, afterwards, I
took this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get
above them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The first
shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily ; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up: and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the
kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it
over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would
not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,
and preserved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as
possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely ne-
cessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn;
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and

what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of it in
its proper place: but I must first give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be
supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without
help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me: and particularly, one day, walk-
ing with my gun in my hand, by the sea side, I was very pen-
sive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason,
as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus : Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remem-
ber, where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of
you into the boat ? Where are the ten ? Why were not they
saved, and you lost ? Why were you singled out ? Is it better
to be here or there?" And then I pointed to the sea. All
evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven
so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these things out
of her: what would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure
them ? Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself) what
should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make any thing, or to work with, without
clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ? and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my
gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable

view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I
considered, from the beginning, how I would provide for the ac-
cidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come,
not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it
in its order. It was, by my account, the 0sth of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equi-
nox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by
observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north
of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
sabbath days from the working days : but, to prevent this, I
cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed, viz. I came on shore here on the soth of Sep-
tember, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut every
day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
ong again as the rest, and every first day of the month as
long again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I brought
out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above men-
tioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not
at all less useful to me, which I found, some time after, in
rummaging the chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpen-
ter's keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical in-
struments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation;
all which I huddled together, whether I might want them or
no: also I found three very good bibles, which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them,
two or three Popish prayer books, and several other books, all

which I carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we
had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history
I may have occasion to say something, in its place: for I car-
ned both the cats with me ; and as for the dog, he jumped out
of the ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I
went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to
me for many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me ; I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As 1 observed
before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them
to the utmost and I shall show, that while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could not;
for I could not make any ink, by any means that I could
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe and shovel, to
dig, or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
these posts, or piles, very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any
thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor
had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for
food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs)
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind : and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and 1 stated it very

impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus :

I am cast upona horrible, desolate
island, void of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be

I am divided from mankind, a so-
litaire; one banished from human
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of man
or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or re-
lieve me.

But I am alive, and not drowned,
as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out too from all
the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and perish-
ing in a barren place, affording no
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
But I am cast on an island where
I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa: and what
if I had been shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the ship
in near enough to the shore, that I
have got out so many necessary
things as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to supply my-
self, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship; I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy
to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised
a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half)
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could

nolINson CRUSOE. 53
get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some times of the
year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But
I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of
goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to en-
large my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it : and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and
then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out in the outside of my pale or fortifi-
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I
had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I went to
work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most ra-
tional judgement of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools ; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I
could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make
a plank or board: but my time or labour was little worth,
and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces

54 ADVaBNTUaS or
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up: so that, had my cave been seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
every thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure
to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find
my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry,
and not only hurry as to labour, but in much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of many dull
things: for example, I must have said thus-" Sept. 30th, After
I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with
the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore,
wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, I was undone, undone! till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to re-
pose ; but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast dis-
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household-stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal : of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.
September soth, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the ofing,

came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called
the ISLAND or DESPAIRB all the rest of the ship's company
being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I should
either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not
broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief,) so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out
of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part
of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing
myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some inter-
vals of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. sO. I walked about the shore almost all day, to fid

out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall or fortifi-
cation, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 0oth, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to see for some food, and discover the country; when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November i. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next was wholly employ-
ed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry work-
man: though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing : of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand : but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals;
which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what
they were) got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov, 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my

table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, gth, o1th, and part of the Isth (for the Ilth was
Sunday, according to my reckoning) I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and, even in the making, I
pulled it in pieces several times.
Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dread-
fully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I re-
solved to separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder : and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to
call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into
the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note, Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz.
a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade ; this
was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing
effectually without it; but what kind of one to make I knew
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I fond a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brasils, they call
the Iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine : for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in Eng-
land, only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at

bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to;
but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or
so long a-making.
I was still deficient: for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-wale,
at least, none yet found out: and as to the wheel-barrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to go about it: besides, I
had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over : and, for carry-
ing away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a
thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in for the
bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making
the shovel: and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took me up
no less than four days ; I mean, always excepting my morning
walk with my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom
failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went
on; and working every day, as my strength and time allow-
ed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening
my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note, During all this time, I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side.
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without
reason too; for if I had been under it, I should never have
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry
out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11 This day I went to work with it accordingly;

and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the
next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. So. I carried every thing into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like
a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me : also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 2o. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so
that I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it
home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, si. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food:
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accor-
dingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats : but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them.
Jan. s. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jea-
lous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit

- what was said in the Journal: it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall; though it
was no more than about 25 yards in length, being a half
circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together : but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour every thing
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not
perceive any thing like a habitation : and it was very well I
did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remark-
able occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made fre-
quent discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my
advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks : and, taking some young
ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so but
when they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps
was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them : however, I frequently found their nests, and got
their young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in
the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting
in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for
me to make; as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for in-
stance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it : I could neither put in the heads, nor
join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold
water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at
a great loss for candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which
was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I
remembered the lump of bees wax, with which I made candles
in my African adventure but I had none of that now: the

only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow ; and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made
me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it hap-
pened, that in rummaging my things, I found a little bag;
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn, for the
feeding of poultry ; not for this voyage, but before, as I sup-
pose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remain-
der of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with the
rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and
being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think
it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the light-
ning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it,
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away ; taking no notice of any thing,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any thing
there: when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen ; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion : I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquir-
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of na-
ture should happen upon my account: and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be

stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to
my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chickens'-meat in
that place, and then the wonder began to cease: and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it
had been miraculous: for it was really the work of Provi-
dence, as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats
had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropt from heaven;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up im-
mediately; whereas, if I had thrown it any where else, at
that time, it would have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall show afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that 1
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; as
I sowed just before the dry season, so that it never came up
at all, at least not as it would have done; of which in its
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose,
viz. to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to
cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some
time.-But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; con-
triving to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a
ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my ha-
April 16. I finished the ladder ; so I went up with the

ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it
down in the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me ; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed ; the case
was thus :-As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on a
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily scared ; but thought nothing of what
really was the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder; and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall, for
fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll
down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake: for
the ground I stood on shook three times, at about eight mi-
nutes distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down, with such a terrible noise as 1 never heard in all my
life. I perceived also that the very sea was put into a violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was
like one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and,
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me
with horror, and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon
my tent and my household goods, and burying all at once;
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but
sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought; nothing but the common Lora,

have mercy upon me and when it was over, that went away
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; and, soon after, the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane : the sea was, all on a sudden, cover-
ed with foam and froth; the shore was covered with a breach
of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a ter-
rible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected j when, on a sudden, it came
into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the conse-
quence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and
over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping
to persuade me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the
rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down
with it; and I was forced to get into my cave, though very
much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And
now to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,
I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum; which,
however, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone. It continued rain-
ing all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad: but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do ; concluding, that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no
living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with
a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men : for if I staid where I was, I should cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, being just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swal-

lowed alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without any fence, was
almost equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw
how every thing was put in order, how pleasantly I was con-
cealed, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to
remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this ; and that I must
be contented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed a
convenient camp, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
With this conclusion I composed myself for a time; and re-
solved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a
wall with piles and cables, &c. in a circle as before, and set
up my tent in it when it was finished; but that I would ven-
ture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove
to. This was the 21st.
April r2. The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this measure into execution ; but I was at a great loss
about the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians) ; but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull: and though I
had a grind-stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have be-
stowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
Note, I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there: besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grind-stone per-
forming very well.
April so. Having perceived that my bread had been low
a great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself
to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May i. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came t9 it, I
found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ;
and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to

lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined
the barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone : however, I rolled it farther on
the shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near
as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet: and the stern (which was
broke to pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of the
sea, soon after I had left rummaging of her,) was tossed, as
it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out; whereas there was a great
piece of water before, so that I could not come within a quar-
ter of a mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship : but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for all the inside of the ship was choaked up with sand.
However, as I had learned not to despair of any thing, I re-
solved to pull every thing to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding that every thing I could get from her would be o0
some use or other to me.
May s. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together; and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over
for that time.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which .
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asun-
der, and brought three great fir-planks off from the decks;

which I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide
of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron-work : worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent
to work: but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so open
that I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck
for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy
to remove.
May 10, to 14. Went every day to the wreck; and got
a great many pieces of timber, and boards or plank, and two
or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I staid
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. 1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests: but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead, which had some Brasil pork in it; but the salt water
and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food;

