Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: Robinson Crusoe's birth...
 Chapter II: An adventurer's misfortunes...
 Chapter III: Voyage to Guinea -...
 Chapter IV: Xury - adventures -...
 Chapter V: Becomes a planter -...
 Chapter VI: A tornado - shipwrecked...
 Chapter VII: Morning - swims back...
 Chapter VIII: An unsuccessful attempt...
 Chapter IX: Calendar - dogs and...
 Chapter X: Pigeons - corn - reflections...
 Chapter XI: Religious reflections...
 Chapter XII: Surveys the island...
 Chapter XIII: Another excursion...
 Chapter XIV: Commencement of his...
 Chapter XV: Projects for escaping...
 Chapter XVI: Resignation to God's...
 Chapter XVII: Ammunition grows...
 Chapter XVIII: Observes the print...
 Chapter XIX: The edge of invention...
 Chapter XX: Anxieties - discovers...
 Chapter XXI: Regret at none of...
 Chapter XXII: Five canoes on shore...
 Chapter XXIII: Friday and the gun...
 Chapter XXIV: Robinson Crusoe informs...
 Chapter XXV: His happy life - more...
 Chapter XXVI: Entertainment of...
 Chapter XXVII: Arrival of an English...
 Chapter XXVIII: Return of the boat...
 Chapter XXIX: Robinson Crusoe a...
 Chapter XXX: Departure for Lisbon...
 Chapter XXXI: Robinson Crusoe's...
 Chapter XXXII: Persons and stores...
 Chapter XXXIII: Another ship in...
 Chapter XXXIV: Landing on the island...
 Chapter XXXV: Relation of an incident...
 Chapter XXXVI: Return to order,...
 Chapter XXXVII: Another alarm -...
 Chapter XXXVIII: The Englishman...
 Chapter XXXIX: More savages on...
 Chapter XL: A fleet of tweny-eight...
 Chapter XLI: Events on the return...
 Chapter XLII: The French ecclesiastic...
 Chapter XLIII: Marriages - conversion...
 Chapter XLIV - Dialogue between...
 Chapter XLV: The young man from...
 Chapter XLVI: Robinson Crusoe leaves...
 Chapter XLVII: The follies of an...
 Chapter XLVIII: The Gulf of Persia...
 Chapter XLIX: Proposal for a fresh...
 Chapter L: History of the ship...
 Chapter LI: Island of Formosa -...
 Chapter LII: Romish missionaries...
 Chapter LIII: Journey to Pekin...
 Chapter LIV: Another encounter...
 Chapter LV: Nertsinskay - Robinson...
 Chapter LVI: The climate - warm...
 Chapter LVII: Departure from Tobolski...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072798/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner with an account of his travels around three parts of the globe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Life of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xxiv, 448 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Plumptre, James, 1770-1832
Whymper, Josiah Wood, 1813-1903 ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons ( Printer )
Publisher: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: W. Clowes and Sons
Publication Date: 185-?
Edition: New ed. / -- rev. and corr. by the late James Plumptre.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1855   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Added engraved t.p.: Robinson Crusoe; half title: Life of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: On t.p.: Published under the direction of the Committee of General Literature and Education, appointed by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
General Note: The Plumptre ed. was first pub. in 1826. Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, lists two Society eds., an unexamined 1850 ed. (406) and an 1882 reissue (645). NUC pre-1956 also lists an 1850? (0118298, v. 136, p. 597) and an 1882? (0118467, v. 136, p. 603) edition. The British Museum Defoe catalog lists a ca. 1850? ed. None of these descriptions exactly match the copy in hand.
General Note: Remainder of imprint: Sold at the depositories: 77, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields; 4, Royal Exchange; 48, Piccadilly; and by all booksellers.
General Note: Some ill. engraved by Whymper.
General Note: Introd. includes Cowper's verses and a postscript related to the authorship of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: University of Florida library's copy imperfect: top half of spine missing.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072798
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28315616

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Table of Contents
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Chapter I: Robinson Crusoe's birth and parentage - rambling thoughts - parental counsel - a mother's anger - a boy's elopement
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Chapter II: An adventurer's misfortunes - good resolutions in distress - dissipated when relieved - a worse storm - loss of the ship - life saved - struggles against conviction
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    Chapter III: Voyage to Guinea - second voyage - taken by a Sallee rover - employment and escape
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    Chapter IV: Xury - adventures - kills a lion and a leopard - gets aboard a Portuguese ship - arrives at the Brazils
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    Chapter V: Becomes a planter - prosperous, but discontented - again takes a voyage
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    Chapter VI: A tornado - shipwrecked - Robinson Crusoe only saved, and cast on shore - night
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    Chapter VII: Morning - swims back to the ship - makes a raft - procures stores, and conveys them safe to land - views the country, and finds it an island, and uninhabited - revisits the ship - makes a tent - various other voyages to the ship
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    Chapter VIII: An unsuccessful attempt - constructs a fortress - a tempest - considerations respecting gunpowder - kills a goat and a kid - reflections on his condition
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    Chapter IX: Calendar - dogs and cats - pens, ink, and paper - want of tools - farther reflections on his condition - enlarges his habitation - makes furniture - his journal
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    Chapter X: Pigeons - corn - reflections on providence - an earthquake - dreadful hurricane - thoughts of removing his habitation - the ship brought nearer shore - continuation of journal - falls ill of the ague - terrific dream
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    Chapter XI: Religious reflections - finds his Bible - the consequence - recovers - and becomes happier
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    Chapter XII: Surveys the island - finds fine fruits - again thinks of moving his habitation - gives up the idea - makes a bower - the rainy season - increase of cats - anniversary of his landing - observes the Sabbath - experiments in sowing corn - makes baskets
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    Chapter XIII: Another excursion to explore the island - procures a parrot - loses himself - procures a kid, which he brings up tame - returns home - second anniversary - causes for thankfulness
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    Chapter XIV: Commencement of his third year - division of time - laboriousness of his work - difficulties in raising corn - and in making bread - pottery - oven
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    Chapter XV: Projects for escaping - the ship's boat - canoe - fourth anniversary - reflections on his condition - failure of his ink - and biscuit - and clothes - makes new clothes of skins
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    Chapter XVI: Resignation to God's providence - second canoe - cruise round the island - narrow escape - return to his bower - remarkable voice heard - Poll
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    Chapter XVII: Ammunition grows low - contrives snares and pitfalls - catches goats - encloses ground - makes butter and cheese - his plenty - with his family at dinner - journey - description of his figure - observation on the coast - his two plantations
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    Chapter XVIII: Observes the print of a man's foot on the shore - conjectures upon it - revisits the mark - new fortification - and new arrangements for the goats - fancies he sees a boat upon the sea, at a great distance - sees the shore spread with human bones - reflections and precautions
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    Chapter XIX: The edge of invention taken off - thoughts of making beer - projects against the savages - doubts about the justice of them - thoughts on providential intimations and deliverances
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    Chapter XX: Anxieties - discovers a cave - what he found there - grotto - removes things to it - amusements - sees a fire, and savages round it - they go off in two canoes - hears a gun at sea, at night - a ship wrecked off the island
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    Chapter XXI: Regret at none of the crew being saved - visits the wreck - brings back a dog and various articles - fresh projects to get away - a dream - and resolutions in consequence
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    Chapter XXII: Five canoes on shore - a captive escapes, and is rescued - reception of him - named Friday - clothed - his fidelity - reflections on the sovereignty of Providence
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    Chapter XXIII: Friday and the gun - stewed meat - salt - roast meat - renounces man's flesh - enclosing more land - conversation - situation of the island ascertained - religious conversation - and reflections
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    Chapter XXIV: Robinson Crusoe informs Friday respecting his country and religion - and Friday informs him of there being white people living in his country - fears respecting Friday - but soon dissipated - makes a canoe, and tries it
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    Chapter XXV: His happy life - more savages on the island - a fierce contest - rescues a Spaniard - and Friday's father - the savages, some killed, and some put to the rout - the new guests conveyed to the fortification
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    Chapter XXVI: Entertainment of the new guests - burial of the dead - an increase of provision - the Spaniard and Friday's father sent on an embassy
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    Chapter XXVII: Arrival of an English ship - remark on secret notices - mutineers against their captain land - rescue of the captain and men - mode of dealing with the mutineers - arrival of a second boat and departure of it again
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    Chapter XXVIII: Return of the boat - death of some, and capture of others of the mutineers - the captain returns with the boats to the ship, and recovers the ship - returns to the island - and sails with Robinson Crusoe, leaving three of the mutineers on the island - return to England
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    Chapter XXIX: Robinson Crusoe a stranger in England - departs for Lisbon - his property in the Brazils - preparation for journey by land to England
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    Chapter XXX: Departure for Lisbon - Madrid - Pampelona - the Pyrenees - encounter with wild beasts - Thoulouse - Paris, Calais, Dover
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    Chapter XXXI: Robinson Crusoe's unsettled disposition - remarks on the power of the imagination and apparitions - his wife - takes a farm - death of his wife - gives up his farm, and returns to London - his nephew offers to carry him back to his island - accepts the proposal
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    Chapter XXXII: Persons and stores carried out - wind-bound at Galway - sail again - a ship on fire at sea - it blows up - the crew saved in boats, and taken into the ship - effects of this deliverance on them, put most of them on shore at Newfoundland
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    Chapter XXXIII: Another ship in distress - famine - administer relief - arrival at the island
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    Chapter XXXIV: Landing on the island - meeting of Friday and his father - the Spaniards - account of what had happened on the island after the departure of Robinson Crusoe
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    Chapter XXXV: Relation of an incident before the departure of the ship from off the island, when Robinson Crusoe left it in 1686 - continuation of the account of the transactions on the island - feuds
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    Chapter XXXVI: Return to order, and relapse - two large parties of savages on the island - a battle - three refugees taken - the conquerors depart - improvements on the island
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    Chapter XXXVII: Another alarm - another mutiny - the mutineers dismissed from the society - and depart from the island for the continent - return with three men and five women, savages, prisoners - account of their voyage
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    Chapter XXXVIII: The Englishman adopt the black women as wives - diligence and sloth
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    Chapter XXXIX: More savages on the island - three left behind, and captured - one makes his escape - arrival of a stronger force of savages - conflagration of some of the huts - some of the savages killed, some taken prisoners, some escape - the destoyed huts made good again
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    Chapter XL: A fleet of tweny-eight canoes invades the island - an army of about two hundered and fifty - various encounters and battles - all destroyed but thirty-seven, who surrender, and have a settlement given them on the island - their ingenuity
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    Chapter XLI: Events on the return of Robinson Crusoe to his island - acceptable tools - Will Atkin's hut - religion of the colonists - the Spaniards - their life among the savages - treaty of friendship between the English and the Spaniards - a feast - the artificers introduced
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    Chapter XLII: The French ecclesiastic - his anxiety for the souls of the inhabitants - agrees to be left to endeavour to convert them
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    Chapter XLIII: Marriages - conversion of Atkins and wife - liberality in a Roman Catholic
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    Chapter XLIV - Dialogue between Robinson Crusoe and Will Atkins - sins against parents - marriage - dialogue between Will Atkins and his wife - the bad lives of Christians a stumbling-block to heathens - God - the Bible - prayer - baptism of Atkin's wife - and his marriage with her
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    Chapter XLV: The young man from the ship in distress - marriage of the Jack-of-all-Trades with the maid Susan - settlement of the plantations - Robinson Crusoe's preparations to depart - injunction respecting religious disputes - leaves a Bible - the young woman from the ship in distress - her description of what it was to starve - Robinson Crusoe does not leave the sloop at the island
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    Chapter XLVI: Robinson Crusoe leaves the island - arrives at the Brazils - adventure by the way - army of savages in canoes - the death of Friday - the army routed - the ship anchors off the bay of All Saints - difficulty of getting on shore - his partner - the sloop finished and freighted for the island - safe arrival
        Page 354
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    Chapter XLVII: The follies of an old man - voyage to the East Indies - wrong conduct in respect to the island - last letters from thence - the Popish clergyman - Cape of Good Hope - Madagascar - transgression against the natives, and dreadful encounter with them - murder of Tom Jeffry - the sacking a town - the massacre of Madagascar
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    Chapter XLVIII: The Gulf of Persia - five of the crew go on shore, and are not heard of after - difference between Robinson Crusoe and the boatswain - the boat at Bengal
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    Chapter XLIX: Proposal for a fresh voyage - Achin, Siam, Suskan - return to Bengal - another voyage and return - Robinson Crusoe and his partner purchase a ship - trade among the Philippine and Molucca isles - puts into the river Cambodia - taken for pirates and chased - vanquish their pursuers
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    Chapter L: History of the ship - voyage to China - small river near the bay of Tonquin - ship laid on one side to be repaired - attacked by the Cochin-Chinese - who get pitch-kettled
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    Chapter LI: Island of Formosa - effects of the Christian religion - they sail north - take a Portuguese pilot on board - the gulf of Nanquin - Quinchang - the dreadfull state of living in fear - go on shore
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    Chapter LII: Romish missionaries - father Simon - disposal of the ship and merchandise - the young man, Robinson Crusoe's companion - journey to Nanquin - observations on China - return to Quinchang
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    Chapter LIII: Journey to Pekin in the suite of a Mandarin - a country gentleman - arrive at Pekin - caravan setting out for Moscow - they join it - number of the caravan - house-built with china-ware - the great wall - encounter with the Tartars
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    Chapter LIV: Another encounter - a body of ten thousand Tartars appear, but do not molest them - the city of Naum - enter the Muscovite dominions - the river Arguna - the river Yamour - the Tartarus - idolatry
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    Chapter LV: Nertsinskay - Robinson Crusoe and the Scots merchant destroy the idol - pursued by the Tartars - Jarawena - frightful desert - Adinskoy - the Tongueses - Janezay - the river Oby - Tobolski - winters there
        Page 428
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    Chapter LVI: The climate - warm house - exiles of Muscovy - riddles in government - happy state of the mind of man when brought to reflection - a great conqueror - the cold - provisions - preparations to depart - condition of the exiles - offer to an exile to assist him in making his escape - declined - but accepted for his son
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    Chapter LVII: Departure from Tobolski - small caravan - the river Kama - Soloy Kamskoi - vast desert - a troop of thieves - encounter - and retreat - Kermazinskoy - Veuslima - Lawrenskoy - Archangel - Hamburgh - London - the end
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"A terrible rceat lion."



