Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072795/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe who lived twenty-eight years in an uninhabited island with an account of his deliverance
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 251 p. : ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Grigg, Elliot & Co ( Publisher )
L. Johnson & Co ( Stereotyper )
Publisher: Grigg, Elliot and Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Manufacturer: L. Johnson & Co., stereotypers
Publication Date: 1849
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1849   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1849   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
General Note: Publisher's advertisement on p. 4 of cover.
General Note: Parts I and II, abridged, of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072795
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25853098

Table of Contents
    Title Page
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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text






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IF ever the story of any private
man's adventures in the world were
worth making public, and were ac-
ceptable when published, the editor
of this account thinks this will be so.
The wonders of this man's life ex-
ceed all that (he thinks) is .to be
found extant; the life of one man
being scarce capable of a greater
The story is told with modesty,
with seriousness, and with a religious
application of events, to the uses to
which wise men apply them, viz., to
the instruction of others by this ex-
ample, and to justify and honour the


wisdom of Providence in all the
variety of our circumstances, let them
happen how they will.
The editor believes this narrative
to be a just history of fact; neither
is there any appearance of fiction in
it: and though he is well aware there
are many, who, on account of the
very singular reservations the Au-
thor met with, will give it the name
of romance; yet in whichever of
these lights it shall be viewed, he
imagines that the improvement of it
as well as the diversion, as to the in-
struction of the reader, will be the
same, and as such he thinks, without
further compliment to the world, he
does them great service in the publi-


I wAs born at York, in the year 1632, of
a reputable family. My father was a na-
tive of Bremen, who, by merchandising at
Hull for some time, gained a very plentiful
fortune. He married my mother at York,
and, as her maiden name was Robinson, I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; which
not being easily pronounced in the English
tongue, we are commonly known. by the
name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers.-
No charge or pains were wanting in my
education.-My father designed me for the
law, yet nothing would serve me but I must


go to sea, both against the will of my
father, the tears of my mother, and the en-
treaties of friends. One morning my father
expostulated very warmly with me: ,"What
reason," says he, have you to leave your
native country, and enter into a wandering
condition of uneasiness and uncertainty?"
He recommended to me Agar's wish, cc Nei-
ther to desire poverty nor riches;" told
me that a middle state of life was the most
happy, and that high, towering thoughts of
raising our condition by wandering abroad,
often ended in confusion and disappointment.
" I entreat you, nay, I command you," says
he, c to desist from these intentions. If
you will go," added he, my prayers shall
be offered for your preservation; but a
time may come, when desolate, oppressed,
or forsaken, you may wish you had taken
your poor father's counsel." He pronounced
these words with such a moving and pater-
nal eloquence, while floods of tears ran


down his aged cheeks, that it seemed to
shake my resolutions. But this soon wore
off, and a little after I informed my mother,
that I could not settle to any business; and
begged she would gain my father's consent
only to go one voyage ; which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a
second. My mother warmly expressed her
dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old,
when one time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow going with his father, who was mas-
ter of a ship, to London; and acquainting
him with my wandering desires, he assured
me of a free passage, and a plentiful share
of what was necessary. Thus, without im-
ploring a blessing, or taking farewell of my
parents, I took shipping on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1651. We set sail soon after, and
our ship had scarce left the Humber when
there arose a violent storm, and being ex-
tremely sea-sick, I concluded the judgment


of God deservedly followed me for my dis-
obedience to my dear parents. It was then
I called to mind the good advice of my
father; and I firmly resolved, if it pleased
God to set me on dry land once more, to
return to my parents, implore their forgive-
ness, and bid a final adieu to my wandering
Such were my thoughts while the storm
continued; but these good resolutions de-
creased with the danger, and I soon forgot
the vows and promises I made in my distress.
Upon the sixth day we came to anchor
in Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound
with some Newcastle ships; here the sea-
men forgot their late toil and danger, and
spent their time as merrily as if they had
been on shore. But oh the eighth day there
arose a brisk gale of wind, which prevented
our tiding it up the river; and still increas-
ing, our ship rode forecastle in and shipped
several large seas.


It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard the master
exclaim, Lord have mercy upon us, we
shall be all lost and undone !" For my part,
sick unto death, I kept my cabin, till the
universal and terribly dreadful apprehen-
sions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck; and there I was' affrighted indeed.
The sea ran mountains high; I could see
nothing but distress around us; two ships
had cut their masts on board, and another
was foundered; two more that had lost
their anchors, were forced out to the mercy
of the ocean: and to save our lives we
were forced to cut our foremast and main-
mast quite away.
I was just ready to expire with fear,
when immediately all hands were called to
the pump; and the men forced me also to
share with them in their labour. While
thus employed, the master, espying some
light colliers, fired a gun as a signal of


distress; and I, not understanding what it
meant, and thinking that either the ship
broke, or some dreadful thing happened,
fainted away. However, nobody minded'
me, excepting to thrust me aside with their
feet, thinking me dead, and it was a great
while before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when, upon the sig-
nal given, they ventured out their boats to
save our lives. All our pumping had been
in vain, had not they come to our ship's
side: with great difficulty we got into their
boat, and we perceived our ship sink within
less than a quarter of an hour.
Strange, after all this, like the prodigal
son, I did not return to my father; who,
hearing of the ship's calamity, for a long
time thought me entombed in the deep.
I thought at first I would return home;
but shame opposed that good notion, think-
ing I should be laughed at by my neigh-
bours and acquaintance. So strange is the


nature of youth, who are not ashamed to
sin, but yet are ashamed to repent, and re-
turn to their duty, which is the principal
mark of wisdom. In short, I travelled up
to London, resolving upon a voyage; and
a voyage I soon heard of, to go to the coast
of Guinea. Having some money and ap-
pearing like a gentleman, I went on board
not as a common sailor or fore-mast man;
nay, the commander agreed I should go the
voyage with him without any expense; that
I should be his messmate and companion,
and I was very welcome to carry any thing
with me, and make the best merchandise I
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for this offer; and ac-
quainting my friends in Yorkshire, forty
pounds were sent me, the greatest part by
my dear father and mother, with which I
bought toys and trifles as the captain di-
rected me. My captain also taught me


navigation, how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and led
me into the knowledge of several useful
branches of the mathematics. And in-
deed this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant; for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure; which produced, at my
return to London, almost three hundred
But alas! my dear friend, the captain,
soon departed this life. This was a sensi-
ble grief to me; yet I resolved to go ano-
ther voyage with his mate, who had now
the command of the ship. My misfortunes
in this unhappy voyage were very great;
for our ship sailing towards the Canary
Islands, we were chased by a Salee Rover;
and, in spite of all the haste we could make,
the pirate gained upon us, so that we
prepared ourselves to fight. They had 18
guns, and we had but 12. About three in


the afternoon there was a desperate engage-
ment, wherein many were killed and wound-
ed on both sides; but finding ourselves
overpowered by numbers, we were forced
to surrender; and were all carried prisoners
into the.Port of Salee. Our men were sent
to the emperor's court to be sold there;
but the pirate captain kept me to be his own
In this condition, I thought myself the
most miserable creature upon earth, and the
prophecy of my father came afresh into
my thoughts. Some hopes, indeed, I had
that my new patron would go to sea again,
where he might be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man-of-war, and then I should
be set at liberty. But in this I was mis-
taken; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and do
the drudgery of his house.
After some length of time my patron, as
I found, grew so poor that he could not fit


out his ship as usual; and then he used
constantly, once or twice a week, if the
weather was fair, to go out a-fishing, taking
me and a young Moresco boy to row the
boat; and so much pleased was he with me
for my dexterity in catching the fish, that
he would often send me with a Moor, who
was one of his kinsmen, and the Moresco
youth, to catch a dish of fish for him.
One morning, as we were at the sport,
there arose such a thick fog that we lost
sight of the shore; and rowing we knew
not which way, we laboured all the night,
and in the morning found ourselves in the
ocean, two leagues from land; which how-
ever we at length reached, extremely ex-
hausted by long fasting; and in order to
prevent such disasters for the future, my pa-
tron ordered a carpenter to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long
boat, with lockers for provisions.
In this he frequently took us out a-fish-


ing; and one time, inviting two or three
persons of distinction to go with him, made
provisions extraordinary, providing also
three fusees, with powder and shot, that
they might have some sport at fowling
along the sea-coast. The next morning the
boat was made clean and every thing ready,
but their minds altering, my patron ordered
us to go a-fishing, as his guests would cer-
tainly sup with him that night.
And now I began seriously to think of
my deliverance. In order to this, I per-
suaded the Moor to get some provisions on
board, not daring to meddle with our pa-
tron's; and we stored ourselves with rusk-
biscuit, and three jars of water. Besides,
I privately conveyed into the boat a bottle
of brandy, some twine, thread, a hammer,
hatchet, and a saw; and, in particular,
some bees'-wax, which was a great comfort
to me, and served to make candles. I then
persuaded Muley (for so was the Moor


