Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072797/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 192 p. : 1 ill. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Leavitt & Allen ( Publisher )
Publisher: Published by Leavitt & Allen
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 185-?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1855   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
General Note: Spine and caption title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date from other dated Leavitt & Allen editions.
General Note: Parts I and II (greatly abridged) of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072797
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27801328

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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text


\ \


Tifr iuih Ifnturit





I WAs born at York, in the year 1632, of
a reputable family. My father was a native
of Bremen, who, by merchandising at Hull for
some time, gained a very plentiful fortune.
He married my mother at York, and, as her
maiden name was Robinson, I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; which not being easily
pronounced in the English tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers.-No
charge or pains were wanting in my educa-
tion. My father designed me for the law, yet
nothing would serve me but I must go to sea,
both against the will of my father, the tears of
my mother, and the entreaties of friends. One
morning my .father expostulated very warmly
with me: What reason," says he, "have you



to leave your native country, and enter into
a wandering condition of uneasiness and un-
certainty?" He recommended to me Agar's
wish, Neither to desire poverty nor riches;"
told me that a middle state of life was the
most happy, and that high, towering thoughts
of raising our condition by wandering abroad,
often ended in confusion and disappointment.
" I entreat you, nay, I command you," says
he, "to desist from these intentions. If you
will go," added he, "my prayers shall be
offered for your preservation; but a time may
come, when desolate, oppressed, or forsaken,
you may w'sh you had taken your poor father's
counsel." He pronounced these words with
such a moving and paternal eloquence, while
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that
it seemeQ to shake my resolutions. But this
soon wore off, and a little after I informed my
mother, that I could not settle to any business;
and begged she would gain my father's consent
only to go one voyage ; which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a
second. My mother warmly expressed her
dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, n un years old,


when one time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow going with his father, who was master
of a ship, to London; and acquainting him
with my wandering desires, he assured me of a
free passage, and a plentiful share of what was
necessary. Thus, without imploring a bless-
ing, or taking farewell of my parents, I took
shipping on the 1st of September, 1651. We
swt sail soon after, and our ship had scarce left
fie Humber when there arose a violent storm,
and being extremely sea-sick, I concluded the
judgment of God deservedly followed me for
my disobedience to my dear parents. It was
then I called to mind the good advice of my
father; and I firmly resolved, if it pleased God
to set me on dry land once more, to return to
my parents, implore their forgiveness, and bid
a final adieu to my wandering inclinations.
Such were my thoughts while the storm con-
tinued; but these good resolutions decreased
with the danger, and I soon forgot the vows
and promises I made in my distress.
Upon the sixth day we came to anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcas.le ships; here the seamen forgot
their late toil and danger, and spent their time


as merrily as if they had been on shore. But
on the eighth day there arose a brisk gale of
wind, which prevented our tiding it up the
river; and still- increasing, our ship rode fore-
castle in and shipped several large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the sea-
men themselves, and I heard the master ex-
claim, Lord have mercy upon us, we shall be
all lost and undone !" For my part, sick unto
death, I kept my cabin, till the universal and
terribly dreadful apprehensions -of our speedy
fate made me get upon deck ; and there I was
affrighted indeed. The sea ran mountains high ;
I could see nothing but distress around us ; two
ships had cut their masts on board, and another
was foundered; two more that had lost their
anchors, were forced out to the mercy of the
ocean ; and to save our lives We were forced to
cut our foremast and mainmast quite away.
I was just ready to expire with fear, when
immediately all hands were called to the pump;
and the men forced me also to share with them
in their labor. While thus employed, the mas-
ter, espying some light colliers, fired a gun as a
signal of distress; and I, not understanding
what it meant, and thinking that either the ship


broke, or some dreadful thing happen- d, fainted
away. However, nobody minded me, except-
ing to thrust me aside with their feet, thinking
me dead, aA it was a great while before I
Happy it was for us, when, upon the signal
given, they ventured out their boats to save
our lives. All our pumping had been in vain,
had not they come to our ship's side: with
great difficulty we got into their boat, and we
perceived our ship sink within less than a
quarter of an hour.
Strange, after all this, like the prodigal son,
I did not return to my father; who, hearing
of the ship's calamity, for a long time thought
me entombed in the deep.
I thought at first I would return home ; but
shame opposed that good notion, thinking I
should be laughed at by my neighbors and
acquiair.ance. So strange is the nature of
youth, who are not ashamed to sin, but-yet are
ashamed to repent, and return to their duty,
which is the principal mark of wisdom,. In
short, I travelled up to London, resolving ugon
j*'voyage; and a voyage I soon heard of, to gc
Athe coast of Guinea. Having some money


and appearing like a gentleman, I went on
board not as a common sailor or fore-mast
man; nay, the commander agre I should go
the voyage with him without fay expense;
that I should be his messmate and compa-
nion, and I was very welcome to carry any
thing with me, and make the best merchandise
I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for this offer; and acquaint-
ing my friends in Yorkshire, forty pounds were
sent me, the greatest part by my dear father
and mother, with which I bought toys and
trifles as the captain directed me. My captain
also taught me navigation, how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observa-
tion, and led me into the knowledge of several
useful branches of the mathematics. And in-
deed this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant; for I brought home five pounds
nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure;
which produced, at my return to London, al-
most three hundred pounds.
But alas! my dear friend, the captain, soon
departed this life. This was a sensible grief to
me ; yet 1 resolved to go another voyage with


his mate, who had now the command of the
ship. My misfortunes in this unhappy voyage
were very great; for our ship sailing towards
the Canary Islands, we were chased by a
Salee Rover; and, in spite of all the haste we
3ould make, the pirate gained upon us, so that
we prepared ourselves to fight. 'They had
eighteen guns, and we had but twelve. About
three in the afternoon there was a desperate
engagement, wherein many were killed and
wounded on both sides; but finding ourselves
overpowered by numbers, we were forced to
surrender; and were all carried prisoners into
the Port of Salee. Our men were sent to the
emperor's court to be sold there; but the pirate
captain kept me to be his own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most
miserable creature upon earth, and the pro-
phecy of my father came afresh into my
thoughts. Some hopes, indeed, I had that my
new patron would go to sea again, where he
might be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man-of-war, and then I should be set at liberty.
But in this I was mistaken; for he never took
me with him, but left me to look after his little
garden, and do the drudgery of his ho ise.


After some length of time my patron, as I
found, grew so poor that he could not fit out
his ship as usual; and then he used constantly,
once or twice a week, if the weather was fair,
to go out a-fishing, taking me and a young
Moresco boy to row the boat; and sc much
please was he with me for my dexterity in
catching the fish, that he would often send me
with a Moor, who was one of his kinsmen,
and the Moresco youth, to catch a dish of fish
for him.
One morning, as we were at the sport, there
arose such a thick fog that we lost sight of the
shore; and rowing we knew not which way,
we labored all the night, and in the morning
found ourselves in the ocean, two leagues from
land; which however we at length reached,
extremely exhausted by long fasting; and in
order to prevent such disasters for the future,
my patron ordered a carpenter to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long
boat, with lockers for provisions.
In this he frequently took us out a-fishing;
and one time, inviting two or three persons of
distinction to go with him, made provisions
extraordinary, pro-iding also three fusees, with


powder and shot, that they might have some
sport at fowling along the sea-coast. The
next morning the boat was made clean and
every thing ready, but their minds altering, my
patron ordered us to go a-fishing, as his guests
would certainly sup with him that night.
And now I began seriously to think of my
deliverance. In order to this, I persuaded the
Moor to get some provisions on board, not
daring to meddle with our patron's; and we
stored ourselves with rusk-biscuit, and three
jars of water. Besides, I privately conveyed
into the boat a bottle of brandy, some twine,
thread, a hammer, hatchet, and a saw; and, in
particular, some bees'-wax, which was a great
comfort to me, and served to make candles. I
then persuaded Muley (for so was the Moor
called) to procure some powder and shot, pre-
tending to kill sea-curlews, which he inno-
cently and readily agreed to In short, being
provided with all things necessary, we sailed
out; I resolving to make my escape, though it
should cost me my life.
When we had run from shore, I gave the
boy the helm, and pretending to stoop for
something, seized Muley by surprise and threw


him overboard. As he was an excellent swim-
mer, he soon arose, and made towards the
boat; upon which I took out a fusee, and pre-
sented it at him: Muley," said I, "I never
yet designed to do you any harm, and seek
nothing now but my redemption. I know you
are able enough to swim to shore, and save
your life ; but if you are resolved to follow me,
to the endangering of mine, the very moment
you proceed, I will shoot you through the
head." The harmless creature, at these words,
turned himself from me, and I make no doubt
got safe to land. Ther turning to the boy
Xury, I perceived he trembled at the action;
but I put him out of all fear, telling him, that
if he would be true and faithful to me, I would
do well by him. So innocent aid the child
then look, and with such an obliging smile
consented, that I readily believed him, and
from that day forward began to love him
We then pursued our voyage; and having a
fresh gale of wind, with a pleasant, sir ooth sea,
by three o'clock next day I was one hundred
and fifty miles beyond -he Emperor of Moroc-
co's dominions. Yet still having the dreadful


apprehension of being retaken, I continued
sailing for five days successively, till the wind,
shifting to the southward, made me conclude
that if any vessel was in chase of me, they
would proceed no farther. After so much
fatigue, I anchored at the mouth of a little
river. What I principally wanted was fresh
water: and I was resolved, about dusk, to
swim ashore. But no sooner did the gloomy
clouds of night begin to succeed the declining
day, than we heard such barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, that one might have
thought the very strongest monster of nature or
infernal spirits had their residence there.
The next morning I was resolved to go on
shore to get fresh water, and venture my life
among the beasts or savages, should either
attack-e-X. ury-sad he would ake one of
the jars and bring me some. I asked him why
he would go, and not I? The poor boy an
swered, If wild mans come, they eat me, you
go away." This nobleness of mind increased
my affection to the child. Well, dear Xury,"
said I, we will both go ashore, both kill wild
mans, and they shall eat neither of us."' So
giving Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and


a dram, we waded ashore, ca.Tying nothing
with us but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not go out of sight of the boat, as dread-
ing the savages coming down the river in their
canoes; but the boy seeing a low descent or
vale, about a mile in the country, he wandered
to it; and running back to me with great pre-
cipitation, I thought he was pursued by some
savage or wild beast ; upon which I ap-
proached, resolving to perish or protect him
from danger. As he came nearer to me, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature he had shot, like a hare, but
different in color, and longer legs; however
we were glad of it, for it proved wholesome
and nourishing meat: but what added to our
:oy was, my boy assured me there was plenty
of water, and that he see no wild mans. In
this place I began to consider that the Canary
and Cape de Verde islands lay not far off
The place I was in was no doubt that wild
country that lies between the Emperor of Mo-
rocco's dominions and the Negroes. It is
filled with wild beasts, and the Moors chiefly
use it for hunting. From this place I thought
I saw the :op of the mountain Teneriffe in the


