Title Page
 Memoir of De Foe
 Part I
 Part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072778/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xviii, 638 p., 45 leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Grandville, J. J., 1803-1847 ( ill )
Tyas, Robert ( Publisher )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Vizetelly and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: R. Tyas
Place of Publication: London (Paternaster Row)
Manufacturer: Vizetelly and Co.
Publication Date: 1840
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1840   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe; with a memoir of the author, and an essay on his writings ; illustrated by Grandville.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date in form: MDCCXL.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072778
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06056670

Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Memoir of De Foe
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Part I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 19
        Page 20
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        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 28
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        The journal
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            Page 327
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    Part II
        Page 333
        Page 334
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Full Text









Londu :

YIZJ TLLL it and Co. Printcis and Engravers.
135 Fleet Street.


DANIEL FOE, or, as he .i.. ... i.ii.. styled himself (though at what
time and on what occasion is not known), De Foe, was born in the parish
of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, London, in the year 1661. The earliest of his
ancestors of whom there is any account, was Daniel Foe, a yeoman, who
farmed his own estate at Elton, in Northamptonshire. He maintained
a pack of hounds; from whence it may be reasonably inferred that his
means were above competency. A custom of the times in bestowing party
names on brutes is thus mentioned by our author. I remember," he
says, my grandfather had a huntsman that used the same familiarity
with his dogs; and he had his Roundhead, and his Cavalier, and his
Goring, and his Waller, and all the generals of both armies were hounds
in his pack ; till the times turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter
the pack, and make them up of more dog-like surnames." It is from his
grandfather that De Foe is supposed to have inherited landed property;
for in his Review," a work we shall often have occasion to consult,
he says, I have both a native and an acquired right of election." Our
author's father, James Foe, followed the trade of butcher in St. Giles's,
Cripplegate : and these few barren facts are all that is to be gathered of
the ancestors of Daniel De Foe. He had," says Mr. Wilson, in his
excellent work, The Life and Times of Daniel De Foe," a work abound-
ing with the most curious and minute information on the period of which
it treats; He had some collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occa-
sionally in his writings, but with too much brevity to ascertain the degree
of kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shewn that vivacity of humour,
and that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him
through after-life, "making a sunshine in the shady place" of a prison,
and arming him as the champion of truth and humanity in the most
perilous times. An anecdote related by our author is illustrative of the
discipline that governed the home of his boyhood. During that part of
the reign of Charles II. when the nation feared the ascendancy of Popery,
and it was expected that printed Bibles would become rare, many honest
people employed themselves in copying the Bible into short-hand. To
this task, young De Foe applied himself; and he tells us that he worked


like a horse till he had written out the whole of the Pentateuch, when he
grew so tired that he was willing to risk the rest." The parents of
De Foe were Non-conformists, and his education was consonant to the
practice of that faith. Family religion formed an essential part of its
discipline; and it was made matter of conscience to instruct the children
of a family and its dependents in their social, moral, and religious duties.
Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his re-
putation by representing him as having been bred a tradesman, there is
ample evidence to prove that he was originally intended for one of the
learned professions.* When he had, therefore, sufficiently qualified under
inferior tutors, lie was, at about fourteen years of age, placed in an
academy at Newington Green, under the direction of that polite and
profound scholar," the Reverend Charles Morton, who was subsequently
defended by his pupil, some aspersions having been cast upon the character
of the master by an ungrateful scholar who had deserted to the church.
De Foe writes, I must do that learned gentleman's memory the justice
to affirm, that neither in his system of politics, government, and discipline,
nor in any other of the exercises of that school, was there anything taught
or encouraged that was antimonarchical or destructive to the constitution
of England."
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speak
with any certainty. He tells us in one of his "Reviews" that he had
been master of five languages, and that he had studied the mathematics,
natural philosophy, logic, geography, and history : he was one of the few
who, in those days, studied politics as a science. He went through a
complete course of theology, and his knowledge of ecclesiastical history
was also considerable. He was, however, attacked by party malice as "an
illiterate person without education." To this, he calmly makes answer :-
" Those gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaud their own, shall
have it proved that I have more learning than either of them-because I
have more manners." He adds, "I think I owe this justice to my excellent
father, still living (1705), and in whose behalf I filly testify, that if I am
a blockhead, it is nobody's fault but my own." He proceeds to challenge
his slanderer to translate with me any Latin, French, and Italian author,
and after that to re-translate them crossways, for twenty pounds each book;
and by this lie shall have an opportunity to shew the world how much
De Foe, the hosier, is inferior in learning to Mr. Tutchin, the gentleman."
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade-most pe-
rilous in his day-of author; at the which he laboured through good and
through evil report with lasting honour to himself, and enduring benefit to