called) to procure some powder and shot,
pretending to kill sea-curlews, which he
innocently and readily agreed to. In short,
being provided with all things necessary, we
sailed out; I resolving to make my escape,
though it should cost me my life.
When we had run from shore, I gave the
boy the helm, and pretending to stoop for
something, seized Muley by surprise and
threw him overboard. As he was an ex-
cellent swimmer, he soon arose, and made
towards the boat; upon which I took out
a fusee, and presented it at him: Muley,"
said I, I never yet designed to do you
any harm, and seek nothing now but my
redemption. I know you are able enough
to swim to shore, and save your life; but if
you are resolved to follow me, to the en-
dangering of mine, the very moment you
proceed, I will shoot you through the
head." The harmless creature, at these
words, turned himself from me, and I make


no doubt got safe to land. Then turning to
the boy Xury, I perceived he trembled at
the action; but I put him out of all fear,
telling him, that if he would be true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him. So
innocent did the child then look, and with
such an obliging smile consented, that I
readily believed him, and from that day for-
ward began to love him entirely.
We then pursued our voyage; and hav-
ing a fresh gale of wind, with a pleasant,
smooth sea, by three o'clock next day I
was one hundred and fifty miles beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions. Yet
still having the dreadful apprehension of
being retaken, I continued sailing for five
days successively, till the wind, shifting to
to the southward, made me conclude that
if any vessel was in chase of me, they
would proceed no farther. After so much
fatigue, I anchored at the mouth of a little
river. What I principally wanted was fresh


water: and I was resolved, about dusk,
to swim ashore. But no sooner did the
gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed the
declining day, than we heard such barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that
one might have thought the very strongest
monster of nature or infernal spirits had
their residence there.
The next morning I was resolved to go
on shore to get fresh water, and venture my
life among the beasts or savages, should
either attack me. Xury said he would take
one of the jars and bring me some. I asked
him why he would go, and not I? The
poor boy answered, c If wild mans come,
they eat me, you go away." This noble-
ness of mind increased my affection to the
child. ", Well, dear Xury," said I, we
will both go ashore, both kill wild mans,
and they shall eat neither of us." So giv-
ing Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and
a dram, we waded ashore, carrying nothing


with us but our arms, and two jars for wa-
ter. I did not go out of sight of the boat,
as dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes; but the boy seeing
a low descent or vale, about a mile in the
country, he wandered to it; and running
back to me with great precipitation. I
thought he was pursued by some savage or
wild beast; upon which I approached, re-
solving to perish or protect him from dan-
ger. As he came nearer to me, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs; how-
ever, we were glad of it, for it proved whole-
some and nourishing meat: but what added
to our joy was, my boy assured mi there
was plenty of water, and that he see no wild
mans.-In this place I began to consider
that the Canary and Cape de Verde islands
lay not far off. The place I was in was no
doubt that wild country that lies between


the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and
the Negroes. It is filled with wild beasts,
and the Moors chiefly use it for hunting.
-From this place I thought I saw the
top of the mountain Teneriff in the Ca-
naries; and twice in vain I tried to attain
Early one morning we anchored under a
little point of land; and the tide beginning
to flow, we lay ready to go further in. But
Xury, whose youthful and penetrating eyes
were sharper than mine, in a soft tone, de-
sired me to keep far from land, lest we
should be devoured, For look yonder,
master," said he, and see de dreadful
monster fast asleep on de side of de hill."
-Accrdingly, looking where he pointed,
I espied a fearful monster indeed. It was
a terrible great lion, that lay on shore cover-
ed as it were by a shade of a piece of the
hill. Xury," said I, c you shall go on
shore and kill him But the boy looking


amazed: Me kill him!" says he, he eat
me at one mouth ;" meaning one mouthful.
Upon which I bid him lie still, and charg-
ing my biggest gun with two slugs and a
good charge of powder, I took the best aim
I could to shoot him through the head, but
his leg lying over his nose, the slug broke '
his knee-bone. The lion, awaking with the
pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving the
most hideous groan I ever heard; but tak-
ing my second piece I shot him through
the head, and then he lay struggling for
life. Upon this Xury took heart, and de-
sired my leave to go on shore. c Go then,"
said I. Upon which taking a little gun in
one hand, he swam to shore with the other,
and coming close to the lion, put a period
to his life by shooting him again through the
But this was spending our ammunition
in vain, the flesh not being good to eat.
Xury was like a champion, and came on


board for a hatchet, to cut off the head of
his enemy; but not having strength to per-
form it, he cut off and brought me a foot.
I bethought me, however, that his skin
would be of use. This work cost Xury and
me a whole day; when spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the hot beams of the sun
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living
sparingly on our provisions, and went no
oftener on shore than we were obliged for
fresh water. My design was to make the
river Gambia or Senegal, or any where
about the Cape de Verde, in hopes to meet
some European ship. If providence did
not so favour me, my next course was to
seek for the islands, or lose my life amongst
the Negroes.
One day, as we were sailing along, we
saw people stand on the shore looking at
us; we could also perceive they were black


and stark naked. I was inclined to go on
shore, but Xury cried, No, no;" however,
I approached nearer, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way. They
had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who held a long stick, which Xury told me
was a lance, with which they could kill at a
great distance. I talked to them by signs,
and made them sensible I wanted some-
thing to eat; they beckoned me to stop my
boat, while two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half-an-hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, which we gladly
accepted; and to prevent any fears on
either side, they brought the food to the
shore, laid it down, then went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
The Negroes having kindly furnished
me with water, and with what roots and
grains their country afforded, I took my


leave, and, after eleven days' sail, came in
sight of the Cape de Verde, and those
islands called by its name; when on a sud-
den, Xury cried out, Master! Master! a
ship with a sail!" and looked as affrighted
as if it was his master's ship sent in search
of us. But I soon discovered she was a
Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for
my life to come up to them. But vain had
it been, if through their perspective glasses
they had not perceived me and shortened
their sail to let me come up. Encouraged
at this, I fired a gun, as a signal of dis-
tress; upon which they very kindly lay to,
so that in three hours time I came up with
them. They spoke to me in Portuguese,
Spanish, and French, but none of these did
I understand; till at length a Scots sailor
called, and then I told him I was an Eng-
lishman, who had escaped from the Moors
at Salee; upon which they took me kindly
on board, with all my effects.


Surely none can express the inconceivable
joy I felt at this happy deliverance! who,
from being a late miserable and forlorn
creature, was not only relieved, but in fa-
vour with the master of the ship, to whom,
in return for my deliverance, I offered all I
had. But he nobly refused any recompense,
and insisted upon paying for my' boat its
full value. He gave me sixty pieces for
my boy Xury. It was with great reluc-
tance I was prevailed upon to sell the child's
liberty, who had served me so faithfully;
but he was willing himself; and it was
agreed, that after ten years he should be
made free, upon his renouncing Moham-
medanism, and embracing Christianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or Al Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after.
I cannot forget the generous treatment of
tie captain. He would take nothing for
my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the


leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's. In
short I made about 220 pieces of my cargo;
and with this stock I entered once more
into the scene of life.
Being recommended to an honest planter,
I lived with him till I was informed of the
manner of their planting and making sugar;
and seeing how well they lived, and how
suddenly they grew rich, I resolved to get
the money I had left in England remitted to
me, and to purchase a plantation.
I bought a settlement next to an honest
and kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of
English parents, whose plantation joining
mine, we improved it very amicably to-
gether. Both our stocks were low, and
for two years we planted only for food;
but the third we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of
ground the ensuing year for canes. I now
found how much I wanted assistance, and
repented the loss of my dear boy Xury.