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Of York, Mariner. >




Formerly Vicar of Great Gransden, Hunts.




THE numerous editions through which the Life and Surprising
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe has passed, the number of
abridgments, the manner in which it has been embellished,
and the number of imitations, all declare its popularity and
power of interesting.
Dr. Johnson, speaking of the works of Defoe, and his merit
as a writer, says, "Indeed his 'IRobinson Crusoe' is enough of
itself to establish his reputation." (Boswels Life of Johnson,
4th edit. Vol. III. p. 289.)
Dr. Percival, in his Father's Instructions, says, that The
History of Robinson Crusoe" is "the best and most enter-
taining moral romance now extant. It displays, in a most
striking manner, the advantage of being inured to manual
exertions; the value of skill in the mechanic arts; the num-
berless benefits we derive from the division of labour; and,
above all, it enables us to perceive, in their full extent, the
intellectual, moral, and religious aids we derive from society."
(9th edit. p. 244.)
Dr. Blair, in his lectures on the Belles Lettres, (4th edit.
Vol. III. p. 82,) speaking of Fictitious History, says, "In
this kind of writing, we are, it must be confessed, in Great
Britain inferior to the French. We neither relate so agreeably,
nor draw characters with so much delicacy; yet we are not
without some performances which discover the strength of
the British genius. No fiction, in any language, was ever
better supported than the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
While it is carried on with that appearance of truth and sim-
plicity which takes a strong hold of the imagination of all
Readers, it suggests, at the same time, very useful instruction;
by showing how much the native powers of man may be
exerted fomsarmounting the difficulties of any external situ-
Mrs. Trimmer, in her Guardian of Education, (Vol. III.
p. 297,) reviewing this work, says, "In respect to its general
merits, we believe it to be the universal opinion, that it is one
of the most interesting and entertaining books that was ever
A 2


written; nor is it destitute of important instruction; for it
exhibits in a most striking light the power with which the
human mind is ended, to relieve the wants of the body; and
to sustain the evils of life with fortitude and resignation under
the most distresing circumstances. On these accounts the Life
of Robinson Crusoe has been employed in the education of boys,
for the purpose of showing what ingenuity and industry can
effect, under the divine blessing."
The work, however, has been thought not to be without its
faults and dangerous tendency. The same excellent lady goes
on to say, "But a question has arisen, whether this book
should be put into the hands of all boys without discrimination.
Our opinion is that it ought not; for children of very lively
imaginations, and accustomed to indulge their fancy without
control in their infantine amusements, may undoubtedly be led
by it into an early taste for a rambling life, and a desire of
adventures: an instance of this was related to us as a fact.
Two little boys, in consequence of reading the History of
Robinson Crusoe, set off together from their parents' houses,
in order to embark in some ship, with the hope of being cast
on an uninhabited island: and though they certainly did not
succeed in their project, it was productive of fatal effects; for
the mother of one of them, during the time they were missing,
was, in consequence of anxiety of mind, seized with an illness,
which shortly put a period to her days. Caution, therefore, in
respect to the temper and disposition of a child ought to be
used, before a work of so fascinating a nature is put into his
hands; but where the mind and temper have been properly
regulated, it may be safely used as a stimulus to mental and
bodily exertion, and patient perseverance."
The Editor of the Literary Miscellany, in the List of Books,
in the volume on Education, says that "Voyages and Travels,
such as Robinson Crusoe, the three Russian Sailors, and
Sinbad, should not be chosen for boys of an enterprising
temper, unless they be intended for a seafaring life." (P. 202.)
Mra Trimmer proceeds in her remarks: "The author of
the book, foraeeing that his young readers might from his
narrative be divted from the line of lif prescribed for them
by their ren, has very properly pote out, and in very
strong colours, the misery which follows the breach of filial
duty; but these reflections we apprehend are commonly over-
looked, when the curiosity of the mind is strongly exited,
and the feelings powerfully engaged, by the i c of
the story; however, we are glad to find that the h of this
engaging tale, though careless in respect to religion in his
early days, is made a good and pious Christian at last; and
that the Bible was the means of his conversion, and the instru-
ment made use of by him for converting his faithful savage,


Frday. Some of his opinions, however, are not accurate, for
he, in the first volume, is made to declare himself no friend to
church government, yet in the second, he is described as lean-
ing to the doctrines of the Roman Catholics, at least a Romish
priest is exhibited as the perfection of the ministerial character.
This volume did.not make a part of the original work; it was
added afterwards, in consequence of the wonderful sale of the
first volume; but it is very inferior to it, and on many accounts
totally unfit for the perusal of children."
The attention of.the present Editor was drawn to the work
on its being adopted by the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge, on their Supplemental Catalogue, as A Reward
Book for children at the National Schools; and- recollecting
the objections made to it by the just-mentioned excellent
Guardian of Education, so many of whose books are on the
Society's List, the Editor, in perusing it, acknowledged the
justice of the objections; and, still further, thought that it
favoured the doctrine of predestination, orfatalism, as Robinson
Crusoe represented himself as born to be his own destruction,
and urged on by a fate which he could not resist. He must
confess, likewise, that he found some parts of it rather heavy;
and thought that it would facilitate the Reader's progress to
divide it into Chapters, which, like milestones on a road, though
they do not really make the journey shorter, yet they make it
appear so, by showing at intervals, how much of the way is
gone over, and how much is to come, and are objects to look
forward to, and interest the attention. They are, farther, like
inns, at which the literary traveller may stop and rest, and
take refreshment: and the heads of Chapters, collected into
a Table of Contents, afford a useful epitome of the work, either
to take a bird's-eye view of the country beforehand, or to
recognize any particular spot after the journey is completed.
To remedy these defects has been the obl*ot of the Editor
in this edition.
The Author of the Idfe of Robinson Crusoe, it seems to be
generally held, was Daniel Defoe; but the Editor is not aware
that it was ever publicly avowed by him, or, at least, that he
ever put his name to it. The first edition bears date 1719,
and it attained to at least a third edition the same year; both
title-pages say, Written by Himself, that is, by the Adventurer,
Bobinson Crusoe. The second volume, written in consequence
of the great success of the first, was published in the same
year. J
Danif Defoe was the son of James Foe, a citizen and
butcher of London, and was born about the year 1663. How
he came to alter his name does not appear. His enemies
asserted, that he assumed the De to avoid being thought an
Englishman; but what dislike he could have to that does not


seem easy to suppose. He might dislike the unfriendly name
of Foe; and, having been accustomed to write his name
D. Foe, for Daniel Foe, he might think it preferable, especially
as an author, to make his surname De Foe or Defoe. The
family were protestant dissenters, and Daniel, who had received
his education at a dissenting academy at Newington Green,
near London, was a dissenter upon principle. In 1688 he
kept a hosier's shop in Cornhill, and in 1692 he failed. One
of his creditors took out a commission of bankruptcy, which
was superseded on the petition of those to whom he was most
indebted, who accepted a composition on his single bond.
This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied diligence.
But some of those creditors, who had been thus satisfied,
falling afterwards into distress themselves, Defoe being then
in easy circumstances, voluntarily paid them their whole claims.
In 1695 he was made accomptant to the commissioners of the
glass duty, which office he held till that impost was taken
off. When discontents ran high at the Revolution, and King
William was obliged to dismiss his Dutch guards, Defoe ridi-
culed the opposers of government, in his poem called the True-
born Englishman, which had a prodigious sale. The next satire
which he wrote was entitled Reformation of Manners, aimed
at some persons of high rank, who rendered themselves a
disgrace to their country. When the ecclesiastics in power,
as he thought, inclined to persecution, he wrote a tract, called
The Shortest Way with the Dissenters : for which he was
called to account, and explained himself with great firmness.
He was afterwards sentenced to the pillory, and fined and
imprisoned, for attacking some public measures. On regain-
ing hisliberty, August, 1704, he retired to Bury St. Edmund's,
where he continued to exercise his pen. While in prison, he
had projected "lhe Review," a periodical paper in-to, the
fir-r i li,; t' $lli~ was published in February, 1704, and it
(c:..t!ur i.d t'for.~ u- years. This probably led the way to the
Ti-r SBI-ktat., -. and Guardians, by Steele and Addison.
iI.- v .- o~rr'umn-'.r in promoting the Union of England and
S..tI hu.l, ,n 1767. In 1713 he was again committed to prison
for some political pamphlets, but Lord Oxford procured his
pardon. In 1715 he published the Family Instructor. Of
this work, Hervey, the author of the Meditations, says, in a
Letter to a Lady, (see his Works, 1797, Vol. VI. p. 96,) "If
you love entertainment, my next shall recommend a book,
which is as entertaining as a novel or a play, yet edifying as a
sermon." For the editor of his works says in a note, "The
book here meant is De Foe's Family Instructor, in two vols.,
12mo, which has passed twelve editions, and justly deserves
the character Mr. Hervey gives of it.-This is the same author
who wrote the treatise entitled Religious Courtship, being


