Half Title
 Title Page
 Biographical memoir of Daniel...
 The remarkable history of Alexander...
 List of Illustrations
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072796/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xxii, 2, 486 p., 39 leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Grandville, J. J., 1803-1847 ( Illustrator )
Nelson, T ( Thomas ), 1780-1861 ( Publisher )
Dorrington, G ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Willoughby & Co
R. Griffin and Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Willoughby & Co.
R. Griffin and Co.
T. Nelson
Place of Publication: London (86 Aldersgate Street)
Manufacturer: Printed by Willoughby and Co.
Publication Date: 185-?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1855   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with a memoir of the author ; embellished by three hundred engravings after designs by J.J. Grandville.
General Note: Added engraved t.p. with title: Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe"--P. 266.
General Note: Front. and some ill. signed: G. Dorrington sc.
General Note: Very similar to Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 405 and NUC pre- 1956, 0118300 (v. 136, p. 597) which both give 1850 as the estimated date of publication. Probably not after 1858 when the name T. Nelson became Thomas Nelson and Sons.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072796
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27866804

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Biographical memoir of Daniel DeFoe
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    The remarkable history of Alexander Selkirk
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    List of Illustrations
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text



i II,



v. :r m









Eftte puntrbtb (ngrabings,

AFT22 9500B!a BY J). N. 9 ElV L.





SANIEL FOE, or De Foe, as he subse-
9 quently styled himself, was born in the
Parish of St. Giles's Cripplegate, in the
S year 1691, where his father, James Foe,
q had previously followed the trade of a
butcher, for many years. Of the earlier
-- members of his family little or nothing
is known, all our information respecting
Them being supplied by the slight incidental
i/, allusions found in the writings of our author.
SFrom this source it appears that his ancestors
i were yeomen who farmed their own estate at
S. Elton, in Northamptonshire; they also con-
-~ i > trived to maintain a pack of hounds, from which
Sit may be inferred that their means were above
competency. In an anecdote illustrative of the
once prevalent custom among country gentlemen
in discordant times of bestowing party names
l upon their dogs, he thus makes mention of his
grandfather. I remember my grandfather,'
says De Foe, "had a huntsman who used the same
l () \ familiarity with his dogs; and he had his Roundhead,
and his Cavalier, and his Goring, and his Waller, and
all the generals of both armies were hounds in his
Spack; till the times turning, the old gentleman was
'A fain to scatter the pack, and make them up of more
dog-like surnames." He appears to have had several
collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasionally, but
with too much brevity to ascertain the degree of kindred.
His parents were noncomformists, and under the guidance and the ministra-
tions of the Rev. Dr. Annesly, a presbyterian minister, who had been ejected


from the living of Cripplegate, he was early initiated in those moral and religious
principles, which so strongly characterized his after life and writings. While
yet a boy he manifested a cheerfulness, vivacity, and buoyancy of spirits, with
such remarkable courage, as was soon displayed in that spirit of independence,
and unconquerable love of liberty which characterized his long and singularly
checquered life. In one of his Reviews"-a work which we shall often have to
quote-he says of himself: "From a boxing English boy I learned this early
piece of generosity, not to strike my enemy when he is down," a disposition that
he may be said to have cherished in his literary contests. An anecdote, illustra-
tive of the times of his youth, may here be given. During that part of the reign
of king Charles II., when the nation was under strong apprehensions of a Roman
Catholic government, and it was feared that religious persons would become the
victims of persecution, and that all printed Bibles would be destroyed or else
locked up in an unknown tongue, many honest silly people struck with the
alarm, employed themselves in copying the Bible into short-hand. To this task
young De Foe applied himself, and he tells us, that he worked like a horse
until he had written out the whole Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that he
was willing to risk the rest." The influences of pious example, and the blessings
of a liberal religious education, were developed in all his after circumstances.
Brought up amongst dissenters, he embraced their views of politics and religion,
he wrote and suffered in their cause, and a fuller and clearer view of their history
and progress is perhaps no where to be found than in his Reviews" and others
of his publications.
At the age of fourteen, he was removed from school to the academy of the Rev.
Charles Morton at Newington Green, noted in his day as "a polite and refined
scholar," who was subsequently defended by his pupil, some aspersions having been
cast upon the master, by an ungrateful scholar who had deserted to the church.
De Foe writes; I must do that learned gentleman's memory the justice to say,
that neither in his system of politics, government, and discipline, nor in any
other of the exercises of that school, was there any thing taught or encouraged
that was antimonarchical, or destructive to the constitution of England." Shut
out by law from the universities, this was one of the institutions the dissenters
had as substitutes. His progress here is not known, but it is to be gathered from
his writings, that, he had been master of five languages, that he had studied the
mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography and history." In this academy
he went through a course of theology, and studied politics as a science. If his
active habits prevented him from becoming a profound scholar, he acquired
sufficient learning to become a formidable rival to the writers of that disputatious
age. That he was intended for the ministry is certain, as he says in one of his
" Reviews."-" It is not often that I trouble you with any of my divinity; the
pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster first to be set apart for, and
then to be set apart from, the honour of that sacred employ"-what made him
change his course does not distinctly appear. However, his genius following
another bent, and his necessities compelling him, he entered on a succession of
employment, the details of which illustrate the history of half a century.
At the age of twenty-one, De Foe commenced as author, and with all the


ardour of youthful blood, espoused the popular side in politics. His first pro-
duction, it has been ascertained, was an answer to Roger L'Estrange's Guide
to the Inferior Clergy and bore the following quaint title:-" Speculum Crape-
Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass for the Young Academics. New Foyled; with
Reflections on some of the late High Flown Sermons; to which is added, an
Essay towards a Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to the Inferior
Clergie. Ridentum discere Verum Quis Vetat. London; printed for E. Rydal,
1682." 4to p.p. 34. This title he borrows from the crape-gowns worn by the
inferior clergy. In this, as in the whole of his controversial writings, he makes
use of the most biting irony and satire, by which, as we shall afterwards see, in
his unremitting attacks upon the court and high-church party, he entailed upon
himself a long continued prosecution. The fertility of the subject soon produced
a second part of the Speculum," in which the author deals more severely with
the government, and by a practical view of the effect of persecution, exhibits its
We have dwelt upon the nature and purpose of this work rather longer, than
our space will permit in noticing his subsequent productions, partly for the first
work of such an author is deserving of a curious investigation; and partly
because its claim to that distinction has long been disputed in literary history,
and conferred upon a pamphlet which appeared in the succeeding year, treating
of the war then carried on between the Austrians and the Turks.
Popery was the bugbear of the time, and the public mind was constantly dis-
turbed with the rumours of pretended plots and conspiracies. It was then thought
dangerous to be in the streets, and many carried arms for their protection. De
Foe gives a curious description of a weapon then in use, from which some idea
may be formed of the character of the times. I remember," says he, in the
time of the Popish plot, when murthering men in the dark was pretty much in
fashion, and every honest man walked the streets in danger of his life, a very
pretty invention was found out, which soon put an end to the doctrine of assas-
sination, and the practice too, and cleared our streets of the murthering villains
of those days, this was a Protestant Flail. Now, a Protestant flail is an excellent
weapon-a pistol is a fool to it; it laughs at the sword or the cane, for you know
there's no fence against a flail. For my part I have frequently walked with one
about me, in the old Popish days, and though I never set up for a hero, yet when
armed with this scourge for a Papist I remembered I feared nothing." In the
following extract from another portion of his writings, we have more of that
catholicity of benevolence, which was ever prominent in the heart of De Foe,
" It would be melancholy," says he, "to fill this paper with a history of the
dilapidations and invasions made upon one another here in a nation of Christians.
No man would think, and foreigners are amazed when they hear, how a Pro
testant nation, not long before persecuted themselves, and by reason of that per-
secution, rending themselves by force from the Roman church, and having
established a "Reformation," should not among the rest of their doings, have
rooted out that canker of religion persecution.
De Foe, after taking part in the Duke of Monmouth's hapless expedition, from
which he escaped with better fortune than many of the traitors; engaged him-


self in commercial affairs, with a determination never again to enter the stormy
region of politics.
The nature of his business has been variously represented; by some he is styled
a hosier, but more probably it was that of a hose-factor, a middle dealer between
the manufacturer and retailer. This agency concern he carried on in Freeman's
Court Cornhill, and to it he devoted a part of his time during ten years; accord-
ing to Mr. Chalmers from 1685 to 1695. In January 1688, he was admitted a
liveryman of London. His name in the chamberlain's book, is written "Daniel
Foe." But he was not successful in business; the times were too stormy for his
active spirit to keep quiet at the counter; and he was drawn out into company,
and spent too many of his hours in coffee houses and taverns, engaging eagerly
in the controversial subjects which then interested all classes. He set himself
in determined opposition to one of the current opinions which was then embraced
by great numbers of all parties, that Kings derive their dignity and power directly
from Heaven, and are not accountable to men for their actions :-" It was for
many years together," says our author, "and I am witness to it, that the pulpit
sounded nothing but the duty of absolute submission, obedience without reserve,
subjection to princes as God's vicegerents, accountable to none, and to be with-
stood in nothing, and by no person. I have heard it publicly preached, that if
the king commanded my head, and sent his messengers to fetch it, I was bound
to submit, and stand still while it was cut off."*
The Revolution and the accession of King William commenced a new era in
the life of De Foe. He annually commemorated the 4th of November, a day,"
says he, famous on various accounts, and every one of them dear to Britons
who love their country, value the Protestant interest, or have an aversion to ty-
ranny and oppresion. On this day, he (King William) was born; on this day,
he married the daughter of England, and on this day he rescued the nation from
a bondage worse than that of Egypt; a bondage of soul, as well as bodily ser-
vitude; a slavery to the ambition and raging lust of a generation set on fire by
pride, avarice, cruelty, and blood." We can now smile at this eulogistic rhapsody,
but De Foe always evinced a kind of idolatry for his Protestant patron, and dis-
played a spirit of knight-errantry in defence of his character, and memory when-
ever it was assailed.
In the prosecution of his commercial speculations, De Foe appears to have
made more than one voyage to Spain, since in one of his Reviews" he alludes
to an old Spanish proverb, "which," says he, "I learned when I was in that
country." His intercourse it likewise seems was sufficiently protracted to allow
him opportunity to make himself master of the language.
De Foe's failure in business appears to have been accelerated by some consider-