I was in some measure settled, before
the captain departed from the Brazils.
One day I went to him and told him what
stock I had in London, desiring his assist-
ance in getting it remitted; to which he
readily consented, but would only have me
send for half my money, lest it should mis-
carry.-His kindness towards me was great,
for he not only procured the money I had
drawn for, but sent me over a servant with
a cargo proportionable to my condition;
together with tools of all sorts, iron-work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Uncommon success crowning my pros-
perous labours, I might have rested happy
in that middle state ofife my father had
so often recommended; but again I left
this happy station from a foolish ambition
of rising; and, once more, cast myself into
the greatest gulf of misery that ever a
poor creature fell into. Having lived four
years in Brazil, I had not only learned the


language, but contracted acquaintance with
the most eminent planters; to whom, once
having given an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, and the manner of
trading there for mere trifles, by which our
plantations were furnished with Negroes,
-they gave such attention to what I said,
that three of them came one morning and
proposed to me a voyage to Guinea, in
order to stock the plantation with Negroes,
which, as they could not be publicly sold,
they would divide among them; and if I
would go as their supercargo, to manage the
trading part, I should have an equal share
of the Negroes, without providing any stock.
I could not rotr the proposal, but ac-
cepted the offer upon condition of their look-
ing after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things
ready, we set sail the first of September,
1659, being the same day eight years I left
my father and mother in Yorkshire. We


sailed northward upon the coast, in -order
to gain Africa, till we made Cape Augus-
tine; from whence going further into the
ocean, out of sight of land, we steered as
though we were bound for the Isle Fernand
de Norenba, leaving the islands on the east;
and then it was that we met with a terrible
tempest, which continued twelve days, the
winds carrying us wherever they pleased.
In this perplexity one of our men died,
and another and a boy were washed over-
board. When the weather cleared up a
little, we fund ourselves in eleven degrees
north latitude, upon the coast of Guinea.
Upon this the captain gave reasons for re-
turning, which I opposed, counselling him
to stand away for Barbadoes, which, as
I supposed, might be attained in fifteen
days. So, altering our course, we sailed
north-west and by west, in order to reach
the Leeward Islands; but a second storm
succeeding, drove us to the westward; so


that we were afraid of falling into the hands
of cruel savages, or the paws of devouring
beasts of prey.
In this great distress one of our men,
early in the morning, cried out, c Land!
land!" which he had no sooner said, but
our ship struck upon a sand-bank, and in a
tnoment the sea broke over her in such a
manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately. We knew not
where we were, or upon what land we were
driven; and we could not so much as hope
that the ship would hold out many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, except the
wind, by a miracle, should change imme-
diately. While we stood looking at one
another, expecting death every moment,
the mate laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest flung her over the ship's
side, and getting all into her, being eleven
of us, committed ourselves to God's mercy
and the wild sea. When we had rowed, or


rather were driven, about a league and a
half, a raging wave, like a lofty mountain,
came rolling a-stern of us, and took us with
such fury, that at once it overset the boat.
Men are generally counted insensible
when struggling in the pangs of death ; but
while I was overwhelmed with water, I had
the most dreadful apprehensions imagin-
able. For the joys of heaven and the tor-
ments of hell seemed to present themselves
before me in these dying agonies. I was
going, I thought, I knew not whither, into
a dismal gulf unknown, never to behold
my friends, nor the light of this world any
more! I strove, however, to the last ex-
tremity, while all my companions were
overpowered and entombed in the deep;
and it was with great difficulty I kept my
breath till the wave spent itself, and, retir-
ing back, left me on the shore half dead.
As soon as I got on my feet, I ran as fast
as I could, lest another wave should pursue


me, and carry me back again. The sea
came after me like a high mountain, or
furious enemy. The next dreadful wave
buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep, but at the same time carried me with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore; when raising myself, I held out till
the water, having spent itself, began to re-
turn, at which I struck forward, and feel-
ing ground with my feet, I took to my heels
again. I was at length dashed against a
piece of rock, in such a manner as left me
senseless; but recovering a little before the
return of the wave, which, no doubt, would
have overwhelmed me, I pushed hastily for-
ward and reached the main land; when
clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired
and almost spent, I sat down on the grass,
free from the dangers of the foaming
No tongue can express the ecstasies and
transports that my soul felt at the happy


deliverance. I was wrapt in contemplation,
and often lifted up my hands, with the pro-
foundest humility, to the Divine powers,
for saving my life, when all the rest of my
companions were all drowned. I cast my
eyes around, to behold whatuplace I was
in, and what I had next ;to do. I could
see no house nor people; I was wet, yet
had no clothes; hungry and thirsty, yet
had nothing to eat or drink; no weapon to
destroy any creature for my sustenance, nor
defend myself against devouring beasts;
in short, I had nothing but a knife, a to-
bacco ,pipe, and a box half filled with
tobacco. The darksome night coming
upon me, increased my fears of being de-
voured by wild creatures; my mind was
plunged in despair, and having no pros-
pect, as I thought, of life before me, I pre-
pared for another kind of death than what
.[ had lately .escaped. I walked about a
furlong to see if I could find any fresh


water, which I did to my great joy; and
taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hun-
ger, I got up into a thick bushy tree, and
seating myself so that I could not fall, a
deep sleep overtook me, and for that night
buried my sorrows in quiet repose.
It was broad day the ext morning be-
fore I awaked; when I not only perceived
the tempest had ceased, but saw the ship
driven almost as far as the rock which the
waves had dashed me against, and which
was about a mile from the place where I
was. When I came down from my apart-
ment in the tree, I perceived the ship's
boat two miles distant on my right hand,
lying on shore as the waves had cast her.
I thought to have got to her; but there be-
ing an inlet of water of about half a mile's
breadth between it and me, I returned
again towards the ship, as hoping to find
something for my immediate subsistence.
About noon, when the sea was calm, re-


solving to get to the ship, I stripped and
leaped into the water; it was my good for-
tune to espy a small piece of rope hanging
so low, that by the help of it, though with
great difficulty, I got into the ship. The
provisions I found in good order, with
which I crammed my pockets, and, losing
no time, ate while I was doing other things.
I also found some rum, of which I took a
hearty dram; and now I wanted for nothing
except a boat to carry away what was need-
ful for me.
Necessity quickens invention. We had
several spare yards, a spare topmast or two,
and two or three large spars of wood.
With these I fell to work, and flung as
many of them overboard as I could manage,
tying every one of them with a rope, that
they might not drive away. This done, I
went down to the ship's side, and tied four
of them fast together at both ends, in form
of a raft, and laying two or three short


pieces of plank upon them crossways, I
found it would bear me, but not any con-
siderable weight. Upon which I went to
work again, cutting a spare topmast into
three lengths, adding them to my raft with
a great deal of labour and pains. I then
considered what I should load it with, it
being not able to bear a ponderous burden.
And this I soon thought of; first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could
get: next I lowered down three of the
seaman's chests, after I had filled them
with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, and some Eu-
ropean corn; and for liquors I found se-
veral cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and four or five gallons of rack, which I
stowed by themselves. By this time the
tide beginning to flow, I perceived my
coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim away,
which I left on the shore; as for my linen


breeches and stockings, I swai with them
to the ship; but I soon found clothes
enough, though I took no more than I
wanted for the present. My eyes were
chiefly on tools to work with; and, after
a long search, I found out the carpenter's
chest, which I got safe down on my raft. I
then looked for arms and ammunition,
and in the great cabin found two good
fowling-pieces, two pistols, several powder-
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I likewise found three
barrels of powder, two of which were good;
also two or three broken oars, two saws,
an axe and a hammer. I then put to sea,
and in getting to shore had three en-
couragements. 1. A smooth, calm sea.
2. The tide rising and setting in to shore.
3. The little wind there was blew towards
the land. After I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft drive a little distance from
the place where I first landed ; and then I


perceived a little opening of the land, with
a strong current of the tide running into
it: upon which I kept the middle of the
stream. But great was my concern, when
on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran
aground, so that had I not, with great diffi-
culty, for near half-an hour, kept my back
straining against the chests to keep my ef-
fects in their places, all I had would have
gone in the sea. But after some time, the
rising of the water caused the raft to float
again, and coming up a little river with
land on both sides, I landed in a cave, as
near the mouth as possible, the better to
discover a sail, if any providentially passed
that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with lesser hills, and
thither I was resolved to go and view the
country, that I might see what part was
best to fix my habitation. Accordingly,
arming myself with a pistol, a fowling-piece,


powder and ball, I ascended the mountain.
There I perceived I was in an island, en-
compassed by the sea, no distant lands to
be seen, but scattering rocks that lay to
the west: it seemed to be a barren place,
inhabited only by wild beasts. I perceived
abundance of fowls, but ignorant of what
kind, or whether good for nourishment;
I shot one of them at my return, which oc-
casioned a confused screaming among the
other birds, and I found it, by its colour
and beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its
flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, and fearing that some
cruel beasts might devour me in the night-
time, I made a kind of hut or barricade
with the chests and boards. I slept very
comfortably: and the next morning got on
board as before, and prepared a second
raft far nicer than the first, upon which I
brought away the carpenter's stores, two


