Title Page

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072801/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner with an account of his travels round three parts of the globe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. in 1 (591, 9 p.) : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Anderson, Alexander, 1775-1870 ( Illustrator )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Munroe & Francis ( Publisher )
Publisher: Munroe & Francis
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: between 1850 and 1853
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself ; two volumes in one ; with new designs on wood by Anderson.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Dates from publisher's advertisement (9 p.) at end, in which last item is dated 1845 and citations below. Munroe & Francis closed business operations in 1853. Cf. American literary publishing houses, 1638- 1899, v. 1.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072801
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27866827

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Full Text

Robinson finishing off his Boat.




XOD csfg"'ns oll ZFFoo0 bp anberson






I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a goon
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreign-
er of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a geni estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived i-rtk Irdl- at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose rela-
tions were named Robinson, a very good family in that coun-
try, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and
so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colo-
nel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-
manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the
battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. 1 bh:.L became of
my second brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts:

my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly againslthe will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise arid grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was for men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of as-
piring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in under kips of a nature out of the common road; that these
things I Mull either too far above me, or too far below me;
that minoivas the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long expe-
rience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships
the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper part of mankind. He told me 1 might judge of
the happiness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was the
he life which all other people envied; that kings have
t~r if lamented the miserable consequences bf being born
torat ings, and wish they had been placed in the middle
of j two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
*se man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of


true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty not
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the ca-
lamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
ol mankind; but that the middle station had the fbwesl disas-
ters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to
so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind,
as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extrava,
gances, on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries,
and mean and insufficient diet, on the other h:nd, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural c.,i..I'h. Ii.. oheirr
way of living; that the middle station of il; ,i .l .lid f ur
all kind of virtues and all kind of .. ii .ii 1i : that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings at-
tending the middle station of life; that this way men went si-
lently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the
head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or
secret burning lust of ambition for great things but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of hlivg, without the bitter, feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day's experience to know it
snore sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-,
tiohate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
anyself ihto miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
bora is, seemed to have provided against; that I was utiier no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do weiftor me
*. nd endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of hTe %hichaj
lie had been just recommending to me; and that if I w".7.
wry easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere

fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so.
much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away; and, to close all, he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to
say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist m my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be
so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed'; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to,
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me, his heart was sofull he could
say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who,
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father's
desire. But, alas! a few days wore it al off; and, in short, to,
prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks
after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act so hastily, neither, as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I thought
her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my
thght were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that
I. d never settle to any thing with resolution enough to.
r with it, and my father had better give me his cou-


sent, than force me to go without it; that 1 was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or
clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, f I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover that
time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt;
and that she wondered how I could think of any such thin
after such a discourse as I had had with my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no
help for me; but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much
hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say,
that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, "That boy might be h i'lI if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he ill be the most
miserable wretch that was ever born; I can give no con-
sent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
rme to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at thatxne;
but, I say, being there, and one of my companions then going

oy sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to
go with them, with the common allurement of sea-faring men,
viz. that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted
neither father or mother any more, not so muc as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any consid-
eration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour,
God knows, on the first of September, 1651, I vient on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most fright-
ful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I be-
gan now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven ftr wick-
edly leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty. All
the godd counsel of my parents, my father's te:rs and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness
to which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt
of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw
a few days after: but it was enough to affect me then, who
was but young sailor, and had never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that .every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in
this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if
ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go di-
recly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
wnj-clived; that I would take his advice, and never run mv-
self to such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly


the goodness of observations about the middle station of
life, how easy, I v comfortably he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prod-
igal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober :hl-,i._1- continued during the storm,
and, indeed, some time alter; but the next day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured
to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a
little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up,
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in a little time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had, indeed,
enticed me away, came to me and said, Well, Bob," clap-
ping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you were frightened, wa'n't you, last niglt, when it blew but
a cap-full of wind ? "-"A cap-full do you call it?" said 1:
"it was a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replied
he," do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give
us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob, Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; do you see what charming weather it is now?" To
Inake short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of
all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with
it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my re-
poutance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and all
my resolutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was re-
turned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by


the abatement of that storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former de-
sires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of re-
flection; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to
return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits, for so I called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience, as any young
fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire:
but I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay, the wind contin-
uing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships
might wait for a wind for the River.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However,
the roads being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage
good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea;
but the eighth day in the morning the wind increased, and we
had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make every
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as peo

Ships in a Storm.


sible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once
or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two an-
chors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I be-
gan to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the sea-
men themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin
by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several times,
" Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all
undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper: I could ill reassume the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death
had been past, and that this would be nothing like the first;
but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted: I got
up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke upon
us every three or four minutes: when I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress around us: two ships that rid
near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rid
about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to
sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us.
running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
I Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the mas-
ter of our ship to Fet them cut away the fore-mast, which he
was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the main-mast stood so

RW i I.\.-oi (CRSOE.