Canaries; and twice in vain I tried to at-
tain it.
Early one morning we anchored under a
little point of land ; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay ready to go further in. But Xury,
whose youthful and penetrating eyes were
sharper than mine, in a soft tone, desired me
to keep far from land, lest we should be de-
voured, For look yonder, master;, said he,
" and see de dreadful monster fast asleep on de
side of de hill."-Accordingly, looking where
he pointed, I espied a fearful monster indeed.
It was a terrible great lion, that lay on shore
covered as it were by a shade of a piece of the
hill. Xury," said I, you shall go on shore
and kill lim." But the boy looked amazed:
" Me kill him !" says he, he eat me at one
mouth;" meaning one mouthful. Upon which
I bid him lie still, and charging my biggest gun
with two slugs and a good charge of powder,
I took the best aim I could to shoot him through
the head, but his leg lying over his nose, the
slug broke his knee-bone. T.ie lion, awaking
with the pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving
the most hideous groan I ever heard; but
taking my second piece I shot hin through the


head, and then he lay struggling for life. Upon
this. Xury took heart, and desired my leave
to go on shore. Go then," said I. Upon
which taking a little gun in one hand. lie swam
to shore with the other, and coming close to
the lion, put a period to his life by shooting him
again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not bcing good to eat. Xury
was like a champion, and came on board for a
hatchet, to cut off the head of his enemy ; but
not having strength to perform it, lie cut off
and brought me a foot. I bethought me, how-
ever, that his skin would be of use. This
work cost Xury and me a whole day ; when
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the hot
beams of the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me for a
bed to lie on
And now we sailed southerly, living sparing-
ly on our provisions, and went no oftener on
shore than we were obliged for fresh water.
My design was to make the river Gambia or
Senegal, or any where about the Cape de Verde,
in hopes to meet some European ship. If
Providence did not so favor me, my next course


was to seek for the islands, or lose my life
amongst the Negroes.
One day, as we were sailing along, we saw
people stand on the shore locking at us; we
could also perceive they were black and stark
naked. I was inclined to go on shore, but
Xury cried, No, no ,' however, I approached
nearer, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way. They had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who held a long stick,
which Xury told me was a lance, with which
they could kill at a great distance. I talked
to them by signs, and made them sensible I
wanted something to eat ; they beckoned me
to stop my boat, while two of them ran up into
the country, and in less than half-an-hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, which we gladly
accepted; and to prevent any fears on either
side, they brought the food to the shore, laid it
down, then went and stood a great way off till
we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
The Negroes having kindly furnished me
with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave, and,


after eleven days' sail, came in sight of the
Cape de Verde, and those islands called by its
name; when on a sudden, Xury cried out,
" Master! Master! a ship with a sail!" and
looked as affrighted as if it was his master's
ship sent in search of us. But I soon discovered
she was a Portuguese ship. Upon which I
strove for my life to come up to them. But
vain had it been, if through their perspective
glasses they had not perceived me and shortened
their sail to let me come up. Encouraged at
this, I fired a gun, as a signal of distress ; upon
which they very kindly lay to, so that in
three hours' time I came up with them. They
spoke to me in Portuguese, Spanish, and
French, but none of these did I understand;
till at length a Scots sailor called, and then 1
told him I was an Englishman, who had
escaped from the Moors at Salee: upon which
they took me kindly on board, with all my
Surely none can express the inconceivable
joy I felt at this happy deliverance who, from
being a late miserable and forlorn creature,
was not only nlieved, but in favor with the
aspa v' the ship to whom, in return for my


Jeliverance, I offered all I had. But he nobly
refused any recompense, and insisted upon
paying for my boat its full value. He gave me
sixty pieces for my boy Xury. It was with
gieat reluctance I was prevailed upon to sell
the child's liberty, who had served me so faith-
fully ; but he was willing himself; and it was
agreed, that after ten years he should be made
free, upon his renouncing Mohammedanism,
and embracing Christianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we
arrived in the Bay dedlTodos los Santos, or All
Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after. I
cannot forget the generous treatment of the
captain. He would take nothing for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's. In
short I made about 220 pieces of my cargo;
and with this stock I entered once more into
the scene of life.
Being recommended to an honest planter, I
lived with him till I. was informed of the
manner of their planting and making sugar:
and seeing how well they lived, and how sud-
denly they grew nch, I resolved to get the
money I had left in England remitted to me,
end to purchase a plantation.


I bought a set:'ement next to an hones. and
kind neighbor, born at Lisbon, of English
parents, whose plantation joining mine, we
improved it very amicably together. Both our
stocks were low, and for two years we planted
only for food ; but the third we planted some
tobacco, and each of us dressed a large piece
of ground the ensuing year for canes. I now
found how much I wanted assistance, and re-
pented the loss of my dear boy Xury.
I was in some measure settled, before the
captain departed fronj the Brazils. One day
I went to him and told him what stock I had
in London, desiring his assistance in getting it
remitted; to which he readily consented, but
would only have me send for half my money,
lest it should miscarry.-His kindness towards
me was great, for he not only procured the
money I had drawn for, but sent me over a
servant with a cargo proportionable to my con-
dition; together with tools of all sorts, iron-
work, and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Uncommon success crowning my prosperous
labors, I might have rested happy in that
middle state of life my father had so often
recommended; but again I left this happy


station from a foolish ambition of rising and,
once more cast myself into the greatest gulf of
misery that ever a poor creature fell into.
Having lived four years in Brazil, I had not'
only learned the language, but contracted
acquaintance with the most eminent planters;
to whom, once having given an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, and the
manner of trading there for mere trifles, by
which our plantations were furiihhed with
Negroes, they gave such attention to what I
said, that three of them came one morning and
proposed to me a voyage to Guinea, in order
to stock the plantation with Negroes, which,
as they could not be publicly sold, they would
divide among them ; and if I would go as their
supercargo, to manage the trading part, I
should have an equal share of the Negroes,
without providing any stock. I could not
resist the proposal, but accepted the offer upon
condition of their looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things
ready, we set sail the first of September, 1659,
being the same day eight years I left my
father and mother in Yorkshire. We sailed
northward upon the coast, in order to gain


Africa, :ill we made Cape Augustine ; from
whence going further into the ocean, out of
sight of land, we steered as though we were
bound for the Isle Fernand de Norenba, leaving
the islands on the east; and then it was that
we met with a terrible tempest, which con-
tinued twelve days, the winds carrying us
wherever they pleased. In this perplexity one
of our men died, and another and a boy were
washed overboard. When the weather cleared
up a little, we found ourselves in eleven
degrees north latitude, upon the coast of
Guinea. Upon this the captain gave reasons
for returning, which I opposed, counselling him
to stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I sup-
posed, might be attained in fifteen days. So,
altering our course, we sailed north-west and
by west, in order to reach the Leeward Islands;
but a second storm succeeding, drove us to the
westward; so that we were afraid of falling
into the hands of cruel savages, or the paws of
devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress one of our men, early
in the morning, cried out, Land! land !"
which he had no sooner said, but our ship
struck unon a sand-bank, and in a moment the


sea broke over her in such a manner, that we
expected we should all have perished im-
mediately. We knew not where we were, or
upon what .and we were driven; and we
could not so much as hope that the ship would
hold out many minutes, without breaking in
pieces, except the wind, by a miracle, should
change immediately. While we stood looking
at one another, expecting death every moment,
the mate laid hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest flung her ovel the ship's side,
and getting all into her, being eleven of us,
committed ourselves to God's mercy and the
wild sea. When we had rowed, or rather
were driven, about a league and a half, a
raging wave, like a lofty mountain, came rolling
astern of us, and took us with such fury, that
at once it overset the boat.
Men are generally accounted insensible when
struggling in the pangs of death; but while I
was overwhelmed with water, I had the most
dreadful apprehensions imaginable. For the
joys of heaven and the torments of hell seemed
to present themselves before me in these dying
agonies. I was going, I thought, I knew not
whither, into a dismal gulf unknown, never to


behold my friends, nor the light of this world
any moe I strove, however, to the last ex-
tremity, while all my companions were over-
powered and entombed in the deep ; and it was
with great difficulty I kept my breath till the
wave spent itself, and, retiring back, left me on
the shore half dead. As soon as I got on my
feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest another wave
should pursue me, and carry me back again.
The sea came after me like a h'gh mountain,
or furious enemy. The next dreadful wave
buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep,
but at the same time carried me with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore; when
raising myself, I held out till the water, having
spent itself, began to return, at which I struck
forward, and feeling ground with my feet, I
took to my heels again. I was at length
dashed against a piece of rock, in such a
manner as left me senseless; but recovering
a little before the return of the wave, which, no
doubt, would have overwhelmed me, I pushed
hastily forward and reached the mainland;
when clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired
and almost spent, I sat down on the grass, free
from the dangers of the foaming ocean.


No ;ongue can express the ecstasies and
transports that my soul felt at the happy de-
liverance. I was wrapt in contemplation, and
often lifted up my hands, with the profoundest
humility, to the Divine powers, for saving my
life, when all the rest of my companions were
all drowned. I cast my eyes around to behold
what place I was in, and what I had next to
do. I could see no house nor people; I was
wet, yet had no clothes; hungry and thirsty,
yet had nothing to eat or drink ; no weapon to
destroy any creature for my sustenance, nor
defend myself against devouring beasts ; in short,
I had nothing but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and
a box half filled with tobacco. The darksome
night coming upon me, increased my fears of
being devoured by wild creatures; my mind
was plunged in despair, and having no prospect,
as I thought, of life before me, I prepared for
another kind of death than what I had lately
escaped. I walked about a furlong to see if I
could find any fresh water, which I did to my
great joy ; and taking a quid of tobacco to
prevenunger, I got up into a thick bushy
tree, and seating myself so that I could not fall,
a deep sleep overtook me, and for that night
buried my sorrows in quiet repose.