Our author is here alluding to those precious compositions in that book, con-
taining all things necessary unto salvation"-the second Book of Homilies." The
above illustration of the "Divine right and irresistability of kings is openly set forth
in the Sermon against Disobedience and wilful Rebellion" in the said work. De
Foe by thus repudiating the promulgation of these doctrines, must have shocked the
dignitaries of the Anglican Church by making them aware how cheaply he held their
authority in matters which so closely concerned his ETERNAL WELFARE.-E. R.


able, and frequent losses by shipwreck; though the occupations of trade,
according to his own confession, assort ill with literary feelings. "A wit turned
tradesman !" he exclaims; no apron strings will hold him, 'tis in vain to lock
him in behind the counter, he is gone in a moment." He concludes-" a statute
of bankrupt is his exeunt omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue in the
Fleet Prison or Mint." In allusion to the misfortunes of our author Mr. Chal-
mers observes:-" With the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried into
companies who were gratified with his wit. He spent those hours with a small
society for the cultivation of polite learning, which, he ought to have employed
in the calculations of the counting-house; being obliged to abscond from his
creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those misfortunes to the war which
were probably owing to his own misconduct. An angry creditor took out acommis-
sion of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded on the petition of those to whom
he was indebted, who accepted a composition on his single bond. This he punc-
tually paid, by the efforts of unwearied diligence; but some of his creditors who had
been thus satisfied afterwards falling into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily
paid them their whole claim being then in rising circumstances in consequence
of King William's favor," De Foe being subsequently assailed by Lord Haver-
sham for mercenary conduct, he tells him in 1705, that, with a numerous family,
and no help but his own industry, he had forced his way, with undiscouraged
diligence through a set of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of com-
position, from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand pounds." It must
not be forgotten that in the days of De Foe, our laws against bankrupts were as
inhuman as they were foolish. "The cruelty of our laws against debtors,"
observes our author without distinction of honest or dishonest, are the shame
of our nation. I am persuaded the honestest man in England, when by neces-
sity he is compelled to break, will early fly out of the kingdom, rather than
submit. To stay here, this is the consequence: as soon as he breaks he is pro-
scribed as a criminal, and has from thirty to sixty days to surrender both himself
aud all that he has to his creditors. If he fails to do it, he has nothing before
him but the gallows, without benefit of clergy; if he surrenders he is not sure
but he shall be thrown into gaol for life by the commissioners, only on pretence
that they doubt his oath! what must the man do ? De Foe whilst under appre-
hension from his creditors, appears to have fixed his residence at Bristol. "A
friend of mine in that city," says Mr. Wilson in his 'Life and Times of Daniel
De Foe' "informs me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and some-
times saw him walking in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the
times, with a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side; also, that he
obtained the name of "the Sunday gentleman," because, through fear of the
bailiffs, he did not dare to appear in public upon any other day." It ,as during
his residence at Bristol, that De Foe composed his celebrated "Essay on
Projects" though it was not published till some years afterwards.
This original and clever work was brought forth, to give an impetus to that
spirit which had already stamped the reign of William as the Projecting age."
It is divided under three heads.-Politics, Commerce, and Benevolence. One
of his projects, was the plan of friendly societies, which, says he, "might be


improved into methods that should prevent the genera. misery and poverty of
mankind, and at once secure us against beggars, parish-poor, alms-houses, and
hospitals, by which not a creature so miserable or so poor but should claim
subsistence as their due, and not ask of charity." Another project was an insti-
tution for the education of females, "we reproach the sex every day says he
" with folly and impertinence which I am sure had they the advantages of edu-
cation equal to us, they would be guilty of less than ourselves." It was an easy
transition from politics, to the reformation of manners, to which he devoted
his attention. He also published the Poor Man's Plea, in relation to all the
Proclamations, Declarations, Acts of Parliament &c., which have been or shall
be made, or published for a reformation of manners, and suppressing immorality
in the nation." Reformation societies were about this time established, and in
reference to the subject he says, England bad as she is, is yet a reforming nation,
and the work has made more progress from the court even to the street, than I
believe any nation in the world can parallel in such a time, and in such circum-
In 1695 De Foe obtained the situation of accountant to the glass commission-
ers, which he lost in 1699 by the termination of the commission, the tax being
then suppressed. It was about this time that he became secretary to the pan-
tile and brick-kiln works, established at Tilbury on the banks of the Thames.
This manufacture had hitherto always been imported from Holland, and its
introduction into this country was doubtless productive of a great benefit. De
Foe however did not profit by it, the speculation eventually proved unsuccessful,
and it is asserted that he lost by its failure no less than three thousand pounds.
In 1701 he produced his most popular poem, the True-born Englishman, which
ran through several editions. It opens with some lines which have passed into
a proverb:-
"Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation."
The "True-born Englishman was caused by an attack upon King William,
in which his faults were summed up in the epithet of foreigner," which then
had a very opprobious kind of sound and meaning. This appears to have roused
the whole of our author's bile and indignation, and he thus proceeds to satirize
the folly of an Englishman's "pride of ancestry."-
"These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived ;-
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms, and dispeopled towns;
The Pict and painted Briton, treach'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought:
Norwegian Pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-haired offspring every where remains;
Who, joined with Norman French, compound the breed
From whence your true-born Englishmen proceed.


And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."

As this performance finds but few readers in our day we subjoin the concluding

"Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own !
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile, degenerate race
For fame of families is all a cheat,
'Tis personal virtue only makes us great."

We need hardly observe that it was the subject rather than the poetry of
this composition which raised it into celebrity; for we doubt that the sterling
truths are rendered more forcible in the above versification, or that the satire is
more truculent than it would have been in our author's "vigorous prose." In
the Explanatory Preface" to this poem, we have these lines.-" When I see the
town full of lampoons, and invectives, against Dutchmen, only because they are
foreigners, and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-
making poets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner himself; I confess
myself moved by it to remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let
them see what a banter they put upon themselves; since, speaking of English-
men ab origin, we are really all foreigners ourselves."
To this poem De Foe was indebted for his personal introduction to King
William, who was so flattered by his defence, that he made him a present of a
sum of money, and subsequently employed him in many services where he could
turn his talents and integrity to good account.
Of the success of this satire, we have the testimony of De Foe himself, who
thus writes, about thirty years after its first appearance:-" National mistakes,
vulgar errors, and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just satire.
None of our countrymen have been known to boast of being true-born English-
men, or so much as to use the word as a title or appellation ever since a late
satire upon that national folly was published, though almost thirty years before."
It was about this time, also, that he drew up the celebrated "LEGION Paper,"
on the occasion of five Kentish gentlemen being committed for presenting a
petition to the House of Commons. In what manner it was communicated to
the House does not appear upon the journals. It was reported at the time, that
De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to the Speaker as he entered the
House. His Reasons against a War with France," also appeared at this time,
and has been characterized as one of the best political tracts in the English
By the death of the king, De Foe lost a true and powerful patron, and his
gratitude was only equal to his admiration of his character. In the new reign


he could expect no favours from the government; he had always been obnoxious
to the House of Stuart and its adherents. This source of profit then being dried
up, without much chance of its re-opening, he betook himself diligently to his
pen, to which alone he could safely trust for his subsistence. From this time
De Foe became exceedingly prolific, and tract after tract poured from the press,
upon almost every topic that started into notice: it would be endless to enume-
rate them. Among these was the celebrated piece of grave irony entitled, the
" Shortest Way with the Dissenters; or, Proposals for the Establishment of the
Church: 1702,"-(anonymous)-by which all parties were at first imposed
upon. "'Tis in vain," writes De Foe, "to trifle in this matter. The light,
foolish handling of them by fines, is their glory and advantage, If the gallows
instead of the computer, and the galleys instead of the fines, were the reward of
going to a conventicle, there would not be so many sufferers." These argu-
ments met with applause in the two Universities as the work of a violent
Churchman, while the Dissenters became alarmed lest the measures recommended
should be actually put into execution. The Church party, however, fell into the
trap laid for them by De Foe; for, by expressing their delight at the fiery senti-
ments of the author, they avowed them as their own truefeelings uponthe question.
De Foe subsequently taunts the party thus:-" We have innumerable testimo-
nies," he says," with which that party embraced the proposals for sending all the
Dissenting ministers to the gallows and the galleys; of having all their meeting.
houses demolished; and being let loose upon the people to plunder and destroy
them." In another place, De Foe characteristically pourtrays the common fate of
the subtlety of wit, when judged by the multitude. He says : All the fault I can
find with myself as to these people (the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn
the picture, I did not, like the Dutchman with his man and his bear, write under
them, This is the man, and this is the bear,' lest the people should mistake:
and having in a compliment to their judgment shunned so sharp a reflection
upon their senses, I have left them at liberty to treat me like one that put a
value upon their penetration at the expense of my own." He likewise com-
plained-" How hard it was that his intentions should not have been perceived
by all the town; and that not one could see it, either Churchman or Dissenter."
Mr. Chalmers observes, "This is one of the strongest proofs how the minds of
men were inflamed against each other, and how little the virtues of mutual
forbearance and personal kindness existed amidst the clamour of contradiction
which then shook the kingdom, and gave rise to some of the most remarkable
events in our annals." When the author's name was known, people were at no
loss to decipher his object; and those who had committed themselves by
launching forth in his -praises, were stung with madness at their own folly. It
was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe by a State prosecu-
tion. In the height of the storm our author sought concealment; when the
following proclamation was published by the Secretary of State, offering 50
for the discovery of his retreat, and advertised in the London Gazette," for
January 10, 1702:-"Whereas, Daniel Foe, alias De Foe, is charged with
writing a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled, 'The Shortest Way with
the Dissenters.' He is a middle-sized, spare man, about forty years old; of a