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ROliTol ot ckUiOL. 1.y
house, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to 'it
her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this
distance the thoughts that I had about me at that time, I was
in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the-resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itse)'-
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me in such
condition, that I can by no words describeit.. But the works.
was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury; tilit
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and
wAllowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
oat, she would founder. It was my advantage i ohe respect,
thVt I did not know what they meant by founder, till I in-
quired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others
more sensible than the rest, at their prayers and expecting
every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word, my he irt, as I thought, died within me, and
I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sa into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, tat I, tdt *'
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump aF
another; at which I stirred up, and went to tpump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doinLti, aster,
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride m stoormi,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and wij.ot come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal ofr i'ess. I
who knew nothing whit that meant, was so surpri, thatI
thogl the slip had broke, or some dreadful thing ied hap-'

opened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when every body had his own life
to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and, thrusting mo
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible
for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side,
till at last, the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern
with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so,
partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winter-
ton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when thesea-
men told me she was sinking; for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go
in: my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.


While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way to-
wards the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past
the light-house at \thre-rriin, the shore falls off to the west-
ward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the
violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not with-
out much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as untbrtunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my : hitIIr, an emblem
of our blessed Savior's parable, had even kil.,d ihe fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away
in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any as-
surance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree lt n
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruchiol,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyeasopen. Certainly, nothing but some such dc,:reedl in-
avoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible jnstructtids 'as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who


was the master's son, was now less forward than 1. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial,
in order to go farther abroad: his father turning to me with a
very grave and concerned tone, Young man," says he,
" you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man."-" Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no
more? "-" That is another case," said he; it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, what are you; and oil what account did you
go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion;
" What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my toot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This, in-
deed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were
yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a vis-
ible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said
he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and 1
saw him no more: which way he went, I know not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-


gles with myself, what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best notions that offer-
ed to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I
should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and Mother only, but even
every body else; from whence I have since often observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed of the action
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be es-
teemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
staid awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little notion I had in my de-
sires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good ad-
vice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father; I say, the same inAence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of MO enterprises to my view ; talje
went on board a vessel bound to the coast 6f Africa; or, e 6dr
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea. ig
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might in-
deed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the
same time I had learnt the duty and office of a foremast-man;
and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieuten-
ant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to

. 4


choose for the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go
on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had
any business in the ship or learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does nit always happen to such loose and un-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early: but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world, told me if I would go the voyage with him, I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry any ling with me, I should have all the
advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.
Embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man,
I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This 40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe,
got my father, or at least my moth% to contribute so much as
iati4 my first adventure.
This was the only'voyage in which I may say I was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learnt how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needf'l to be understood by a sailor; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and,,ia



a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure, which yielded me, in London, at my return, al-
most 300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this ,.. %, I had my misfortunes too: particu-
larly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees
north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in his former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left,
and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage;
and the first was this, viz. our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a
Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvass as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a feaours, we prepared to fight our
ship having twelve guns, ai the rover eighteen. About three
in the afternoon, he came up with us, and bringing to, by mis-
take, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him
sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
his small-shot from near 200 men, which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend our-


selves; but laying us on board, the next time, upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-
diately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, 1 was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was un-
done without redemption; but, alas! this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believig that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spani ,or.Portuguese man of war;
and that then I should be set at litty. But this hope of mine
was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudg-
ery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again
from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.
Here 1 meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it: nothing presented to make the supposition


of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though
I often pleased i,. I with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. \1. patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as 1 heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-lishing; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
i,.: fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
M .*r, one of his kinsmen, and the youth of Moresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going .-fi.,h'i in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that, -1..,.l we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and, rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore : however, we got well in
again, il,.h with a great deal of labor, and some danger;
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but
particularly we were all ver liimur\.
But our patron, warned "-y dl, disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the lol-1L... t of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision: so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails: she


sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and the
boom gibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and hd in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
battles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and particu-
I irly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as 1
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provi-
ded extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had
ordered me to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship; for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and
pendants out, and every thing to accommodate his guests;
when, by and by, my patron c.une on board alone, and told me
his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out
with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that as soon as 1
got some fish I should bring it home to his house; all which 1
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at
my command; and my master being gone, 1 prepared to fur-
nish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whitlier 1
should steer; for any where, to get out of that place was
my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread:


he said, that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk
or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into
the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which, it was evident by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master: I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a par-
cel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called him; "Moley," said I,
"our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a'
little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says he, I'll bring
some;" and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same time I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knaw who we were, and took no notice of us: and we were
not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook t would not pull them up, that he

might not see them, I said to the Moor, "This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called tome, begged
to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet, I would do him none: "But," said I,
" you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is
calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you
no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty-:" so he turned
himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt
but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned io the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be-
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard, I must throw you into the sea too."
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go
all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, 1 stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to wind-
ward that they might think me gone towards the Straits'
mouth (as indeed any one that'had been in their wits must

-t --- ", .,,, -t'

,, ,.-

ttbinson's rscape from Sallee.