which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
was ebbed out: and by this time I had gotten timber, and
plank, and iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I
had known how: and I also got, at several times, and in several
pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen ; which, it seems,
was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scar-
city : for had I happened to be on the other side of the island,
I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs : and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life; having
had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. I
thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat
chilly; which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill ; frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help:
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all con-
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent head-ache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak : however, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get

myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was
light-headed : and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say; only lay and cried, Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!'
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till the
*it wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake till far in the
night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in
my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and
went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground :
he was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just
bear to look towards him: his countenance was most inex-
pressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe: when
he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake; and all
the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled
with flashes of fire. He had no sooner landed upon the earth,
but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or wea-
pon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising
ground, at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice
so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it : all
that I can say I understood, was this : Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die ;" at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that
was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas no divine knowledge: what I had received by
,he good instruction of my father was then worn out, by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were,
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree: I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upward towards God, or in-
ward towards a reflection upon my own ways : but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire ol good, or consciousness of

evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our com-
mon sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him,
in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all
the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as one thought of its being the hand or
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my
rebellious behaviour against my father, or my present sins,
which were great; or even as a punishment for the general
course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate ex-
pedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much
as one thought of what would become of me; or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from vora-
cious creatures as cruel savages : but I was quite thoughtless
of a God or a Providence; acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only;
and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up
at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with
justly and honourably, as well as charitably, I had not the
least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was
as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgement: I only said
to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness: but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which
had preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why Provi-
dence had been thus merciful to me: just the same common
sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got
safe ashore from a shipwreck ; which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over:
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was,
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condi-
tion,-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach

of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of re.
demption,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a
judgement from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me:
these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had,
at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miracu-
lous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as
I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing
could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately di-
recting to the invisible Power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impression it had
made went off also. I had no more sense of God, or his judge-
ments, much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from his hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous
condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a
leisure view of the miseries of death came to place itself be-
fore me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a
strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence
of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to
awake; and I reproached myself with my past life, in which I
had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the jus-
tice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal
with me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppress-
ed me for the second or third day of my distemper; and in
the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches
of my conscience, extorted from me some words like praying
to God : though I cannot say it was a prayer attended either
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. My thoughts were confused; the convic-
tions great upon my mind : and the horror of dying in such a
miserable condition, raised vapours in my head with the mere
apprehension; and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew not
what my tongue might express: but it was rather exclama-
tion, such as, Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If
I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and
what will become of me ?" Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning

of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery. Now," said I
aloud, my dear father's words are come to pass; God's
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put
me in a station of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my
parents to know the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over
my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequences
of it: I refused their help and assistance, who would have
pushed me in the world, and would have made every thing easy
to me ; and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great
for even nature itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort,
no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may call it so,
that I had made for many years. But I return to my Journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I consi-
dered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day
and now was my time to get something to refresh and support
myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was to fill
a large square case-bottle with water; and set it upon my table
in reach of my bed : and to take off the chill or aguish dispo-
sition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the
goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about; but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading
the return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made
my supper of three of the turtle's eggs; which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell: and this was the first
bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, as I could re-
member, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk;
but found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun
(for I never went out without that); so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I
sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me; What
is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence
is it produced? And what am I, and all the other creatures,
wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Surely,
we are all made by some secret power, who formed the

earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well,
but then it came on strangely, if God has made all these
things, he guides and governs them all, and all things that con-
cern them; for the power that could make all things, must
certainly have power to guide and direct them: if so, nothing
can happen in the great circuit of his works, either without his
knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition: and if
nothing happens without his appointment, he has appointed all
this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought, to con-
tradict any of these conclusions: and therefore it rested upon
me with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God
hath appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole
power, not of me only, but of every thing that happens in the
world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this to
me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed;
and methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch! dost
thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
mispent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast not done ? Ask,
why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war; devoured by the
wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when
all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou
hast done? I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer to
myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to bed:
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the re-
turn of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought, that the Brasilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers ; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco
in one of the chests, which was quite cured; and some also
that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt: for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz. the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the bibles