It was broad day the next morning before
I awaked; when I not only perceived the
tempest had ceased, but saw the ship driven
almost as far as the rock which the waves had
dashed me against, and which was about a
mile from the place where I was. When I
came down from my apartment in the tree, I
perceived the ship's boat two miles distant on
my right hand, lying on the shore as the waves
had cast her. I thought to have got to her; but
there being an inlet of water of about half a
mile's breadth between it and me, I returned
again towards the ship, as hoping to find some-
thing for my immediate subsistence. About
noon, when the sea was calm, resolving to get
to the ship, I stripped and leaped into the water;
it was my good fortune to espy a small piece
of rope hanging so low, that by the help of it,
though with great difficulty, I got into the ship.
The provisions I found in good order, with
which I crammed my pockets, and, losing no
time, ate while I was doing other things. I
also found some rum, of which I took a hearty
dram; and now I wanted for nothing except a
boat to carry away what was needftiror me.
Necessity quickens inve .tion. We had seve-


ral spar mards, a spare topmast or two, and
two or three large spars of wood. W'th these
I fell to work, and flung as many of thim over-
board as I could manage, tying every one of
them with a rope, that they might not dnve
away. This done, I went down to the ship's
side, and tied four of them fast together at both
ends, in form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, 1
found it would bear me, but not any consider-
able weight. Upon which I went to work
again, cutting a spare topmast into three
lengths, adding them to my raft with a great
deal of labor and pains. I then considered
what I should load it with, it being not able to
bear a ponderous burden. And this I soon
thought of; first laying upon it all the planks
and boards I could get: next I lowered down
three of the seamen's chests, after I had filled
them with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh, and some Eu-
ropean corn; and for liquors I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in
which were some cordial waters, and four or
five gallons of rack, which I stowed by them-
selves. By this time the tide beginning to


low, I perceived my coat, waistcoat, and shin
swim away, which I left on the shore; as for
my linen breeches and stockings, I swam with
them to the ship; but I soon fond clothes
enough, though I took no more than I wanted
for the present. My eyes were chiefly on
tools to work with ; and, after a long search, I
found out the carpenter's chest, which I got
safe down on my raft. I then looked for arms
and ammunition, and in the great cabin found
two good fowling-pieces, two pistols, several
powder-horns filled, ? small bag of shot, and
two old rusty swords. I likewise found three
barrels of powder, two of which were good;
also two or three broken oars, two saws, an
axe and a hammer. I then put to sea, and in
getting to shore had three encouragements.
1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The tide rising
and setting in to shore. 3. The little wind
there was blew towards the land. After I had
sailed about a mile, I found the raft drive a
little distance from the place where I first
landed; and then I perceived a little opening
of the land, with a strong current of the tide
running into it: upon which I kept the middle
of the stream. But great was my concern,


when on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran
aground, so that had I not, with great diffi-
culty, for near half-an-hour, kept my back
straining against the chests to keep my effects
in their places, all I had would have gone in
the sea. But after some time, the rising of the
water caused the raft to float again, and com-
ing up a little river with land on both sides, I
landed in a cave, as near the mouth as possi-
ble, the better to discover a sail, if any provi-
dentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with lesser hills, and thither
I was resolved to go and view the country,
that I might see what part was best to fix my
habitation. Accordingly, arming myself with
a pistol, a fowling-piece, powder and ball, I
ascended the mountain. There I perceived I
was in an island, encompassed by the sea, no
distant lands to be seen, but scattering rocks
that lay to the west: it seemed to be a barren
place, inhabited only by wild beasts. I per-
ceived abundance of fowls, but ignorant of
what kind, or whether good for nourishment;
I shot one of them at my return, which occa-
sioned a confused screaming among the other


birds, and I found it, by its color and beak, to
be a kind of hawk, but its flesh was perfect
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore; and fearing that some cruel
beasts might devour me in the night-time, I
made a kind of hut or barricade with the
chests and boards. I slept very comfortably:
and the next morning got on board as before,
and prepared a second raft far nicer than the
first, upon which I brought away the carpen-
ter's stores, two or three bags full of nails, a
great jack-screw, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and a grindstone. Two or three iron crows, twe
barrels of muzket-bullets, another fowling-piece
a small quantity of powder, and a large bag
full of small shot. Besides these, I took all
the men's clothes I could find, a spare fore-top-
sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and thus
completing my second cargo, I made all the
haste to shore I could, fearing some wild beast
might destroy what I had there already. But
I only found a little wild cat, sitting on one of
the chests, which, seeming not to fear me, or
the gun that I presented at her, I threw her a
piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and


When I had got these effects on shore, I
went to work, in order to make me a little
tent with the sail and some poles which I had
cut for that purpose ; and having finished it,
what things might be damaged by the weather
I brought in, piling all the empty chests and
casks in a circle, the better to fortify it against
any sudden attempt of man or beast. After
this I blocked up the doors with some boards,
charged my gun and pistol, and laying my bed
on the ground, slept comfortably till next
Now, though I had enough to subsist me a
long time, yet despairing of a sudden deliver-
ance, I coveted as much as I could; and so
long as the ship remained in that condition, I
daily brought away one necessary or other;
particularly the rigging, sails, and cordage,
some twine, a barrel of wet powder, some
sugar, a barrel of meal, three casks of rum,
and, what was most welcome to me, a whole
hogshead of bread.
Thirteen days I had now been in the island,
and eleven times on board, bringing away all
that was possible. As I was going the twelfth
time, the wind began to rise; however, I ven-


tured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker I found several razors, scissors, and
some dozens of knives and forks; and in an-
other thirty-six pounds, of pieces of eight,
silver and gold. Ah! simple vanity," said I,
" whom this world so much dotes on, where is
now thy virtue, thy excellency to me ? You
cannot procure me one thing needful, nor re-
move me from th:s desolate island to a place
of plenty. One of these knives, so meanly
esteemed, is to me preferable to all this heap.
E'en, therefore, remain where thou art, to sink
in the deep as unregarded, even as a creature
whose life is not worth preserving." Yet, after
all, I wrapt it up in a piece of canvas, and
began to think of making another raft; but I
soon perceived the wind began to rise, a fresh
gale blowing from the shore, and the sky over-
cast with clouds and darkness ; so, thinking a
raft to be in vain, I let myself into the water,
with what things I had about me, and it was
with much difficulty I got ashore, when soon
after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my
little tent, surrounded with all my effects; but
when I looked out in the morning, no more


ship was t, be seen.-My next thoughts were,
how I should secure myself from savages
and wild beasts, if any such were in the island.
At one time I thought of digging a cave; at
another I was for erecting a tent; and, at
length, I resolved to do both.
I found a little plain near a rising hill, the
front towards which being as steep as a house-
side, nothing could descend on me from the
top. On the side of this rock was a little
hollow pace, resembling the entrance or door
of a cave. Just before this place, on the circle
of the green, I resolved my tent should stana.
This plain did not much exceed a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, like a
delightful green before my door, with a pleasing,
though an irregular descent every way to the
low grounds by the sea-side, lying on the N.
W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered
from the excessive heat of the sun. After this
I drew a semicircle, containing ten yards in a
semi-diameter and twenty yards in the whole,
driving down two rows of strong stakes, not
six inches from each other. Then with a piece
of cable which I had cut on board I regularly
laid them in a circle between the piles up tc


their tops, which were more than five faet out
of the earth, and after drove another row of
piles, looking withinside against them, between
two and three feet high, which made me con-
clude it a little impregnable castle against men
and beasts. And for my better security I would
have no door, but entered in and came out by
the help of a ladder which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which
I carried a 1 my riches, ammunition, and stores.
After which, working on the rock, with what
dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised my
ground two feet, but made a little cellar to my
mansion-house; and this cost me many days'
labor and pains. One day, in particular, a
shower of rain falling, thunder and lightning
ensued, which put me in terror lest my powder
should take fire. To prevent which, I fell to
making boxes and bags, in order to separate it.
having by me near 150 lbs. weight. And thus
being established as king of the island, every
day I went out with my gun to see what I
could kill that was fit to eat. I soon perceived
numbers of goats, and shot one suckling a
young kid; which not thinking its dam sla'n,
stood by her unconcerned; and v hen I took


the dead calurta up, the young one followed
me even itl..: inclosure. I lifted the kid
over the pales, and would willingly have kept
it alive ; but finding it would not eat, I killed
that also.
It was, by the account I kept, the 30th of
September, when I first landed on this island.
About twelve days after, fearing lest I should
lose my reckoning of time, nay, even forget
the sabbath days, for want of pen, ink, and
paper, I carved with a knife upon a large post,
in great letters, these words, I came on shore,
Sept. 30, 1659. Every day I cut a notch with
my knife on the sides of this square post, and
that on the sabbath was as long again as the
rest; and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one. Had I made a more
strict search I need not-have set up this mark;
for among my parcels, I found the very things
I wanted: particularly pens, ink, and papel
also two or three compasses, some mathll
matical instruments, dials, perspective glasses,
books of navigation, three English Bibles, aufd
several other good books, which I carefully
put up.-A dog and two cats on board, I
made inhabitants with me in my castle.


Thougn one might think I had all the ne-
cessaries that were desirable, yet still I found
several things wanting. My ink was daily
wasting; I wanted needles, pins, and thread,
to mend my clothes; and particularly a spade,
pickaxe, or shovel, to remove the earth. It
was a year before I finished my little bulwark.
Having raised a turf wall against the outside
of my habitation, I thatched it so close as
might keep it from the inclemency of the
weather; I also improved it within, enlarged
my cave, and made a passage and door ii: the
rock, which came out beyond the pale of my
fortification. I next proceeded to make a
chair and a table. When I wanted a plank
or board, I hewed down a tree with my
hatchet, making it as thin with my axe as
possible, and then smooth enough with an adze
to answer my designs; thus in time I got
boards enough to shelter all my stores.
But now a very strange event happened.
For one day finding a bag, which used to hold
corn for the fowls, I resolved to put gunpowder
in it, and shook all the husks and dirt upon
one side of the rock, little expecing what the
consequence would be. The rain had fallen


plentifully a few days before; ani about a
month after, to my great amazement, some-
thing began to look very green and flourishing;
and when I came to view it more nicely every
day as it grew, I found about ten or twelve
ears of green barley appearing in the very same
shape and make as that in England.
I can scarce express the agitations of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had looked
upon the actions of this life only as the events
of blind chance. But now the appearance of
this barley, flourishing in a barren soil, and my
ignorance in not conceiving how it should
come there, made me conclude, that miracles
were not yet ceased : nay, I even thought that
God had appointed it to grow there without
any seed, purely for my sustenance in this;
miserable and desolate island. And indeed
such great effect this had upon me, that it often,
made me melt into tears, through a grateful
sense of God's mercies; and the greater still
was my thankfulness, when I perceived about
this little field of barley some rice-stalks, also,.
wonderfully flourishing.
S While thus pleased in mind, I concluded!
there must be more corn in the island; andi


therefore made a diligent search among the
rocks; but not being able to find any, on a
sudden it came into my mind how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag, and
then my admiration ceased, with my gratitude
to the Divine being, as thinking it was bu
natural, and not to be conceived a miracle
though even the manner of its preservation
might have made me own it was a wonderful
event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of this corn ripened, which I laid up very
carefully, together with twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, expecting one day I should reap the
fruit of my labor; yet four years were expired
before I could allow myself to eat any barley-
.bread, and much longer time before I had any
rice. After this. with indefatigable pains and
industry, for three or four months, at last I
finished my wall on the 14th of April, having
,no way'to go into it, but by a ladder against
the wall ; April 17th I finished my ladder and
.ascended it; afterwards pulled it up, then let
it down on the other side, and descended into
any new habitation, where I had space enough,
Aand so fortified that nothing could attack me
'without scaling the walls.