"It is not often," says De Foe, in his Review," vi. 341, "that I trouble
you with any of my divinity; the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster
first to be set apart for, and then to be set apart from, the honour of that sacred


mankind, for half a century. It is now ascertained that De Foe's first
publication was a lampooning answer to L'Estrange's Guide to the
Inferior Clergy," and bore the following quaint title :-" Speculum Crape-
Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass for the Young Academicks new Foyl'd:
with Reflections on some of the late High Flown Sermons: to which is
added, an Essay towards a Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide
to the Inferiour Clergie. Ridentem discere Verum Quis Vetat. London:
printed for E. Rydal. 1682." This title De Foe borrowed from the crape
gowns then usually worn by the inferior clergy; and in the book, he fights
the fight of the Dissenters against what he terms the libels of the esta-
blished clergy. "The fertility of the subject," says Mr. Wilson, "soon
produced a second part of the "Speculum; in which the author deals
more seriously with the government, and by a practical view of the effect
of persecution, exposed its absurdity.
We have entered more at length into the nature and purpose of De
Foe's first book, than will be permitted to us by our limits to do with
each of the works that now followed, in rapid profusion, from the pen of
our author. All that we purpose to ourselves is, to give the strongest
outlines of his character,-the principal events of his career: and, avoiding
on one hand a jejune brevity, that confines itself to mere dates, attempt
not, on the other side, a minute description of events incompatible with
our present object.
When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe was among
those who joined the standard of the hapless nobleman. "A romantic kind
of invasion," saysWelwood, "and scarcely paralleled in history." At the age
of four-and-twenty, we see De Foe, the author of Robinson Crusoe," a
soldier; as ready with his sword as prompt with his pen, in the cause of
rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe seems to have had some previous
knowledge, having often seen him at Aylesbury races, where the duke rode
his own horses, a circumstance alluded to by our author in his "Tour."
De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so
many of the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where,
leaving the stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention to trade.
The nature of his business has been variously represented. In several pub-
lications of the time, he is styled a hosierr;" but, if we may believe his
own account, he was a hose-factor, or, the middle man between the manu-
facturer and the retail dealer. This agency concern he carried on for some
years, in Freeman's Court, Cornhill; Mr. Chalmers says, from 1685 to
1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by
birth, he was admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain's book,
his name was written "Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, in
Surrey, where he was the first person who attempted to form the Dissenters
in the neighbourhood into a regular congregation. De Foe was for many
years a resident in this part of Surrey; it is likely that he had a country


house there during the time that he carried on his hose-agency in Cornhill
De Foe was one of'the most ardent worshippers of the Revolution: he
annually commemorated the 4th of November as a day of deliverance.
"A day," says he, "famous on various accounts, and every one of them
dear to Britons, who love their country, value the Protestant interest, or
have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day, he (King
William) was born; on this day, he married the daughter of England; and
on this day, he rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of
Egypt; a bondage of soul, as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the
ambition and raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice,
cruelty, and blood." In order to do honour to the king, and add to the
splendour of the procession, on the royal visit to Guildhall, many of
the citizens volunteered to attend William as a guard of honour on the
occasion. Among these was Daniel De Foe.
The commercial speculations of our author, though at the first pros-
perous, were ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a various cha-
racter, is evident from the fact of his having engaged with partners in the
Spanish and Portuguese trade. It is very clear, from a passage in his
" Review," that he had been a merchant-adventurer. In the number for
January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb, "which," says he,
"I learnt when I was in that country." It further appears, that while
residing there, he made himself a master of the language. De Foe's losses
by shipwreck appear to have been very considerable. The occupations of
trade, however, according to De Foe's own confession, assort ill with
literary feelings. "A wit turned tradesman! he exclaims; "no apron-
strings will hold him: 't is in vain to lock him in behind the counter, he's
gone in a moment." He concludes:--"A statute of bankrupt is his
Exeunt Omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue in the Fleet Prison or
In allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers observes:-
"With the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried into companies who
were gratified by his wit. He spent those hours with a small society for the
cultivation of polite learning, which he ought to have employed in the
calculations of the counting-house; and, being obliged to abscond from his
creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those misfortunes to the war,
which were probably owing to his own misconduct. An angry creditor
took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the
petition of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composi-
tion on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of un-
wearied diligence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satis-
fied, falling afterwards into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid-
them their whole claim, being then in rising circumstances, in consequence
of King William's favour." De Foe, being subsequently reproached by
Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, he tells him, in 1705, that, "with
a numerous family, and no help but his own industry, he had forced his