brown complexion and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hook nose,
a sharp chin, grey eyes, with a large mole near his mouth; was born in Lon-
don, and for many years was a hose-factor in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill, and
now is owner of the brick and pan-tile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex; who-
ever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe to one of Her Majesty's principal
Secretaries of State, or any of Her Majesty's Justices of the Peace, so he may
be apprehended, shall have a reward of 50, which Her Majesty has ordered
immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
It was resolved by the House of Commons, that the book be burnt by the
hands of the common hangman, in New Palace Yard." The printer and book-
seller being taken into custody, De Foe surrendered. Nothing but weakness,
dr wickedness, on the part of the bar, bench, and jury, can account for the issue
of the trial. Party feeling pervaded even the seat of justice, as was apparent in
the severity of the sentence, which was, that he pay a fine of 200 marks to
the Queen; stand three times in the pillory; be imprisoned during the Queen's
pleasure; and find sureties for his good behaviour for seven years." The
pillory was no disgrace to him, for, contrary to the expectations of his enemies,
he was greeted with triumphant acclamations by the populace; and the mob,
instead of pelting him, resorted to the unmannerly act of drinking his health.
Tradition reports that the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being the middle
of summer. De Foe undaunted, published on the day of his exhibition, A
Hymn to the Pillory." "In this ode," says Mr. Chalmers, the reader will
find satire pointed by his sufferings, generous sentiments arising from his situa-
tion, and an unexpected flow of easy verse." In this he had ample revenge upon
his enemies.
Till this befel him, and his being imprisoned, De Foe was in good circum-
stances, and could keep his coach; but he was now ruined in business, and lost
3500, with a wife and six children dependant upon him, with no other resource
for their support than the product of his pen. While in Newgate, he studied
the habits and pursuits of the prisoners, which he made so good use of on future
occasions; and engaged himself in the composition of various political works.
It was while in prison that he projected his Review," a periodical work of four
quarto pages, which was published for nine successive years, without intermis-
sion, during the greater part of the time three times a week, and without having
received any assistance whatever in its production; an extraordinary undertaking
for one man, when his various literary and other employment are taken into
account. Throughout this work he carried on an unsparing warfare against
vice and folly, in all their forms and disguises, and, but for the mass of tem-
porary matter with which it is encumbered, it would have long outlived its day.
It pointed the way to the Tatlers, Spectators, and Guardians, and may be
referred to as containing a vast body of matter on subjects of high interest,
written with great spirit and vigour.
Newgate had no terrors for De Foe. He continued to write his Review"
in an unsubdued tone. The Tories mortified by his wit and satire, tried hard to
enlist him in their service; but he preferred poverty to the shame of serving a
cause that his soul abhorred, and remained in durance while they were in


power. Some time after Harley's accession to office, the Queen, through him,
became acquainted with De Foe's merits, and was made conscious of the injus-
tice of his punishment, which she now desired to mitigate. For this purpose
she sent relief to his wife and family, through Lord Godolphin; and sent him a
sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his dis-
charge from prison.
Almost any other man than De Foe would have sunk under the trials and
persecutions to which he was hourly and daily exposed for many years by the
unceasing malice of his political enemies. Not only was he subjected to their
slander and abuse, but threatened with violence. His writings were mis-quoted,
even re-printed in the most garbled manner to suit party purposes. His works
pirated and hawked about to prevent his receiving emolument from them; his
property intercepted and made away with in the most lawless manner. He was
obliged to withold his name from his works to ensure their reaching the public.
His Reviews" were stolen out of the coffee-houses to prevent their being read.
His printer and publisher were threatened with extinction for their connexion
with him. His debts were bought up that proceedings might be had against
him. However, with undaunted courage, he set his face against all that came
across his path, and continued to lash the vices of the age with an unsparing hand.
On his release from prison, De Foe sought retirement from political strife, and
repaired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party clamour and party malice, however, pur-
sued him there.
De Foe, in 1706, wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with Scot-
land, and acquired ministerial favour, which opened the way for him to be
received into the service of the Queen. His acquirements and general know-
ledge pointed him out as a fit person to be employed in a mission to Scotland;
and he was received there as a character almost diplomatic. His labours in that
country procured him great approbation. While in Edinburgh, he published
" Caledonia, &c.; a Poem in honour of Scotland, and the Scots nation." Of
the Union, he says in his "Review,"-" I have told Scotland of improvements
in trade, wealth, and shipping, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclu-
sion of this affair; and I am pleased doubly with this, that I am likely to be one
of the first men that shall give them the pleasure of the experiment." During
his residence in Scotland, the Review continued to be regularly published.
De Foe returned to London in 1708, and was rewarded with an appointment
and a fixed salary; but he visited Scotland several times during that and the
following year. When the Union was settled, he published in Scotland the first
edition of "The Union of Great Britain," folio, p.p. 685. In 1710, De Foe was
residing at Stoke Newington, in comfortable circumstances. In 1712 was
closed the last volume of the Review," The discourses upon trade, which
appeared in that publication, excited at the time an unusual degree of interest.
Of the unproductive classes of society, he writes : When I am describing the
people, I mean not the passive, good-for-nothing, who walk starving through
the thoroughfare of life, and have no share in the active part of it, leaving no
notice to posterity that ever they have been here ; but the people who labour, or
employ those that labour; trade, or assist those that trade; enjoy, or assist them


that enjoy this life, like men, like benefactors to their country, and like Chris-
tians; assisting futurity by laying up funds of wealth, and improvements for pos-
terity, and a posterity instructed to manage them." In a long preface to the
concluding volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of this work, and of the
mode in which he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more
conclusive. In reference to his sufferings, during the progress of the work, he
says: I have gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast
variety of providence; I have been fed more by miracle than Elijah, when the
ravens where his purveyors. I have sometime ago summed up my life in this
'No man has tasted different fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.'
In the school of affliction I have learned more than at the academy, and more
divinity than from the pulpit; in prison I have learned to know that liberty
does not consist in open doors, and the free egress and regress of locomotion.
I hav'seen the rough side of the world as well as the smooth; and have, in less
than half a year tasted the difference between the closet of a king, and the dun-
geon of Newgate."
The following is a curious picture of the times during the latter portion of Anne's
reign, when the public mind was absorbed in polemical warfare :-" The women
lay aside their tea and chocolate, leave off visiting after dinner, and, forming
themselves in cabals, turn privy councillors, and settle offices of state. Every
lady of quality has her head more particularly full of business than usual; nay,
some of the ladies talk of keeping female secretaries, and none will be fit for the
office, but such as can speak French, Dutch, and which is worse, Latin. Gal-
lantry and gaiety are now laid aside for business ; matters of government, and
affairs of state are become the province of the ladies; and no wonder they are
too much engaged to concern themselves about the common impertinences of
life. Indeed, they have hardly leisure to live, little time to eat and sleep, and
none at all to say their prayers. If you turn your eye to the park, the ladies are
not there; even the church is thinner than usual, for you know the mode is for
privy-councils to meet on Sundays. The very play-house feels the effect of it;
and the great Betterton died a beggar on this account. Nay, the Tatler, the im-
mortal Tatler, the great Bickerstaff himself, was fain to leave off talking to the
ladies during the Doctor's trial.* and turn his sagacious pen to the dark subject
of death and the next world; though he has not decided the ancient debate,
whether Pluto's regions were in point of government a kingdom or a common-
The following is a curious specimen of how his conduct was watched and
punished even by private individuals. "On board of a ship" says he, I loaded
some goods. The master is a whig of a kind more particular than ordinary. He
comes to the port, my bill of lading is produced, my title to my goods undis-
puted; no claim, no pretence, but my goods cannot be found. The ship sailed
again; and I am told my goods are carried back, and all the reason given is,

The trial of the celebrated Dr. Sacheveral.