Historical Discourses on the necessity of marrying religious
Husbands and Wives."
To him is generally attributed The History of the Great
Plague in London, in the year 1665. By a Citizen, who lived
the whole time in London." But Defoe was then but about
two years of age, so that he could know nothing of it from
personal knowledge. It is signed at the end H. F. Was this
a Henry Foe, an uncle, or some relation, from whose account
he might write it? The butcher's is said to be a particularly
healthful employment. Dr. Thornton, in his Herbal, under
the article European Olive, speaking of the use of oil in in-
fectious disorders, and particularly the plague, says, "when
the plague raged in London, tallow-chandlers and butchers
were found exempt." (2nd edit. p. 17.*)
The political tracts of Defoe were very numerous. Thirtyof
them have been collected in two volumes, 8vo.
He wrote several novels, the only one of which that main-
tains any celebrity is Robinson Crusoe. Concerning this, says
the writer of the article Defoe in the Encyclopadia Britannica,
"there is an anecdote that does the author of it no credit as to
the better part of a writer's character, honesty. When Captain
Woodes Rogers touched at the island of Juan Fernandez, in
the South Sea, he brought away Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch
sailor, who had been left ashore there, and had lived on that
desolate place above four years. When Selkirk came back to
England, he wrote a narrative of his adventures, and put the
papers into the hands of Defoe, to digest for publication; who
ungenerously converted the materials into the History of
Robinson Crusoe, and returned Selkirk his papers again! A
fraud for which, in a humane view, the distinguished merit
of that romance can never atone."
The justice of this accusation can be appreciated, at this
time, by considering the history of Selkirk, which shall be
given from the same work, and from Captain Rogers's account
of that voyage.
ALEXANDER SELKIRK was born at Largo, in Fifeshire, in
Scotland, about the year 1676, and was bred a seaman. He
When the Editor had written this, he thought he would turn to the History
of the Plague to see If he could fnd anything upon the subject there, when, to
his great surprise (p. 92), he found the following sentences: "I laid in a quantity
o Salt butter and CheAire cheese; but I had no flesh meat, and the plague raged
so violently among the butchers and slaughter-houses, on the other side of our
street where they are known to dwell in great numbers, that it was not advisable,
so much as to o over the street among them."-" I am certain the butchers of
Whitechade, whre the greatest part of the flesh-meat was killed, were dreadfully
visited; and that at last to such a degree, that few of their shops were kept open,
and those that remained of them killed their meat at Mie-nd and that way, and
brought it to market upon horses."
So much do doctors and historians differ, and so hard it is to get at truth, even
where one wishes it, and examines both sides i The Editor must leave it to
farther discussion.



went from England, in 1703, in the capacity of sailing-master
of a small vessel called the Cinque Ports Galey, Charles Picker-
ing captain, burthen about 90 tons, with 16 guns and 63 men;
and in September the same year sailed from Cork, in company
with another ship of 26 guns and 120 men, called the St. George,
commanded by that famous navigator, William Dampier, in-
tended to cruise against the Spaniards in the South Sea. On
the coast of Brazil, Pickering died, and was succeeded in his
command, by his lieutenant, Thomas Stradling. They pro-
ceeded on their voyage round Cape Horn to the island of Juan
Fernandez, whence they were driven by the appearance of two
French ships of 36 guns each, and left five of Stradling's men
there on shore, who were taken off by the French. Hence
they sailed to the coast of America, where Dampier and Strad-
ling quarrelled and separated by agreement, on the 19th of
May, 1704. In September following, Stradling came again to
the island of Juan Fernandez, where Selkirk and his captain
had a difference, which, with the circumstance of the ship's
being very leaky, and in bad condition, induced him to deter-
mine on staying there alone; but when his companions were
about to depart, his resolution was shaken, and he desired to
be taken on board again. The captain, however, refused to
admit him, and he was obliged to remain."-" He kept up his
spirits tolerably till he saw the vessel put off, when (as he
afterwards related) his heart yearned within him, and melted
at parting with his comrades and all human society at once."
"Yet believe me, Aras,
Such is the rooted love we bear mankind,
All ruffans as they were, I never heard
A sound so dismal as their parting oars.
THeaoa's AoaEuroNO.-Euyce. Brit.
Captain Rogers arrived in the Duke at the island of Juan
Fernandez on the 1st of February, 1709, and on the 2nd sent
the yawl on shore, which not returning, he sent," to give his
own words, the pinnace well armed, to see what had occa-
sioned the yawl to stay, being afraid there might be a Spanish
garrison on the island, who might have seized her and our
Even the pinnace delayed returning, on which we put up
a signal for her to come back, when she soon came off with
abundance of cray-fish, bringing also a man clothed in goat-
skins, who seemed wilder than the original owners of his
apparel. His name was Alexander Selkirk, a Scotsman, who
been left here by Captain Stradling, of the Cinque-Ports,
and had lived alone on the island for four years and four
months. Captain Dampier told me he had been master of the
Cinque-Ports, and was the best man in that vessel; so I imme-
diately agreed with him to serve as a mate in the Duke.


During his stay, he had seen several ships pass by, but only
two came to anchor at the island, which he found to be
Spaniards, and therefore retired from them, on which they fired
at him, but he escaped into the woods. Had they been
French, he would have surrendered to them; but chose rather
to run the risk of dying alone upon the island than fall into
the hands of the Spaniards, as he suspected they would either
put him to death, or make him a slave in their mines. The
Spaniards had landed before he knew what they were, and
came so near him that he had much ado to escape; for they
not only shot at him, but pursued him into the woods, where
he climbed up a tree, at the foot of which some of them stopped,
and killed several goats just by, yet went away without dis-
covering him."
Captain Rogers mentions then his birth, and his difference
with Captain Stradling, and his being left on the island, and
proceeds: "he had with him his clothes and bedding, with a
firelock and some powder and bullets, some tobacco, a knife, a
kettle, a Bible, with some other books, and his mathematical
instruments. He diverted himself and provided for his sus-
tenance as well as he could; but had much ado to bear up
against melancholy for the first eight months, and was sore
distressed at being left alone in such a desolate place. He
built himself two huts of pimento trees, thatched with long
grass, and lined with goat skins, killing goats as he needed
them with his gun, so long as his powder lasted, which was
only about a pound at first. When that was all spent, he pro-
cured fire by rubbing two sticks of pimento wood together.
He slept in his larger hut and cooked his victuals in the
smaller, which was at some distance, and employed himself in
reading, praying, and singing psalms, so that he said he was a
better Christian during his solitude than he had ever been be-
fore, or than, as he was afraid, he should ever be again.
"At first he never ate but when constrained by hunger,
partly from grief, and partly for want of bread and salt.
Neither did he then go to bed till he could watch no longer,
the pimento wood serving him both for fire and candle, as it
burned very clear and refreshed him by its fragrant smell.
He might have had fish enough, but would not eat them for
want of salt, as they occasioned a looseness, except cray-fish,
which are as large as our lobsters, and are very good. These
he sometimes boiled, and at other times broiled, as he did his
goats' flesh, of which he made good broth, for they are not so
rank as our goats. Having kept an account, he said, he had
killed 500 goats while on the island,* besides having caught

Here is, undoubtedly, some misrepresentation, or error, as It is a goat in less
than every four days throughout his stay.-Editor.


as many more, which he marked on the ear and let them go.
When his powder failed, he ran down the goats by speed of
foot; for his mode of living, with continual exercise of walking
and running, cleared him of all gross humours, so that he
could run with wonderful swiftness through the woods, and up
the hills and rocks, as we experienced in catching goats for us.
We had a bull-dog, which we sent along with several of our
nimblest runners to help him in catching goats, but he out-
stript our dog and men, caught the goats, and brought them
to us on his back. On one occasion, his agility in pursuing
a goat had nearly cost him his life ; as, while pursuing it with
great eagerness, he caught hold of it on the brink of a preci-
pice, of which he was not aware, being concealed by bushes,
so that he fell with the goat down the precipice to a great
depth, and was so bruised and stunned by the fall, that he lay
senseless, as he supposed, for twenty-four hours,* and when
he recovered his senses, found the goat dead under him. He
was then scarcely able to crawl to his hut, about a mile dis-
tant, and he could not stir out again for ten days.
"He came at length to relish his meat well enough without
bread an&dsalt. In the proper season he had plenty of good
turnips, which had been sowed there by Captain Dampier's
men, and had now spread over several acres of ground. He
had also abundance of cabbage from the cabbage-palms, and
seasoned his food with the fruit of the pimento, which is the
same with Jamaica pepper, and has a fine flavour. He found
also a species of black pepper, called malageta, which was good
for expelling wind and curing gripes. He soon.wore out all
his shoes and other clothes, by running in the woods: and,
being forced to shift without, his feet became so bard that he
ran about everywhere without inconvenience, and it was some
time after he came to us before he could wear shoes, and his
feet swelled when he first began again to wear them. After he
had got the better of his melancholy, he sometimes amused
himself with carving his name on the trees, together with the
date of"his being left there, and the time of his solitary resi-
dence. At first he was much pestered with cats and rats,
which had bred there in great numbers, from some of each
species which had got on shore from ships that had wooded
and watered at the island. The rats gnawed his feet and clothes
when he was asleep, which obliged him to cherish the cats, by
feeding them with goats' flesh, so that many of them became
so tame, that they used to lie beside him in hundreds, and soon
delivered him from the rats. He also tamed some kids, and
for his diversion would at times sing and dance with them and

He afterwards related to Sir Richard Steele, that he computed, from the
alteration of the moon, he had lahi three days.-Encyc. Brit.


his cats; so that, by the favour of Providence and the vigour
of his youth, for he was now only thirty years of age, he came
at length to conquer all the inconveniences of his solitude, and
to be quite easy in his mind.
When his clothes were worn out, he made himself a coat
'and a cap of goats' skins, which he stitched together with
thongs of the same,-cut out with his knife, using a nail, by way
of a needle or awl. When his knife was worn out, he made
others as well as he could, of some old hoops that had been
left on the shore, which he beat out thin between two stones,
and grinded to an edge on a smooth stone. Having some linen
cloth, he sewed himself some shirts, by means of a nail for a
needle, stitching them with worsted, which he pulled out on
purpose from his old stockings, and he had the last of his
shirts on when we found him. At his first coming on board,
he had so much forgotten his language, for want of use,*
that we could scarcely understand him, as he seemed to
speak his words only by halves. We offered him a dram,
which he refused, not having drank anything but water all
the time he had been on the island, and it was some time
before he could relish our provisions. He could give us no
farther account of the productions of the island than has been
already given, except that there were some very good black
plums, but hard to come at, as the trees which bear them grow
on high mountains and steep rocks. There are many pimento
trees, some of them being sixty feet high, and two yards
round, and we saw cotton trees still higher, and near four
fathoms round the stems. The climate is excellent, and the
trees and grass are quite verdant the whole year. The winter
lasts no longer than June and July, and is not then severe, there
being then only slight frosts and a little hail, but sometimes
very great rains. The heat of summer is equally moderate,
and there is not much thunder or tempestuous weather. He
saw no venomous or savage creature on the island, nor any
other beasts besides goats, bred there from a few brought by
Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard,- who settled there with a
few families, till the continent of Chili began to submit to the
Spaniards, when they removed to that country as more profit-
"This island of Juan Fernandez is about fifteen English
miles in length, from E. to W., and five miles where broadest,
but averaging little more than two miles in breadth, and is
mostly composed of high rugged land."-" The wind blows
here generally off the shore, sometimes in heavy squalls, but
for the most part calm, and where we were moored the water