But what does all human pains and industry
avail, if the blessing of God does not crown
our labors? Or who can stand before the
Almighty, when he stretcheth forth his arm ?
For one time, as I was at the entrance of my
zave, there happened such a dreadful earth-
quake, that not only the roof of the cave came
tumbling about my ears, but the posts seemed
to crack terribly at the same time. This put
me in great amazement; and running to the
ladder, and getting over the wall, I then
plainly knew it was an earthquake ; the place
I stood on sustained three terrible shocks in
less than three minutes. But judge of my
terror when I saw the top of a great rock roll
into the sea! I then expected the island
would be swallowed up every moment: and
what made the scene still more dreadful, was
to see the sea thrown in the most violent agita-
ion and disorder by this tremendous accident.
S For my part, I stood like a criminal at the
place of execution, ready to expire. At the
moving of the earth I was, as it were, sea-
sick; and very much afraid lest the rock, under
which was my defence and habitation, should
overwhelm it and myself in a lasting tomb.


When the third dreadful shock had spent
itself, my spirits began to revive; yet still I
would not venture to ascend the ladder, but
continued sitting, not knowing what I should
do. So little grace had I then, as only to say,
Lord have mercy upon me and no sooner
was the earthquake over, but that pathetic
prayer left me.
It was not long after that, when a horrible
tempest arose, at the same time attended with
a hurricane of wind. The sea seemed moun-
tains high, and the waves rolled so impetuously,
that nothing could be perceived but froth and
foam. Three hours did this storm continue,
and in so violent a manner, as to tear the very
trees up by the roots, which was succeeded by
abundance of rain. When the tempest was
over, I went to my tent: but the rain coming
on in a furious manner, I was obliged to take
shelter in the cave, where I was forced to cut
a channel through my fortification to let the
water out. It continued raining all that night,
and some time the next day. These accidents
made me resolve, as soon as the weather cleared
up, to build me a little hut in some open place,
walled round to defend me from wild creatures


and savages; not doubting but at the next
earthquake the. mountain would fall upon my
habitation and me, and swallow up all in its
When I began to put my resolutions in
practice, I was stopped for want of tools and
instruments to work with. Most of my axes
and hatchets were useless, occasioned by cut-
ting the hard timber that grew on the island.
It took me full a week to make my grindstone
of use.
As I walked along the sea-shore, I found a
barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces of the
wreck, the sea had flung up. Having secured
these I made to the ship, whose stern was torn
off, and washed a great distance ashore; but
the rest lay in the sands.
At this time I was afflicted wth an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myof to water;
prayed to God in these words: Lord in pity
look upon me: Lord have mercy upon me:
have mercy upon me!" After this I fell
asleep and dreamed.
Something refreshed with sleep, I arose,
and, after eating some turtle's eggs, I attempted
to walk again out of doors with my gun, but


was so weak, that I sat down, and looked at
the sea, which was smooth and calm. While
I continued here, these thoughts came into my
mind -
In what manner is the production of the
earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
From whence came myself, and all other
creatures living, and of what are they made ?
Our beings were assuredly created by some
almighty invisible Power, who framed the earth,
the sea, the air, and all therein. But what is
that Power?
Certainly it must follow, that God has created
all. Yet, said I, if God has made all this, he
must be the Ruler of all; for certainly the
Power that makes must indisputably be able
to guide and direct them. And if so, nothing
can happen without his knowledge and ap-
pointment. lhen certainly God has appointed
these my sufferings. I then proceeded to in-
quire, why should God deal with me in this
manner? Or what had I done to deserve his
ndignation ?
Here conscience cried with a loud and
piercing voice, "Unworthy wretch! how darest
thou ask what thou hast done ? Look on thy


past life, and see what thou hast left undone!
Ask thyself why thou wert not long ago in the
merciless hands of death? Why not drowned
in Yarmouth roads, or killed in the fight, when
the ship was taken by the Salee man-of-war
Why not entombed in the bowels of the wild
beasts on the African coast, or drowned here,
when all thy companions suffered shipwreck in
the ocean?"
Struck dumb with these reflections, I rose,
being so thoughtful that I could not sleep, and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper. I
recollected that the Brazilians use tobacco for
almost all diseases, and going to my chest in
order to find some, Heaven, no doubt, directed
me to a cure for both soul and body ; for there
I found one of the Bibles, which, till this time,
I had neither leisure nor inclination to look
into. And no sooner did I open 'it, but there
appeared to me these words, Call on me in
the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou shalt glorify me."
At first, this sentence made a very deep im-
pression on my heart, but it soon wore off
again, when I considered the word deliver
was foreign to me. And as the children ot


Israel said, when they were promised flesh to
eat, Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness ?" in like manner I began to say, "Can
God deliver me from this desolate island?"
However, the words still returned to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression
upon me.
As it was now very late, I felt inclined to
sleep ; but before I would lie down I fell on
my knees, and implored the promise that God
had made me in the Holy Scripture, that "if I
called upon him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me." With much difficulty, I after-
wards drank the rum, wherein I had steeped
the tobacco, which, flying into my head, threw
me into such a profound sleep, that it was
three o'clock the next day before I awoke;
indeed I believe I slept two days, having lost
% day in my account. When I got up, my
spirits were lively and cheerful; I was very
hungry; and, in short, no fit returned the next
lay, but I found myself much altered for the
I had now been about ten months in the
island ; and, as I never had seen any of the hu
man kind. I accounted myself as sole monarch;


and as I grew better, having secured my habi-
tation to my mind, I resolved to make a tour
round my kingdom, in order to make new
The 15th of July I began my journey; I
first went to the creek, where I had brought
my rafts on shore; and travelling further, found
that the tide went no higher than two miles
up, where there was a little brook of running
water, on the banks of which were many
pleasant savannas, or meadows, plain, smooth,
and covered with grass. On the rising parts,
where I supposed the water did not reach, I
perceived a great deal of tobacco growing to
a very strong stalk. Several other plants I
likewise found, the virtues of which I did not
understand. I searched a long time for the
cavassa-root, which I knew the Indians of that
climate made their bread of, but all in vain.
There were several plants of aloes, though at
that time I knew not what they were ; I saw
also several sugar-canes, but imperfect for want
of cultivation. With these few discoveries, I
came back that night, and slept contentedly in
my little castle.
The next day going the same way, but


further than the day before, I found the country
more adorned with woods and trees. Here I
perceived different fruits in great abundance.
Melons in plenty lay on the ground, and clus-
ters of grapes, ripe and very rich, spread over
the trees. You may imagine I was glad of
the discovery, yet ate very sparingly. The
grapes I found of excellent use; for when I
had dried them in the sun, which preserved
them as dried raisins are kept, they proved
very wholesome and nourishing, and served
me in those seasons when no grapes were to
be had. The night drawing on apace, I as-
cended a tree, and slept very comfortably,
though it was the first time I had lain out of
my habitation. And when the morning came,
I proceeded with great pleasure on my way,
travelling about four miles, as I imagined, by
the length of the valley, directing my course
northward. At the end of the valley, I came
to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west: there I found a little
spring of fresh water proceeding out of the side
of the hill, with its crystal streams running
directly cast. And, indeed, here my senses
were charmed with the most beautiful land-


cape nature could afford; for the country ap--
peared flourishing, green, and delightful. I
then descended on the side of that delicious,
vale, when I found abundance of cocoa, orange,,
lemon, and citron trees, but very wi'd and bar-
ren at that time. The limes were delightful'
and wholesome, and the juice, mixed in water,,
was very cooling and refreshing. I resolved:
to carry home a store of grapes, limes, and'
lemons, against the approaching wet season;:
and returned to my little castle, after having:
spent three days in this journey.
And now, contemplating the fruitfulness of'
this valley, its security from storms, and the-
delightfulness of the adjacent woods, I resolved?
to make a little kind of bower, surrounding it:
with a double hedge, as high as I could reach,,
well staked and filled with bulrushes: and'
having spent a great part of the month of July,.
I think it was the first of August before I began
to enjoy my labor.
On the 30th September, casting up there
notches on my post, which amounted to 365, I1
concluded this to be the anniversary of my
landing: and, therefore, humbly prostrating my-
self on the ground, confessing my sins, acknow-


lodging God's righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to Jesus Christ to have mercy
upon me, I fasted for twelve hours till the
going down of the sun'; and then, eating a
biscuit and a bunch of grapes, laid me on the
bed, and with great comfort took my night's
.repose. You may call to mind what I have
mentioned of some barley and rice which I
had saved, about thirty stalks of the former,
and twenty of the latter; and, at that time, the
sim being in its southern position, going from
me, together with tCe rains, made me conclude
it a very proper season to sow it. Accordingly
I dug up a piece of ground with my wooden
spade, and dividing it into two parts, sowed
about two-thirds of my seed, preserving by me
about a handful of each. And happy it was I
*did so; for no rains falling, it was choked up,
.and never appeared above the earth till the
wet season came again; and then part of it
grew as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground near
my bower, I sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox;
-which having the rainy months of March and

OF utBILSON CtUsoE. 51

April to water it, yielded a noble crop. I had
still saved part of the seed, not daring to
venture all; and by the time I found out the
proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might
expect every year two seed-times and two
harvests, my stock amounted to above half-a-
peck of each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the
stakes, which I had cut from the trees, shot out
like willows, the first year after lopping their
heads. I was ignorant of the tree I cut them
from: but they grew so regularly beautiful, that
they made a most lively appearance, and so
flourished in three years' time, that I resolved
to cut more of them ; and these soon growing
made a glorious fence.
And now I perceived that the seasons of
the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into wet
and dry seasons.
The wet season continued longer or shorter,
as the winds happened to blow. But having
found the ill consequences of being abroad in
the rain, I took care beforehand to furnish
myself with provisions; and, during the wet
months, sat within doors as much as possible.