I___ ____ ~I~ _I


have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with
the canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
B as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, 1 changed my
couJn, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that Ibelieve by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other
king thereabout, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wid shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and come
to an anchor if the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or
where; neither what latitude, what country what nation, or
what river: I neither saw, or desired to se;my people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark and discover the country; but, as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I,
" then I won't; but it may he we may see mien by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we gi' -m the
shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make theni"
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among siea.


However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures
(we knew not -what to call them) of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; anrley
made such hideous cowlings and yelling, that I never i'ieed
heard the like.
X'lry was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both" more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come .i, imming, towards our boat; we could
nat see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a
monstrous huge and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor and row away : "No," says I," Xury;
we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea;
they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I per-
ceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun,,fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hid-
eous cries and 1lwhnu-, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the chore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe
those creatures had never heard before: this convinced me
that there was no-going on shore for us in the night upon that
.oast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of
,tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
it would, we were obliged to go on horse som
as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-


where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat:
when or where to get it, was the point: Xury said, if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection, that made me love him
ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you
go --" Well, Xury," said I, we Will both go, and if the
wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall eat neither of
us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded to shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I run forward towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but differ-
ent in color, and longer legs; however, we were very glad of
it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had foand good water, and
seen no wild mans. "
But we found afterwards, that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little.higher up the creek where we wwe, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I kneo very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and theCape de Vad
islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I Nchd
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we


were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, and knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast .ti I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and
take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place-where I L,
must be that country, which, lying between the em ro of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited,.except by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;.
and indeedboth forsaking -it because of the prodigious num-
bers of tigers, lions, and leopards, and other furious creatures
which harbor there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting
only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men
at a time; and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but howling and roaring of wild
beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in
the Canaries, and 'ad a great mind to venture out, in hopes
of reaching titi|L but-having tried twice, I was forced ia
again by co ni wids, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; sa resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along"the shore.
Several times I Was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a litte point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide begintnfg to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
tlit seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me thlwe
bi&si~ tgofarther off the shore; "for," says he," look, yoidar



lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast asleep."
I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a
little over him. Xury," says 1, "you shall go on shore and
kill him." Xury looked frightened, and said, "Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth:" one mouthful he meant: however, I
said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in
the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous-roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and, though he began to
move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore; "Well, go," said I;. so, the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little'gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close ta
the creature, put the muzzle of the piece- to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, anad
asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury? said
1. Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not
cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with hiu
and it was a monstrous great one.

1 bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for
I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spread-
ing it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in
two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon"
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water: my design
in this was, to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to
say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands:
and in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this si.
gle point, either that I must meet with some" ship or must
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or e places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon th re to look at us; we could also perceive
they were qui k, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they
run along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw
them a great way with a good aim; so I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I qould; and partic-
ularly made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to
3 C


me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat
Upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some .corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to-come at it was our next
dispute, for. I was not for venturing on shore to them, and the
were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and
stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very in-
stant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by
the shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other
(as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards
the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any
more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but 1
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in
the second place we found the people terribly frightened, es-
pecially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did
not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their di-
version: at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than
I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sunk down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as
if he was struggling for life; and so indeed he was. he imme-
diately made to the shore; but between the wound, which was


his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun: some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the #i*
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart, and came to the shore, and began to search:
for the creature. I found him.by his blood staining the watej.
and by the help of a rope which I slung round him, and gas
the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an ad-
mirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire "and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore,.and ran" up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature; so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took offhis skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we could have doe with a knife. They offered me some of
the flesh, which lined, making as if I would give it them,
but made signs the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
bou great vessel made of earth, and burnt, aau suppose,
hn* Ai; this they set down to me, as before, and T sent


Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two- leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other..
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast
of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other
way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore;
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, re-
solving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some