The Encyc. Brit. says he had constantly performed his devotoa at stated
hours, and read aloud.


was very smooth, owing to the winding of the shore. Mr.
Selkirk told us it had never blown towards the land above four
hours all the time he had been there. It is all hills and
valleys, and would doubtless produce most plants usual in
such climates, if manured and cultivated, as the soil promises
well in most parts, and already grows turnips and some other
roots, which I suppose were formerly sowed. It has plenty of
wood and water.*
There was abundance of fish, sea-fowl, and sea-lions, and
seals. (Xero's General History and Collection of Voyages and
Travels, Vol. X. p. 349-354.)
After a fortnight's stay at Juan Fernandez, the ships pro-
ceeded on their cruise against the Spaniards ; plundered a town
on the coast of Peru ; took i Manilla ship off California; and
returned by the way of the East Indies to England, where
they arrived the 1st of October, 1711: Selkirk having been
absent eight years, more than half of which time he had spent
alone on the island.
Of the time or place or manner of this extraordinary man's
death we have no account; but in 1798, the chest and musket
which Selkirk had with him on the island were in the posses-
sion of his grand-nephew, John Selkirk, weaver, in Largo."
(Encyc. Brit.)
On comparing this account with the History of Robinson
Crusoe, it will appear, that excepting the fundamental circum-
stance of each living alone for some years upon an uninhabited
island, there is little or nothing in common. Selkirk was only
four years and four months upon his island, Robinson Crusoe
was twenty-eight upon his. Selkirk appears to have had very
little ingenuity, even his habitation seems to have been incon-
venient. The Encyc. Brit. says it was so obscurely situated,
and so difficult of access, that only one of the ship's officers
would accompany him to it. He had no method of drying
fruit, raising corn, making bread and butter and beer, making
pottery, baskets, &c. He repaired no boat, and made no
canoes. His island was not infested by cannibals, and he
obtained no savage as his servant and companion. There is
nothing in Robinson Crusoe but what the author might obtain
from Captain Rogers's account of Selkirk, which was published
in 1712, seven years before; or from an account of him in
some of the periodical publications of the time : or from some
other account of a sailor left on a desolate island. If it were
really true that Defoe had used Selkirk, as stated above,
Selkirk had an easy remedy by publishing his own papers, to
which the celebrity of Robinson Crusoe would have obtained
the greater portion of notice and profit. Defoe might think, that
There are plans and views of Juan Fernandes in the 4to edition of jord
Anaou's voyage.


Selkirk had not made the best of his talents and means, and
wrote his Robinson Crusoe to instruct and stimulate future
mariners, who might be placed in similar situations. Even
had Selkirk published his narrative at length, there appears no
good reason why Defoe might not still have written and pub-
lished The Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
But the right of Defoe himself to the merit of the work has
not been without question. When the Editor of this edition
was at Epsom, in the autumn of 1811, he was in company with
the late Miss Hamilton, who told him, that her father, the late
Captain Hamilton, used to say, that Robinson Crusoe was
written by LoRD OXFORD, while a prisoner in the Tower, and
was fathered by Daniel Defoe." The dates will not contradict
this supposition. Lord Oxford was impeached of high treason
by the Commons, and committed to the Tower in 1715, and he
remained there two years, when he was brought to his trial,
and acquitted. It has already appeared, that, when Defoe was
imprisoned in 1713, his release and pardon were procured by
Lord Oxford; so that there was an acquaintance, and even an
intimacy, between them. The internal evidence is not against
this idea. The general cast of the work is such as was not
unlikely to proceed from the solitude of a prison; and the
account of the exiled nobles of Muscovy, towards the end of
the volume (see chapter Ivi.), savours much of the writing,
or at least the suggestion, of the impeached statesman. The
first volume was published, as already stated, in 1719, and
attained at least a third edition the same year. The second
volume was published the same year, a despatch of authorship
which would be materially assisted by a coadjutor. Lord
Oxford died in 1724, Defoe in 1731.
As to the objection, that the author has been too favourable
to the Roman Catholics, he has certainly drawn the character
of a very liberal and amiable Romish priest; but it is rather a
lesson to Roman Catholics to be zealous and liberal, not a
defence of their doctrines.
Would the great body become such, we should think them
in a fair way to join the Protestant Church: and we think,
likewise, that many a Protestant might learn candour and zeal
from this amiable Papist. Defoe is certainly sufficiently explicit
in his censure of Popish doctrines in his Religious Courtship.
He has been equally candid and favourable to the Spaniards,
who are held up in a much more favourable light than the
English. But then, it must be recollected that the English,
witl whom he contrasts them, are of the worst description, of
that disposition which cannot endure subordination, and breaks
outin mutiny. Selkirk, it appears, had a very different idea
of the Spanish character. He was afraid to trust the Spaniards
who landed on the island


The amiable poet, Cowper, published some verses supposed
to have been written by Alexander Selkirk, during his solitary
abode in the island of Juan Fernandez, which, though ascribed
to him, seem rather to have been suggested by the perusal
of Robinson Crusoe. (See particularly chapter xv. p. 100.)
Perhaps Cowper had the general feeling, of thinking that
Selkirk had been unduly deprived of his celebrity, and wished,
as far as he could, to restore it to him. If this were his object,
he has completely succeeded; and if Defoe really did him any
injury, Cowper has repaired it. The circulation of Cowper's
volumes will, probably, surpass that of Robinson Crusoe. The
verses, too, find a place in almost every selection; they have
been given by Dr. Percival, in his Father's Instructions, by
Mrs. Trimmer, annexed to her review of Robinson Crusoe, and
by the Encyclopedia Britannica, at the end of the article on
Selkirk; and they ought, on account of their elegance, pathos,
and piety, to find a place somewhere in every edition of
Robinson Crusoe, and shall, therefore, be given here.

~r.-u~ij:,-... ~~,;..



Spnpoed to be written by Alermder Skirk, drig Is eoiary
abode on the island of Jan Psmandez.

I Ax monarch of all Isurey
My right there is none ta dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea.
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.

Oh, solitude! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms,
Than reign this horrible place.

I am out of humanity's reach,
I must finish my journey alone,
Never hear the sweet music of speech;
I start at the sound of my own.

The beasts that roam over the plain
My form with indifference sg;
They are so unacquainted with'nan,
Their tameness is shocking to me

Society, friendship, and love,
Divinely bestowed upon man,
Oh, had I the wings ofa dove,
How soon would I taste you again I

My sorrows I then might assuage
In the ways of religion and truth,
Might learn from the wisdom of age
And be cheered by the sallies of youth


Religion I what treasure untold
Resides in that heavenly word!
More precious than silver and gold,
Or all that this earth can afford.

But the sound of the church-going bell
These valleys and rocks never heard,
Ne'er sighed at the sound of a knell,
Or smiled when a sabbath appeared.

Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
Convey to this desolate shore
Some cordial endearing report
Of a land I shall visit no more.

My friends, do they now and then send
A wish or a thought after me?
O tell me I yet have a friend,
Though a friend I am never to see!

How fleet is the glance of the mind
Compared with the speed of its flight
The tempest itself lags behind,
And the swift-winged arrows of light

When I think of my own native land,
In a moment I seem to be there;
But alas! recollection at hand
Soon hurries me back to despair.

Bat the sea-fowl is gone to her nest,
The beast is laid down in his lair;
Even here is a season of rest,
And I to my cabin repair.

There's mercy in every place;
And mercy, encouraging thought
Gives even affliction a grace,
And reconciles man to his lot.


SINcz writing the above, the Editor has consulted Dr. James
Stanier Clarke's Naufragia, or Historical Memoirs of Ship-
wrecks and of the Providential Deliverance of Vessels;" pu
lished in 1805, Chap. i. Section i. of which, is a Dissertation on
Alexander Selkirk, and on the real author of Robinson Crusoe.
At page 12, he says, But before I conclude this Section, 1
wish to make the admirers of this Nautical Romance mindful
of a report, which prevailed many years ago; that Defoe, after
all, was not the real author of Bobinson Crusoe. This assertion
is noticed in an article in the seventh volume of the Edinburgh
Magazine. Dr. Towers, in his life of Defoe, in the Biographia,
is inclined to pay no attention to it: but was that writer aware
of the following letter, which also appeared in the Gentleman's
Magazine* for 1788 ? at least, no notice is taken of it in his
Life of Defoe.

SDubin, Februsry
'In the course of a late conversation with a nobleman of the
first consequence and information in this kingdom, he assured
me, that Mr. Benjamin Holloway, of Middleton Stony, assured
him some time ago, that he knew for fact, that the celebrated
romance of Robinson Crusoe was really written by the Earl of
Oxford, when confined in the Tower of London; that his
lordship gave the manuscript to Daniel Defoe, who frequently
visited him during his confinement; and that Defoe, having
afterwards added the second volume, published the whole as
his own production. This anecdote, I would not venture to
send to your valuable magazine, if I did not think my infor-
mation good, and imagine it might be acceptable to your
numerous readers; notwithstanding the work has heretofore
been generally attributed to the latter. W. W.'
"It is impossible for me to enter on a discussion of this
literary subject; though I thought the circumstance ought to
V* oL ii. part L page 208.


be more generally known. And yet I must observe, that I
always discerned a very striking falling off between the com-
position of the fast and second volumes of this Romance-they
seem to bear evident marks of having been the work of different
On this supposed difference between the first and second
volumes, the Reader will consider what is said above, and
determine as he thinks the evidence weighs for one side or
the other.
Dr. 8. Clarke, in a note to the preface of his second volume,
published in 1806, p. viii., says,
"The present EaL or OxPron, since the publication of this
volume," the first, has done me the honour of informing me,
that his family had always considered the first EALo OXFORD
to have been the author of Roerason CausoS."
This is, probably, the most decisive evidence upon the
subject that can now be obtained.
Roem.ber MS


Bobison Cruoe's birth and arltage-rambling thougt-psrental comnml
--mother's 5 ger- boy'a elopement 1

An adventurer's mnifortuonme-god resolutions n dstre-d d when
relieved-a worse storm-loss of the ship-lle aavd-strggles against
conviction 6

Voyage to Gunea-second voyage-taken by a Salls mrover-mployment
andescape .. II

Xry-advenmures-koIs a lion and a leopard-n s bo a Portcugu ship
-arrive at te Brazis .. .17

Becomes a planter-prosperouS, bet dieontented-aln takes voyage 26

A torado-bihpwrecked-Bobinson Crusoe only saved, and cast on shore-
night .. 31

Morning-swim back t tthe slp-maske a ra--pocres stores, and eO-
veys them safe to land-views the country, and finds it an Island, and
unfnhabited-revisits the shi-makes a tent-variou other voyages to
theship 31

An unsuccesuil attemP-consructs a frtnr-a tmpest--msidertions
respecting gnpowder-kills a goat and a kid-relections on his conitlon. 44
aedar-d ld cats-pns. Ink, and paper-- mt Of tools-farther r e-
tloms on bi on-args s~~ his hbitsalon-~nakes ifmture-his
a 4



Pigeons-corn-reflections on Providence-an earthquake-dreadful hurricane
thoughts of removing his habitation-the ship brought nearer shore-con-
tinuation of journal-falls 111 of the ague-terrific dream .. 59

Religious reflections-finds his Bible-the consequence-recovers-and be-
comes happier 68

Surveys the island-finds fine fruits-again thinks of moving his habitation
-gives up the idea-makes a bower-the rainy season-increase of cats-
anniversary of his landing-observes the Sabbath-experiments in Bowing
corn-makes baskets 76