At this time I contrived to make many things I
wanted. The first I tried was a basket; but
all the twigs proved so brittle, that I could not
perform it. When a boy, I took great delight
in standing at a basket-maker's in the same
town where my father lived, to view them
work; and like other boys, curious and very
officious to assist, I perfectly learned the
method, and wanted nothing but tools. And
recollecting that the twigs of the tree of which
I made my stakes, might be as tough as osiers,
growing in England, I resolved to make an
experiment; went the next day to my country-
seat, and after cutting down a quantity, I dried
them, and when fit to work, carried them to
my cave, where I employed myself in making
several sorts of baskets. It is true they were
not cleverly made, yet they served my turn
upon all occasions.
Still I had no cask to hold my liquor: neither
had I a pot to boil any thing in. I wanted
likewise at the beginning of this dry season a
I now resumed my intention of exploring
the island; taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two
biscuit-cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a


larger quantity of gunpowder and shot than
usual, I began my journey. Having passed
the va.e where my bower stood, I came within
view of the sea, lying to the west; when, it
being a clear day, 1 described land, extending
from the W. to the S. W. about ten or fifteen
leagues, but could not say whether it was an
island or continent.
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of
the island much more pleasant than mine; the
fields fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers and
verdant grass, together with several very fine
woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made me long for one to be my companion;
but it was with great difficulty I could knock
one down; and I kept him some years before
I cou:d get him to call me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts of
hares and foxes, but different from those in
England. Several of these I killed, but never
ate them; neither, indeed, had I any occasion,
for abounding with goats, pigeons, turtle, and
grapes, I could defy Leadenhall-Market tc
furnish me a better table. When I came to
the sea-shore, I was amazed at the splendor.
The strand was covered with shells of the most


beautiful fish, and abounding with innumerable
turtles, and fowls of many kinds. I might
have shot as many as I pleased, but was
sparing of my ammunition, rather choosing to
kill a she-goat, which I did with much diffi-
culty, on account of the flatness of the country.
I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east, where 1
set a great pile on the shore for a mark.-In
this journey my dog surprised a kid, and would
have killed it, had I not prevented him. As I
had often been thinking of ptitting a kid or two,
and so raising a breed of tame goats to supply
me after my ammunition was spent, I took this
opportunity of beginning: and having made a
collar for this little creature, with a string of
rope-yarn, I brought it to my bower, and there
inclosed and left him; and having spent a month
in this journey, at length I returned to my own
habitation, and rested myself a week, which
time I employed in making a cage for my
pretty Poll. I now recollected my poor kid I
had left in the bower, and immediately went
to fetch it home. When I came there, I found
i, almost starved I gave it some food, and it
followed me like : dog; and as I constantly


fed i, it became so loving, gentle, and fond,
that it would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of September
In the most solemn manner, as usual: it being
the third year of my abode in the island. I
spent the whole day in acknowledging God's
mercies, in giving him thanks for making this
solitary life as agreeable and less sinful than
that of human society; and for the communica-
tions of his grace to my soul, in supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon his Providence, and hope for his eternal
presence in the world to come.
One morning, opening my Bible, I imme-
diately fixed my eyes upon these words, "I
will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, thought I, these words are directed to
me ; and if God does not forsake, what matter
is it, since he can make me more happy in this
state of life than if I enjoyed the greatest
splendor in the world? I shut the Bible and
blessed kind Providence, that directed my good
friend in England to send it without any order,
and for assisting me to save it from the power
of the raging ocean.


And now beginning my third year, my
several daily employment were these:-First,
My duty to Heaven, and diligently reading the
Holy Scriptures; which I did twice or thrice
every day: Secondly, Seeking provisions with
my gun, which commonly employed me when
it did not rain, three hours every morning:
Thirdly, The ordering, curing, preserving, and
cooking what I had killed, for my supply,
which took me up the greater part of the day.
I was no less than two-and-forty days making
a board fit for a long shelf, which two sawyers,
with their tools and saw-pit, would have cut
off the same tree in half a day. It was a large
tree, as my board was to be broad. I was
three days in cutting it down, and two more in
lopping off the boughs, and reducing it to a
piece of timber. This I hacked and hewed
off each side, till it became light to move: and
then I turned it, made one side of it smooth
and flat as a board from end to end, then turned
it downwards, cutting the other side, till 1
brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides.
The harvest months, November and De-
sember, we-e now at hand, in which T had the


pleasing prospect of a very good crop. But
here I met with a new misfortune; for the
goats and hares having tasted the sweetness of
the blade, kept it so short that it had not
strength to shut up into a stalk. To prevent
this, I inclosed it with a hedge, and by day
shot some of its devourers; and my dog, which
I tied to the field gate, barking all night, so
frightened those creatures, that I got entirely
rid of them.
But no sooner did I get rid of these, than -
other enemies appeared ; whole flocks of seve-
ral sorts of birds only waited till my back was
turned to ruin me. So much did this provoke
me, that I let fly, and killed three of the male-
factors; and afterwards served them as they do
notorious thieves in England, hung them up in
chains as a terror to others. And so good an
effect had this, that they not only forsook the
corn, but all that part of the island, as long as
these criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end
of December, which was my second harvest, I
reaped it with a scythe made of one of my
broadswords. I had no fatigue in cutting
down my first crop, it was so slender. The


ears I carried home in a basket, rubbing it
with my hands, instead of threshing it; and
when the harvest was over, found my half-peck
of seed produced near two bushels of rice, and
two bushels and a half of barley. I knew not
how to grind my corn, neither how to bake
the bread.
The want of a plough to turn up the earth,
or shovel to dig it, I conquered by making a
wooden spade. The want of a harrow I sup-
plied by dragging over the corn a great bough
of a tree. When it was growing I was forced
to fence it; when ripe, to mow it, carry it
home, thresh it, and part it from the chaff.
And after all I wanted a mill to grind it, sieve
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread,
and an oven to bake it. This set my brains
to work to find some expedient for every one
of these necessaries against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care
was to prepare more land. I pitched upon
two large flat pieces of ground, near my castle,
for that purpose, in which I sowed my seed,
and fenced it with a good hedge. This took
me up three months; by which time the wet
season coming on, and the rain keeping me


within doors, I found several occasions to em-
ploy myself; and, while at work, used to divert
myself in talking to my parrot, learning him to
know and speak his own name, Poll; the first
welcome word I ever heard spoken in the
island. I had been a long time contriving
how to make earthen vessels, which I wanted
extremely, and when I considered the heat of
the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find
any such clay, I might make a pot, strong
enough, when dried in the sun, to bear hand-
ling, and to hold any thing that was dry, as
corn, meal, and other things.
The clay I found; but it would make the
post serious person smile, to see what awk-
ward, ugly, misshapen things I made; how
many cracked by the violent heat of the sun,
and fell in pieces when they were removed; so
that I think it was two months before I could
perfect any thing; and even then but two
clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars. As
for the smaller things, I made them with better
success; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, the sun baking them
very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely necea.


sary; and that was an earthen pot, not only to
hold my liquid, but also to bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It once happened,
that as I was putting out my fire, I found
therein a broken piece of one. of my vessels
burnt as hard as a rock, and red as a tile.
This made me think of burning some pots, and
having no notion of a kiln, or of glazing them
with lead, I fixed three large pipkins, and two
or three pots in a pile one upon another. The
fire I piled round the outside, and dry wood
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside
red-hot, and found that they were not cracked
at all: and when I perceived them perfectly
red, I let one of them stand in the fire abd~
five or six hours, till the clay melted by the
extremity of the heat, and would have run to
glass had I suffered it: upon which I slackened
my fire by degrees, till the redness abated;
and watching them till morning, I found I had
three very good pipkins, and two earthen pots,
as well burnt as I could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at this
discovery. I filled one of my pipkins with
water to boil me some meat.
The next concern I had, was tu get me a


stone mortar to beat some corn in, instead of
a mill to grind it. But all the stones of the
island being of a mouldering nature, I resolved
to look out for a great block of hard wood,
which having found, I formed it with my axe
and hammer, and then, with infinite labor,
made a hollow in it, just as the Indians
of Brazil make their canoes. When I had
finished this, I made a- great pestle of iron-
wood, and then laid them up against my suc-
ceeding harvest.
My next business was to make a sieve to
sift my meal, and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no fine, thin canvas, I could
not tell what to do. What linen I had was
reduced to rags. At length I remembered I
had some neckcloths of calico or muslin, of the
sailors, which I had brought out of the ship,
and with these I made three small sieves,
proper enough for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by making
some earthen pans, very broad but not deep.
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great
fire upon the hearth, the tiles of which I had
made myself; and when the wood was burnt
into live coals, I spread them over it, till it


became very hot; then sweeping them away,
I set down my loaves, and turning down the
earthen pots.upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all round the outsides of the pots, to con-
tinue the heat; and in this manner I baked
my barley loaves as well as if I had been a
complete pastry-cook, and also made of the
rice several cakes and puddings.
These things took me up the best part of a
year, and what intermediate time I had was
bestowed in managing my new harvest and
husbandry; for in the proper season I reaped
my corn, carried it home and laid it up in the
ear in my large baskets, till I had time to rub,
instead of threshing it.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I
had seen from the other side of the island, ran
in my mind. I still meditated a deliverance
from this place, though the fear of greater mis-
fortunes might have deterred me from it. For
allowing that I had attained that place, I ran
the hazard of being killed and eaten by the
devouring cannibals; and if they were not so,
yet I might be slain, as other Europeans had
been, who fell in o their hands. Notwithstind-
ing all this, m thoughts ran continually tpoi


that shore. I wished for my boy Xury, and
the long-boat; the ship's boat had been cast a
great way on the shore in the late storm. Her
bottom being turned up by the impetuosity and
fury of the waves and wind, I fell to work with
all the strength I had, with levers and roller
I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and
repair the damages she had sustained. This
work took me up three or four weeks, when,
finding my little strength in vain, I fell to
undermining it by digging away the sand, and
so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it in the fall. But after
this was done, I was still unable to move it
towards the water, and so was forced to give
it over.
This disappointment, however, did not fright-
en me. I began to think whether it was not
possible for me to make a canoe, such as the
Indians make of the trunk of a tree. But here
I lay under particular inconveniences; want
of tools to make it, and want of hands to move
it in the water n hen it was made. However,
to work I went,-I first cut down a cedar-tree,
which was five feet ten inches diameter at the
lower part next thi stump, and four feet eleven


inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
after which it lessened for a space, and then
parted into branches. Twenty days was I
a hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom,
fourteen more in cutting off the branches and
limbs, and a whole month in shaping it like
the bottom of a boat. As for the inside, I was
three weeks with a mallet and chisel clearing
it, till it was big enough to carry twenty-six
men, much bigger than any canoe I ever saw
in my life, and consequently sufficient to trans-
'.ort me and all my effects to that wished-foi
Nothing remained now, but to get it into
the water, it lying about one hundred yards
from it. I proceeded to measure the distance
of ground, resolving to make a canal in order
to bring the water to the canoe, since I could
not bring the canoe to the water. But as this
seemed to be impracticable, under the space
of eleven or twelve years, I concluded the at-
tempt altogether vain. I now saw what stu-
pidity it is to begin work before we reckon on
its cost, or judge rightly our own abilities to go
through with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year


expired, from the time I was cast on this island.
At this time I did not forget my anniversary;
but kept it with rather greater devotion than
before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had no-
thing to do with; and well might I say, as
fatter Abraham said unto Dives, Between thee
and me there is a gulf fixed." I was sepa-
rated from its wickedness too, having neither
the lust, of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the
ride of life; I had nothing to covet, being
lord, king, and emperor over the whole country,
without dispute and without control Corn,
plenty of turtles, timber in abundance, and
grapes above measure. What was all the rest
to me? The money I had, lay by me as
despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or a hand-
mill to grind my corn; in a word, the nature
and experience of these things dictated to me
this just reflection: That the good things of
this world are no further good to us, than they
are for our use; and that whatsoever we may
heap up to give to others, we can but enjoy as
much as we use.
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy


than usual. Every time I sat down to meat, 1
did it with thankfulness, admiring the provi-
dential hand of God, who, in this wilderness,
had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with
water, I made last as long as I could, I und
vo minute down the days of the month on
which any remarkable event happened. And,
First, I observed that the same day I forsook
my parents and friends, and ran away to Hull,
in order to go to sea; the same day in the
next year, I was taken and made a slave by
the Salee rovers.
That the very day I escaped out of the
wreck of the shi- a Yarmouth roads, a year
after, on the same day, I made my escape from
Salee in my patron's fishing-boat.
And, on the 30th of September, being my
birth-day, was I miraculously saved, and cast
ashore on this island.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,
was the biscuit which I had brought out of the
ship; and though I allowed myself but one
cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet I was
quite out of bread for near a year, before I got
any corn of my own.