which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say,
I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not; but I
tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupified my
brain the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had
not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an
hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a doze of it
when I lay down: and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I
could bear it; as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the bible, and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will de-
liver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words were
very apt to my case; and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me ; the thing was so remote, so
impossible in my apprehension of things, that, as the children of
Israel said when they were promised flesh to eat, Can God
spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I began to say, Can even
God himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it was not for
many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often
upon my thoughts: but, however, the words made a great
impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It
now grew late; and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so
much, that I inclined to sleep : so I left my lamp burning
in the cave, lest I should want any thing in the night, and went
to bed. But before I laid down, I did what I never had
done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God to
fulfil the promise to me, That if I called upon him in the day
of trouble, he would deliver me." After my broken and im-
perfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped
the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the tobacco,
that indeed I could scarce get it down: immediately upon this I
went to bed. I found presently the rum flew up into my head
violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more
till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in
the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly ol

opinion, that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should
lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared some years after I had done ; for if I had lost it by
crossing and re-crossing the Line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other,
when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful : when I got up, I was stronger than
I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much
altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea
fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought them
home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more
of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening I
renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not
take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold
my head over the smoke: however, I was not so well the next
day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have been;
for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dozed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which
I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this scripture, I will deliver thee;" and the impossibility of
my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that Idisregarded the
deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz. Have I not been deliver-
ed, and wonderfully too, from sickness; from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful tome ?
and what notice have I taken of it ? Have I done my part ? God
has delivered me, but I have not glorified him; that is to say,
I have not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance:
and how can I expect a greater deliverance ? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave
God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

Jul. 4. In the morning I took the bible; and beginning at
the New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed
upon myself to read a while every morning and every night;
not binding myself to the number of chapters, but as long as
my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set
seriously to this work, that I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of my dream revived; and the words, all these
things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in
my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give me re-
pentance, when it happened, providentially, the very same day,
that, reading the scripture, I came to these words, He is ex-
alted a Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance, and to give
remission." I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David Jesus,
thou exalted Prince and Saviour give me repentance!" This
was the first time in all my life I could say, in the true sense
of the words, that I prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of
my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded
on the encouragement of the word of God: and from this
time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call
on me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any thing
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was in: for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense: now I looked back upon my past life with
such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul
sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or
think of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison with
this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read
it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than de-
liverance from affliction. But, leaving this part, I return to
my Journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by constantly reading the scripture and
praying to God, to things of a higher nature, 1 had a great deal
of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also,

as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me to furniis
myself with every thing that I wanted, and make my way
of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had nevei
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practise, by this experiment: and though it did carry off the
fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.
I learned from it also this, in particular; that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in
the dry season was almost always accompanied with such storms,
so I found that this rain was much more dangerous than the
rain which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months:
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew no-
thing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry
season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it; at
least, not any stream. On the banks of this brook I found many
pleasant savannahs, or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered
with grass : and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds (where the water, as it might be supposed, never over-
flowed,) I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a great and very strong stalk: and there were divers other plants,
which I had no knowledge of, or understanding about, and
that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could
not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the In-

dians, in all that climate, make their bread of; but I could find
none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild; and, for want
of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these dis-
coveries for this time; and came back, musing with myselt
what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness
of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made
so little observation while I was in the Brasils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might
serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and
after going something farther than I had gone the day before,
I found the brook and the savannahs begin to cease, and the
country become more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits; and particularly, I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the
vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the clusters of
grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and rich. This
was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them
but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them;
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of
grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there,
by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found, however,
an excellent use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are
kept; which I thought would be (as indeed they were) as whole-
some and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my ha-
bitation; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. At night, I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the
next morning proceeded on my discovery, travelling near four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping
still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north sides
of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,
ran the other way, that is, due east: and the country appeared
so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every thing being in a con-
stant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own.;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and

had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. 1 saw here abundance of cocoa trees, and orange,
lemon, and citron trees, but all wild, and very few bearing any
fruit; at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome;
and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now
I had business enough, to gather and carry home; and I re-
solved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons
to furnish myself for the wet season, whick I knew was
approaching. In order to this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great
parcel of limes and melons in another place; and, taking a
few of each with me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to
come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make,
to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days
in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and
my cave): but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled;
the richness of the fruits, and the weight of the juice, having
broken and bruised them, they were good for little or no-
thing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring only
a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was sur-
prised, when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so
rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread
about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded
there were some wild creatures thereabouts which had done
this, but what they were I knew not. However, as I found
there was no laying them up in heaps, and no carrying them
away in a sack; but that one way they would be destroyed,
and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight; I took another course: I then gathered a large quantity
of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees,
that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes
and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation ; the security from storms on that side ; the
water and the wood: and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode in, which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing

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