or three bags full of nails, a great jack-
screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a
grindstone. Two or three iron crows, tyvo
barrels of musket-bullets, another fowling-
piece, a small quantity of powder, and a
large bag full of small shot. Besides these,
I took all the men's clothes I could find, a
spare fore-top-sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and thus completing my second
cargo, I made all the haste to shore I could,
fearing some wild beast might destroy what
I had there already. But I only found a
little wild cat, sitting on one of the chests,
which, seeming not to fear me, or the gun
that I presented at her, I threw her a piece
of biscuit, which she instantly ate and
When I had got these effects on shore,
I went to work, in order to make me a little
tent with the sail and some poles which I
had cut for that purpose; and having
finished it, what things might be damaged


by the weather I brought in, piling all the
empty chests and casks in a circle, the bet-
ter to fortify it against any sudden attempt
of man or beast. After this I blocked up
the doors with some boards, charged my
gun and pistol, and laying my bed on the
ground, slept comfortably till next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me
a long time, yet despairing of a sudden de-
liverance, I coveted as much as I could;
and so long as the ship remained in that
condition, I daily brought away one neces-
sary or other; particularly the rigging, sails,
and cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet
powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal, three
casks of rum, and, what indeed was most
welcome to me, a whole hogshead of bread.
Thirteen days I had now been in the
island, and eleven times on board, bringing
away all that was possible. As I was going
the twelfth time, the wind began to rise;
however, I ventured at low water, and rum-


making the cabin, in a locker I found several
razors, scissors, and some dozens of knives
and forks; and in another thirty-six pounds,
of pieces of eight, silver and gold. Ah!
simple vanity," said I, whom this world
so much dotes on, where is now thy virtue,
thy excellency to me? You cannot pro-
cure me one thing needful, nor remove me
from this desolate island to a place of plenty.
One of these knives, so meanly esteemed,
is to me preferable to all this heap. E'en,
therefore, remain where thou art, to sink in
the deep as unregarded, even as a creature
whose life is not worth preserving." Yet,
after all, I wrapt it up in a piece of canvas,
and began to think of making another raft;
but I soon perceived the wind began to
rise, a fresh gale blowing from the shore,
and the sky overcast with clouds and dark-
ness; so, thinking a raft to be in vain, I
let myself into the water, with what things
I had about me, and it was with much diffi-


culty I got ashore, when soon after it blew a
fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in
my little tent, surrounded with all my ef-
fects; but when I looked out in the morn-
ing, no more ship was to be seen.-My
next thoughts were, how I should secure
myself from savages and wild beasts, if
any such were in the island. At one time
I thought of digging a cave; at another, I
was for erecting a tent; and, at length, I
resolved to do both.
I found a little plain near a rising hill,
the front towards which being as steep as
a house-side, nothing could descend on me
from the top. On the side of this rock
was a little hollow place, resembling the
entrance or door of a cave. Just before
this place, on the circle of the green, I re-
solved my tent should stand. This plain did
not much exceed a hundred yards broad,
and about twice as long, like a delightful


green before my door, with a pleasing,
though an irregular descent every way to
the low grounds by the sea-side, lying on
the N. W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the excessive heat of the sun.
After this I drew a semicircle, containing
ten yards in a semi-diameter and twenty
yards in the whole, driving down two rows
of strong stakes, not six inches from each
other. Then with a piece of cable which
I had cut on board I regularly laid them
in a circle between the piles up to their
tops, which were more than five feet out
of the earth, and after drove another row
of piles, looking withinside against them,
between two or three feet high, which
made me conclude it a little impregnable
castle against men and beasts. And for
my better security I would have no door,
but entered in and came out by the help of
a ladder which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into


which I carried all my riches, ammunition,
and stores. After which, working on the
rock, with what dirt and stones I dug out,
I not only raised my ground two feet, but
made a little cellar to my mansion-house;
and this cost me many days' labour and
pains. One day, in particular, a shower
of rain falling, thunder and lightning en-
sued, which put me in terror lest my pow-
der should take fire. To prevent which,
I fell to making boxes and bags, in order
to separate it, having by me near 150 lbs.
weight. And thus being established as
king of the island, every day I went out
with my gun to see what I could kill that
was fit to eat. I soon perceived numbers
of goats, and shot one suckling a young
kid; which, not thinking its dam slain,
stood by her unconcerned; and when I
took the dead creature up, the young one
followed me even to the enclosure. I lifted
the kid over the pales, and would willingly


have kept it alive; but finding it would not
eat, I killed that also.
It was, by the account I kept, the 30th
of September, when I first landed on this
island. About twelve days after, fearing
lest I should lose my reckoning of time,
nay, even forget the sabbath days, for
want of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with
a knife upon a large post, in great letters,
these words, I came on shore, Sept. 30,
1659. Every day I cut a notch with my
knife on the sides of this square post, and
that on the sabbath was as long again as
the rest; and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one. Had I
made a more strict search I need not have
set up this mark; for among my parcels, I
found the very things I wanted; particu-
larly pens, ink, and paper: also two or three
compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspective glasses, books of navi-
gation, three English Bibles, and several


other good books, which I carefully put
up.-A dog and two cats on board, I made
inhabitants with me in my castle. Though
one might think I had all the necessaries
that were desirable, yet still I found several
things wanting. My ink was daily wasting;
I wanted needles, pins, and thread, to mend
my clothes; and particularly a spade, pick-
axe, or shovel, to remove the earth. It was
a year before I finished my little bulwark.
Having raised a turf wall against the out-
side of my habitation, I thatched it so close
as might keep it from the inclemency of the
weather; I also improved it within, enlarged
my cave, and made a passage and door in
the rock, which came out beyond the pale
of my fortfication. I next proceeded to
make a chair and a table. When I wanted
a plank or board, I hewed down a tree
with my hatchet, making it as thin with
my axe as possible, and then smooth enough
with an adze to answer my designs; thus


in time I got boards enough to shelter all
my stores.
But now a very strange event happened.
For one day finding a bag, which used to
hold corn for the fowls, I resolved to put
gunpowder in it, and shook all the husks
and dirt upon one side of the rock, little
expecting what the consequence would be.
The rain had fallen plentifully a few days
before; and about a month after, to my
great amazement, something began to look
very green and flourishing; and when I
came to view it more nicely every day as
it grew, I found about ten or twelve ears of
green barley appearing in the very same
shape and make as that in England.
I can scarce express the agitations of
my mind at this sight. Hitherto I had
looked upon the actions of this life only as
the events of blind chance. But now the
appearance of this barley, flourishing in a
barren soil, and my ignorance in not con-


ceiving how it should come there, made
me conclude, that miracles were not yet
ceased: nay, I even thought that God had
appointed it to grow there without any seed,
purely for my sustenance in this miserable
and desolate island. And indeed such
great effect this had upon me, that it often
made me melt into tears, through a grateful
sense of God's mercies; and the greater still
was my thankfulness, when I perceived about
this little field of barley some rice-stalks,
also, wonderfully flourishing.
Vhile thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be more corn in the island; and
therefore made a diligent search among the
rocks; but not being able to find any, on
a sudden it came into my mind how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,
and then my admiration ceased, with my
gratitude to the Divine being, as thinking it
was but natural, and not to be conceived a
miracle; though even the manner of its pre-


servation might have made me own it was a
wonderful event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when
the ears of this corn ripened, which I laid
up very carefully, together with twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, expecting one day I
should reap the fruit of my labour; yet
four years were expired before I could allow
myself to eat any barley-bread, and much
longer time before I had any rice. After
this, with indefatigable pains and industry,
for three or four months, at last I finished
my wall on the 14th of April, having no
way to go into it, but by a ladder against
the wall; April 17th I finished my ladder
and ascended it; afterwards pulled it up,
then let it down on the other side, and
descended into my new habitation, where
I had space enough, and so fortified that
nothing could attack me without scaling the
But what does all human pains and in-


dustry avail, if the blessing of God does
not crown our labours ? Or who can stand
before the Almighty, when he stretcheth
forth his arm ? For one time, as I was at
the entrance of my cave, there happened
such a dreadful earthquake, that not only
the roof of the cave came tumbling about
my ears, but the posts seemed to crack
terribly at the same time. This put me in
great amazement; and running to the
ladder, and getting over the wall, I then
plainly knew it was an earthquake; the
place I stood on sustained three terrible
shocks in less than three minutes. But
judge of my terror when I saw the top of a
great rock roll into the sea! I then expected
the island would be swallowed up every
moment: and what made the scene still
more dreadful, was to see the sea thrown in
the most violent agitation and disorder by
this tremendous accident.
For my part, I stood like a criminal at


the place of execution, ready to expire.
At the moving of the earth I was, as it
were, sea-sick; and very much afraid lest
the rock, under which was my defence and
habitation, should overwhelm it and myself
in a lasting tomb.
When the third dreadful shock had spent
itself, my spirits began to revive; yet still
I would not venture to ascend the ladder,
but continued sitting, not knowing what I
should do. So little grace had I then, as
only to say, Lord have Aercy upon me!
and no sooner was the earthquake over, but
that pathetic prayer left me.
It was not long after that, when a horrible
tempest arose, at the same time attended
with a hurricane of wind. The sea seemed
mountains high, and the waves rolled so
impetuously, that nothing could be per-
ceived but froth and foam. Three hours
did this storm continue, and in so violent
a manner, as to tear the very trees up by


the roots, which was succeeded by abun-
dance of rain. When the tempest was over,
I went to my tent: but the rain coming on
in a furious manner, I was obliged to take
shelter in the cave, where I was forced to
cut a channel through my fortification to let
the water out. It continued raining all that
night, and some time the next day. These
accidents made me resolve, as soon as the
weather cleared up, to build me a little hut
in some open place, walled round to defend
me from wild creatures and savages; not
doubting' but at the next earthquake the
mountain would fall upon my habitation and
me, and swallow up all in its bowels.
When I began to put my resolutions in
practice, I was stopped for want of tools
and instruments to work with. Most of my
axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me full a week to make
my grindstone of use.