way, with undiscouraged diligence, through a set of misfortunes, and
reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to
less than five thousand pounds."
It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe, our laws
against bankrupts were as inhuman as they were foolish. The cruelty of
our laws against debtors," says De Foe, "without distinction of honest or
dishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am persuaded, the honestest man
in England, when by necessity he is compelled to break, will early fly out
of the kingdom rather than submit. To stay here, this is the consequence:
as soon as he breaks, he is proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty to sixty
days to surrender both himself and all that he has to his creditors. If
he fails to do it, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit
of clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown into gaol
for life by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath!
What must the man do?" We have reformed something of this in our day,
yet much remains undone, for the bankrupt is still left at the mercy of the
malevolent or ignorant creditor.
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors,
resided some time at Bristol. "A friend of mine in that city," says Mr.
Wilson, "informs me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and
sometimes saw him walking in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the
fashion of the times, with a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by
his side: also, that he there obtained the name of 'the Sunday gentleman,'
because, through fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to appear in public
upon any other day." De Foe was wont to visit "The Red Lion," kept
by one Mark Watkins, who, in after times, used to entertain his company
with an account of a singular personage, who made his appearance in
Bristol, clothed in goat-skins, in which dress he was in the habit of walking
the streets, and went by the name of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson
Crusoe! It was during this retreat from London that De Foe wrote his
celebrated "Essay upon Projects," though he did not publish it until nearly
five years afterwards.
It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants of
his acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of a
good commission: "but," says our author, Providence, which had other
work for me to do, placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting
England upon any account, and made me refuse the best offer of that kind,
to be concerned with some eminent persons at home, in proposing ways
and means to the government for raising money to supply the occasion of
the war, then newly begun." De Foe suggested a general assessment of
personal property, the amount to be settled by composition, under the
inspection of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless, owing
to these services, that De Foe was appointed to the office of accountant
to the commissioners of the glass duty, in 1695: the commission ceased
in 1699. It was probably about this time that De Foe became secretary to


the tile-kiln and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been
hitherto a Dutch manufacture, and were brought in large quantities to
England. To supersede the necessity of their importation, these works
were erected. The speculation proved unsuccessful, De Foe himself losing
by its failure no less than three thousand pounds. He continued the
works, it is believed, until the year 1703, when, being deprived of his
liberty for a libel, the undertaking came to an end.
Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his
" Essay upon Projects;" a work alike admirable for the novelty of the
subject, and the clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The
projects of our author may be classed under the heads of politics, commerce,
and benevolence; all having some reference to the public improvement.
The first relates to banks in general, and to the royal or national bank
in particular, which he wishes to be rendered subservient to the relief of the
merchant, and the interests of commerce, as well as to the purposes of the
state: his next project relates to highways; a third, to the improvement
of the bankrupt laws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly societies, formed by
mutual assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons of distress;
a fifth, for the establishment of an asylum for "fools," or, more properly,
"naturals," whom he describes as "a particular rent-charge on the great
family of mankind:" he next suggests the formation of academies, to supply
some neglected branches of education; one of these was for the improve-
ment of the English tongue, "to polish and refine it;" and this project
combined a reformation of that foolish vice," swearing: the next project
of our author was an academy for military studies; and, under the head of
"Academies," he suggested an institution for the education of females:-
" We reproach the sex every day," says he, with folly and impertinence,
while, I am confident, had they the advantages of education equal to us,
they would be guilty of less than ourselves."
In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of "The True-
born Englishman." It was composed in answer to "a vile, abhorred
pamphlet, in very ill verse, written by one Mr. Tuchin, and called 'The
Foreigners,' in which the author-who he then was, I knew not" says De
Foe-" fell personally upon the king and the Dutch nation." How
many thousands familiar with the following now proverbial lines, know not
that with them opens The True-Born Englishman "

"Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation !"
De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Norman invader,
who cantoned out the country to his followers, and every soldier was a
denizen." The folly of indulging this pride of ancestry is finely painted in
the following lines :-


"These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived.
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;
The Pict and painted Briton, treach'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, bucaneering Danes,
Whose red-haired offspring everywhere remains;
Who, joined with Norman-French, compound the breed
From whence your True-Born Englishmen proceed.
And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."

De Foe concludes with the following striking lines:-

"Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate:
How we contend for birth and names unknown;
And build on their past actions, not our own ;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile, degenerate race;
For fame of families is all a cheat,

When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutch-
men," says De Foe, in his "Explanatory Preface," "only because they are
foreigners, and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and
ballad-making poets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner him-
self, I confess myself moved by it to remind our nation of their own
original, thereby to let them see what a banter they put upon themselves;
since, speaking of Englishmen ab origine, we are really all foreigners our-
It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted for a personal introduction
to King William. He was sent for to the palace by his Majesty, conversed
with him, and had repeated interviews with him afterwards. The manners
and sentiments of De Foe appeared to have made such a favourable im-
pression on the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness; and
conceiving that his talents might be turned to a beneficial account, he
employed him in many secret services, to which he alludes occasionally in
his writings.
The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial.
De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, National mistakes,
vulgar errors, and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just


satire. None of our countrymen have been known to boast of being True
Born Englishmen, or so much as use the word as a title or appellation,
ever since a late satire upon that national folly was published, though
almost thirty years before."
In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King William, we
find De Foe strenuously engaged advocating the necessity of settling the
succession in the Protestant line; an important object with William, as the
only means of perpetuating the benefits which the nation had reaped from
the Revolution. To this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies, labour-
ing with unwearied zeal in the cause. His conduct on the imprisonment
of the Kentish gentlemen, whose names are historically associated with the
presentation of the famous Kentish petition, was marked with all the in-
trepidity of his character. The Commons had imprisoned the petitioners,
who prayed the house for the settlement of the Protestant succession, for
having presented a petition "scandalous, insolent, and seditious." On this,
De Foe drew up his celebrated Legion Paper." In what manner it was
communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It was
reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to
the Speaker as he entered the House of Commons. The "Legion" pe-
tition rang like a tocsin throughout the kingdom. As, however, the author
remained concealed, the Commons did not think fit to pass any particular
censure upon it. The Kentish petitioners were discharged by the proro-
gation of parliament on the 24th of June : they were subsequently feasted
at Mercers' Hall, where De Foe attended. Next the Worthies," says a
pamphlet of the time, was placed their secretary of state, the author of the
'Legion Paper;' and one might have read the downfal of parliaments in his
very countenance."
By the death of King William, "more mortally wounded," says De Foe,
"with the pointed rage of parties, and an ungrateful people, than by the
fall from his horse," our author lost a kind friend and powerful protector.
Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at Hackney,
and resided there many years. Here some of his children were born and
buried. In the parish register is the following entry:-" Sophia, daughter
to Daniel De Foe, by Mary his wife, was baptised, December 24, 1701."
The next important work of De Foe-a work that exercised the greatest
influencee on his fortunes-was the Shortest Way with the Dissenters; or,
Proposals for the Establishment of the Church; 1702." In this work, the
author, assuming the character of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates
the adoption of the severest measures against the Dissenters. 'Tis vain,"
writes De Foe, "to trifle in this matter. The light, foolish handling of
them by fines, is their glory and advantage. If the gallows instead of the
computer, and the galleys instead of the fines, were the reward of going to a
conventicle, there would not be so many sufferers." These arguments
found high favour with both the Universities. The High Church Party
never suspected the sincerity of their partisan, and charmed and won by