that they belong to De Foe the author of the Review, and he is turned about.
and writes for keeping up the public credit. Thus gentlemen, I am ready to
be assassinated, arrested without warrant, robbed and plundered by all sides; I
can neither trade or live, and what is this for? Only as I can yet see, because
there being faults on both sides, I tell both sides of it too plainly." In the
midst of his other avocations De Foe now gave to the world a considerable
work, "The present state of parties in Britain, &c." The attacks in his political
pamphlets now, a second time, got him into difficulties; for two papers, one
entitled "What if the Queen should die ?" the other called "What if the
Pretender should come?" he was fined 800, and in default of payment again
committed to Newgate: but the government took the matter out of the hands
of the instigator, and he was soon released.
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer for
thirty years, gradually left that field to others, beating out for himself a new path
to fame. In bidding adieu to politics De Foe considered he had an account to
settle at parting. The ill-usage he had received from both friends and enemies,
was greatly aggravated by the misconstruction put upon his writings, he there-
fore furnishes a defence of his life and writings in an "Apppeal to Honour and
Justice but before he had fully completed it, he was struck with apoplexy. His
friends however published the tract. De Foe eventually recovered from the
attack, and regained sufficient health and vigour of mind to delight the world by
his writings.
In 1715 appeared The Family Instructor," one of his most valuable treatises
To afford entertainment by tales of fiction, was his present task, and he now put
forth the first part of the immortal Robinson Crusoe," (1719) which in four
months passed through as many editions, though it had previously made a fruit-
less circuit of the trade for a publisher. William Taylor the fortunate specu-
lator is said to have cleared a thousand pounds by the work. This charming
tale is now translated into most languages of Europe, and gives delight even to
the Arab.* De Foe now sixty years of age lived to be the author of nearly fifty
different works, which our space will not permit us to enumerate. In many or
his latter writings he assumes the name of Andrew Moreton Esq. that his own
name might not mar the success and usefulness that might otherwise attend
them. When in his sixty-seventh year in the preface to a pamphlet, he alludes
to his age and infirmities,-" I hope the reader will excuse the vanity of an offi-
cious old man, if, like Cato I enquire whether or no I can yet do any thing for
the service of my country."
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of competence, a most
honorable competence, insured to him by his works, and the rapidity with which

The celebrated and enterprising Burkhardt tells us, that when his Arab friends
came in the cool of the evening to sit at his gate, he used to amuse them by reading
a portion of his translation of Robinson Crusoe, when all expressed equal delight;
and even the most bigoted lovers of oriental literature could not help confessing,
that the Frankish story teller had afforded them as much amusement as the historian
of Sinbad, without even having recourse to anything in the smallest degree
improbable, and without ever writing one sentence less pregnant with instruction
than amusement.


editions followed editions. There is however, a too miserable proof of his suffer-
ings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and undutifulness of his son, who, to
quote a letter of De Foe, written in his anguish, has both ruined my family and
broken my heart." De Foe adds,-" I depended upon, I trusted him, I gave up
my two dear unprovided children into his hands; but he has no compassion,
and suffers them and their poor dying mother to beg their bread at his door,
and crave as if it were an alms, what in duty he is bound under hand and seal,
besides the most sacred promises, to supply them with: himself at the same time
living in a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me."
De Foe died at the age of seventy, on the 24th of April 1731, in the parish of
St. Giles's Cripplegate, he left a widow and several children, among whom was
Norton De Foe, the author of Memoirs of the Princes of the House of Orange,"
who is thus satirised in Pope's Dunciad :-

Norton from Daniel and Ostroea sprung,
Bless'd with his father's front, and mother's tongue.'

Sophia, the youngest daughter of Daniel De Foe, published two treatises on
the Microscope. She married Henry Butler a man of considerable learning.
De Foe's character will stand the severest test. His numerous writings proclaim
his worth, and posterity will bestow on him the credit and fame that his contem-
poraries denied him. In the storms that he had to withstand, he maintained a
serenity of mind, inspired by conscious rectitude. He that cannot live above
the scorn of scoundrels" says he, "is not fit to live; dogs will bark, and so they
shall, without lessening one moment of my tranquility." His powers as a
writer are of no ordinary stamp; we speak of his prose works,for his poetry,
which scarcely deserves the name is as such of no value whatsoever. If lie
had been in affluent circumstances, we have every reason to suppose that he
would have written less, and that necessity alone made him a book-maker,
and drove him continually to the printing-press. The disputes of the time
afforded an inexhaustible fund of topics, and the violence of party spirit was
displayed by all factions in pamphlets, which were the weapons of political war-
fare. To this style of writing De Foe had two reasons for applying himself;
first, because it was the surest to meet with a ready sale, and to bring him in a
pecuniary return; and secondly because he was himself an eager politician.
As a Whig he opposed the House of Stuart; as a Protestant he wrote against
Catholicism; and as a dissenter, against the Church. "The fertility of De Foe"
says Sir. Walter Scott, was astonishing. He wrote on all occasions, and upon
all subjects, and seemingly had little ime tor preparation on the subject in hand,
but treated it from the stores which his memory retained of early reading, and
such hints as he had caught up in society, not one of which appears to have been
lost upon him." Of his Review' there is no complete copy in existence, notwith-
standing the interest excited by its publication. It is not for his political works
however great their merit may be that De Foe's name chiefly is, and will conti-
nue to be celebrated : it is by his popular narratives that his great fame has been.
obtained. Of these we may reckon three kinds:-lst. The account of remark-


able occurances, as the Journal of the Plague year, and the Memoirs of a
Cavalier. 2nd. The account of mariners, privateers, thieves, robbers, swindlers,
&c., as Robinson Crusoe, the Piracies of Captain Singleton, the Histories of
Colonel Jack, Moll Flanders, and Roxana. 3rd. The descriptions of super-
natural appearances, as the Life of Duncan Campbell, a Treatise on Spirits and
Apparitions, the very degenerate third part of Robinson Crusoe, and the Appar-
ition of Mrs. Veal. The accuracy of De Foe's nautical knowledge, may be
attributed both to his residence in Limehouse, and to his intimacy with Dampier.
His acquaintance with low life and the tricks of swindlers and prostitutes must
have been gained during his imprisonments. His style is inelegant but simple
and expressive. The remarkable quality of his writings is the appearance of
reality that is given to fiction. By a particularity and minuteness of description,
which his skill prevents from being tedious, he increases the probability of his
story, adds to its interest, and carries forward his reader. No author of imaginary
tales has impressed so many persons with the belief that they have been reading
a true rather than a fictitious narrative. It has been thought by some to
detract from the merit of his Robinson Crusoe, that the idea was not originally
his own: but really the story of Selkirk, which had been published a few
years before in Woodes Rogers'* Voyage round the World, appears to have fur.
nished our author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man living upon
an uninhabited island, that it appears quite immaterial whether he took his
hint from that, or from any other similar story, of which many were theft
current. In order to enable our readers to judge how very little De Foe has
been assisted by Selkirk's narrative, we have extracted the whole from Woodeb
Rogers' Voyage.

Woodes Rogers, who relieved Selkirk from his solitude, was, at that time, com-
modore of a commercial expedition round the world, which sailed February 1709,
and returned to Britain, 1711. A project for the re-settlement of the Bahama
Islands having been submitted to Mr. Addison, (then secretary of state) in 1717, the
measure was determined on, and Rogers was appointed to head the expedition. He
died governor of those islands, in 1732.




q' On February I st, 1709, we came before the island of Juan Fernandez, having
had a good observation the day before, and found our latitude to be 34 degrees
10 minutes south. In the afternoon, we hoisted out our pinnace; and Captain
Dover, with the boat's crew, went in her to go ashore, though we could not be
less than four leagues off. As soon as the pinnace was gone, I went on board
the Duchess, who admired our boat attempting going ashore at that distance
from land. It was against my inclination: but, to oblige Captain Dover, I let
her go. As soon as it was dark, we saw a light ashore. Our boat was then
about a league off the island, and bore away for the ships as soon as she saw the
lights. We put our lights aboard for the boat, though some were of opinion,
the lights we saw were our boat's lights; but, as night came on, it appeared too
large for that. We fired our quarter-deck gun, and several muskets, showing
lights in our mizen and fore-shrouds, that our boat might.find us whilst we were
in the lee of the island: about two in the morning our boat came on board,
having been two hours on board the Duchess, that took them up astern of us;
we were glad they got well off, because it began to blow. We were all con-
vinced the light was on the shore, and designed to make our ships ready to
engage, believing them to be French ships at anchor, and we must either fight
them, or want water. All this stir and apprehension arose, as we afterwards
found, from one poor naked man, who passed in our imagination, at present, for
a Spanish garrison, a body of Frenchmen, or a crew of pirates. While we were
under these apprehensions, we stood on the back side of the island, in order to
fall in with the southerly wind, till we were past the island; and then we came
back to it again, and ran close aboard the land that begins to make the north-
east side.
We still continued to reason upon this matter; and it is in a manner
incredible, what strange notions many of our people entertained from the sight
of the fire upon the island. It served, however, to show people's tempers and
spirits; and we were able to give a tolerable guess how our men would behave,
in case there really were any enemies upon the island. The flaws came heavy
off the shore, and we were forced to reef our topsails when we opened the middle
bay, where we expected to have found our enemy; but saw all clear, and no
ships, nor in the other bay next to the north-east end. These two bays are all
that ships ride in, which recruit on this island; but the middle bay is by much
the best. We guessed there had been ships there, but that they were gone on
sight of us. We sent our yawl ashore about noon, with Captain Dover, Mr.