As I walked along the sea-shore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces
of the wreck, the sea had flung up. Having
secured these I made to the ship, whose stern
was torn off, and washed a great distance
ashore; but the rest lay in the sands.
At this time I was afflicted with an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myself to water;
prayed to God in these words: Lord in
pity look upon me: Lord have mercy upon
me: have mercy upon me!" After this I
fell asleep and dreamed.
Something refreshed with sleep, I arose;
and, after eating some turtle's eggs, I at-
tempted to walk again out of doors with my
gun, but was so weak, that I sat down, and
looked at the sea, which was smooth and
calm. While I continued here, these thoughts
came into my mind:-
In what manner is the production of the
earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? From whence came myself, and


all other creatures living, and of what are
they made ?
Our beings were assuredly created by some
almighty invisible Power, who framed the
earth, the sea, the air, and all therein. But
what is that Power ?
Certainly it must follow, that God has
created all. Yet, said I, if God has made
all this, he must be the Ruler of all; for
certainly the Power that makes must indis-
putably be able to guide and direct them.
And if so, nothing can happen without his
knowledge and appointment. Then cer-
tainly God has appointed these my sufferings.
I then proceeded to inquire, why should
God deal with me in this manner? Or what
had I done to deserve his indignation?
Here conscience cried with a loud and
piercing voice, Unworthy wretch! how
darest thou ask what thou hast done?
Look on thy past life, and see what thou
hast left undone! Ask thyself why thou


wert not long ago in the merciless hands
of death? Why not drowned in Yarmouth
roads, or killed in the fight, when the ship
was taken by the Salee man-of-war? Why
not entombed in the bowels of the wild
beasts on the African coast, or drowned here,
when all thy companions suffered shipwreck
in the ocean ?"
Struck dumb with these reflections, I
rose, being so thoughtful that I could not
sleep, and fearing the dreadful return of
my distemper. I recollected that the Bra-
zillians use tobacco for almost all diseases,
and going to my chest in order to find
some, Heaven, no doubt, directed me to a
cure for both soul and body; for there I
found one of the Bibles, which, till this
time, I had neither leisure nor inclination to
look into. And no sooner did I open it,
but there appeared to me these words, Call
on me in the day of trouble, and I will da-
liver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."


At first, this sentence made a very deep
impression on my heart, but it soon wore off
again, when I considered the word deliver
was foreign to me. And as the children of
Israel said, when they were promised flesh
to eat, Can God spread a table in the wil-
derness?" in like manner I began to say,
c" Can God himself deliver me from this deso-
late island ?" However, the words still
returned to my mind, and afterwards made a
greater impression upon me.
As it was now very late, I felt inclined to
sleep; but before I would lie down I fell on
my knees, and implored the promise that God
had made me in the Holy Scripture, that
if I called upon him in the day of trouble,
he would deliver me." With much diffi-
culty, I afterwards drank the rum, wherein
I had steeped the tobacco, which, flying into
my head, threw me into such a profound
sleep, that it was three o'clock the next day
before I awoke; indeed I believe I slept two


days, having lost a day in my account.
When I got up, my spirits were lively and
cheerful; I was very hungry ; and, in short,
no fit returned the next day, but I found
myself much altered for the better.
I had now been about ten months in the
island; and, as I never had seen any of the
human kind, I accounted myself as sole
monarch; and as I grew better, having
secured my habitation to my mind, I resolved
to make a tour round my kingdom, in order
to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey;
I first went to the creek, where I had
brought my rafts on shore; and travelling
further, found that the tide went no higher
than two miles up, where there was a little
brook of running water, on the banks of
which were many pleasant savannahs, or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass. Oi the rising parts, where I sup-
posed the water did not reach, I perceived


a great deal of tobacco growing to a very
strong stalk. Several other plants I like-
wise found, the virtues of which I did not
understand. I searched a long time for the
cavassa-root, which I knew the Indians of
that climate made their bread of, but all in
vain. There were several plants of aloes,
though at that time I knew not what they
were; I saw also several sugar-canes, but
imperfect for want of cultivation. With
these few discoveries, I came back that night,
and slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, going the same way, but
further than the day before, I found the
country more adorned with woods and
trees. Here I perceived different fruits in
great abundance. Melons in plenty lay
on the ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe
and very rich, spread over the trees. You
may imagine I was glad of the discovery,
yet ate very sparingly. The grapes I
found of excellent use; for when I had dried


them in the sun, which preserved them as
dried raisins are kept, they proved very
wholesome and nourishing, and served me
in those seasons when no grapes were to be
had. The night drawing on apace, I as-
cended a tree, and slept very comfortably,
though it was the first time I had lain out
of my habitation. And when the morning
came, I proceeded with great pleasure on
my way, travelling about four miles, as I
imagined, by the length of the valley, direct-
ing my course northward. At the end of
the valley, I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west:
there I found a little spring of fresh water
proceeding out of the side of the hill,
with its crystal streams running directly
east. And, indeed, here my senses were
charmed with the most beautiful landscape
nature could afford; for the country ap-
peared flourishing, green, and delightful.
I then descended on the side of that de-


licious vale, when I found abundance of
cocoa, orange, lemon, and citron trees, but
very wild and barren at that time. The
limes were delightful and wholesome, and
the juice, mixed in water, was very cooling
and refreshing. I resolved to carry home a
store of grapes, limes, and lemons, against
the approaching wet season ; and returned to
my little castle, after having spent three days
in this journey.
And now, contemplating the fruitfulness
of this valley, its security from storms,
and the delightfulness of the adjacent
woods, I resolved to make a little kind of
bower, surrounding it with a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked and
filled with bulrushes: and having spent a
great part of the month of July, I think it
was the first of August before I began to
enjoy my labour.
On the 30th September, casting up the
notches on my post, which amounted to


365, I concluded this to be the anniversary
of my landing : and, therefore, humbly
prostrating myself on the ground, confessing
my sins, acknowledging God's righteous
judgments upon me, and praying to Jesus
Christ to have mercy upon me, I fasted for
twelve hours till the going down of the
sun; and then, eating a biscuit and a
bunch of grapes, laid me on the bed, and
with great comfort took my night's repose.
You may call to mind what I have mentioned
of some barley and rice which I had saved,
about thirty stalks of the former, and twenty
of the latter; and, at that time, the sun
being in its southern position, going from
me, together with the rains, made me con-
clude it a very proper season to sow it.
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground
with my wooden spade, and dividing it
into two parts, sowed about two-thirds of
my seed, preserving by me about a hand-
ful of each. And happy it was I did so;


for no rains falling, it was choked up, and
never appeared above the earth till the wet
season came again; and then part of it grew
as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make anothertrial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground
near my bower, I sowed the rest of my seed
in February, a little before the vernal equi-
nox; which having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, yielded a
noble crop. I had still saved part of the
seed, not daring to venture all; and by the
time I found out the proper seasons to sow
it in, and that I might expect every year
two seed-times and two harvests, my stock
amounted to above half-a-peck of each sort
of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the
stakes, which I had cut from the trees, shot
out like willows, the first year after lopping
their heads. I was ignorant of the tree
I cut them from: but they grew so regu-


larly beautiful, that they made a most lively
appearance, and so flourished in three years'
time, that I resolved to cut more of them;
and these soon growing made a glorious
And now I perceived that the seasons of
the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
wet and dry seasons.
The wet season continued longer or
shorter, as the winds happened to blow.
But having found the ill-consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care before-
hand to furnish myself with provisions;
and, during the wet months, sat within
doors as much as possible. At this time
I contrived to make many things I wanted.
The first I tried was a basket; but all the
twigs proved so brittle, that I could not
perform it. When a boy, I took great de-
light in standing at a basket maker's in the
same town where my father lived, to view