Another excursion to explore the island-procures a parrot-loses himself-
procures a kid,which he bringsup tame-returns home-second anniversary
-causes for thankflness .. 83

Commencement of his third year-division of time-laboriousness of his work
-difficulties in raising corn-and in making bread-pottery-oven 88

Projects for escaping-the ship'sboat-canoe-fourth anniverary-reflections
on his condition-failure of his ink-and biscuit-and clothes-makes new
clothes of skin 96

Resignation to God's providence-second canoe-cruise round the island-
narrow escape-return to his bower-remarkable voice heard-Poll 105

Ammunition grows low-contrives snares and pitfalls-catches goats-
encloses ground-makes butter and cheese-his plenty-with his family at
dinner-journey-description of his figure-observation on the coast-his
two plantations .. 11

Observes the print of a man's foot on the shore-conjectures upon It-revicsit
the mark-new fortification-and new arrangements for the goats-fancies
he sees a boat upon the sea, at a great distance-sees the shore spread with
human bonee-reflections and precautions 120


The edge of invention taken off-thoughts of making beer-projects against
the savages-doubts about the Justice of them-thoughts on providential
intimations and deliverance 130


Anxieties-discovers a cave-what be found there-grotto-removes things
to it-amusements-sees a fire, and savages round it-they go off in two
canloes-hears a gun at sea, at night-a ship wrecked off the island 137


Regret at none of the crew being saved-visits the wreck-bring back a dog
and various articles-fresh projects to getaway-a dream-and resolutions
in consequence .147

Five canoes on shore-a captive escapes, and is rescued-reception of him-
named Priday-clothed-his fldelty-reflections on the sovereignty of
Providence 156

Friday and the gun-stewed meat-slt-roast meat-renounces ma's flesh
-encloing more land-conversation-situation of the island ascertained-
religious conversation-and reflections .. 16t

Robinson Crsoe informs Friday respecting his country and religion-and
Friday Informs him of there being white people living in his country-fears
respecting Friday-but soon dissipated-makes a canoe, and tries t 172

His happy life-more savages on the island-a fierce contest-resnces a
Spaniard-and Friday's father-the savages, some killed, and some put to
the rout-the new guests conveyed to the fortification 178

Entertainment of the new guests-burial of the dead-an increase of provison
-the Spaniard and Friday's father sent on an embassy 187

Arrival of an English ship-remark on secret notices-mutineers against
their captain land-rescue of the captain and men-mode of dealing with
the mutineers-arrival of a second boat and departure of t again 193

Return of the boat-death of some, and capture of others of the mutineers-
the captain returns with the boats to the ship, and recovers the ship-
returns to the island-and sails with Robinson Crusoe, leaving three of the
mutineers on the iland-return to England .. 03

Robinson Crusoe a stranger In England-departs for Lisbon-his property in
the Brail-prepaons for journey by land to England 1

Departnre for Lisbon-Madrid-Pampelona--the Pyrenees--ecounter with
wild beast--Tboulouse-ari Calais, Dover ..... 223

obinson Crowe's unsettled dispostion-remarks on the power of the imsgi-
nation and apparitios-hiswife-take a farm-death of his wife-ives p
his farm, andretars to London-hls nephew oers tocarry himbck toh
luand--ctepts the proposal -2


Persons and stores carried out-wind-bound at Galway-sail again-a ship
on fire at sea-it blows up-the crew saved in boats, and taken into the
ship-effects of this deliverance on them, put moat of them on shore at
Newfoundland 2.42


Another ship In distress-famine-administer relief--.rrival at the island 25L


Lauding on the island-meeting of Friday and his father-the Spaniards-
account of what had happened on the island after the departure of Robinson
Crusoe. .. 258


Relation of an incident before the departure of the ship from off the island,
when Robinson Crusoe left it in 1686-continuation of the account of the
transactions on the island-feuds 263


Return to order, and relapse-two large parties of savages on the island-a
battle-three refugees taken-the conquerors depart-improvements on the
island .. .. 270


Another alarm-another mutiny-the mutineers dismissed from the society-
and depart from the island for the continent-return with three men and five
women, savages, prisoners-account of their voyage. 278


The Englishmen adopt the black women as wives-diligence and sloth 286


More savages on the island-three left behind, and captured-one makes his
escape-arrival of a stronger force of savages-conflagration of some of the
huts-some of the savages killed, some taken prisoners, some escape-the
destroyed huts made good again 290


A fleet of twenty-eight canoes invades the island-an army of about two
hundred and fifty-various encounters and battles-all destroyed but thirty-
seven, who surrender, and have a settlement given them on the island-
their ingenuity .. 298


Events on the return of Robinson Crusoe to his island-acceptable tools-
Will Atkins's hut-religion of the colonists-the Spaniards -their life among
the savages-treaty of friendship between the English and Spaniards-a
fea--the artficers introduced 30T


The Frtnch ecclesiastic-his anxiety for the souls of the inhabitants-agrees
.,v left to endeavour to convert them 317

Marriages-conversion of Atkins and wife--liberality in a Roman Catholic 321

Dialogue between Robinson Crusoe and Will Atkins-insi against parents-
marriage-dialogue between Will Atkins and his wife-the bad lives of
Christians a stumbling-block to heathens-God-the Bible-prayer-
'baptism of Atkins's wile-and his marriage with her 336

rhe young man from the ship in distress-marriage of the Jack-of-all-Trades
with the maid Susan-settlement of the plantations-Robinson Crosoe's
preparations to depart-injunction respecting religious disputes-leaves a
Bible-the young woman from the ship in distress-her description of what
it was to starve-Robinson Crusoe does not leave the sloop at the island 345

Robinson Crusoe leaves the island-arrives at the Brazils-adventure by the
way-army of savages in canoes-the death of Friday-the army routed-
the ship anchors off the bay of All Saints-difficulty of getting on shore-
his partner-the sloop finished and freighted for the island--afe arrival 354

The follies of an old man-voyage to the East Indies-wrong conduct In
respect to the island-last letters from thence-the Popish clergyman-
Cape of Good Hope-Madagascar-transgression against the natives, and
dreadful encounter with them-murder of Tom Jeffry-the sacking a town
-the massacre of Madagascar. 361

The gulf of Persia-five of the crew go on shore, and are not heard of after
-difference between Robinson Crusoe and the boatswain-the road of
Bengal-Robinson Crusoe goes on shore-the crew resolve to leave him-he
submits .374

Proposal for afresh voyage-Achin, Siam, Suskan-return to Bengal-another
voyage and return-Robinson Crusoe and his partner purchase a ship-
trade among tue Philippine and Molucca isles-puteinto the river Cambodia
-taken for pirates and chased-vanquish their pursuers 379

History of the ship-voyage to China-small rivernear the bayof Tonquis-
the ship laid on one side to be repaired-attacked by the Cochninbnese-
who get pitch-kettled ....... 33

Island of Formosa-effects of the Christian religion-they sail ibrth-take a
Portuguese pilot on board-the gulf of Nanquin-Quinchan-the dreadful
state of living in fear-go on shore 39S


Romish missionaries-father Simon-disposal of the ship and merchandise-the
young mau, Robinson Crusoe's companion-journey to Nanquin-observa-
tion on China-retur to Quinchang 403

Journey to Pekin in the suite of a Mandarin-a country gentleman-arrive
at Pekin-caravan setting out for Moscow-they join it-number of the
caravan-house-built with china-ware-the great wall-encounter with the
Tartars. .. 410

Another enconter-a body of ten thousand Tartars appear, but do not molest
them-the city of Naum-enter the Muscovite dominions-the river Arguna
--the river Yamour-the Tartarus-idolatry 421

Nertainsnkay-obtlson Crosoe and the Scots merchant destroy the idol-
pursued by the Tartars-Jarawena-frightful desert--Adnskoy-the Ton-
guese-Janezay-the river Oby-Tobolski-winters there 423

The climate-warm house-exiles of Muscovy-riddles in government-
happy state of the mind of man when brought to reflectfon-a great con-
queror-the cold-provisions-preparations to depart-condition of the
exile-offer to an exile to assist him in making his escape-declined-but
accepted for his sou 436

Departure from Tobolski--mall caravan-the river Kama-Soloy Kamskol-
vast desert-a troop of thieves-encounter-and retreat-Kermazinskoy-
Venslima-Lawrenskoy-Archangel-Hamburgh--Lndon-the end 444



1 WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose rela-
tions were named Robinson, a very good family in that country,
and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but -. ti.
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, tny,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe ; and s.) ry
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk, against the Spaniards. What
became of my second brother I never knew, any more than
my father and mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education and a country
free-school generally go, and designed, me for the law; but
I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and


my inclination to this led me strongly against the will, nay,
the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very wisely with me
upon this subject; he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house, and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men
of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes, on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to
rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in under-
takings of a nature out of the common road; that these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge
of the happiness of this state by one thing, viz., that this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that kings
have frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true, felicity, when he prayed to have "neither
poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was n-.r .xpxj['.1 i-. so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part '... m'inlcnl. :'nay, that they were not sub-
jected to so many. I-. nl.. .....I uneasinesses, either of body
or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour, want of
necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequence
of their way of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kinds of virtues, Ad all kinds of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune;
that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way


men went silently, and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands,
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, nor
harassed with perplexing circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, nor secret burning lust of ambition for great things: but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling
that they are happy, and learning, by every day's experience, to
know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries, which nature and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had been just recommending to me; and that, if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fault
that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer
for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In a word,
that, as he would do very kind things for me, if I would
stay and settle at home, as he directed, so he would not have
so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away; and, to close all, he told me I had my elder
.brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and though, he said,
he would not cease to. pray for me, yet he would venture to
say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know
it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face 1. i, p1' i .iifi., especially when he spoke of my brother
who v. r,- kit-i.: -,.d that, when he spoke of my having
leisur.. (.. r il-'. ,d none to assist me, he was so moved,
that 1]. I.ir 1.-1i tiIe discourse, and told me his heart was so
full, -!I- _- .:...i.l i -y no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and 'I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home, according to.my father's
desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to
% prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a fewweeks
after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However
B 2


I did not act so hastily, neither, as my first heat of resolu-
tion prompted; but I took my mother, at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from
my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and, if she
would speak to my father to let me make but one voyage abroad,
if I came home again, and did not like it, 1 would go no more;
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
I had lost.
This made my mother very angry: she told me she knew
it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such a subject: that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after
such a discourse as I had had from my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me:
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for
me; but I might depend I should never have their consent to it:
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing, when my father was not."
. Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
Shave heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him;
and that my father, after showing a gre concern at it; said to
her with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay at
home; but, if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose:
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time,
and one of my companions then going to London by sea in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, viz., "that it should cost me
nothing for my passage," I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but left them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or
my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.