European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to s6me
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail, to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign
on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me t;y
saw the smoke, though they dM not hear the gun. Upon tf. se
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and .
in about three hours' time I canie up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a
Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman; that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable, and almost hopeless condition, as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For," says
he, I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," continued
he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have,
you will be starved there, and then I only take away that
life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr. English-
man), says he; "I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle; for lie ordered the seamen, that none
should ~Wer to touch any thing I had: then he took every
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact in-

ventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as idy
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him, he had been
so generous to me in every fing that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury1
which I was loth to take; not that I was not willing fo let the
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it
to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go
to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas.
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock, 1 went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest m n, like himself, who hid an ingeinoi

t~ they cafl it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I
lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich sud-
denly, 1 resolved, if I couliget a license to settl'-there, I
would turn planter npgg em; endeavoring, in the mean
time, to find out some wayto get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan
for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably to-
gether. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than any thing else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for plant-
ing canes in the year to come: but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life 1 delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay,'
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I Tad done:
mnd I used often- to say to myself, I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone five th'nsand

miles off to no it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
itnd at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbor; no work l)be done, but by the labor of
rmy hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in .which, had I continued, I had, in all
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the
ship remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this
friendly and sincere advice: Seignior Inglese,' says he (for
so he always called-me), "if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who
has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders for but.
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it mis-
carry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain as he desired me.
I wrote the English captainvi widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary direc-
tions for my supply: and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a fall account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effect-
ually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
at the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised at the joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not ac-
cept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English man-
ufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country 1 found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might say, I had
moire than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advance-


ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me from
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls being
each of above a hundred weight, were well cured,.and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; arid now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of;
but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which, in
my future sorrows, I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering
to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and tijng man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash andil iderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thiTn admitted; and thus
[ cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.


To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story :-You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, 1 had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship, among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knves,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to. the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by
the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes were
bought, and tose excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me to secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sellthe Negroes when they came home, so they de-
sired.to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations; and,
in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast

of Guinea; and they offered me that 1 should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way ofcoming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds.from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-
ling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage,
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such cir-
cumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
*het my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word,
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dspose of itto such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writingsor covenants
S to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation
and effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship,that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my
will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I took al possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an un-
dertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect parties
ular misfortunes to myself


But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindl;the dictates of
my fancy, rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tqj n,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the i-r, ibs
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd tifles, especially
little looking-lasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to ststh
over foF the African coast. When they came about
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was tW.
manner of their course in those days, we had very
weather, only excessive hot all the way upon our own co "
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; fro
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for die isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees22 minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took
us quite out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east,
came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-
east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for
twelve days toet we could do nothmg but drive, and
scudding away f let it carry us whiher ever fae and
the fury of the wind directed; and, dug these twelve days,
I need not pty that I expected veiyda4to be swallowed up
nor, indeed, did any in the sbie teo save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides te terror of the storm, asm


of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abat-
ing a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to
sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, de might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; where-
as we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise de-
termined; for being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, Land and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immedi-



ately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the
very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like con-
dition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or
upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes, without breaking in pieces, unless the wid, b a
kind of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every mo-
ment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for
another world; for there was little or nothing more for us to
do in this: that which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was, that, contrary.to our expectation, the
ship did tot break yet, and that the master said the wind be-
gan to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; .so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied .the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the hi ;and getting all into her, let her go,and
committed tl pming en in number, to God's mercy,
and the f thougthe storm was abated consid

ably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm,
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done any thing with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came nearer td the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest man-
ner; and the wind driving us towards the shoe, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well-as we
could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal-we knew not; the only hppe that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pc-n into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothiiig of this appeared; and as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-lke, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the
boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as from
one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!" for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went

back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than
I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold my breath,
and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swim-
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being, that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when
it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but 1 held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself risng
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it re-
lieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments, to recover breath, and till the water went from me
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car-
ried forward rsbefore, the sgre being very flat.
The last tifthew two W' well nigh been fatal tome; fr
*S D

(r.inoe vawt wolie upon (lie Shone"



the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock and that with such force,
that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own de*
liverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately,I must have been strangledin the water: but
I recovered a little before the return of the waves, -and seeing I
should again be covered with the water,I resolved to hold fa.-t
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
tl the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another rdi, which brought me so near
the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I
took, I got to the main land; where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God, that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
were, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I be-
lieve it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of thetgrave; and I did not wonder now at the cus-
tom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about'his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a re-
prieve brought to him; I say Ido not wonder that they bring'
a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him;
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soulsaved



but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or
any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off-and considered, Lord' how was it possible I could get
on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and 1 soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, 1 had a dreadful
deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any
thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see
any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me, was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature, that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of
mind, that, for a while, 1 ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where 1 resolved to sit all night-
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which 1
did to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobac-
co into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so as that, if I
should all asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short

52 .

stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my ldjpg;
and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep,M pt
as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done' m my con-
dition; and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almlr far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had Iuo bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat,
which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck oft
inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half i
mile broad;. so I came back for the present, being more inten
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for
my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if
possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes for the
weather was hot to extremity and took the water; bdt'when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to kntw how
to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out of these


water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. 1
swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I
got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship. was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so
on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to
the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search-and to see what was spoiled and what was
free: and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with bis-
cuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but
a bout, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had sev-
eral spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a
spare top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and lay-
ing two or three short pieces of plank upon them, crossways,
I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able
to hear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to worf, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself


with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which
I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought
to sea with us; but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together; but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it
all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; an, in
all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chests,
nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm ; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left
on shore, upon. the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in
them, and my stockings. However, this put me upon rum-
agingfor clothes, of which 1 found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what
it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There


were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good; the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my nav-
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore: 3dly, What
little wind there was, blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging tothe boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hEmmer; and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well,.only
that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as 1 could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that al'mny cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in,
but, holding up the chests with all my might, 1 stood in that


manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the
water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her
off with the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up
higher, 1 at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide runningup.
I looked on both sides for a proper lace to get to shore, or I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty,-I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, 1
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that Is to'say, sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end'of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that 1 could do was, to wait till the tr'!
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow orer; and so
it did. As soon as I found water enough,-for Iry raft drew
about a foot of water,-1 thrust her upon that dat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground; one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay
till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, Iyet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; aethez in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in dan Q7t wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile frlnle, whi lose



up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed, 1 travelled for discovery up
to the top of that hill; where after I had, with great labor and
difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my great aflic-
tion, viz. that I was in an island, environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
1 tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, 1 shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that
had been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con.
fused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color
and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
. Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
ell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
*rest of that day: what to do with myself at night I knew not,
Snor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night's lodj g. As for food, I


yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
teen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of th, rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
solved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is
to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft;
but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,
SWthen the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a checked
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.,
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy; nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought
away several things very useful' to me: as, first, in the car-
penter's stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes,
a great screw-jack a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all,
that most tUseful thing called a grindstone. All these Ise-
oaredtogether, with several things belonging to the gunner;
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of mus-
kMt bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with
sme small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy,
Ebuld, not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
]Bbsides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
fl, thf a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and somebedding;
andwith this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
, t r. l sihore, to my very great comfort.
l *s' under some apprehensions, during my absence from
~bkIad, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
uW but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor;

only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at
it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a
bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say,
and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which 1
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end with-
out; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying
my two pistolsjust at my head, and my gun at length by me,
I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before Iad
slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch
all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought i
ought to get every thing out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and brought away something
or other; but particularly, the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare can-

'IZMANiiN (aF l,;,

vass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the bar-
rel-of wet gunpowder. In a word, 1 brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was t;iin to cut them" in piece-,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no
more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more, w;as, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought 1 had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my ,,'-l.'lliL, with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead oi' tr..- il, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrelof fine flour : this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except wht was spoiled bv the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, par-
cel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which 1 cut out; and, in
a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and every thing I could,
to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for
,this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water: as for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore ; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, .- -p.i' -'ih til iron, which
I expected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labor; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had bena eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring; though 1 believe verily, had the calm weather held, 1
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wihd
began to rise; however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as
that nothing could be found, yet 1 discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten of a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 0 drug!"
said I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth
to me, no, not the taking off the ground: one of those knives
is worth all this heap: Ihave no inmnner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood be-.
gan, or otherwise 1 might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water;
for the wind rose very hastily, and bebfre it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with al
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that


night, and in the morning, when I looked out, beahoklj re
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but iered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz, that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her
that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was lit-
tie left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had
more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of thetship, or of any
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner "g
description of which it may not be improper to give an i.
count of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter from the heat of the sun: 3dly,
Secui y from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts
4thl yJL view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, 1
mig=h-ot lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In March for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the lof a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was atp as a house side, so that nothing could come down

upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there was a
hollow place, worn a. little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the
rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hol-
low place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending.
In this half-circe 1 pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a s., but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I
was in, I lifted over after me; and so 1 was completely fenced
in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, an#. tonse-
quently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I dhld not



Crusoe lifng in his Ladder.

---- ------

hI~ 'dmle'; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no,
need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
ray riches,,all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,
to preserve nit from the rain.-, l tt in one part of the year are
very violent tllre, b iLBedoil.', viz. one in dilti.'tet W within,
and one larg-.r ient It, ainl covered tlih uppeLlawio with
a large tarpaulin, which I had -aved among the saUii.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When 1 had done this, I began to work my -i i into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down,
out, through my tent, I laid them up ithiLn liy fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the grrouil within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labor and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took Up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is nat-
urally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind
asswift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder My very heart
sunk within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.