them work; and like other boys, curious
and very officious to assist, I perfectly
learned 'the method, and wanted nothing
but tools. And recollecting that the twigs
of the tree of which I made my stakes,
might be as tough as osiers, growing in
England, I resolved to make an experi-
ment; went the next day to my country-seat,
and after cutting down a quantity, I dried
them, and when fit to work, carried them to
my cave, where I employed myself in mak-
ing several sorts of baskets. It is true, they
were not cleverly made, yet they served my
turn upon all occasions.
Still I had no cask to hold my liquor:
neither had I a pot to boil any thing in. I
wanted likewise at the beginning of this dry
season a tobacco-pipe.
I now resumed my intention of exploring
the island; taking my dog, gun, hatchet,
two biscuit-cakes, a great bunch of raisins,
with a larger quantity of powder and shot


than usual, I began my journey. Having
passed the vale where my bower stood, I
came within view of the sea, lying to the
west; when, it being a clear day, I described
land, extending from the W. to the S. W.
about ten or fifteen leagues, but could not
say whether it was an island or continent.
As I proceeded forward, I found this
side of the island much more pleasant than
mine; the fields fragrant, adorned with
sweet flowers and verdant grass, together
with several very fine woods. There were
parrots in plenty, which made me long for
one to be my companion; but it was with
great difficulty I could knock one down;
and I kept him some years before I could
get him to call me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts
of hares and foxes, but different from those
in England. Several of these I killed, but
never eat them; neither, indeed, had I
any occasion, for abounding with goats,


pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I could defy
Leadenhall-Market to furnish me a better
table. When I came to the sea-shore, I
was amazed at the splendour. The strand
was covered with shells of the most beautiful
fish, and abounding with innumerable tur-
tles, and fowls of many kinds. I might have
shot as many as I pleased, but was sparing
of my ammunition, rather choosing to kill a
she-goat, which I did with much difficulty,
on account of the flatness of the country.
I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east,
where I set a great pile on the shore for a
mark.-In this journey my dog surprised a
kid, and would have killed it, had I not
prevented him. As I had often been think-
ing of getting a kid or two, and so raising a
breed of tame goats to supply me after my
ammunition was spent, I took this opportu-
nity of beginning: and having made a
collar for this little creature, with a string


of rope-yarn, I brought it to my bower, and
there enclosed and left him; and having
spent a month in this journey, at length I
returned to my own habitation, and rested
myself a week, which time I eiaployed in
making a cage for my pretty Poll. I now
recollected my poor kid I had left in the
bower, and immediately went to fetch it
home. When I came there, I found it al-
most starved: I gave it some food, and it
followed me like a dog; and as I constantly
fed it, it became so loving, gentle, and fond,
that it would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of Sep-
tember in the most solemn manner, as usual:
it being the third year of my abode in the
island. I spent the whole day in acknow-
ledging God's mercies, in giving him thanks
for making this solitary life as agreeable and
less sinful than that of human society; and
for the communications of his grace to my


soul, in supporting, comforting, and encou-
raging me to depend upon his providence,
and hope for his eternal presence in the
world to come.
One morning, opening my Bible, I im-
mediately fixed my eyes upon these words,
" I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, thought I, these words are directed
to me; and if God does not forsake, what
matter is it, since he can make me more
happy in this state of life than if I enjoyed
the greatest splendour in the world? I
shut the Bible and blessed kind Providence,
that directed my good friend in England
to send it without any order, and for as-
sisting me to save it from the power of the
raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my
several daily employment were these:-
First, My duty to Heaven, and diligently
reading the Holy Scriptures; which I did
twice or thrice every day : Secondly, Seek-


mg provisions with my gun, which com-
monly employed me when it did not rain,
three hours every morning: Thirdly, The
ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking
what I had killed, for my supply, which took
me up the greater part of the day. I was no
less than two-and-forty days making a
board fit for a long shelf, which two saw-
yers, with their tools and saw-pit, would
have cut off the same tree in half a day.
It was a large tree, as my board was to be
broad. I was three days in cutting it down,
and two more in lopping off the boughs, and
reducing it to a piece of timber. This I
hacked and hewed off each side, till it be-
came light to move: and then I turned it,
made one side of it smooth and flat as a
board from end to end, then turned it down-
wards, cutting the other side, till I brought
the plank to be about three inches thick, and
smooth on both sides.
The harvest months, November and


December, were now at hand, in which I
had the pleasing prospect of a very good
crop. But here I met with a new misfor-
tune; for the goats and hares having tasted
the sweetness of the blade, kept it so short
that it had not strength to shoot up into a
stalk. To prevent this, I enclosed it with
a hedge, and by day shot some of its de-
vourers; and my dog, which I tied to the
field-gate, barking all night, so frightened
those creatures, that I got entirely rid of
But no sooner did I get rid of these,
than other enemies appeared; whole flocks
of several sorts of birds only waited till
my back was turned to ruin me. So much
did this provoke me, that I let fly, and
killed three of the malefactors; and after-
wards served them as they do notorious
thieves in England, hung them up in chains
as a terror to others. And so good an effect
had this, that they not only forsook the corn,


but all that part of the island, as long as
these criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter
end of December, which was my second
harvest, I reaped it with a scythe made of
one of my broad swords. I had no fatigue
in cutting down my first crop, it was so
slender. The ears I carried home in a
basket, rubbing it with my hands, instead
of threshing it; and when the harvest was
over, found my half-peck of seed produced
near two bushels of rice, and two bushels and
a half of barley. I knew not how to grind
my corn, neither how to bake the bread.
The want of a plough to turn up the
earth, or shovel to dig it, I conquered by
making a wooden spade. The want of a
harrow I supplied by dragging over the
corn a great bough of a tree. When it
was growing I was forced to fence it; when
ripe, to mow it, carry it home, thresh it, and
part it from the chaff. And after all I


wanted a mill to grind itz sieve to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it. This set my brains to work
to find some expedient for every one of these
necessaries against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care
was to prepare more land. I pitched upon
two large flat pieces of ground, near my
castle, for that purpose, in which I sowed
my seed, and fenced it with a good hedge.
This took me up three months; by which
time the wet season coming on, and the
rain keeping me within doors, I found seve-
ral occasions to employ myself; and, while
at work, used to divert myself in talking to
my parrot, learning him to know and speak
his own name, Poll; the first welcome
word I ever heard spoken in the island.
I had been a long time contriving how to
make earthen vessels, which I wanted ex-
tremely, and when I considered the heat of
the climate, I did not doubt but if I could


find any such clay, I might make a pot,
strong enough, when dried in the sun, to
bear handling, and to hold any thing that
was dry, as corn, meal, and other things.
The clay I found; but it would make the
most serious person smile, to see what awk-
ward, ugly, misshapen things I made; how
many cracked by the violent heat of the sun,
and fell in pieces when they were removed;
so that I think it was two months before I
could perfect any thing; and even then but
two clumsy things in imitation of earthen
jars. As for the smaller things, I made
them with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins,
the sun baking them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely
necessary; and that was an earthen pot,
not only to hold my liquid, but also to bear
the fire, which none of these could do. It
once happened, that as I was putting out
my fire, I found therein a broken piece of


one of my vessels burnt as hard as a rock,
and red as a tile. This made me think of
burning some pots, and having no notion of
a kiln, or of glazing them with lead, I fixed
three large pipkins, and two or three pots
in a pile one upon another. The fire I
piled round the outside, and dry wood upon
the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot, and found that they were not cracked
at all: and when I perceived them perfectly
red, I let one of them stand in the fire about
five or six hours, till the clay melted by
the extremity of the heat, and would have
run to glass had I suffered it: upon which
I slackened my fire by degrees, till the red-
ness abated; and watching them till morn-
ing, I found I had three very good pipkins,
and two earthen pots, as well burnt as I
could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at this
discovery. I filled one of my pipkins with
water to boil me some meat.