Fry, and six men, all armed : mean while we and the Duchess kept turning to
get in, and such heavy flaws came off the land, that we were forced to let go
our top-sail sheet, keeping all hands to stand by our sails, for fear of the winds
carrying them away: but when the flaws were gone, we had little or no wind.
These flaws proceeded from the land, which is very high in the middle of the
island. Our boat did not return; we sent our pinnace with the men armed, to
see what was the occasion of the yawl's stay; for we were afraid that the
Spaniards had a garrison there, and might have seized them. We put out a
signal for our boat, and the Duchess showed a French ensign. Immediately
our pinnace returned from the shore, and brought abundance of cray-fish, with
a man clothed in goats' skins, who looked wilder than the first owners of them.
He had been on the island four years and four months, being left there by Captain
Stradling in the Cinque-ports; his name was ALEXANDER SELKIRK, a
Scotchman, who had been master of the Cinque-ports, a ship that came here
last with Captain Dampier, who told me, that this was the best man in her. I
immediately agreed with him to be a mate on board our ship : it was he that
made the fire last night when he saw our ships, which he judged to be English.
During his stay here he saw several ships pass by, but only two came to anchor.
As he went to view them, he found them to be Spaniards, and retired from
them, upon which they shot at him: had they been French, he would have
submitted; but chose to risk his dying alone on the island, rather than fall into
the hands of Spaniards in these parts; because he apprehended they would
murder him, or make a slave of him in the mines; for he feared they would
spare no stranger, that might be capable of discovering the South Seas.
The Spaniards had landed, before he knew what they were; and they came
so near him, that he had much ado to escape; for they not only shot at him,
but pursued him to the woods, where he climbed to the top of a tree, at the
foot of which they made water, and killed several goats just by, but went off
again without discovering him. He told us that he was born in Scotland, and
was bred a sailor from his youth. The reason of his being left here, was a
difference between him and his captain; which, together with the ship's being
leaky, made him willing rather to stay here, than go along with him at first;
but when he was at last willing to go, the captain would not receive him. He
had been at the island before, to wood and water, when two of the ship's
company were left upon it for six months, till the ship returned, being chased
thence by two French South Sea ships. He had with him his clothes and bed-
ding, with a firelock, some powder, bullets, and tobacco, a hatchet, a knife, a
kettle, a Bible, some practical pieces, and his mathematical instruments and
books. He diverted and provided for himself as well as he could; but for the
first eight months, had much ado to bear up against melancholy, and the terror
of being left alone in such a desolate place. He built two huts with pimento
trees, covered them with long grass, and lined them with the skins of goats,
which he killed with his gun as he wanted, so long as his powder lasted, which
was but a pound; and that being almost spent, he got fire by rubbing two sticks
bf pimento wood together upon his knee. In the lesser hut, at some distance
from the other, he dressed his victuals; and in the larger he slept, and employed


himself in reading, singing psalms, and praying: so that he said, he was a better
Christian, while in this solitude, than ever he was before, or than, he was afraid,
he should ever be again.
At first he never ate anything till hunger constrained him, partly for grief,
and partly for want of bread and salt: nor did he go to bed, till he could
watch no longer; the pimento wood, which burnt very clear served him both
fire and candle, and refreshed him with its fragrant smell. He might have had
fish enough, but would not eat them for want of salt, because they occasioned a
looseness, except cray-fish, which are as large as our lobsters, and very good,
these he sometimes boiled, and at other times broiled, as he did his goats' flesh,
of which he made very good broth, for they are not so rank as ours. He kept
an account of 500 that he killed while there, and caught as many more, which
he marked on the ear, and let go. When his powder failed, he took them by
speed of feet; for his way of living, continual exercise of walking and running
cleared him of all gross humours; so that he ran with wonderful swiftness
through the woods, and up the rocks and hills, as we perceived when we
employed him to catch goats for us: we had a bull-dog, which we sent with
several of our nimblest runners, to help him in catching goats; but he distanced
and tired both the dog and the men, caught the goats, and brought them to us
on his back.
He told us, that his agility in pursuing a goat had once like to have cost him
his life; he pursued it with so much eagerness, that he catched hold of it on the
brink of a precipice, of which he was not aware, the bushes hiding it from him,
so that he fell with the goat down the precipice, a great height, and was so
stunned and bruised with the fall, that he narrowly escaped with his life; and,
when he came to his senses, found the goat dead under him: he lay there about
twenty-four hours, and was scarce able to craw] to his hut, which was about a
mile distant, or to stir abroad again in ten days.
He came at last to relish his meat well enough without salt or bread, and in the
season had plenty of good turnips, which had been sowed there by Captain Dam-
pier's men, and have now overspread some acres of ground. He had enough of
good cabbage from the cabbage-trees, and seasoned his meat with the fruit of
the pimento-trees, which is the same as Jamacia pepper, and smells deliciously.
He found also a black pepper, called Malageta, which was very good to expel
wind, and against griping in the guts.
He soon wore out all his shoes by running in the woods; and, at last, being
forced to shift without them, his feet became so hard, that he run everywhere
without difficulty; and it was some time before he could wear shoes after we
found him; for, not being used to any so long, his feet swelled, when he came
first to wear them again.
After he had conquered his melancholy, he diverted himself sometimes with
cutting his name on the trees, and the time of his being left, and continuance
there. He was at first much pestered with cats and rats, that bred in great
numbers, from some of each species which had got ashore from ships that put
in there to wood and water. The rats gnawed his feet and clothes whilst asleep,
which obliged him to cherish the cats with his goats' flesh, by which many of


them became so tame, that they would lie about him in hundreds, and soon
delivered him from the rats. He likewise tamed some kids; and, to divert
himself, would, now and then, sing and dance with them, and his cats: so that,
by the favour of Providence, and vigour of his youth, being now but thirty
years old, he came, at last, to conquer all the inconveniences of his solitude, and
to be very easy.
When his clothes were worn out, he made himself a coat and a cap of goat-
skins, which he stitched with little thongs of the same, that he cut with his knife.
He had no other needle but a nail; and when his knife was worn to the back, he
made others, as well as he could, of some iron hoops that were left a shore
which he beat thin, and ground upon stones. Having some linen-cloth by him,
he sewed him some shirts with a nail, and stitched them with the worsted of
his old stockings, which he pulled out on purpose. He had his last shirt on,
when we found him in the island.
At his first coming on board us, he had so much forgot his language, for
want of use, that we could scarce understand him; for he seemed to speak his
words by halves. We offered him a dram; but he would not touch it, having
drank nothing but water since his being there: and it was some time before he
could relish our victuals. He could give us an account of no other product of
the island than what we have mentioned, except some black plums which are
very good, but hard to come at; the trees which bear them growing on high
mountains and rocks. Pimento trees are plenty here; and we saw some of
sixty feet high, and about two yards thick; and cotton trees higher, and near
four fathoms round in the stock. The climate is so good, that the trees and
grass are verdant all the year round. The winter lasts no longer than June
and July, and is not then severe, there being only a small frost, and a little
hail; but sometimes great rains. The heat of the summer is equally moderate ;
and there is not much thunder, or tempestuous weather of any sort. He saw
no venomous or savage creature on the island; nor any sort of beasts but
goats, the first of which had been put ashore here, on purpose for a breed, by
Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard, who settled there with some families, till this
continent of Chili began to submit to the Spaniards; which, being more profitable,
tempted them to quit the island, capable, however, of maintaining a good
number of people, and being made so strong, that they could not be easily
dislodged from thence.


The Escape -
The Wounded Lion
The Shipwreck
The Raft
The Earthquake
The Desolate Island
The Journey
The First Crop
The Footmark
The Inhuman Feast
The Spanish Wreck
The Poor Savage
The New Vessel
The Attack on the Savages -
The Mutiny
The Pardon
The Bear -
The Encounter with the Wolves
The Famine
The Selection
The Indian Fleet .
The Savage Army
The Settlement
The Reconciliation
The Conversion
The Marriage
The Death of Friday
The Fate of Tom Jeffreys
The Massacre of Madagascar
The Leak
The Mandarin
The Great Wall of China
The Tartars
The Five Tartars
The Idol
The Encampment
The Fence

S To face Title
S 43
S 172
S 222
S 267
S 287
- 332
- 368
S 450
S 451
S 459
S 466





W. AS born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
Father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by mer-
-, "_ i-i-- : chandise, and, leaving off his trade, lived after-
Swards at York; from whence he had married my
S mother, whose relations were named Robinson,
...'-.- -=-- .i a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,
by the usual corruption.of words in England, we
are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so
my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant-colon! to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more
than my father or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts : my father, who was very


ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house education
and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this
led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that
there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly

with me upon this subject; he asked me what reasons more than a mere
wandering inclination I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortuneby application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring superior
fortunes on the other, and who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me ; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best


state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to
the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic
part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of life
which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented the miser-
able consequences of being born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle
station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes
as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were, who,
by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring
distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind
of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune;
that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of
life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and
comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the
head, npt sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged
with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sen-
sibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are
happy, and learning by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not
to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature,
and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I
was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me ;
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been just
recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world,
it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so
he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encou-
ragement to go away : and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for
an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him


from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if
I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed
the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed: and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the discourse,
and told me, his heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be other-
wise and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But, alas a few days wore it all off ;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a few
weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told


her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it;
that I Was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion : she told me, she knew it would


be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew
too well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as
she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself,
there was no help for me ; but I might depend I should never have their con-
sent to it: that for her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion; and I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing when my
father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards,
that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after shewing a
great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he
would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business
and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any purpose
of making an elopement that time; but, I say, being there, and one of my
companions being going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting
me to go with them, with the common allurement of a sea-faring man; that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of
it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the first of September 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in the most frightful manner; and,
as 1 had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving
my father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which had not yet come to the pitch of hardness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, ind the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw
a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up, and that ever time the


ship fell down, as I thought it did,
in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more: in
this agony of mind I made many
/ vows and resolutions, that if it
would please God to spare my life in
This one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and
S never set it into a ship again while
S. (I lived; that I would take his ad-
vice, and never run myself into
I / such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of
his observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he
had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
troubles on shore ; and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and
indeed some time after; but the next day, the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it : however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

._- ,_- -- --4.-,-%'. .- .