In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long before.
However, I had preserved about three dozen
of the sailors checkered shirts, which proved
a great refreshment to me, when the violent
beams of the sun would not suffer me to bear
any of the seamen's heavy watch-coats; which
made me turn tailor, and after a miserable
botching manner, converted them into jackets.
To preserve my head, I made a cap of goat's
skin, with the hair outwards to keep out the
rain; and afterwards, a waistcoat and open-
kneed breeches of the same. I contrived a
sort of umbrella, covering it with skins, which
not only kept out the heat of the sun, but rain
also. Thus being easy and settled in my
mind, my chief happiness was to converse with
God, in prayer.
For five years after this nothing extraordinary
occurred to me. My chief employment was to
cure my raisins, and plant my barley and rice,
of both which I had a year's provision before-
hand. Though I was disappointed in my first
canoe, I made, at intermediate times, a second,
of much inferior size; and it was two years
before I had finished it. But as I perceived, it


would no wise answer my design of sailing to
the other shore, my thoughts were confined to
take a tour round the island, to see what further
discoveries I could make. To this intent, after
Leaving moved her to the water, and tried how
she would sail, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail of the ship's sail, that lay
by me. I then made lockers or boxes at the
end of it, to put 'n necessaries, provision, and
ammunition, which would preserve them dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea; and
in the inside of the boat, I cut a long, hollow
place to lay my gun in; and, to keep it dry,
made a flag to hang over it. My umbrella I
fixed in a step in the stern, like a mast, to keep
the heat of the sun off me. And now resolving
to see the circumference of my little kingdom,
I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting
in two dozen of my barley-bread loaves, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a little bottle
of nun, half a goat, powder and shot, and two
watch-coats. It was the 6th of November, in
the 6th year of my captivity, that I set out on
this voyage; which was much longer than
expected, being obliged to put farther out,.o;
account of fle rocks. And indeed, so much


did these rocks surprise me, that I was for
putting back, fearing that if I ventured farther
it would be out of my power to return. In this
uncertainty I came to anchor just on shore, to
which I waded with my gun on my shoulder,
and then climbing a hill, which overlooked that
point, I saw the full extent of it, and resolved
to run all hazards.-That night it grew so calm
that I ventured out; and here I may be a
monument to all rash and ignorant pilots; for
I was no sooner come to the point, and not
above a boat's length from shore, but I was got
into deep water, with a current like a mill,
which drove my boat along so violently, that
it was impossible for me to keep near the edge
of it, but forced me more and more out from
the eddy to the left of me; and all I could do
with my paddles was useless, there being no
wind to help me.
Who can conceive the present anguish of my
mind at this calamity? With longing ejes did
I look upon my little kingdom, and thought the
island the pleasantest place in the universe.
Happy, thrice happy desert, said I, shall I
never see thee more? Wretched creature!
whither am I gring I Why did I murmur at


my lonesome condition, when now I wtu
give the whole world to be thither again?
While I was thus complaining, I found myself
driven about two leagues into the sea; how-
ever, I labored till my strength was far spent,
to keep my boat as far north as possible.
About noon, I perceived a little breeze of wind
spring up from the S. S. E. which overjoyed
my heart; and was still more elated, when, in
about half an hour, it blew a gentle, fine gale.
I set up my mast again, spread my sail, and
stood away northward as much as I could, to
get rid of the current. And no sooner did the
boat begin to stretch away, but I perceived, by
the clearness of the water, a change of the
current was near. About four o'clock in the
afternoon, I reached within a league of the
island, and in an hour came within a mile of
the shore, where I soon landed, to my un-
speakable comfort; and after an humble pros-
tratioA, thanking God for my deliverance, with
resolution to lay all thoughts of escaping aside,
I brought my boat safe to a little cove, and
laid down to take a welcome repose. When
I awoke, I considered how I might get my
boat home; and coasting along the shore, I


came to a good bay which ran up to a rivulet
or brook, where, finding a good harbor, I
stowed her as safe as if she had been in a dry
dock made on purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the
place where before I had travelled on foot; so
taking nothing with me, except my gun and
umbrella, I began my journey; and in the
evening came to my bower, where I again laid
me down to rest. I had not slept long before
I was awakened in great surprise, by a strange
voice that called me several times, "Robin,
Robin, Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin! Where
are you, Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you?
Where have you been ?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did not
awake thoroughly; but half asleep and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice repeated
Robinson Crusoe several times, being terribly
affrighted, I started up; and no sooner were
my eyes fully open, Jut I beheld my pretty Poll
sitting on the top of the hedge, and soon knew
that it was he that called me; for just in such
Sbewailing language I used to talk and teach
him; which he so exactly learned, that he


would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close
to my face, and cry, Poor Robinson Crusoe,
where are you? where have you been? how
came you here ?" and such like prattle, I had
constantly taught him. But even though I
knew it to be the parrot, it was a great while
before I could adjust myself, being amazed how
the creature got thither. But now being
assured it could be no other than my honest
Poll, my wonder ceased, and reaching out my
hand, and calling familiarly, Poll, the creature
came to me, and perched upon my thumb as
he was wont, constantly prating to me with
" Poor Robinson Crusoe! and how did I come
here, and where had I been?"-as if the bird
was overjoyed to see me; so I took him home
with me.
I was now pretty well cured of my rambling
to sea, and began to lead a very retired life,
living near a twelvemonth in a very contented
manner, wanting for nothing except conversa-
tion. As to mechanic labors, which my ne-
cessities obliged me to, I fancied I could, upon
occasion, make a tolerable carpenter, were the
poor tools I had to work with but good. Be-
mides, as I impro sd in my earthenware, I


contrived to make them with a wheel, which
I found much easier and better, making my
work shapely, which before was rude and ugly.
But I think I was never so elated with my
own performance, as for being able to make
a tobacco-pipe, which though it was an awk-
ward, clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and
carried the smoke perfectly well. I also im-
proved my wicker-ware, making abundance
of baskets, which were very handy and con-
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived
many ways to ensnare the goats and see if I
could catch them alive, particularly a she-
goat with young. At last I had my desire;
for making pitfalls and traps, baited with
barley and rice, I found one morning, in one
of them, an old he-goat; and in the other,
three kids, one male, the other two females.
It was some time before they would feed; but
throwing them sweet corn, it so much tempted
them that they began to be tamer. I con-
cluded, that if I designed to furnish myself
with goat's flesh when my ammunition was
spent, the tamely breeding them up like a flock
of sheep, aboit my settlement, was the only


method I could take. I resolved to separate
the wild from the tame; and the best way for
this, was to have some inclosed piece of ground
well fenced, that those within might not break
out, or those without break in. Such an un-
dertaking was very great for one'pair of hands;
but as there was an absolute necessity for it,
my first care was to find a convenient piece of
ground where there was likely to be herbage
for them to eat, water to drink, and shelter to
keep them from the sun. I resolved to inclose
a piece of ground about one hundred and fifty
yards in length, and one hundred in breadth,
sufficient for as many as would maintain me
till my flock increased, and then I could add
more ground. I now vigorously prosecuted
my work, and it took me about three months
to hedge in the first piece. I tethered the
three kids in the best part of it, feeding them
as near me as possible, to make them familiar;
and indeed I very often carried some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and fed them out
of my hand; by which they grew so tame,
that when my inclosure was finished, and I let
them loose, they would run after me for a
handful of corn. In a year and a half's time I


had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all:
and in two years after they amounted to forty-
three, besides what I had taken and killed for
my sustenance. After which I inclosed five
pieces of ground to feed them in, with pens to
drive them into, that I might take them as I
had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which at first I did not
think of. And indeed, though I had never
milked, or seen butter or cheese made, yet
after some essays and miscarriages, I made
ooth, and never afterwards wanted.
How mercifully can the Omnipotent Power
comfort his creatures, even in the midst of
their greatest calamities He can sweeten
the bitterest providence, and give us reason to
magnify him in dungeons and prisons! what a
bounteous table was here spread in a wilder-
ness for me, where I expected nothing at first
but to perish with hunger! When I dined, I
seemed a king, eating alone, none daring to
presume to do sc till I had done. Poll, as if
he had been my principal court favorite, was
the only person permitted to talk with me,


My old, but faithful dog, continually sat on my
right hand; while my two cats sat on each
side of the table, expecting a bit from my hand,
as a mark of my royal favor. In this manner
did I live, wanting for nothing but conversa-
tion. One thing indeed concerned me, the
want of my boat; I knew not which way to
get her round the island. One time I resolved
to go along the shore by land to her; but had
any one in England met with such a figure, it
would either have affrighted them, or made
them burst into laughter.
The cap I wore on my head was great, high,
and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with a
flap or pent-house hanging down behind, not
only to keep the sun from me, but to shoot the
rain off, nothing being more pernicious than
the rain falling upon the flesh in these climates.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, whose hair
hung down such a length on each side, that it
reached to the calves of my legs. As for my
shoes and stockings, they were made like
buskins, and laced on the sides like spatter-
dashes, barbarously shaped like the rest of my
habit. I had a broad belt of goat's skin dried,
girt round me with a coup e of thongs, instead


of buckles; on each of which, to supply the
deficiency of sword and dagger, hung my
hatchet and saw. Another belt not so broad,
yet fastened in the same manner, hung ovel
my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my
left arm, two pouches, made of goat's skin, to
hold my powder and shot. My basket I car-
ried on my back, and my gun on my shoulder;
and over my head a great, clumsy, ugly goat's
skin umbrella, which however, next to my gun,
was the most necessary thing about me. As
for my face, the color was not quite so swarthy
as the Mulattoes, as might have been expected
from one who took so little care of it, in a
climate within nine or ten degrees of the
equator. At one time my beard grew so long
that it hung down about a quarter of a yard;
but as I had both razors and scissors in store,
I cut it all off, and suffered none to grow, ex-
cept a large pair of Mohammedan whiskers,
like what I had seen worn by some Turks at
Salee, not long enough indeed to hang a hat
upon, but of such a monstrous size as would
have amazed any Englishman.
I had now two plantations in the island; the
first my little fortification, with many large and


spacious improvements. The piles with which
I had made my wall were grown so lofty and
great, as secured my habitation. And near this
commodious and pleasant settlement, lay my
well-cultivated and improved corn-fields, which
yielded me their fruit in proper season. My
second plantation was that near my country-
seat or little bower, where my grapes flourished,
and where, having planted many stakes, I made
inclosures for my goats, so strongly fortified by
labor and time, that it was much stronger than
a wall, and consequently impossible for them to
break through. As for my bower itself, I kept
it constantly in repair, and cut the trees in such
a manner, as made them grow thick and wild,
and form a most delightful shade. In the
centre of this stood my tent: I had driven four
piles in the ground, spreading over it a piece
of the ship's sail; beneath which I made a sort
Sof a couch with the skins of the creatures I
had slain, and other things and having laid
thereon one of the sailor's blankets, which I
had saved from the wreck of the ship, and
covering myself with a great watch-coat, I
took up this place for my country retreat. Very
frequently from this settlement did I visit my
boat and keep her in good order.