On the 1st of September, 1651, 1 went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, 1
believe, began earlier, or continued longer than mine. The
ship had no sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most frightful
manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind; I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I
was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly leav-
ing my father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the good
counsel of my parents, my father's teats, and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardiness to which it
has been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but such as it was, enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the
trough, or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and
in this agony of mind I made many vows and'resolutions,
that, if it would please God to spare my life this voyage, if
ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go dittly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again whid I lived;
that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness
of his observations about the middle station in life; how easy,
how comfortable he had lived all his days, and never had been
exposed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I re-
solved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go hAlie to
my father.
These wise,and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and indeed some time after; but the next day, as the wind was
abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave that day, being also a little sea-
sick still: but towards night the weather cleared up, the d
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the


went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and,
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that 1
ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me,
and said, Well, Bob," clapping me on the shoulder, "how
do you do after it? I warrant you were frightened, wasn't
you, last night, when it blew out a capful of wind ?" A
capful do you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm." A
storm, you fool I" replies he; "do you call that a storm ?
Why it was nothing at all: give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the way of too many sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness, by the abatement of the storm,
so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the
current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the
rows and promises I had made in my distress. I found, in-
deed, some intervals of reflection; and serious thoughts did,
as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them, as it were from a dis-
temper, and applying myself to drink and company, soon
mastered the returns of those fits,-for so I called them; and
I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience
as any young fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with it,
could desire.
But Iwas to have another trial for it still; and Providence,
as inch cases generally it does, resolved to leave me en-
tire without excuse; for, if I would not take this for a
dslirance, the next was to be such an one, as the worst
and most hardened wretch among -us would confess both the
danger and the mercy of. The sixth day of 'our being at
sea, we came into Yarmouth Roads: the wind having been
contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,
and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-


west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, and should have tided
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea.
But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought,
once or twice, our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with
two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master was vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship: but, as he went in and out of his cabin
by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several times,
"Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was ip the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first
penitence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against; I thought that the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be nothing too, like
the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but
such dismal sight I never sav: the sea went mountains high,
and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress around us;
two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by
the board, being deeply laden; and our men cried out that
a ship which rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered.
Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run
out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The lightships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and'
came close by us, running away, with only their sprit-sails
out, before the wind. Toward evening, the mate and boat-
swain begged the master of our ship to let them cut away the
foremast, which he was very loth to do; but the boatswain



protesting to him, that, if he did not, the ship would founder
he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, that they
were obliged to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if 1 can express, at this
distance, the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former' con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions
I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that 1 can by no words describe it. But the worst
was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged that they had never
known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden,
and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and
then cried out, she would founder. It was my advantage, in
one respect, that I did not know what they meant by
"founder," till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men, that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung a leak;" another
said, "there was four feet water in the hold." Then all hands
were called to the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side
of my bed, where I sat in the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me, "that I," who was able to do nothing
before, "was as well able to pump as another :" at which I
stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and
run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered us to
fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what
that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke,
or some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so
surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time
when everybody had his own life to think of, no one minded
me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up
to the pump, and thrusting me, aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and, though the storm
began to abate a- little, yet, as it was not possible she could


swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible
for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side; till, at last, the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,

which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and
we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them, or us, after we were in
the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to
let her drive, and only pull her in towards shore as much
as we could; and our master promised them that, if the boat
was staved upon the shore, he would make it good to their
master,; so, partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went
away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood, for
the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.
I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me "she was sinking;" for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to
go in. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with


fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was
yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the
light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town,
who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular mer-
chants and owners of ships; and had money given us suffi-
cient to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy; and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yar-
mouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurance
that I was not drowned.
But my wayward disposition pushed me on with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and, though I had, several times, loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I rushed on with my eyes open.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than 1: the first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town
to several quarters; I say the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did: telling his father who
I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in
order to go further abroad. His father, turning to me, with
a grave and concerned tone, Young man," says he, "you ought
never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a
plain and visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring
man."-" Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more ?"-
"That is another case," said he; "it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but, as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to
expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah, in the ship of Tarshish.-Pray," continues
he, "what are you, and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which

ROSnesoN casoL. 11

he burst out with a strange kind of passion. "What had I
done," said he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have au-
thority to go.-However, he afterwards talked very gravely
to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me; "and, young man," said he, depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever-you go, you will meet
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went I know not: as for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts: and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even everybody else. From whence I
have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be es-
teemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.


IN this state of life, however, I remained som time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home;
and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress
I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion
I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last
[ quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
voyage. That evil influence which carried me first away


from my father's house, that hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed
those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all
good advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands, of
my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it was, -pre-
sented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa;
or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these adventures, I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the
same time, I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-
man, and, in time, might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not a master; but, as I always chose for the
worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and
good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in
the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all,
to fall into pretty good company in London; which does not
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as
I then was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early. But it was not so with me: I first
fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who had been on
the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,
and hearing me say, "I had a mind to see the world," told
me, that "f I would go the voyage with him, I should be at
no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and, if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the
advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement." I embraced the offer,
and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with
him, and carried a small adventure with me; which by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably; for I carried about 401. in such toys and
trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 401. I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say
was successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom,
also, I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take.an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,



as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home 51bs. 9oz. of gold dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost'
300., and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which
have since so completed my ruin. Yet, even in this voyage, I
had my misfortunes, too; particularly, that I was continually
sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the
coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees north, even to the Line
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again: and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for, though I did not
carry quite 1001. of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 2001.
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage; and the first was this, viz.-our ship, making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the gray of
the morning, by a Turkish rover of Sallee, whd gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight, our ship having 12 guns, and the rogue 18. About
three in the afternoon, he came up with us; and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near 200 men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend our-
selves; but, laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and all carried prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to
the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's


court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable and have none to relieve me;" which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone, without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other,
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-
war; and that then 1 should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for, when he went to sea, he
left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination,
yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, andI proved very dexterous in catching
fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that, though we were not half
a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had


pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore; however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and, having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin, in
the middle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it, to steer and haul home the main-sheet,
and with room before for a hand or two, to stand and work
the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton
sail, and the boom gibb'd over the top of the cabin, which lay
avery snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
ylave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to
put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink,
and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened, that he had appointed to go out in
this boat, either for pleasure, or for fish, with two or three
Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had
provided extraordinarily, and had, therefore, sent on board the
boat overnight, a larger store of provision than ordinary, and
had ordered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport
of fowling, as well as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensigns and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when,
by-and-by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out
with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house, and commanded, that as soon as I
had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house; all
which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and, my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage:
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place, was my
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to

"' ^'"4

16 ADVE UrrES oS

this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board;
for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's
bread: he said that was true; so he brought a large basket
of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which it was evident by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also; his name was
Ismael, whom they called Muley or Moley: so I called to him,
"Moley," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat,
can you get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kil
some alcamies (fowls like our curlews), for ourselves, for
I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes,"
says he, "I'll bring some;" and, accordingly, he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more, and another with shot, that had five
or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat:
at the same time I found some powder of my master's in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port, before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for, had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached to the bay of Cadiz: but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing; for,
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther
off." He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head
of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I ran the
boat near a league further, and then brought to, as if I would
fish. Then, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm
under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to
me, begged to be taken in, and told me he would go all the


world over with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that
he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had
done him no hurt, and, if he would be quiet, I would do him
none. "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm; but, if you come near the boat, I
will shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore;
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.

I coua have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the
.boy; but there was no venturing to trust him, and humanity
forbade the other. When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you will
be faithful to me, I will make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me, (that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father's beard,) I must throw you into the sea
too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailing
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes,
and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore, but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and, having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe, by the next day, at three
o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I coull aot be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of


Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout; for
we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five
days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded, also, that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river;
1 know not what nor where, neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, nor what river. I neither saw, nor
desired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted was
fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolving
to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country: but, as soon as it was quite dark, we heard suc
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wi
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy w
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day. "Well, Xury," said 1, then I will not; but it may
be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those
lions."-" Then we may give them the shoot-gun," says
Xury, laughing; "make them run away." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up. After
all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We- dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night: I say still, for we
slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures,
(we knew not what to call them,) of many sorts, come down
to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves, for the purpose of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howling and yellings, that I
never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and, indeed, so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures swimming towards our boat: we could not
see him, but we might hear him, by his blowing, to be a mon-
strous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away. "No," says I, "Xury;
we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea;
they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I
perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me: however, I imme-
diately stept to the cabin door, and, taking up my gun,
fired at him: upon which he turned round and swam to the
shore again.


But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises and hideous
cries and howling that were raised, as well upon the edge of
the shore, as higher within the country, upon the noise or report
of the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in
the day, was another question too; for, to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen
into the paws of lions and tigers: at least, we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore, some-
where or other, for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat: when and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if
I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the
at ? The boy answered with so much affection, that he made
W.Jove him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they
'eBt you go away."-" Well, Xury," said I, "we will both
go ;s 4, if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
ikngther of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eaOBt a dram of our patron's case of bottles, which I
mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as near the shore
as we thought was proper, and so waded to shore, carrying
nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
seeing a low place, about a mile up the country, rambled to
it; and, by-and-by, I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I, therefore, ran forward to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a
hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and had seen no wild mans.
But we found, afterwards, that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the oreek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted
on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of
the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But, as I had no
instruments to take an observation to find what latitude


we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least remember
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise
I might now have easily found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was,
must be that country, which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts: the negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious number
of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures, which
harbour there: so that the Moors use it for their hunting on
where they go like an army, two or three thousand men aU
time; and indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day,
and heard nothing but howling and roari of wild beasts by
Once or twice in the daytime, I though I saw the Pike of
Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me,
that we had best go farther off the shore; for, says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung,
as it were, over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore
sad kill him." Xury looked frightened and said, "Me kill!
he eat me at one mouth:" one mouthful he meant. However,
I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid
it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and a
third, for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets.


I took the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot
him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone: he started up, growling at first: but, finding
his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was
a little surprised, that I ha4,not hit him on the head; however,
I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began
to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head; and had
the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and, taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which despatched him quite.
y This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. However,
Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board and asked to give him the hatchet. For what,
Xury?" said I. e cut off his head," said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I
bethought myself, however, that, perhaps, the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and 1
resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day; but, at last, we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provi-
sions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal;
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish among the negroes. I knew that all the
ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea,
or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those
islands: and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon
this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.
When I pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as


I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and,
in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive theywere
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they would throw them a great way with good aim; so
I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs, as well
as I could, and particularly made signs f~ i mething to eat.
They beckoned to me to stop my boat, ey would fetch
me some meat: upon this, I lowered the my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the oo d, in less
than half an hour, came back, and brought (lfem two
pieces of dry flesh, and some corn, such as iiAce of
their country; but we neither knew what'the r the
other was; however, we were willing to accept it. ut how
to come at it was our next dispute, for I v" not for venturing
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but
they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore,
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends: but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully: for, while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the
female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual, or
strange; but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first
place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frightened, especially the women. The man that had the
lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; how-
ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about as if they
had come for their diversion; at last, one of them began to
come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready
for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As-soon as he came
fairly within my'reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the
head: immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling


for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead and sunk in
the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him byhis blood staining the
water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him,
and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and
fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed hir-
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that dis-
tance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were
for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs
to them that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and, though
they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the
flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them,
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
ahd brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the
sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were
as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots, and corn, such as it was,.
and water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about twoj legue
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other si

: ..


ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from
thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for,
if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither reach
one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frghtened out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw,
not only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Por-
tuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea
for negroes. But when I observed the course she steered, I
was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did
not design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which, I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them: but, after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign
on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and,
in about three hours' time, I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman; that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it from such
a miserable, anu almost hopeless, condition as I was in: and
I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. "For,"
says he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than


I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time
or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
" Besides," said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great
a way from your own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away
that life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr. English-
man), says he; "I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me, for the ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it ? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieae of eight for it at Brazil: and when it came there, if any
one ofiered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me
also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loth to take : not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: Aich as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my esgo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

*i .



1 HAD not long been here, before I was reconuended to the
house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house).
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar:
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there,
I would turn planter among them; endeavouring, in the mean
time, to find out some way to get my money, which.I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land, that
was uncured, as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suit-
able to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on.very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that, the third year, we planted some tobacco
and made each of us a large piece of ground'ready for planting
canes in the year to come: but we both wanted help; and now
I founimore than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on : I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never havoc fatigued myself in the world, as I had done:
and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, .
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the :
world that had the least knowledge of me."