I had slept well in the night, and I was no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And
now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me, Well Bob," says he, clapping me upon the
shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you,



last night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?"-" A cap-full d'you call it ?"
'said I; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replies he, do
you call that a storm ? why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and
sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're
but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll
forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short
this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors, the punch was made,
and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my
resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned,
I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distresses. I found,
indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drinking and


company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them ; and I
had in five or six days got as complete a victory over my conscience, as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire; but I was
to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it
does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not take
this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one, as the worst and most
hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary and the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the
tiver, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days,
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour,
the anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were uncon-
cerned, and nor in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eight day in the morning, the
wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two
anchors ahead and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his.cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times,
" Lord be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone !" and
the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this would
be nothing too like the first : but when the master himself came by me, as I
said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I
got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile a-head
of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast


standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with
only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do: but the
boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood

-- ,' ,
,' v, ,- )

so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but
a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But


if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about meat that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship,
but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now
and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder, till I enquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and

expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men

\ -\\



that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung a leak;
another said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within
me, and I fell backwards upon the side of mybed where I sat into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went
to the pump and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, notable to ride out the storm, were obliged to
slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun
as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, was so sur-
prised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened.
In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a

time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stept up to the pump, and,
thrusung me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking me dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on ; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and, though the storm began to abate a little, yet, as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rode it just
a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us ; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for
the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last, the men rowing very heartily,
and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern, with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us,
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could;


and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore he
would make it good to their master; so, partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore, almost as far as
Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than,a quarter of an hour out of our ship but we
saw her sink, and then I understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up,
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in; my heart
was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
j ~-. ~~~I- I,-1,,.r~t.u ,1 th .lr t,, I.rniiL t-i,.- b ,.,t h.ii .i tl,- i,:i-,

=- = / ." -._ : '. ._ --. <_-C .... .

we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand
to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards
the shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past the light-house
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without some difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home,
I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went away in,
was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and, though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was impos-


sible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master's
son, was now less forward than I. The first Jime he spoke to me, after we
were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father turning
to me with a very grave and concerned tone, Young man," said he, you

ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."-" Why, Sir," said I,
" will you go to sea no more ? "-" That is another case," said he; it is my
calling, and, therefore, my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist.
Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of
Tarshish. Pray," continued he, what are you; and on what account did


you go to sea ? Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion : "What had I done," said
he, that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship ? I would not
set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This,
indeed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back
to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said he, depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing
but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more;
which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London, by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
aany struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures
to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued
to going home; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I
had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learnt the duty and office of a
foremast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,


if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, so
I did here; for, having money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had
any business in the ship, nor learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which
does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early:
but it was not so with me I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship,


-and 1 I could carry anything g .with me, I -

should. have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and, per-
I embrace d offer ; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain,

who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of m

friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 40. in
anh tos d r ath e tin iete me t hi I h m

shoutered together byall the advanssistance of itsome of my relations whom I correspond, per-
withaps, and who, I believe, gowi t somy father, o r at least my mother, to conuragementtribute
so much as the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain,adventure.
This was anthe onestly voyage which I many say wentas successful in all my adven-
cartures, and which Ie ontue to th me, whiching by the disinterestrity ad honesty of captain
friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 401. in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 401. I had mus-
tered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute
so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adven-
tures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;


under whom, also, I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to
be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
me-chant, for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 3001., and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of
the climate, our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfo'-
tune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for, though I did not carry quite 1001. of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had 2001. left, and which I lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in
this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore, was
surprised in the grey of the morning by a
Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail he could make. We
crowded also as much canvass as our yards
would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained

-M .-


upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen, About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of


our guns to oear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his
small-shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack
us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were; but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me,
which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption; but, alas this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanisn or
Portugal man of war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in
the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it: nothing pre-
sented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communi-
cate it to that would embark with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty, again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as
I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and a young Morescc


with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very
dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him,
to catch a dish of fish for him,

e ~~'** N

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog
rose so thick, that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and .rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all
day, and all the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least
two leagues from the land; however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labour and some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but, particularly, we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of him-
self for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a


compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of
the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and
haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails : she sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to
drink; and, particularly, his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most dexterous
to catch fish for him, he nei er went without me. It happened one day that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had, therefore, sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three
fuzees with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they
designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and
told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it home to his house; all which
I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for
now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and, my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a
voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for, anywhere, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat our patron's bread: he said that was true : so he brought a large basket
of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the
make, were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master: I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also; his name was Ismael, whom they call
Mulev, or Moely: so I called to him, "Moely," said I, "our patron's guns


are on board the boat: can you not get a little powder and shot ? it may be
we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-Yes," says he. I'll bring
some;'" and, accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch, which held about
a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another; and thus furnished with every thing needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were and took no notice of us: and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N. N. E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, This will not do; our master willnot be thus served; we must stand
farther off." He thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat
set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm,
I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his twist
and tossed him clean overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which,
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: But," said I, you jwim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best o. your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm; but if you come near the bo:it I'll shoot you through the head,
for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
Drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, Xury,
if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a great man; bat if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and

M- .



-~ >7=


"Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a great man, but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me," that's, swear by Mahomet and his father's

beard, I must throw you into the sea too."

_-' ---




spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the straits' mouth; (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do) for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could never once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts,
or more merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east; bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than a hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or, indeed, of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and come to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what, or where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river: I neither saw, or desired to see any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark. and
discover the country : but, as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but
it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
-" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them
run way." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron's case of. bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I
never indeed heard the like.


Xury was dreadfully frighted, and, indeed, so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away: "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable with the
buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,

-- -*C -1


which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin
door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam to the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries and
howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore, as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a gun; a thing, I have some
reason to believe, those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me
that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how
to venture on shore in the day, was another question too; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into
the paws of lions and tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for
water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the
point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go ? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat ? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says he,


"If wild mans come, they eat me, you go way."-" Well, Xury," said I,
" we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave.Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore,
carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river: but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but, when I came nearel
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs : how-
ever, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen
no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to the coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or, at least, not remember,
what latitude they were in, and knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I
came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country, which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts' the negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness,-and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures, which harbour there; so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thou-
sand men at a time-and, indeed, for near an hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard
nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind



> -

He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then gob up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard."


to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and once, in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that we
had best go farther off the shore: "For," says he, "look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster, on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion
that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung, as it were, a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore
and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth "-one mouthful he meant: however, I said no more to the boy, but
bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore,
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it
down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third-for we
had three pieces-I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with
his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee,
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but, finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and, though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore. Well, go,"
said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and, taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and, coming close to the creature, put
the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the head again, which
despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury ? "
said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way
or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better work-
man at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, t took us both up the


whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to do for fresh
water : my design in this was, to make the river Gambia :r Senegal, that is
to say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew
that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, m a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I
began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us : we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to go
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No
go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way
with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well
as I could, and, particularly, made signs for something to eat; they beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but
we neither knew what the one nor the other was: however, we were willing
to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for
venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but.they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonder-
fully; for, while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one
pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards
the sea: whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were
in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we conld tell whether it
was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first
place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and. in the


second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women.
The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did:
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem
to offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about as if they had come for their diversion. At last one of them
began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly into the head : immediately he sank down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life,
and so indeed he was : he immediately made to the shore; but, between the
wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and the fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart, and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water, and, by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine
to an admirable degree, and the negroes held up their hands with admiration
to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire, and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains, from whence they came,
nor could I at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me, which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him,
and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with
a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very
freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which, though I
did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to
shew that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called
immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burned, as I suppose, in the sun; this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and,
leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more


without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me;
and, the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point: at
length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to sea-ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain,
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from
thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I
could not well tell what I had best to do; for, if I should be taken with a
fresh of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
:-. -- .- In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I
-- -. -stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
-Xury having the helm, when, on a sudden,
-. the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship
with a sail! and the foolish boy was
Si frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
-7-- needs be some of his master's ships sent to
S---- pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of
-- the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, namely, that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I observed
the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other
way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which, I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this; and as
I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they saw
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and, in about three hours' time, I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French;
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman-that 1
had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-


edition as I was in, and immediately offered all 1 had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time o.(
other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition : besides," said he,
" when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese," says he,
" Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in charity, and those things will
help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in the performance to a
tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I
had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them; even so much as my
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it ?
I told him he had been so generous in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which, he told
me, he would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for
it at Brazil; and, when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up: he offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de Todos
los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I
was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and
what to do next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember.
He would take nothing of me for my passage-gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and.forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees'-wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word,
I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good


honest man, like himself, who had an ingeino, as they call it,-that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house,-I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting and making of sugar;
and, seeing how well the planters lived, and how
they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get -
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among _
them; resolving, in the mean time; to find out __ -
some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of a letter of naturalisation, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him neighbour, because his plantation lay next to -
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food, than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our
and began to come into order; so
that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help : and now
I found, more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great wonder.
I had no remedy but to go on-I was gotten into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I
forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice-nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
have done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such distance, as never
to hear from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.