You may easily suppose, that after having
been here so long, nothing could be more
amazing than to see a human creature. One
day it happened, that, going to my boat, I saw
the print of a man's naked foot on the shore,
very evident on the sand, as the toes, heel
and every part of it. Had I seen an appari
tion of the most frightful shape, I could not
have been more confounded. My willing ears
gave the strictest attention. I cast my eyes
around, but could satisfy neither the one nor
the other. I proceeded alternately to every
part of the shore, but with equal effect, neither
could I see any other mark, though the sand
about it was as susceptible to take impression
as that which was so plainly stamped. Thus,
struck with confusion and horror, I returned to
my habitation frightened at every bush and
tree, taking every thing for men; and pos-
sessed with the wildest ideas. That night my
eyes never closed: I formed nothing but the
most dismal imaginations ; all my religious
hopes vanished, as though I thought God would
not now protect me by his power, who had
wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various changes of Providence are


there in the life of man! How changeable are
our affections, according to different circum-
stances! We love to-day what we hate to-
morrow: we shun one hour what, we seek the
next. This was evident in me in the most
conspicuous manner; for I, who before had so
much lamented my condition, m being banished
from all human kind, was now even ready to
expire, when I considered that a man had set
his foot on this desolate island. But when I
considered my station of life, decreed by the
infinitely wise and good providence of God, I
found it my duty to trust sincerely in him
pray ardently to him, and humbly resign my-
self to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words
of the sacred writings came into my mind:
"Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
Upon this sentence, rising more cheerfully
from my bed, I offered up my prayers in the
most heavenly manner; and when I had done,
taking up my Bible to read, these words ap-.
peared first in my sight: Wait on the Lord,
and be of good cheer, and he shall strengthen
thy heart: Wait, I say, on the Lord." Such


divine comfort did this give me, as to remove
all cause of sadness upon that occasion.
I ventured out of my castle and milked my
goats, one of which was almost spoiled for want
of it. I next (though in great fear) visited my
bower, and milked my flocks there also ; when,
growing bolder, I went down to the shore
again, and measuring the print of the foot to
mine, to see perhaps whether I myself had not
occasioned that mark, I found it much superior
in largeness; and so returned home, now ab-
solutely convinced, that either some men had
been ashore, or that the island must be in-
habited, and therefore that I might be surprised
before I was aware.
I began to think of providing for my securi-
ty, and resolved in my mind many different
schemes for that purpose. I first proposed to
cut down my inclosures, and turn my tame
cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy
might not find them, and frequent the island in
hopes of killing the same. Secondly, I was
for digging up my corn-fields for the very same
reason. And lastly, I concluded to demolish
my bower, lest, seeing a place of humaui con-


trivance, they might come farther, and find out
and attack me in my little castle*
Such notions did the fear of danger suggest
to me: and I looked, I thought, like the un-
fortunate king Saul, when not only oppressed
by the Philistines, but also forsaken by God.
And it is strange, that, a little before, having
entirely resigned myself to the will of God, I
should now have little confidence in Him,
fearing those more who could kill this fading
body, than him who could destroy my immortal
Wandering one day more to the west of the
island than ever I had yet done, and casting
my eyes towards the sea, meihought I per-
ceived a boat at a great distance, but could
not possibly tell what it was for want of my
perspective-glass. I considered then it was
no strange thing to see the print of a man's
foot: and concluding them cannibals, blessed
God for being cast on the other side of the
island, where none of the savages, as I thought,
ever came. But when I came down the hill
to the shore, which was the S. W. point of the
island, I was confirmed in my opinion; nor
can any one describe my horror and amaze-


nent, when I saw the gro.md spread with
skulls, hands, feet, and bones of human bodies;
and, particularly, I perceived a space like a
circle, in the midst of which had been a fire,
about which I conjectured these wretches sat,
and unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their
The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful
spectacle confounded my senses; I returned
towards my habitation; and, in my way
thither, shedding floods of tears, and falling
down on my knees, gave God. thanks for
making my nature contrary to these wretches,
and delivering me so long out of their hands.
Though reason and my long residence here
had assured me, that these savages never came
up to the thick woody part of the country, and
that I had no reason to be apprehensive of a
discovery; yet such an abhorrence did I still
retain, that, tor two years after, I confined
myself only to my plantations. In progress of
time my dreadful apprehensions began to wear
away, yet I was more vigilant for fear of being
surprised, and very cautious of firing my gun,
lest being heard by those creatures, they should
proceed to attack me. I resolved, however,


manfully to lose my life if they did, and wemt
armed with three pistols, stuck to my girdle,
which gave me a very formidable appearance.
My circumstances for some time remained
very calm and undisturbed; and when I com-
pared my condition with others, I found it fai
from being miserable. Would all persons
compare their circumstances, not with those
above them, but with those innumerable un-
happy objects beneath them, I am sure we
should not hear those daily murmurings and
complaining that are in the world. The
terror which the savages had put me in, spoiled
some inventions for my own convenience.
For now my inventions were, how I might
destroy some of these cannibals, when pro-
ceeding to their bloody entertainments; and
so saving a victim from being sacrificed, that
he might after become my servant. To put
my design into execution, I was not long in
seeking for a place convenient fcr my purpose,
where unseen I might behold every action of
the savages. Here I placed my two muskets,
each of which was loaded with a brace of slugs,
and four or five smaller bullets about the size
of pistol bullets : the fowling-piece was charged


with near a handful of the largest swan shot,
and in every pistol were about four bullets.
But having waited in vain two or three months,
it not only grew very tiresome to me, but
brought me to some consideration, and made
me examine what right I had to kill these crea-
tures in this manner. Indeed, religion took their
part so much, as to convince me how contrary
it was to my duty, to be guilty of shedding
human blood, innocent as to me, whatever they
are to one another; that I had nothing to do
with it, but leave it to the God of all power
and dominion, to do therein what seemed con-
venient to his heavenly wisdom. And on my
knees I thanked the Almighty for delivering
me from blood-guiltiness, and begged his pro-
tection, that I might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving ovei an attempt which I had
rashly begun, I never ascended the hill on that
occasion afterwards. I only removed my boat,
which lay on the other side of the island, and
every thing that belonged to her, toward the
east, into a little cove, that there might not be
the least shadow of any boat near, or habitation
upon the island. My castle then became my
cell, keeping always retired in it, except when


I went out to milk my goats, and orler my little
flock in the wood, which was quite out of
Anxiety of mind for my preservation put a
period to all future inventions and contrivances,
either for accommodation or convenience. I
now cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire
a gun, or make a fire, lest either the noise
should be heard, or the smoke discover me.
And on this account, I used to burn my earthen-
ware privately, in a cave, which I found in the
wood, and which I made convenient for that
purpose; the principal cause that brought me
here was to make charcoal, so that I might
bake and dress my bread and meat without
any danger. At that time, a curious accident
happened me. While I was cutting down
some wood for making my charcoal, I per-
ceived a cavity behind a very thick branch of
underwood. Curious to look into it, I attained
its mouth, and perceived it sufficient for me to
stand upright in. But when I had entered,
and took a further view, two rolling, shining
eyes, like flaming stars, seemed to dart them-
selves at me; so that I made all the haste out
that I could. When I recovered a little from


my surprise, resuming my courage, I wok a
Aaming firebrand, and in I rushed again. I
had not proceeded above three steps, when I
was more affrighted than before; for I heard a
loud sigh like that of a human creature in the
greatest agony, succeeded by a broken noise
resembling words half-expressed, and then a
sigh again. Encouraging myself with the
hopes of God's protection, T went forward, and
by the light of my firebrand, perceived it to
be a monstrous he-goat, lying on the ground,
gasping for life, and dying of mere old age.
At first I stirred him, thinking to drive him
out, and the poor creature strove to get upon
his feet, but was not able; so I e'en let him
lie still to affright the savages, should they
venture into this cave. I now looked round
and found the place small and shapeless. At
the further side of it, I perceived a sort of en.
trance, yet so low, it must oblige me to creep
upon my hands and knees to it; so, having no
candle, I suspended my enterprise till the next
day, and then I came provided with two large
ones of my own making.
Having crept through this strait, I found the
roof, I think, about twenty feet high. But



surely mortal never saw such a glorious sight
before! The roofs and walls of this cave re-
flected a hundred thousand lights from my two
candles, as though they were indented with
shining gold, precious stones, or sparkling
diamonds. The floor was dry and level, and
had a kind of gravel upon it; no nauseous,
venomous creatures to be seen there, neither
any damp or wet about it. I could find no
fault but in the entrance, and I began to think
that even this might be very necessary for my
defence, and therefore resolved to make it my
principal magazine. I brought hither two fowl-
ing-pieces and three muskets, leaving only five
pieces upon my castle, planted in the nature
of cannon. Of the barrel of gunpowder which
I took up out of the sea, I brought away about
sixty pounds, which was not damaged; and
this, with a great quantity of lead for bullets, I
removed from my castle to this retreat, now
fortified both by art and nature.
I fancied myself now like one of the giants
of old, who were said to live in caves and
holes among the rocks, inaccessible to any but
themselves; or at least, a most dangerous at-
tempt,. And now I despised both the cunning