I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such Iupres-.oi d(id this make upon me, that after the sturnt
was over, I laid ;i-ide all iny works, my building and fbrtfy-
in-. and applied nimselt'to make bags and boxes, to separate
tlih powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in
hope that whatLever might come, it might not all take fire at
once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
to make one part lire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight; and I link my powder, which in all was about
240 1b. weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, 1 did not apprehend any
danger trom that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where 1 laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill %n' ii;ii' fit for food; and, as near as I
could, to acquaint ni. -.. 'i uli what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
ime; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them: 1 observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the i dll. -, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I conclu-
ded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so di-
rected downward, that they did not readily see objects that
were above them: so, afterwards, I took this method-I al-
ways climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had


frequently a fair mark. The first shot 1 made among these
creatures, 1 killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her,'till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me, upon my shoulders the kid followed me quite to my
inclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill
it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions
(my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely ne-
cessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn;
and what 1 did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in
its proper place;- but I must first give some little account of
mysel, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well
be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this deso-
late place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my face, when I made
these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with my-
self why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned with-
out help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational
to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day,
walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea.



son, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus;
" Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are tie rest of you ? Did not you come
eleven of you into tile boat? Where are the ten ? Why were
not they saved, and you lost'? \\ b were you singled out
Is it better to be here or there And then 1 pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in
them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck, aixn was
driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if 1 had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on
shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them? Particularly," said I aloud (ithl.ii u to my-
self), what should I have done without a gun, m iahun ammu-
nition, without any tools to make any thing, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ? "
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was
in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun, when my ammunition was spent; so that 1
had a tolerable view of- ,r.iili- v.ithout any want as long as
I lived; for I consider iJ, fl:c tilo. beginning, how I should
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time
that was to come, not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surpr-i ii to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now, being toenter in to a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its


order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
in the manner as above said, I first set my foot upon this hor-
rid island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by ob-
servation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north
of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that 1 should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it-with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up en the shore where I first landed,
viz. "I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or. weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyageswhich, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I found, some time after, in
rummaging the chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpen-
ter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical
instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-
tion; all which I huddled together, whether 1 might want
them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which 1 had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among
them, two or three popish prayer books, and several other
books, all which 1 carefully secured. And I must not forget,
that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to r something, in its place;
for I carried both the cats with A; 'and as for the dog, he
amped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to me too

_ I 1 a-


day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted nothing tht he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me; but that would not
do. As I observed before, 1 found pens, ink, and paper, and
I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while
my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was 4
gone I could not; .for I could not make any ink, by any means
that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that 1 wanted many things, not- 4
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these, *
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I hai entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driv-
ing it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece
of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any
thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor
had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for
food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I-drew up the state of .
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me (fp was like to have but few heirs)
as to deliver my thought'rom daily poring upon-them,
alictingvmy mind; and as my began now to ml


my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a
solitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have ,no soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

But I am alive ; and not drown-
ed, as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and per-
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beast to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of A'-
rica; and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many neces,
sary things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most niwerable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find. it something to comfortourselves

from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to ac-
commodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the out-
side; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half)
I raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get,
to keep out the rain; which I found, at some tumes of the year,
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place: I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I be-
stowed on it; and when I found I was pretty safe as to the
beasts of prey, 1 worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock, and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out,
and made me a door to come out m the outside of my pale or
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts
I had in the world I could not write, or eat, or do several.
things with so much pleasure, without a table: ao I went W

work. And here 1 must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most ra-
tional judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or
board; but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and'this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their places,
that 1 might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a gen-
eral magazine of all necessary things; and 1 had every thing
so ready at my hand, that it was a grea-pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much


hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in much discompo-
sure of mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of
many dull things; for example, I must have said thus-
".Sept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drown-
ing, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, 1 ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out,' I was
undone, undone!' til, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being
Some days after this and after I had been- on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, that, at a vast dis-
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household-stuff and habitation, made me a
table, and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, 1
began to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long ast lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it ow. I

Septenmbr 30th, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing
came on shoreson this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's com-
vany being drowned, and myself almost dead.

'"* ^ -* -
7 jL A. ^ .. .i

Crusoe bringing his Raft ashore.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I should
either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort
on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken in
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have
saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all
drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the J
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. 1
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and thn swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could'out of the
ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder than before), and was no more to be
aeea, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I


spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I haa
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or
men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rook, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica-
tion, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and with-
out with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, 1 worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which
1 afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place 1 had marked out for my
Nov. 3. 1 went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I went
to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning 1 began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself
to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next was wholly em.
played in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry

workman; though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any
one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, 1 saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals;
which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what
they were), got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, 1 pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was.which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
ltar e chests or boxes which might hold about a pound, or
ptw pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three, days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to cal it.
Nov. 17. Thisday I began to dig behind my tent, ito th
cock, to make room tfr my farther convenience.

Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so 1
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, 1
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shove or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effect-
ually without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England,
only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long: however, it served well enough
for the uses which 1 had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbar-
row. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware;
at .least, none yet found out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion
of; neither did I know how to go about it: besides, I had no
possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of
the wheel to run in: so I gave it over: and, for carrying awI.
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing,,
a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in for the bricklayUes.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vaiii
to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days;
I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gua.

which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and, working every day, as my strength and time allowed, 1
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that, sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and loaded them with flags and large leaves
of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault fin-
ished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a
great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side;
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without rea-
son too; for if I had been under 4, I should never have want-
ed a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of
work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out;
and, which was of more importance,'I had the oi4Sj0 to prop
up so that I might be sure no more would come -nm
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boird across over each post: this I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
. more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows,
served me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried every thing into the cave, and began to

furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 2 i. Rain all day.
Dec. 2G. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that
I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever; but, by nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 23, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food:
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the Island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however,I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accord-
ingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats: but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall: though it


-Crusoe feeding his te Gt.

Cruroe feeding his tame Goat.

Ik i -- -


was no more than about 25 yards in length, being a half-circle,
from one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor every thing
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much big-
ger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive any thing like a habitation; and it was very well rdid
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my advan-
tage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who build,
not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in
the holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I en-
deavored to breed them up tame, and did so: but when they
grew older they flew all away; which, perhaps, was at first
fr want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them: how-
ever I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat.. And now, in the managing my
household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make, as
indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance I could nevei
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; .1
could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true toone
another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over.


In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as
soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, 1
was obliged to go to bed. I remember the lump of bees-wax
with winch I made candles in my African adventure; but I
had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that whlic
I had killed a goat, I saved the tallow; and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which 1 added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear, steady light, like a candle. In the
middle of all my labors it happened, that, in r .ii ... my
things, I found a little bag; which, as I inia, Il i.l ..1 had
been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry; not for thi.3
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bay
was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag tor
some other use (1 think it was to put powder in, when I di-
vided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), 1 shook
the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of any thing, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown any thing
there; when about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as in-

quiring into the end of Providence in these things, or his order
in governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild,
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and 1 began to bless myself that such a prodigy of na-
ture should happen upon my account: and this was the more
strange to mebecause I saw near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but Icould not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-meat in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what
was common; though 1 ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been mirac-
ulous; for it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if
it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it any where else, at that time, it would have been
burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up


every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread,
But it was not till the fourth year that 1 could allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then, but sparingly,
as I shall show afterwards, in its order; for 1 lost all that 1
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; as I
sowed just before the dry season, so that it never came up at
all, at least not as it would have done; of which in its place,
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; ani
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.,
to make me bread, or rather xfol ; i~r I fmund ways to cook it
up without baking, though I did that also after some time.-
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up ; contriv-
ing to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it
down in the inside : this was a complete inclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my w:dl.
The very next div after this wall was finished, I had almost
all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed : the case
was thus :-As 1 wav busy in the inside of it, behind my tent
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dre'idfil strrisinso: thin, indeed; for, all on a
sudden, I found the ce'rth come crnmtlnhiog down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts 1 had set ua In the c er crIcked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily scored but thought :i .l.;r- of what
really was the cause, only -idl.i-r th''t the to ,, c've was
falling in, as some of it had done before ; 'n d for ftbr I should
he buried in it, I ran forward to my laddler, :and nmt lhinkinrg
myself safe there neither, I got over my will fbr f, ir of the


pieces of the hill which 1 expected might roll down upon me.
Shad no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my litf. I perceived also, that
the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe
the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had), that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise
of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and rousing
me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror
and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and
my household goods, and burying all at once: this sunk my
vary soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not
knowing what to doa All this while, I had not the least serious
religious thought; thing but the common Lord, have mercy
upon me! a id when it was over, that went away too.
While 1 i tt thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it wou d rain; and soon after the wind rose by little and
little, so th t in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam
and froth; the shore was covered with a breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate;
and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much


terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequence of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade
me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the rail was sn
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through
my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been
in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now,
to support my spirits, which, indeed, wanted it very much, I
went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum ; which,
however, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining
all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began
to think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island
was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for
me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surroundwith a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts
or men; for if I staid where 1 was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it now stood, being just under the hanging preci-
pice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed alive
affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost equal
to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing


war put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the
mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal
of time-for me to do this; and that I must be contented to run
the risk where 1 was, till I had formed a convenient camp, and
secured it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion I com-
posed myself for a time; and resolved that 1 would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in
a circle, as before, and set up my tent in it when it was fin-
ished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was
ready and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning, I began to consider of means
to put this measure into execution; but I was at a great loss
about the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a
grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This
caused me as much thought as a statesman would have be-
stowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or, at
least, not to tOte notice how it was done; though since, I have
observed it isvery common there: besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a
great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to
one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
tay 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than


ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came to it I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon tbund it was a barrel
of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder was
caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on the
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as
I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which was broke to
pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out; whereas there was a great piece of
water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. 1 was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earth-
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke open
than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the
sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of any thing, I resolved
to pull every thing to pieces that I could of the ship, conclu-
dije iat every thing could get from her would be of some use
or ~ to me.
3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quar-

ter-deck together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay high-
est; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over fot
that time.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks: yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to.eat; all which I
dried in the sun and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir-planks off from the decks; which
I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bols out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving
it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to
work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
.wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow bat could not break them up. I felt
also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too
heavy to.remove.
May 10-14. Went every day to the wreck; and1t a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, ajntwak
or three hundred weight of iron.


May 15. 1 carried two hatchets, to try if 1 could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a tbot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water; but I staid so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. 1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide, several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt-water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat,
if I had known how; and 1 also got, at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place or
scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17 1 spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savory and pleasant thatt 1 ever ta'sted in my life ; having


.= --;-r-
-~-' IYLC ~
~ 3;7~a~h~

Crusoe taking his first Turtle.




had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I staid within. I thouhit,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and 1 was somewhat chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the wx.athcr ihad
been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill; r l';_h nI .1 almost to death with the ap-
prehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help;
prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what 1 said, or why, my thoughts being all
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
.June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak : however, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,
and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst;
but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed: and when I was not, 1 was so ignorant that I knew
not what to say; only lay and cried, "Lord, look upon
mel Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" Isup-
pose 1 did nothing else for two or three hours; till, the fit wear-
min off, 1 fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and


exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream: I
thought that 1 was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my
wall, where 1 sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe: when he stepped upon
the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake: and all the air looked,
to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He had no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved for-
ward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it: all that 1 can say I
understood, was this: "Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which
words I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to
kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that 1
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind, when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by
the good instruction of my father, was then worn out, by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much
as tended either to looking upward towards God, or inward
towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain stu-

tidity of soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of evil
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our common,
sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sent,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him,
in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through ill the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never
had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or
that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my rebellious
behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were
great; or even s a punishment for the general course of my
wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought
of what would become of me; or one wish to God to direct me
whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which ap-
parently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures, as
cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a Prov-
idence; acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense oni4; and, indeed,
hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea, by
the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly aniu
honorably, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankful-
ness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was as far
from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always -miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, 1 was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace ofGod assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common fight
of joy; or, as I m say sa, being glad I was alive, without the
leadt efction upon the distinguished goodness of the bhmd
9 G

which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre~
served when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me; just the same com-
mon sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in
the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over;
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was, af-
terwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition
-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of
human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had,
at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something mirac-
ulous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was re-
moved, all the impression which was raised from it wore off
also, as 1 have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-
diately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs
such things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impres-
sion it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God,
or his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my cir-
cumstances being from his hand, than if I had been in the
most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to
be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness.


provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes,
and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These reflec-
tions oppressed me for the second or third day of my distem-
per; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful
reproaches of my conscience, extorted from me some words
like praying to God; though I cannot say it was a prayer at-
tended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather their
voice of mere fright and distress. MIy thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror
of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors in my
head with the mere apprehension; and in these hurries of my
soul, I knew not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, Lord what a miserable creature
am I! If I should be sick, 1 shall certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me T" Then the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In
this interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind,
and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the begin-
ning of this story, viz. that if 1 did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might
be none to assist in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud,
" my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected
the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but 1
would neither see it myself nor learn from my parents to know
the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly; and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences ofit: I refused
their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made every thing easy to me; and now
I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature
itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no advice."
Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am m great dis-
tress." This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to my journal.

AWL A&' L^

June 2S. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con
siderea that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was
to fill a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could
eat very little. I walked about; but was very weak, and withal
very sad and heavy-hearted unce a sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs;
which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we-call it,4n the shell;
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's bless-
ing to, as I could remember, in my whole life. After I had
eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that); so 1
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these oc-
curred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have
seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I,
and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?
Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by some secret
Power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And
who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made all.-Well, but then," it came on strangely, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them all,
and all things that concern them; for the Power that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and di-
rect them : if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows

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