The next concern I had, was to get me a
stone mortar to beat some corn in, instead
of a mill to grind it. But all the stones of
the island being of a mouldering nature, I
resolved to look out for a great block of hard
wood, which having found, I formed it with
my axe and hammer, and then, with infinite
labour, made a hollow in it, just as the In-
dians of Brazil make their canoes. When I
had finished this, I made a great pestle of
iron-wood, and then laid them up against
my succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make a sieve to
sift my meal, and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no fine, thin canvas, I could
not tell what to do. What linen I had was
reduced to rags. At length I remembered I
had some neckcloths of calico or muslin, of
the sailors, which I had brought out of the
ship, and with these I made three small
sieves, proper enough for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by mak-


ing some earthen pans, very broad but not
deep. When I had a mind to bake, I made
a great fire upon the hearth, the tiles of
which I had made myself; and when the
wood was burnt into live coals, I spread
them over it, till it became very hot; then
sweeping them away, I set down my loaves,
and turning down the earthen pots upon
them, drew the ashes and coals all round
the outsides of the pots, to continue the
heat; and in this manner I baked my barley
loaves as well as if I had been a complete
pastry-cook, and also made of the rice seve-
ral cakes and puddings.
These things took me up the best part
of a year, and what intermediate time I
had was bestowed in managing my new
harvest and husbandry; for in the proper
season I reaped my corn, carried it home
and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets,
till I had time to rub, instead of thresh-
ing it.


All this while, the prospect of land,
which I had seen from the other side of
the island, ran in my mind. I still medi-
tated a deliverance from this place, though
the fear of greater misfortunes might have
deterred me from it. For allowing that I
had attained that place, I ran the hazard
of being killed and eaten by the devouring
cannibals; and if they were not so, yet I
might be slain, as other Europeans had
been, who fell into their hand. Notwith-
standing all this, my thoughts ran con-
tinually upon that shore. I wished for my
boy Xury, and the long-boat; the ship's
boat had been cast a great way on the
shore in the late storm. Her bottom being
turned up by the impetuosity and fury of
the waves and wind, I fell to work with all
the strength I had, with levers and rollers
I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and
repair the damages she had sustained. This
work took me up three or four weeks, when,


finding my little strength in vain, I fell to
undermining it by digging away the sand,
and st to make it fall down, setting pieces
of wood to thrust and guide it in the fall.
But after this was done, I was still unable
to move it towards the water, and so was
forced to give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not
frighten me. I began to think whether it
was not possible for me to make a canoe,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a
tree. But here I lay under particular in-
conveniences ; want of tools to make it, and
,want of hands to move it in the water when
it was made. However, to work I went,-
I first cut down a cedar-tree, which was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part
next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after
which it lessened for a space, and then part-
ed into branches. Twenty days was I a
hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom,


fourteen more in cutting off the branches
and limbs, and a whole month in shaping
it like the bottom of a boat. As for the in-
side, I was three weeks with a mallet and
chisel clearing it, till it was big enough to
carry twenty-six men, much bigger than
any canoe I ever saw in my life, and con-
sequently sufficient to transport me and all
my effects to that wished-for shore.
Nothing remained now, but to get it into
the water, it lying about one hundred yards
from it. I proceeded to measure the dis-
tance of ground, resolving to make a canal
in order to bring the water to the canoe,
since I could not bring the canoe to the
water. But as this seemed to be impracti-
cable, under the space of eleven or twelve
years, I concluded the attempt altogether
vain. I now saw what stupidity it is to
begin work before we reckon on its cost, or
judge rightly our own abilities to go through
with its performance.


In the height of this work my fourth year
expired, from the time I was cast on this
island. At this time I did not forget my
anniversary; but kept it with rather greater
devotion than before. For now my hopes
being frustrated, I looked upon this world
as a thing I had nothing to do with; and
well might I say, as father Abraham said
unto Dives, Between thee and me there
is a gulph fixed." I was separated from
its wickedness too, having neither the lust
of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the
pride of life; I had nothing to covet, being
lord, king, and emperor over the whole
country, without dispute and without con-
trol. Corn, plenty of turtles, timber in
abundance, and grapes above measure.
What was all the rest to me ? The money
I had, lay by me as despicable dross,
which I would freely have given for a gross
of tobacco-pipes, or a hand-mill to grind
my corn; in a word, the nature and experi-


ence of these things dictated to me this just
reflection: That the good things of this world
are no further good to us, than they are for
our use; and that whatsoever we may heap
up to give to others, we can but enjoy as
much as we use.
These thoughts rendered my mind more
easy than usual. Every time I sat down
to meat, I did it with thankfulness, admir-
ing the providential hand of God, who, in
this wilderness, had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with
water, I made last as long as I could, I used
to minute down the days of the month on
which any remarkable event happened.-
First, I observed that the same day I
forsook my parents and friends, and ran
away to Hull, in order to go to sea; the
same day in the next year, I was taken and
made a slave by the Salee rovers.
That the very day 1 escaped out of the


wreck of the ship in Yarmouth roads, a year
after, on the same day, I made my escape
from Salee in my patron's fishing-boat.
And, on the 30th of September, being my
birth-day, was I miraculously saved, and
cast ashore on this island.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,
was the biscuits which I had brought out of
the ship; and though I allowed myself but
one cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet
I was quite out of bread for near a year, be-
fore I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long
before. However, I had preserved about
three dozen of the sailors' chequered shirts,
which proved a great refreshment to me,
when the violent beams of the sun would
not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's
heavy watch-coats; which made me turn
tailor, and after a miserable botching man-
ner, converted them into jackets. To pre-


serve my head, I made a cap of goat's-skin,
with the hair outwards to keep out the rain;
and afterwards, a waistcoat and open-kneed
breeches of the same. I contrived a sort of
umbrella, covering it with skins, which not
only kept out the heat of the sun, but rain
also. Thus being easy and settled in my
mind, my chief happiness was to converse
with God, in prayer.
For five years after this nothing ex-
traordinary occurred to me. My chief em-
ployment was to cure my raisins, and plant
my barley and rice, of both which I had
a year's provision beforehand. Though
I was disappointed in my first canoe, I
made, at intermediate times, a second, of
much inferior size; and it was two years
before I had finished it. But as I perceived
it would no wise answer my design of sail-
ing to the other shore, my thoughts were
confined to take a tour round the island,
to see what further discoveries I could


make. To this intent, after having moved
her to the water, and tried how she would
sail, I fitted up a little inast to my boat, and
made a sail of the ship's sail, that lay by me.
I then made lockers or boxes at the end of
it, to put in necessaries, provision, and am-
munition, which would preserve them dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea; and
in the inside of the boat, I cut a long, hol-
low place to lay my gun in; and, to keep it
dry, made a flag to hang over it. My
umbrella I fixed in a step in the stern, like
a mast, to keep the heat of the sun off me.
And now resolving to see the circumference
of my little kingdom, I victualled my ship
for the voyage, putting in two dozen of my
barley-bread loaves, an earthen pot full of
parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half a
goat, powder and shot, and two watch-
coats. It was the 6th of November, in the
6th year of my captivity, that I set out on
this voyage ; which was much longer than


I expected, being obliged to put farther
out, on account of the rocks. And indeed,
so much did these rocks surprise me, that
I was for putting back, fearing that if I
ventured farther it would be out of my
power to return. In this uncertainty I came
to anchor just on shore, to which I waded
with my gun on my shoulder, and then
climbing a hill, which overlooked that
point, I saw the full extent of it, and re-
solved to run all hazards.-That night it
grew so calm that I ventured out; and here
I may be a monument to all rash and igno-
rant pilots; for I was no sooner come to the
point, and not above a boat's length from
shore, but I was got into deep water, with
a current like a mill, which drove my boat
along so violently, that it was impossible
for me to keep near the edge of it, but forced
me more and more out from the eddy to the
left of me; and all I could do with my paddles
was useless, there being no wind to help me.


Who can conceive the present anguish
of my mind at this calamity? With long-
ing eyes did I look upon my little kingdom,
and thought the island the pleasantest
place in the universe. Happy, thrice
happy desert, said I, shall I never see thee
more? Wretched creature! whither am I
going? Why did I murmur at my lone-
some condition, when now I would give
the whole world to. be thither again?
While I was thus complaining, I. found
myself driven about two leagues into the
sea; however, I laboured till my strength
was far spent, to keep my boat as far north
as possible. About noon, I perceived a
little breeze of wind spring up from the
S. S. E. which overjoyed my heart; and
was still more elated, when, in about half-
an-hour, it blew a gentle, fine gale. I set
up my mast again, spread my sail, and
stood away northward as much as I could,
to get rid of the current. And no sooner


did the boat begin to stretch away, but I
perceived, by the clearness of the water,
a change of the current was near. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached
within a league of the island, and in an
hour came within a mile of the shore,
where I soon landed, to my unspeakable
comfort; and after an humble prostration,
thanking God for my deliverance, with
resolution to lay all thoughts of escaping
aside, I brought my boat safe to a little
cove, and laid down to take a welcome
repose. When I awoke, I considered how
I might get my boat home; and coasting
along the shore, I came to a good bay
which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where,
finding a good harbour, I stowed her as
safe as if she had been in a dry dock made
on purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the
place where before I had travelled on foot;
so taking nothing with me, except my gun