and strength of the savages, either to find me
out, or to hurt me.
But I must not forget the old goat, which
caused my late dreadful amazement. The
poor creature gave up the ghost the day after
my discovery; and, it being difficult to drag
him out, I dug his grave, and honorably en-
tombed him in the same place where he de-
parted, with as much ceremony as any Welch
goat that had been interred about the high
mountains of Penmanmawr.
I think I now was in the twenty-third year
of my reign, and my thoughts much easier
than formerly, having contrived several pretty
amusements and diversions agreeably to pass
away the time. By this time my pretty Poll
had learned to speak English, and pronounce
his words very accurately and plain; so that
for many hours we used to chat together in a
familiar manner, and he lived with me no less
than twenty-six years. My dog, which was
nineteen years old, sixteen of which he lived
with me, died some time ago of mere old age.
As for my cats they multiplied so fast, that I
was forced to kill or drive them into the
woods, except two oi three which became my


particular favorites. Besides these, 1 con-
tinually kept two or three household kids about
me, which I learned to feed out of my hand,
and two more parrots which could talk indif-
ferently, and call Robinson Crusoe. I had also
several sea-fowls, which I had wounded and
cut their wings; and growing tame, they used
to breed among the low trees about my castle-
walls, all of which made my abode very agree-
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy
the enjoyment of this uncertain life! It was
now the month of December, in the southern
solstice, and time of my harvest, which re-
quired my attendance in the fields; when
going out pretty early one morning, before it
was light, there appeared from the sea-shore a
flaming light, about two miles from me, at the
east end of the island, where I had observed
some savages had been before, not on the other
side, but to my great affliction, it was on my
side the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual
apprehensions, that the savages would perceive
my improvements, I returned directly to my
castle, pulled the ladder after me, making all


things look as wild and natural as I possibly
could. In the next place I put myself in a
posture of defence, loaded my muskets and
pistols, and committing myself to God's pro
tection, resolved to defend myself till my las
breath. Two hours after, impatient for intelli
gence, I ascended to the top of a hill, where
laying myself down, with my perspective-glass,
I perceived no less than nine naked savages,
sitting round a small fire, eating, as I supposed,
human flesh, with their two canoes hauled on
shore, waiting for the flood to carry them off
again. I cannot easily express the consternation
I was in at this sight; but when I perceived
their coming must be always with the current
of the ebb, I became more easy, being fully
convinced that I might go abroad with security
all the time of flood, if they were not before
landed. Before they went off, they danced,
making ridiculous postures and gestures, for
above an hour, all stark-naked. When I saw
them gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders,
and placing a couple of pistols in my belt, with
my great sword hanging by my side, I wqpt to
the hill, where at first I made the discovery of
these cannibals, and then saw there had been


three canoes more of the savages on shore at
that place, which with the rest were making
over to the main land.
But nothing could be more horrid to me,
when, going to the place of sacrifice, the blood,
the bones, and other mangled' parts of human
bodies appeared in my sight; and so fired was
I with indignation, that I was fully resolved
to be revenged on the first that came there,
though I lost my life in the execution. It then
appeared to me, that the visits which they
make to this island are not very frequent, it
being fifteen months before they came again:
but still I was very uneasy lest they should
surprise me unawares.
On the 16th of May (according to my wooden
calendar) the wind blew exceedingly hard, ac-
companied with abundance of lightning and
thunder all day, and succeeded by a very
stormy night. The seeming anger of the
Heavens made me have recourse to my Bible.
Whilst I was seriously pondering upon it, I
was suddenly alarmed with the noise of a gun,
wh*h I conjectured was fired upon the ocean.
Such an unusual surprise made me start up in
a'minute, when, with my ladder, ascending the


mountain as before, that very moment a flash
of fire presaged the report of another gun,
which I presently heard, and found it was
from that part of the sea where the current
drove me away. I could not but think, that
this must be a ship in distress, and that these
were the melancholy signals for a speedy de-
liverance. Great indeed was my sorrow upon
this occasion; but my labors' to assist them
must have proved altogether fruitless. How-
ever, I brought together all the dry wood that
was at hand, and making a pretty large pile,
set it on fire on the hill. I was certain they
plainly perceived it, by their firing another gun
as soon as it began to blaze, and after that
several more from the same quarter. All night
long I kept up my fire; and when the air
cleared up, I perceived something a great way
at sea, directly east, but could not distinguish
what it was, even with my glass, as the weather
was very foggy out at sea. However, keeping
my eyes directly fixed upon it, and perceiving
it did not stir, I presently concluded it must be
a ship at anchor; and taking my gun, I went
to the S. E. part of the island, to the same
rocks where I had been formerly driven by


the current: in which time the weather being
perfectly cleared up, to my great sorrow I per-.
ceived the wreck of a ship cast away upon
those hidden-jocks.
I had the affliction, some time after, to see
the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore, at
the end of the island which was next the
wreck; there was nothing on him but a sea-
man's waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen
drawers, and a blue linen shirt, but no particu-
lar mark to guess what nation he was of. In
his pocket were two pieces of eight, and a
tobacco-pipe. And now the calmness of the
sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, not only to get something neces-
sary out of the ship, but perhaps some living
S creature might be on board, whose life I might
.. Th had such an influence upon my mind,
i that immediately I went home, and prepared
veryy thing necessary for the voyage, carrying
on board my boat provisions of all sorts, with a
good quantity of rum, fresh water, and a com-
pass: so putting off, I paddled the canoe along
the shore, till I came at last to the northeast
part of the island, from whence I was to launch


Into the ocean; but here the currents Irm so
violently, and appeared so terrible, that my
heart began to fail me; foreseeing, that if I
was driven into any of these currents, I might
be carried not only out of the reach of the
island, but even inevitably lost in the boiling
surges of the ocean.
So oppressed was I at these troubles, that I
gave over my enterprise, sailing to a little creek
on the shore, where, stepping out, I sat down
on a rising hill, very pensive and thoughtful. I
then perceived that the tide was turned and
the flood came on, which made it impracticable
for me to go out for many hours.
That night I reposed myself in my canoe,
covered with my watch-coat, instead of a
blanket, the heavens being my tester. I set
out with the first of the tide full north, till I
felt the benefit of the current, which carried
me at a great late eastward, yet not with such
impetuosity as before, as to take from me all
government of my canoe ; so that in two hours'
time I came up to the wreck. It seemed to
be a Spanish vessel, stuck fast between two
rocks; her stem and quarter beaten to pieces
by the sea hber mainmast and foremast were


broken off short. As I approached near, I
perceived a dog on. board, who, seeing me
coming, yelped and cried, and no sooner did
I call him, but the poor creature jumped into
the sea, out of which I took him up, almost
famished with hunger and thirst; so that when
I gave him a cake of bread, no ravenous wolf
could devour it more greedily; and he drank
to that degree of fresh water, that he would
have burst himself, had I suffered him.
The first sight I met with in the ship, were
two men drowned in the cook-room or fore-
castle, inclosed in one another's arms: hence I
very probably supposed, that when the vessel
struck in the storm, so high and incessantly
did the waters break in and over her, that the
men, not being able to bear it, were strangled
by the constant rushing in of the waves. There
were several casks of liquor, whether wine or
brandy I could not be positive, which lay in
the lower hold, as were plainly perceptible by
the ebbing out of the water, yet were too large
for me to pretend to meddle with; likewise. J
perceived several chests, which I supposed to
belong to the seamen, two of which I got into
my boat, without examining what was in them.


Searching further, I found a cask, contain-
ing about twenty gallons of liquor, which, with
some labor, I got into my boat; in her cabin
were several muskets, which I let remain there,
but took away with me a great powder-horn,
with about four pounds of powder. I took also
a fire-shovel and tongs, two brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gddiron,
all which were extremely useful to me, espe-
cially the fire-shovel and tongs. And so with
this cargo, accompanied by my dog, I came
away, the tide serving for that purpose: and
the same evening I attained the island, after
the greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.
That night I reposed my weary limbs in the
boat, resolving the next morning to harbor
what I had gotten, in my new-found subter-
raneous grotto; and not to carry my cargo
home to my ancient castle. Having refreshed
myself, and got all my effects on shore, I next
proceeded to examine them; and tapping the
cask, I found the liquor to be rum. In the
chest I found a very fine case of bottles, con-
taining the finest and best sorts of cordial
waters; each bottle held about three pints,
curiously tipt with silver. Also, two pots full


of the choicest sweetmeats, and two more
which the water had utterly spoiled. There
were likewise several good shirts, exceedingly
welcome to me; and about one dozen and a
half white linen handkerchiefs and colored
neckcloths, the former of which was absolutely
necessary for wiping my face in a hot day:
and in the till I found three bags of pieces of
eight, about eleven hundred in all, in one
of which, decently wrapped up in a piece of
paper, were six doubloons of gold, and some
small bars and wedges of the same metal,
which I believe might weigh near a pound.
In the other chest, which I guessed to belong
to the gunner's mate, I found only some clothes
of very little value, except about two pounds
of fine glazed powder, in three flasks, kept, as
I believe, for charging the fowling-pieces; so
that, in the whole, I had no great advantage
by this voyage. The money was, indeed, as
mere dirt to me, useless and unprofitable, all
which I would have freely parted with for two
or three pair of English shoes and stockings;
things that for many years I had not worn,
except those which I had taken off the feet
of the unf>rtmate men I found drowned in the


wreck. When I arrived at my castle, every
thing seemed safe and quiet.
Having retired to my castle after my late
voyage to the ship, my frigate laid up and
secured, as usual, and my condition the same
as before, except being richer, though I had as
little occasion for riches as the Indians of Peru
had for gold, before the cruel Spaniards came
among them; one night in March, being the
rainy season, in the four-and-twentieth year
of my solitude, I lay down to sleep, very well
in health, without distemper, pain, or uncom-
mon uneasiness either of body or mind; yet,
notwithstanding, I could not compose myself to
sleep. All this tedious time, it is impossible to
express what innumerable thoughts came into
my head. I traced the whole history of my
life in miniature, from my earliest remem-
brance of things till I came to this island, and
then proceeded to examine every thing that
had occurred since I had taken possession of
my kingdom. In my reflections upon the
latter, I was comparing the happy posture of
my affairs in the beginning of my reign, to this
life of anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had
discovered a print of a foot in the sand. While


n:y thoughts were agitated, my resignation to
the will of Heaven was entirely suspended, so
that I had no power to fix my mind to any
thing, but to the project of a voyage to the
main land ; till nature, being, as it were,
fatigued and exhausted with the thoughts of it,
made me submit myself to a silent repose.
In such a situation, it is very strange that I
did not dream of what I was so intent upon;
but, instead of it, my mind roved on a thing
altogether foreign. I dreamed that as I was
issuing from my castle one morning, as cus-
tomary, I perceived upon the shore two canoes,
and eleven savages coming to land, who had
brought with them another Indian, whom they
designed to make a sacrifice of, in order to
devour; but just as they were going to give the
fatal blow, methought the poor victim jumped
away, and ran directly into my little thick
grove, to abscond from his enemies, when, per-
ceiving that the others did not follow him, I
appeared to him; that he humbly kneeled
down before me, and seemed to pray for my
assistance ; upon which I showed him my
ladder, made him ascend, carried him to
my cave, and he became my servant.

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