In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with thli
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but, now and
then, this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been : and how should all mein
reflect, that, when they compare their present condition with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience ; I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my
lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which
I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability,
been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: Seignior Inglese," says he (for so he always called
me), "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my
return: but, since human afinirs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders for but one hundred
pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way: and if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I, accordingly, prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Por-
tuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his beh ti an
what condition I was now in, with all other nm
tions for my supply; and when this honest c.
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English' .
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full
my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it t- '
ually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the moeny,
.but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a vdy
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.


The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
at the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, 1 thought my fortune made, for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not accept
of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would
have him accept, being of my own produce. Neither was this
all: but my goods, being all English manufactures, such as
cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desir-
able in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times
the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation:
for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also; I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above 100 lb., were well cured, and laid .
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had
I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he
had so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my
fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to
my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that
Inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing my-
self good in a plain and fair pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which Nature and Providence -concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,


so I cunld a:t be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life,
and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part
of my story:-You may suppose, that, having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted an acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Sal-
vador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voy-
ages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it* b to purchase on the coast, for
trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c.; but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
They listened, always, very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by
the Assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portu-
gal, and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had dis-
coursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they
told me, that they had a mindto fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations, as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that, as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the
negroes, when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shoreprivately, and divide them
among their own plantations: and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me
that I should have an equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of ;he stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it l*
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming'. be


very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but
go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who, in
that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.
But I, that was always my own destroyer, would no more
resist the offer, than I would restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word,
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants,
to do so: and I made a normal will, disposing of my plantation
and effects, in case of my death; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my
will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other to
be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy, rather than my reason: and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board, in
an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull,
in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my
own interest.




THE same day I went on board, we set sail; standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast. When they came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very good
weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered
as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding
our course N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the Line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes northern


latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge; it began from the south-east, came


about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve
days together, we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither the fury of the winds
directed; and, during these twelve days, I need not say that I
expected every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation, as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found that he was got upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazons, toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with me what
course he should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of
I was positively against that; and, looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to
sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay, or gulph, of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa, without some assistance, both to our ship and our-
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for, being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, whiph carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning tj our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men, early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin, to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a
sand, and, in a moment, hermotion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very found and
spray of the sea,


It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were,'or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every moment: and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world, for
there was little, or nothing, more for us to do in this: that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break
yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved, by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and, with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let her go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might be well called "den wild zee," as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all
knew, that, when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would.
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling, as well as we
could, towards land.


What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulph, or the mouth of some river, where, by
great chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; and, as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain like, came
rolling astern of us, and,plainly bade us expect the coup de
grzce. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God!"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I suhk into the water: for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than
I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means
or strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and, so
by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself
towards the, shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore, a very great way; but I held my breath and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and, though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,

- j ,rfl''

(IL*, ~

' I held fast to the rock."-Page 35.


and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards
as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should again be covered with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and, so, to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were
not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till
the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over
me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and
the next run I took, I got to the main land; where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the custom,
viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say I do not wonder 'that they bring a
surgeon with it, to let him blood, that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart and overwhelm him:
"For sudden joys, like grief, confound at firt."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, ands two shoes
that were not fellows.


1 cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when, the beach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off-and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything, either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creatures that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of
mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up in a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night-
and consider the next day what death I should die, for, as yet,
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I
did, to my great joy; and, having drunk, and put a little to-
bacco in my mouth, to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and,
getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that, if
1 should sleep, I might not fall; and, having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging;
and, having been excessively fatigued, I fell asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition;
and felt myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever
was on such an occasion.




WHEN I waked, it was broad day, tlhe weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dash-
ing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still,
I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat;
which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as
I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck,
or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safeon shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship; soI pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took to the water: but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I
spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see
at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so low, as that, with
great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help._ a. rope,
got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I fodna t ip
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in ix w
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard san5i' i
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank,

-4.. 1 .1


head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for, you may
be sure, my first work was to search and to see what was
spoiled; and what was free: and, first, I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry, and untouched by the water; and,
being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and
filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and
which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish
myself with many things which I foresaw would be very neces-
sary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and,
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I
could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to
work, and, with the carpenter's saw, I cut a spare topmast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks, or boards,
upon it that I could get, and, having considered well what I
most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft; these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which had
been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley
and wheat together, but to my great disappointment I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room


for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use,
for I had other things which my eye was more upon; as, first,
tools to work with on shore: and it was after long searching
that I found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowhng-picces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but, with much search, I found
them ; two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how

^ ^ h _" ',w '_. ; _

.. .. ,.-. .

I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset-all
my navigation.


I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea; 2ndly
The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, What little
wind there was, blew me towards the land. And thus having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer; and, with this cargo, I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distance from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some
in-draft of the water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so f guided my raft, as well as 1 could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with- all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then, driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current, or tide, running up. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at
sea, and, therefore, resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.
At length, I spied a little cove, on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and, at last, got so near, as that reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had 'like
to have dipped all my cargo into te sea again; for that shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place
to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore,
would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it
would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
o.- ar, like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
? near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would


flow over, and so it did. As soon as I found water enough,
for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side,
near one end, and one on the other side, near the other end :
and thus I lay, till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet
knew not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether
inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge, from it, northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to
the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour and
difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my lot, to my great afflic-
tion, viz., that I was in an island, environed every way with the
sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great
way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found, also, that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance
of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed
them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird,'which I saw sitting upon
a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world:
I had no sooner fired, but from all parts of the wood, there
arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making
a confused screaming, and crying, every one according to his
usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew
As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk,
colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws, m
than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
rest of that day; what to do with myself at night, I knew not, ;
nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beasts might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chest and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for foo, I yet saw not

il 4


which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And, as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything
out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that
is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that 1
stripped before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yetI brought away
several things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's
stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner; particu-
larly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy, I
could not hoist it up to getit over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my abelsqe from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoute-on shore:
but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor; only
there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her, but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
amelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
'-I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.


Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to
make me a little tent with the sail, and some poles which I cut
for that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that
I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the
empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent to fortify
it from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When 1 had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set upon end without;
and, spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for
1 was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept
little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds, now, that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still,
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, Ithought I ought
to get everything out of her that I could: so, every day, at low
water, I went on board, and brought away something or other:
but, particularly, the third time I went, I brought away as
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was
to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet:gun-
powder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last;
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces and bring as much
at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be sails,
but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of al,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, an4thjat
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogs
of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising to me,
because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead-.
of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of
the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on
shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables, and cutting the great sable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away: but this raft was so unwieldy, and so overlad .


that, after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed
the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as
I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into
the water; as for myself it was no great harm, for I was near
the shore; but as to my cargo, it was the greater part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most of
the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a
work which fatigued me very much. After this I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.



I HAD been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring; though, I believe verily, had the calm weather held,
I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece;
but, preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise; however, at low water, I went on board;
and, though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectu-
ally as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
locker, with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or.
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten,
or a dozen, of good knives and forks; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; "0 drug!"
said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me, no not the taking off the ground; one of those knives
is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee;
e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but, while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour, it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood


began, or otherwise, I might not be able to reach the shore at
all. Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands,
and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water, it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen I I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no
time, nor abated my diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in
her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck; as indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear,
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thouS f
the method how to do this, and what kindof dwelling to ,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which it may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and, more
particularly, because there was no fresh water near it: so
I resolved to find a more healthy, and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned; 2ndly, Shelter from the heat of the sun;
3rdly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; 4thly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a proper place for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, on which was a rook whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that
nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side
of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like
the entrance, or door, of a cave; but there was not really any .
cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place I re-


solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was.
on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its stdia-
meter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter frblits
beginning and ending.
In this half-circle 1 pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one above another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder to get over the top: which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently, slept secure in the night, which, otherwise, I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which, till now, I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the


rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labour and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my schemes for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and, after that, a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with
the lightning, as I was with the thought, which darted into
my mind as swift as the lightning itself-" 0 my powder!"
My very heart sunk within me when I thought that, at one
blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that, after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in
all was about 240 lb. weight, was divided into not less than a
hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did
not apprehend any danger from that; so Iplaced it in.mynew
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as
I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it
was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them: but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had
found their haunts a little, I laid waiting this manner for them:
I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they were


upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them: so, afterwards I took this method-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these crea-
tures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which
she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old
one tell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took
her up : and not only so, but when I carried the old one with
me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my en-
closure : upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in
my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it
up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I. shall give a full account of it in its
proper place: but I must, first, give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may be
well supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was not
east away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without
help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to
be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day
walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason,
as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus : Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray, remember
where are the rest of you ? Did not you come eleven of you
into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were they not saved,
and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to be


here or there ?" And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what
worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me, again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was hundred thousand to one) that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck, and wa
driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all these
things out of her: what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on
shore, without the necessaries of life, or means to supply and
procure them? Particularly, said I, aloud (though to myself),
what should I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make anything, or to work with, without
clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering? and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my
gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable
view of subsisting without any want, as long as I lived; for
I considered from the beginning, how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come,
not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed
just now.

Tn--maS JWrOsAL.

AND now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in
its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrible island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself,
by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes
north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath-


days from the working-days: but to prevent this, I cut it, with
my knife, upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz., "I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post, I cut, every day, a notch
with my knife, and every seventh.notch was as long again as
the rest, and every first day of the month, as long again as that
long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened that, among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I found some time
after, in rummaging the chests; as, in particular, pens, ink,
and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's,
and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of
navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no: also I found three very good Ifbles, which
came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed
up among my things; some Portuguese books also, and,
among them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and several
other books, all which I carefully secured. And 1 must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to say something, in its
place : for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to me,
the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years; I wanted nothing that
he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and
I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show, that, while
my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone,
I could not: for I could not make any ink, by any means that
I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig,
or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished-my
little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving


, Alk

it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
these posts, or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I
had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor had I any
other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except ranging the island to seek for food; which I did,
more or less, every day?
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs) as to
deliver mythoughts from daily poringupon them, and afflicting
my mind: and, as my reason began now to master my de-
spondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to
set the good against the evil; that I might have something to
distinguish n case from worse; and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor dhd creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus:-
Evy. Goon.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive and not drowned, as
island, void of all hope of recovery. all my ship's company were.
I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
It were, from all the world, to be the ship's crew, to be spared from
miserable. death; and He that providentially

I am divided from mankind, a soli-
taire: one banished from human so-
I have no clothes to cover me.*

I am without any defence, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve

saved me from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and perishing
in a barren place affording no suste-
But I am in a hot climate, where, if
I had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island where I
see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa: andwhat if I
had been shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully sent the ship
in near enough to the shore that
have got out so many necessary things,
as will either supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply myself, even as long
as I live.

Robinson Crusoe seems here to have forgotten what he had said before,
Chapter vii., p. 39, "this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use." And, again, Chap.xiv..
SI had, among the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico, or muslin." Chap. xv, "My clothes, too, began to decay
mightily: as to linen, I had none for a great while, except some chequered shirts
which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved,
because many times I could bear no clothes on but a shirt, and it was a very
great help to me, that I had, among all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three
dozen of shirt. There were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the
seamen's," &c. So that, at the most, he can mean only, that he has no reserve,
or prospect of a supply, of clothes.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to ac-
commodate mywayof living, and to make things as easy to me
as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick on
the outside : and, after some time, (I think it was a year and
a half,) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could
get, to keep out the rain; which I found at some times of the
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place: I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand into the rock, and
then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or forti-
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for, without these, I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world: I could not write, or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table; so I went
to work. And here I must needs observe, that, as reason is
the substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I


found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true by this method 1
could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and
so it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But, when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up; so that, had my cave been seen, it looked


like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in much discom-
posure of mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of
many dull things: for example, I must have said thus-
" Sept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drown-
ing, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was undone,
undone! till tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being de-
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting
up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in
hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy that, at a vast distance, I
spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and after look-
ing steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my
But having gotten over these things, in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my Journal: of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all those particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.