and umbrella, I began my journey; and
in the evening came to my bower, where
I again laid me down to rest. I had not
slept long before I was awakened in great
surprise, by a strange voice that called me
several times, Robin, Robin, Robinson
Crusoe, poor Robin! Where are you,
Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you ?
Where have you been ?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did
not awake thoroughly; but half asleep and
half awake, I thought I dreamed that some-
body spoke to me. But as the voice re-
peated Robinson Crusoe several times, be-
ing terribly affrighted, I started up; and
no sooner were my eyes fully open, but I
beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of
the hedge, and soon knew that it was he
that called me; for just in such bewailing
language I used to talk and teach him;
which he so exactly learned, that he would
sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close


to my face, and cry, Poor Robinson
Crusoe, where are you? where have you
been? how came you here?" and such
like prattle, I had constantly taught him.
But even though I knew it to be the par-
rot, it was a great while before I could ad-
just myself, being amazed how the creature
got thither. But now being assured it
could be no other than my honest Poll, my
wonder ceased, and reaching out my hand,
and calling familiarly, Poll, the creature
came to me, and perched upon my thumb
as he was wont, constantly prating to me
with Poor Robinson Crusoe! and how did
I come here, and where had I been ?"-
as if the bird was overjoyed to see me; so
I took him home with me.
I was now pretty well cured of my
rambling to sea, and began to lead a very
retired life, living near a twelvemonth
in a very contented manner, wanting for no-
thing except conversation. As to mecha-


nic labours, which my necessities obliged me
to, I fancied, I could, upon occasion, make
a tolerable carpenter, were the poor tools
I had to work with but good. Besides, as
I improved in my earthenware, I contrived
to make them with a wheel, which I found
much easier and better, making my work
shapely, which before was rude and ugly.
But I think I was never sd elated with my
own performance, as for being able to make
a tobacco-pipe, which though it was an
awkward, clumsy thing, yet it was very
sound, and carried the smoke perfectly well.
I also improved my wicker-ware, making
abundance of baskets, which were very
handy and convenient.
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived
many ways to ensnare the goats, and see
if I could catch them alive, particularly a
she-goat with young. At last I had my
desire; for making pitfalls and traps, bait-
ed with barley and rice, I found one morn-


ing, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in
the other, three kids, one male, the other
two females. It was some time before they
would feed; but throwing them sweet corn,
it so much tempted them that they began
to be tamer. I concluded, that if I de-
signed to furnish myself with goat's flesh
when my aminunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up like a flock of sheep,
about my settlement, was the only method
I could take. I resolved to separate the
wild from the tame; and the best way for
this, was to have some enclosed piece of
ground well fenced, that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.
Such an undertaking was very great for
one pair of hands; but as there was an
absolute necessity for it, my first care was
to find a convenient piece of ground where
there was likely to be herbage for them to
eat, water to drink, and shelter to keep
them from the sun. I resolved to enclose


a piece of ground about one hundred and
fifty yards in length, and one hundred in
breadth, sufficient for as many as would
maintain me till my flock increased, and
then I could add more ground. I now vi-
gorously prosecuted my work, and it took
me about three months to hedge in the first
piece. I tethered the three kids in the best
part of it, feeding them as near me as pos-
sible, to make them familiar; and indeed I
very often carried some ears of barley, or a
handful of rice, and fed them out of my
hand; by which they grew so tame, that
when my enclosure was finished, and I let
them loose, they would run after me for a
handful of corn. In a year and a half's
time I had a flock of about twelve goats,
kids and all: and in two years after they
amounted to forty-three, besides what I
had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which I enclosed five pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to drive


them into, that I might take them as I had
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of
goat's flesh', but milk too, which at first I
did not think of. And indeed, though I had
never milked, or seen butter or cheese
made, yet after some essays and miscar-
riages; I made both, and never afterwards
How merciful can the omnipotent Power
comfort his creatures, even in the midst
of their greatest calamities? He can
sweeten the bitterest providence, and give,
us reason to magnify him in dungeons
and prisons! what a bounteous table was
here spread in a wilderness for me, where
I expected nothing at first but to perish
with hunger! When I dined, I seemed a
king, eating alone, none daring to pre-
sume to do so till I had done. Poll, as if
he had been my principal court favourite,


was the only person permitted to talk with
me. My old, but faithful dog, continually
sat on my right hand; while my two cats
sat on each side of the table, expecting a
bit from my hand, as a mark of my royal
favour. In this manner did I live, wanting
for nothing but conversation. One thing
indeed concerned me, the want of my boat;
I knew not which way to get her round the
island. One time I resolved to go along
the shore by land to her; but had any one
in England met with such a figure, it would
either have affrighted them, or made them
burst into laughter.
The cap I wore on my head was great,
high, and shapeless, made of- a goat's skin,
with a flap or pent-house hanging down
behind, not only to keep the sun from me,
but to shoot the rain off, nothing being
more pernicious than the rain falling upon
the flesh in these climates. I had a short
jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung


down such a length on each side, that it
reached to the calves of my legs. As for
my shoes and stockings, they were made
like buskins, and laced on the sides like
spatterdashes, barbarously shaped like the
rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of
goat's skin dried, girt round me with a
couple of thongs, instead of buckles; on
each of which, to supply the deficiency of
sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. Another belt not so broad, yet
fastened in the same manner, hung over
my shoulder, and at the end of it, under
my left arm, two pouches, made of goat's-
skin, to hold my powder and shot. My
basket I carried on my back, and my gun
on my shoulder; and over my head a great,
clumsy, ugly goat's-skin umbrella, which
however, next to my gun, was the most
necessary thing about me. As for my face,
the colour was not quite so swarthy as the
Mulattoes, as might have been expected


from one who took so little care of it, in
a climate within nine or ten degrees of
the equator. At one time my beard grew
so long that it hung down about a quar-
ter of a yard; but as I had both razors and
scizzors in store, I cut it all off, and
suffered none to grow, except a large pair
of Mohammedan whiskers, like what I had
seen worn by 'some Turks at Salee, not long
enough indeed to hang a hat upon, but of
such a monstrous size as would have amazed
any Englishman.
I had now two plantations in the island;
the first my little fortification, with many
large and spacious improvements. The
piles with which I made my wall were
grown so lofty and great, as secured my
habitation. And near this commodious and
pleasant settlement, lay my well-cultivated
and improved corn-fields, which yielded
me their fruit in proper season. My second
plantation was that near my country-seat or


little bower, where my grapes flourished,
and where, having planted many stakes, I
made enclosures for my goats, so strongly
fortified by labour and time, that it was
much stronger than a wall, and consequently
impossible for them to break through. As
for my bower itself, I kept it constantly in
repair, and cut the trees in such a manner,
as made them grow thick and wild, and
form a most delightful shade. In the
centre of this stood my tent: I had driven
four piles in the ground, spreading over it a
piece of the ship's sail; beneath which I
made a sort of a couch with the skins of the
creatures I had slain, and other things; and
having laid thereon one of the sailor's
blankets, which I had saved from the wreck
of the ship, and covering myself with a great
watch-coat, I took up this place for my
country retreat. Very frequently from this
settlement did I visit my boat, and keep her
in good order.


You may easily suppose, that after having
been here so long, nothing could be more
amazing than to see a human creature.
One day it happened, that, going to my
boat, I saw the print of a man's naked
foot on the shore, very evident on the
sand, as the toes, heel, and every part of
it. Had I seen an apparition of the most
frightful shape, I could pot have been more
confounded. My willing ears gave the
strictest attention. I cast my eyes around,
but could satisfy neither the one nor the
other. I proceeded alternately to every
part of the shore, but with equal effect,
neither could I see any other mark, though
the sand about it was as susceptible to take
impression as that which was so plainly
stamped. Thus, struck with confusion and
horror, I returned to my habitation fright-
ened at every bush and tree, taking every
thing for men; and possessed with the
wildest ideas. That night my eyes never


closed: I formed nothing but the most dis-
mal imaginations; all my religious hopes
vanished, as though I thought God would
not now protect me by his power, who had
wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various changes of Providence are
there in the life of man! How changeable
are our affections, according to different
circumstances! We love to-day what we
hate to-morrow: we shun one hour what
we seek the next. This was evident in me
in the most conspicuous manner; for I,
who before had so much lamented my con-
dition, in being banished from all human
kind, was now even ready to expire, when
I considered that a man had set his foot on
this desolate island. But when I considered
my station of life, decreed by the infinitely
wise and good providence of God, I found
it my duty to trust sincerely in him, pray
ardently to him, and humbly resign myself
to his divine will.

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