=-, -

I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour-no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that, when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience-I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life
I reflected on in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship, that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing his loading, and pre-
paring for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little stock
I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice;


" Seignor Inglefe," says he, for so he always called me, if you will give me
letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who
has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs
are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest
the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I, accordingly, prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures,
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direc-
tion (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils, necessary for my plan-
tation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring
me over a servant under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manufactures, such as
cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I may
say I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plan-
tation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European
servant also-I mean another besides that which the captain brought me from



But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the means of uur greatest
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business,
and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recommended
a quiet retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections on myself, which, in my future sorrows, I should
have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing nyself good in


a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life, which
nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich
and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate
desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell
into, or perhaps, could be consistent with life and a state of health, in the
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story :
you may suppose, that, having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learnt the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which
was our port; and that in my discourse among them, I had frequently given
them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but
negroes for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads; but,
especially to that part which related to buying negroes, which was a trade at,


that time not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried
on by the assientos, or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few negroes were bought, and those excessively
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me, that they had
a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations; and,
in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship,
to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me,
that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have stnt
for the other hundred pounds from England, and who, in that time and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thou-
sand pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's good coun-
sel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart,
if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and
would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants, to do so; and I made
a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life as before, my universal
heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,
one half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to Eng-
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and keep up my
plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking


leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather
than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order
to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns,
and fourteen men, besides the master, the boy, and myself; we had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height
of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha,
holding our course north-east by north, and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when
a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled into the
north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let
it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during
those twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
dead of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, toward that of the river
Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River, and began to consult with me
what course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled,
and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over the charts of the sea-coasts
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to


have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas, we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship
and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away north-west by
west, in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for being in the latitude twelve
degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of
all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early in
the morning, cried out, "Land and we had no sooner run out of the
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but
the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close quarters,
to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like condition, to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances : we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven-whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited: and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking one upon another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this: that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her: we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already,


i_ --_-= .

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her slung over the ship's side, and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea;
-- for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
Sthe sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might well be called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that the
sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts like men going to execution; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed into a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the
most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth or
some river, where, by great chance, we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but, as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and


plainly bade us expect a watery grave. In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and, separating us as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say "Oh God for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.

-- A -

,_-=:-i ._, ~as~C;88-.-- .. : "= '="i ---
,".5 ,._ -, r .
.. lX, :%
=., ; .. _
1-:__.- . _

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and, having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much presence 'of mind, as well as breath left,
that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend


with-my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water if I could; and so, by swim- --
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself -: :Y e -."
towards the shore, if possible-my greatest concern= -
now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great --:. ;' -
way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty teet
deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to
burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
a immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I
1 ji was covered again with water a good while, but not so long
.'i', but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself,
S and began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and ran with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which
S came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted
up by the waves, and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.
The last time of these two, had well near been fatal to
S me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
I' ., that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed
j helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
mv side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out
of my body, and, had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a
little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I should
S' be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by
a/Ir pipee of thip ronrk arind E to hold mvy breath, if
I -.- __-- --_ -- -- -.

'j ,, ..-... ... _


possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as
at first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clam-
bered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder, now, at that custom,
namely, that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I say, I
do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance, making a thou-
sand gestures and motions which I cannot describe-reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself-for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord !
how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance : for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs-in
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if
there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was, to get up


into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy,
and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I
went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so as
that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and, having been ex-
cessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with it
that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it; this being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and


the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least,
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind
and the sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found
a neck or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at.the
ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out,
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief: for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe-that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship-so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board; for, as she lay aground and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time
I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the fore-chains, so low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and, by the help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, and her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water: by
this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for
you may be sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled, and
what was free, and first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water: and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin,
of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had: and this ex-
tremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall
to work with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage
of their weight, tying every one with a rope that they might not drive away.
When this was done I went down to the ship's side, and, pulling them to me,
I tied four of them fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I


found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and, with the carpen-
ter's saw, I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft,
with a great deal of labour and pains; but hope of furnishing myself with ne-
cessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight; my next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us,
but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all above five or six gallons of
rack: these I stowed bythemselves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor no room for them. While I was doing this I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-
coat, which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
stockings: however, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon: as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-load
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole
as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols : these I secured first,
with some powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water; those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder,
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea; 2. The tide rising,
and setting in to the shore; 3. What little wind there was blew me toward the


land: and thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and
a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place
where I had landed before; by which I perceived that there was some indraft
of the water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft
as well as I could to keep in the middle of the stream; but here I had like to
have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground
at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other end,
it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards that end
that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my


back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in,.
but, holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner near half
an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I
thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel; and then, driving up higher,
I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current, or tide, running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore; for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river,
hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself
as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with
great pdin and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near as that,
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in: but here I had
liked to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land but where one end of
the float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as
before, that it would endanger my cargo again: all that I could do, was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping my raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as
I found water enough-for my raft drew about a foot of water-I thrust her
on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened, or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground-one on one side, near one end, and one
on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an
island-whether inhabited or not inhabited-whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills which lay as in a
ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to
the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to
the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, namely, that I was in an island,
environed every way with the sea-no land to be seen, except some rocks,
which lay a great way off, and two small islands less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also, that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed
them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I

-- _. _5 .


At length I spied a liple cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great pain and
difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in:-"


shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood :
I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, but, from all parts of the wood, there arose an
innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying, every one according to his usual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a
hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons, or claws, more than
common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid
to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might get a great many things out of the
ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and
sails, and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart, till I got every thing out of the ship that I could get. Then
I called a council (that is to say, in my thoughts), whether I should take back
the raft; but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut, having nothing on but a checked shirt and a pair of linen
trousers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and having
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but-yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as first, in the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone: all these I secured, together with several things belonging
to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of
powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead;
but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a
spare foretop-sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but, when I came back, I


found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon
one of the chests, which, as I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still: she sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at
her, but as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: however, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked
as pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more-so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels-for they were too heavy, being large
casks-I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail and some poles
which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing that I
knew would spoil, either with rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without, and, spreading one of the
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; as the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the
ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of allkinds now that ever was laid up, I believe
for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for, while the ship sat upright in that
posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out of her that I could: so every
day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I
could, as also all the small ropes, and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder; in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only
that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could,
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with-I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and
a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising tome, because I
had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also,


The next day I made another voyage; and now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the sprit-
sail-vard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing I could, to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck began
now to leave me: for this raft was so unwieldy and overladen, that, after I had
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the others, it overset, and threw me and
all my cargo into the water. As for myself it was no great harm, for I was
near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was, great part of it, lost, especially the
iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me: however, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour: for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm held,
I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece: but, preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low
water I went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so
effectually as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0 drug !" said I, aloud,
what art thou good for ? thou art not worth to me-no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of
use for thee; even remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away, and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making
another raft: but, while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and
the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all: accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across the
channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and, before it was quite
high water, it blew a storm.


But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning
when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little sur-
prised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had
lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any thing out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of
her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either

C-- -- ~------
L-- ----~


savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling
to make-whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the
earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would
not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near
it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I found would be proper
for me:-lst, Health and fresh water I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter
from the heat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; 4thly, A view to the sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top : on the side of this rock
there was a hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave, but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent: this plain was not above an hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and at the end of it descended irre-
gularly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the
north-north-west side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in
its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top : the two rows did
not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle between these two rows of stakes up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it: this cost me a great deal
of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder, to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after


me: and so I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above;
and I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made double, namely, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a
large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had brought on

-- -N-61~ ---


shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed, a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would spoil
by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which, till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a
short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and, bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down, out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time, it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself: Oh, my powder! my very heart sank
within me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be
destroyed, on which, not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended: I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and so keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once,
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which, in
all, was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided in not less
than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill any thing
fit for food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then, it was
attended with this misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come
at them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found their haunts a


r- r .-- .
Z -f ~I I:2.

little, I laid wait in this manner for them. I observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see ob-
jects that were above them: so afterwards I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she -goat, which
had a little kid by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I came and took her


up; and not only so, but, when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down
the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes
to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place : but I must first give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that, in this desolate place,
and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plen-
tifully down my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin his crea-
tures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and
to reprove me.; and, particularly, one day walking, with my gun in my hand,
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus :-" Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray, remember, where are the
rest of you ? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the
ten ? Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the sea. All evils
are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had not happened, which was an hun-
dred thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place where she first
struck, and was driven so near the shore, that I had time to get all things out
of her. What would have been my case, if I had been to have lived in the
condition in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply and procure them ? Particularly," said I, loud, though
to myself, what should I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make any thing, or to work with-without clothes
bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?" and that now I had all these to


a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner
as to live without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting without any want, as long as I lived: for I con-
sidered, from the beginning, how I should provide for the accidents that
might happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after my am-
munition should be spent, but even after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed
at one blast, I mean, my powder being blown up by lightning; and this made
the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line. After I had
been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts, that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even
forget the sabbath days from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great
cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, namely, I came on shore
here on the 30th of September, 1659. Upon the sides of this square post, I
cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship in the several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping,
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives,
charts, and books of navigation, all which I huddled together, whether I, might
want them or no. Also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books, also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-
books, and several other books : all which I carefully secured. And we must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years : I wanted nothing that he could


fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me-I only wanted to
have him talk to me; but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
ven, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall shew,
that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was gone I
could not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was one, as also spade,
pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth: needles, pins, and thread;
as for linen I soon learnt to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and it was near a
whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habi-

[11flk 11-


station: the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one
of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which pur-
pose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one
of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those posts or piles, very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? Nor had I any other employ-
ment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging
the island to seek for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me (for I was like to have but few
heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began
to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from worse: and I stated it
very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
mercies I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible desolate
island, void of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be miser-

I am divided from mankind, a soli-
taire, one banished from human society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve

But I am alive and not drowned, as all
my ship's company was.
But I am singled out, too, from all the
ship's crew to be spared from death; and
He that miraculously saved me from
death can deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved and perishing on
a barren place, affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where, if I
had clothes I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island, where I see
no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants, or enable me
to supply myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that
we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set in
the description of good and evil on the credit side of the account.


Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over
looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent, under the side of
a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two
feet thick on the outside; and after some time-I think it was a year and a
half-I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the rain, which
I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into
the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at first
this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they
took up all my place: I had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to enlarge
my cave and works farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it-and so, when I found I was
pretty safe as to the beasts of prey,, I worked sideways to the right hand into
the rock; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found
I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not
able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world-I could not write or eat, or
do several things, with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and squaring every
thing by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every
man may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a
tool in my life, and yet in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I
had had tools: however, I made abundance of things even without tools, and
some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour-for example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to
be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree: but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of
time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board; but my time
and labour were little worth, and so they were as well employed one way as


However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place-and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship; but, when I had wrought out some boards, I made large
shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a word, to sepa-
rate every thing at large in their places, that I might come easily at them. I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things; and I had every thing so ready at my hand, that it was
a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find
my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for indeed at first I was in too much a hurry; and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been full
of many dull things. For example, I must have said thus :--September the
30th, after I got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful


to God for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, 1 was undone, undone till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of
being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all that
I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little moun-
tain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail-please myself with the hopes of it--and then, after
looking steadily till I was.almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) so long as it lasted; for, having no more ink. I was forced to leave
it off.

-" ,, -' -"'' .- -

.ssii ;iii^ii-' i September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable
Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a
dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on
--! this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair ; all the rest of the ship's com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost dead.'
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I'was brought to, namely, I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,


nor place to fly to, and in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me, either that I
k should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
Savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for
fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though
it rained all night.

October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great
S-- surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
"^l -J and was driven on shore again, much nearer the
-_ .I-B island; which, as it was some comfort on one
-.- hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
--- to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might
get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for rhy relief; so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have saved the ship, or at least
that they would not have been all drowned as they were: and that had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All
these days entirely spent in many several voyages
to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in these days, though with some inter-
Svals of fair weather; but it seems this was the
----- rainy season.

-- Oct. 20.-1 overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and
S -' the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.


S- Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with
S some gusts of wind; during which time their hip
1 .. broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder
-lk -. than before, and was no more to be seen except
a the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
~ -- '" spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all
S- ] 'I day, to find out a place to fix my habitation,
-- I greatly concerned to secure myself from any at-
; i- tack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
SI : Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under
{ L a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my en-
campment, which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cable, and
without with turf.

S From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard
S- in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
'though some part of the time it rained exceed-
ingly hard.

S The 31st in the morning, I went out into the
r island with my gun, to seek for some food, and
.discover the country; when I killed a she-goat,
4-- and her kid followed me home, which I after-
-_- w ards killed also, because it would not feed.

..November l.-I set up my tent under a rock,
and lay there for the first night, making it as
large as I could, with stakes drives in to swing
my hammock upon.


Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards,
Sand the pieces of timber, which made my rafts,
and with them formed a fence round me, a little
S i within the place I had marked out for my forti-

SNov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food.
In the afternoon went to work to make me a

N- ov. 4.-This morning I began to order my
times of work-of going out with my gun, time
Sof sleep, and time of diversion : namely, every
morning I walked out with my gun for two or
three hours, if it did not rain, then employed my-
self to work till about eleven o'clock, then ate
what I had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessively hot, and then in the evening to work again. The working
part of this day, and of the next were wholly employed in making my table;
for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

:-- Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin
,pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing:
S-:every creature I killed, I took off the skins and
Preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore,
I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand: but was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.

-i \ Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to
Work with my table again, and finished it, though
not to my liking ; nor was it long b 'fore I learned
S -- to mend it.



.1 I',

Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th,
and part of the 12th, (for the 11th was Sunday,) I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.-Note. I soon
neglected my keeping Sundays; for omitting my mark for them on my post,
I forgot which was which.

me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it
i was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
-. ning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear of
Smy powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved
to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.


Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which
'-,-: 7 might hold about a pound, or two pound at
most, of powder ; and so putting the powder in,
.' I stowed itin places as secure and remote from
one another as possible. On one of these three
days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

K. ..Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind
S. my tent into the rock, to make room for my fur-
other convenience.

Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a
Swheel-barrow, or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply
that want, and make me some tools: as for a
-_ __. --. pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy : but the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it, but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the
S- woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it,
Which in the Brazils they call the iron tree, for
S.-" .._ its exceeding hardness: of this, with great la-
; -- l' bour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece,
and brought it home too with difficulty enough,
for it was exceedingly heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I worked
it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part having no iron
shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long: however it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel,
I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.


I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or
a wheelbarrow : a basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs, that
-would bend to make wicker-ware, at least not
yet found out: and as to a wheelbarrow, I fan-
cied I could make all but the wheel, but that I
C l ^ 'v had no notion of, neither did I know how to go
z~t. about it; besides I had no possible way to make
the iron gudgeons for the spindle, or axis, of the wheel, to run in, so I gave it
over; and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in when they serve
the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and
the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days-I mean always excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom failed: and seldom failed also in bringing home some-
thing to eat.

Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood
still, because of my making these tools, when they
were finished I went on, and working every day,
as my strength and time allowed, I spent eigh-
t y teen days entirely in widening and deepening my
.- cave, that it might hold my goods commo-
Note.-During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spa-
cious enough, to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen,
or dining-room, and a cellar : as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except
that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees like a thatch.

S ,., / December 10.-I began now to think my cave
or vault, finished, when on a sudden (it seems I
/ had made it too large) a great quantity of earth
Sell down from the top and one side, so much
that in short it frighted me, and not without
iy reason too; for if I had been under it, I had
never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work


to do over again; for I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which was of
more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

S;Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it
-" accordingly, and got two shores, or posts pitched
upright to the top with two pieces of boards
across over each post; this I finished the next
S' 'day: and setting more posts up with boards, in
'---- about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts to hang every thing up that could be hung up; and now 1
began to be in some order within doors.


Dec. 20.-Now I carried every thing into the
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set
some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very
S scarce with me: also I made me another table.

SDec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day:
no stirring out.

Dec. 25.-Rain all day.

S" J Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much
cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I caught it, and led it home in
a string: when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke.-N.B. I
-- took such care of it, that it lived, and the leg
Grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would
not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding
up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except mi
,the evening, for food. This time I spent in
I '! putting all my things in order within doors.


S.. January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad
Early and late with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening, going further
-. into the valleys which lay towards the centre of
^;" the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
-- though exceedingly shy and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went
with my dog, and set him upon the goats; but
I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for
S he would not come near them.

Jan,3.-I began my fence, or wall, which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by some-
I'l ii..: body, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N. B.-This wall being described before I purposely omit what was said
in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less a time than from
the 14th of April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from
one place in the rock to another place about eight yards from it, the door
of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
until this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
every thing was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I need to
have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double enced with a turf wall
raised up close to it, I persuaded myself, that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable


-. During this time, I made my rounds in the
S woods for game, every day, when the rain per-
\f F mitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in
S_ these walks, of something or other to my ad-
vantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
-. pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons in a tree,
but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so: but when
they grew older they flew away, which, perhaps, was at first for want of
feeding them: for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in
many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make, as,
indeed, as to some of them, it was-for instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor joint the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water, so I gave that also over.
In the next place I was at a great loss for candle, so that as soon as ever it
was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of bees' wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now. The only remedy I had was, that,
when I killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me
a lamp; and this gave me a light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours, it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust:
and being willing to have the bag for some other use-I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use--
shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned, that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice of any thing, and not so much as remembering
that I had thrown any thing there: when about a month after, or thereabout,
I saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I
fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfectly green barley, of the same kind as our Euro-
pean-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts



.. i

on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all. In-
deed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, or had entertained any
sense of any thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as enquiring into the end of
Providence in these things, or his order in governing events in the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow,
without any help of seed sown; and that it so was directed, purely-for my
sustenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore


I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support,
but not doubting but that there was more in the place, I went all over that
part of the island where I had been before, peeping in every corner, and under
every rock, to see for more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred
to my thought, that I had shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that place, and
then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankful-
ness to God's providence began to abate too, upon discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common, though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen a Providence, as if it had been miraculous; for
it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that should order or appoint
ten or twelve grains of corn to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed
all the rest, as if it had been dropped from Heaven-as, also, that I should
throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock,
it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it any where else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June, and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them
all again, hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread; but it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards
in its order-for I lost all I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time-for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at
all, at least, not so as it would have done--of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or
to the same purpose, namely, to make me bread, or rather food: for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of my

April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went
S, i 'up with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it
I' i '" up after me, and let it down on the inside. This
,II ",was a complete enclosure to me; for within I
S' I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labour overcome at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :-as I was

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