September 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I
called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's com-
pany being drowned, and myself ale ad.
All the rest of that day I spent iig~ting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, v I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I should
either be devoured ry wild beasts, murdered by savages, or


starved todeath for want of food. At the approach of
1 slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept souny,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning, I saw, to my great surprise, tht
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again, much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort,
on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken in
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved
the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all
drowned, as they were; and that had the men been saved, we
might, perhaps, have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went
upon the sand, as near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day, also, it continued raining, though with no wind
at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship; which I brought on shore, every time of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain, also, on these days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder than before), and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to see for some food, and discover the country; when I


killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts; and, with them, formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 5. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion:
viz., every morning I walked out with my gun, for two or
three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work
till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live on; and
from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next was wholly employed
in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman:
though time and necessity made me a complete natural me-
chanic soon after, as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand: but was
surprised, and almost frightened with two or three seals;
which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what
they were), got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was
Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 12. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.


Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from: ne
another as possible. On one of these three days I Jlaed
a large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to
call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket: so
Idesisted from my work, and began to. consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe,
I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do
nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make
I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the
iron-tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling myaxe, I cut a piece; and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and by having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine: for I worked
it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel
or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that, the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long: however, it served well enough
for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such
things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware; at least,
none yet found out: and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of;
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no pos-
sible way to make iron gudgeons, for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over; and, for carrying away the
earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod,
which the labourers carry the mortar in for the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel: and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days;
I mean, always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.

0 .


Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because or
my making these tools, when they were finished, I went on;
and, working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent: except that, sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry; which caused me, afterwards, to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished; when, on a sudden (it seems Ihadmade it too large),
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side:
so much that, in short, it frightened me, and not without
reason too; for, if I had been under it, I should never have
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for Ihad the loose earth to carry out;
and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop
up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly; and
got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows,
served me for partitions, to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up; and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that
I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B. I took such care of it, that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever : but, by nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought


of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food:
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within
-January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and laystill in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try
if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accordingly,
the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats: but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
og; and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the Journal: it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th
of April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall: though
it was no more than about 25 yards in length, being a half-
circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.



ALL this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not
perceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well


I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my advan-
tage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who build
not, as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather, as house-pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks: and taking some young ones,
I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but, when
they grew older, they all flew away; which, perhaps, was at
first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them:
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing
my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as,
indeed, as to some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as
I observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it;
I could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true
to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over. In the next place I was at a great loss for
candle; so that, as soon as it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bees-wax, with which I made candles in my
African adventure; but I had none of that now; the only
remedy I had was, that, when I had killed a goat, I saved the
tallow; and with a little dish, made of clay, which I baked in
the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light,
like a candle. In the middle of all my labours, it happened
that, in rummaging my things, I found a little bag; which, as
I hinted before, had been filled with corn, for feeding of poultry;
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been
in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in
the bag but husks and dust; and, being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook
the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain, just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything
there: when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about


ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley,
of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all; indeed, 1 had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquir-
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account: and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more'in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred
to my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-
meat in that place, and then the wonder began to cease:
and I must confess my religious thankfulness to God's pro-
vidence began to abate too, upon the discovering that all
this was nothing but what was common, though I ought to
have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a pro-
vidence as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the
work of Providence, as to me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled,
when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropt from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that
particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it
sprang up immediately: whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere
else, at that time, it would have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and, even then, but sparingly, as


1 shall show afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed
the first season, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed
just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at
least, not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.,
to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it
up without baking, though I did that also after some time.-
But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving
to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder: so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it after me, and let it down
in the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for within
I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the
case was thus:-As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my
tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth came crumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared: but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the
top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before:
and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my
ladder; and, not thinking myself safe neither, I got over my
wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might
roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the
firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake:
for the ground I stood on shook three times, at about eight
minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I per-
ceived, also, that the very sea was put into a violent motion by
it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had), that I was
like one dead, or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise


of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and rousing
me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror,
and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent,
and my household goods, and burying all at once; this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common, Lord, have mercy
upon me and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain, and, soon after, the wind rose by little and
little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane; the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and
froth; the shore was covered with a breach of the water; the
trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and, in
two hours more, it was quite calm, and began to rain very
hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much ter-
rified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequence of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive; and the rain, also, helping to persuade
me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and
I was forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain
forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new
fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would
else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave for
some time, and found no more shocks of the earthquake follow,
I began to be more composed. And now, to support my
spirits, which, indeed, wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did then,
and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and
great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad: but
my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had
best do; concluding that, if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and
so make myself secure from wild beasts or men: for, if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried


With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, being just under the hang-
ing precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two
next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving
where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being
swallowed alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without any fence, was
almost equal to it: but still when I looked about, and saw
how everything was put in order, how pleasantly I was con-
cealed, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to
remove. In the mean time it occurred to me, that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this; and that I must
be contented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed a
convenient camp, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
With this conclusion I composed myself for a time; and re-
solved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a
wall with piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set
up my tent in it when it was finished; but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove
to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning, I began to consider of means
to put this measure into execution; but I was at a great loss
about the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches and dull: and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have be-
stowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life
and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel, with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
*Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or, at
least, not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there; besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a
great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to
one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of wreck of the ship,


which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and, looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel that was
driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder;
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone : however, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present,
and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet: and the stem (which was broke to
pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on
that side next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out: whereas there was a great piece of
water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earth-
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke open
than formerly, so many things came daily on shore which the
sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into the
ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for
all the inside of the ship was choked up with the sand. However,
as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull
everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that
everything that I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as wellas I could from the side which lay highest;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the
sun, and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir-pla&ks off from the decks; which
I tied together, and made swim -n shore when the tide of flood
came on.


May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron-work: worked very hard, and
came home much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to
work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow, to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and
sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
May 9. Went to the wreck, and, with the crow, made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy
to remove.
May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck; and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards or planks, and two or
three hundredweight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water: but I stayed so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore at
a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what they
were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for
me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and, with hard labour, I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests: but the wind blowingfrom the
shore, nothing came to land that day, but pieces of timber and
a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every
day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get foof:
which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out: and, by this time, I had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron-work enough'to have built a good boat, if I hadknown
how: and I also got at several times, and in several pieces, rear
one hundredweight of the sheet lead.


June 16. Going down 0 the sea-side, I found a large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen: which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place,
or scarcity: for, had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as
I found afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs : and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life; having had
no flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. Thought,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
June 20. No rest all night: violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help:
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull;
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again: cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,
and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish from thirst;
but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say; only lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me I
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off,
I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding
thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habitation,
I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In


this second sleep, I had this terrie dream: I thought that I
was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I
sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of
fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe: when he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to my apprehension,
as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He had no sooner
landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards me, with
a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and, when he
came to a rising ground at some distance, he spoke to me, or
I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it: all that I can say I understood was this: Seeing
all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die!" at which words I thought he lifted up the spear
that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that, even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of these horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.


I nnD, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an
uninterrupted series for eight years of seafaring wickedness
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree: I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much
as tended either to locking up towards God, or inward towards
a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain stupidity of
soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of evil, had
entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most hard-
ened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors
can be supposed to be: not having the least sense either of
the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to Him in deli-


In the relating what has already past of my story, this will
be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that, throughall
the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my
rebellious behaviour against my father, or my present sins,
which were great; or even as a punishment for the general
course of my wicked life.* When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much
as one thought of what would become pf me; or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless of a
God, or a providence; acted like a mere brute, from the prin-
ciples of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only:
and, indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up
at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with
justly and honourably, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, Iwas shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was far
from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness: but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which
had preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved,
when all the rest were destroyed ; or an inquiry why Providence
had been thus merciful to me: just the same common sort of
joy which seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore
from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest
of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition,-how I was cast
on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of
all hope of relief or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw
but a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and perish
for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began
to be very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my pre-
servation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted
at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand
Robinson Crsoe here, gan, forgets what he has sald before on this sljct,
age pge3, 811, and 49. He had these rejections and convictions, but had re
slated them.


of God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous in it; but, as soon as that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it, wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immedi-
ately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such
things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impression
it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God, or
His judgments, much less of the present affliction of my cir-
cumstances being from His hand, than if I had been in the
most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began
to be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of the fever ; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon weakness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon
strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the.
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God: though I cannot say it was a prayer
attended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused;
the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror of dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours in my head with
the mere apprehension; and, in those hurries of my soul, I
knew not what my tongue might express; but it was rather
exclamation, such as, "Lord, what a miserable creature am !
If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help;
and what will become of me ?" Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
laterval the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning
of this story, viz., that, if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none
to assist in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, "my dear
father's words are come to pass; God's justice has overtaken
me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice
of Providence, which had mercifully put me ina station of life
wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would
neither see it myself, nor learn from my parents to know the


blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly; and now
I am left to mourn under the consequences of it; I refused
their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now
I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature
itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no advice."
Then I cried out, "Lord, be my help, for I am in great dis-
tress !" This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that 1
had made for many years. But I return to my Journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and, though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was
to fill a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me
a piece of the goat's flesh,, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about; but was very weak, and
withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs;
which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell;
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's bless-
ing to, as I could remember, in my whole life. After I had
eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that); so
I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? Whence is it produced ? And what am I, and all the
other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence
are we ? Surely we are all made by some secret Power, who
formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?
Then it followed most naturally, it is God that has made all.
Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made allthese
things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that
concern them; for the Power that could make all things,
must certainly have power to guide and direct them; if so,
nothing can happen in the great circuit of His works, either
without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition: and, if
nothing happens without His appointment, He has appointed all
this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought, to contra-


diet any of these conclusions : and, therefore, it rested upon
me with the greatest force, that it must needs be, that God
hath appointed all this to befallme; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by His direction, He having the sole
power, not of me only, but of everything that happens in
the world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this
to me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed;
and methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch! dost
thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast not done? Ask,
why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads ; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the
wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou hast
done?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer to
myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went over my wall, asif I had been going to bed :
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclina-
tion to sleep ; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return
of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for
almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests, which was quite cured; and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in this chest 1
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and, as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the BIBLES
which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say,
I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me
to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not; but
I tried several experiments with it, as I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth; which indeed, at first, almost stupefied my
brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had
not been much used to. Then I took some, and steeped it, an
hour or two, in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down: and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as
I could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began
to read; but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco


to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened the
book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these :
"Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou shalt glorify me." These words were very apt to my

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,7 1 W ,,W-*,,, '1,

case; and made some impression upon my thoughts at the
time of reading them, though not so much as they did after-
wards: for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as
I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in
my apprehension of things, that, as the children of Israel said,
when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a
table in the wilderness ?" so I began to say, "Can even God
himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it was not for
many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often
upon my thoughts: but, however, the words made a great
impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It
now grew late; and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my
head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But, before 1 lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, That, if I called upon Him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me." After my broken
and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco : which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that, indeed, I could scarce get it down: immediately

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