the fierce doctrines of their champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of
their extravagance. It was, however, De Foe's hard fate to be misunder-
stood by both parties. Whilst the High Churchmen congratulated them-
selves on the addition of another advocate, the Dissenters treated him as a
real enemy. The Church Party, however, fell into the trap laid for them
by De Foe; for, by expressing their delight at the fiery sentiments of the
author, they avowed them as their own true feelings on the question. De
Foe subsequently taunts the party thus:-" We have innumerable testi-
monies," he says, with which that party embraced the proposal of send-
ing all the Dissenting ministers to the gallows and the galleys; of having
all their meeting-houses demolished; and being let loose upon the people
to plunder and destroy them." In another place, De Foe characteristically
portrays the common fate of the subtlety of wit, when judged by the mul-
titude. He says-" All the fault I can find with myself as to these people
(the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn the picture, I did not, like the
Dutchman with his man and bear, write under them, This is the man," and
"This is the bear," lest the people should mistake me; and having in a com-
pliment to their judgment shunned so sharp a reflection upon their senses, I
have left them at liberty to treat me like one that put a value upon their
penetration at the expense of my own." The first detection of our author
is said to have been owing to the industry of the Earl of Nottingham, one
of the secretaries of state. When the author's name was known, people
were at no loss to decipher his object; and those who had committed them-
Sselves by launching forth in his praises were stung with madness at their
own folly. It was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe
by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought con-
cealment; when a proclamation was issued by the government, offering 501.
for the discovery of his retreat, and advertised in The London Gazette,"
for January 10, 1702-3. It is as follows:-
Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing a
scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled The Shortest Way with the
SDissenters." He is a middle-sized, spare man, about 40 years old; of a
brown complexion, and dark brown coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hook
: noI.,. a harp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth: was born
Sin L.idon, and for many years was a hose-factor in Freeman's Yard,
"(-rnhill: and now is owner of the brick and pantile works, near Tilbury
For, in Essex: whoever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe to one of
her Majesty's principal secretaries of state, or any of her Majesty's justices
of peace, so he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of 501., which
her Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book be burnt by
the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard." The printer of the
work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from
his retirement, to brave the storm, resolving, as he expresses it, to throw
himself upon the favour of government, rather than that others should be


ruined by his mistake." De Foe was indicted at the Old Bailey sessions,
the 24th of February, 1703, and proceeded to trial in the following July.
It may be gathered from his own account of the prosecution, that when his
enemies had him in their power, they were at a loss to know what to do
with him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the mercy of the
Queen, with a promise of protection; which induced him to quit his defence,
and acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive work. On this,
De Foe was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen; to stand
three times in the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen's pleasure;
and to find sureties for his good behaviour for seven years.
The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence, he was guarded to
the pillory by the populace; and descended from it with the triumphant
acclamations of the surrounding multitude. De Foe has himself related,
that the people, who were expected to treat him very ill, on the con-
trary, pitied him, and wished those who set him there were placed in his
room, and expressed their affections by loud shouts and acclamations when
he was taken down." Tradition reports, that the pillory was adorned with
garlands, it being in the middle of summer. The odium intended for De
Foe, fell upon his persecutors, and the pillory became to him a place of
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe-a spirit elevated
and strengthened by its unconquerable love of truth-is manifested by the
fact, that on the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published A
Hymn to the Pillory!" This poem, which successively passed through
several editions, being eagerly bought up by the people, opens nobly as
"Hail! hieroglyphick state machine,
Contrived to punish fancy in;
Men that are men, in thee can feel no pain,
And all thy insignificant disdain.
Contempt, that false new word for shame,
Is, without crime, an empty name;
A shadow to amuse mankind,
But never frights the wise or well-fixed mind;
Virtue despises human scorn,
And scandals innocence adorn."

De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes, and a prisoner.
In consequence of his imprisonment, he could no longer attend to his pantile
works, which produced the chief source of his revenue, and they were conse-
quently given up. By this affair he lost, as he himself informs us, 3,5001.;
and he had now a wife and six children dependant upon him, with no other
resource for their support than the product of his pen. Hence the leisure
of De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or dissipation.
Some of his subsequent writings leave no doubt that he now stored his


mind with those facts relative to the habits and pursuits of the prisoners,
Which he has detailed with so much nature as well as interest. A great
part of his time was devoted to the composition of political works which our
Limits will not permit us to dwell upon. It was likewise whilst in Newgate
That he projected his Review," a periodical work of four quarto pages,
which was published for nine successive years without intermission; during
the greater part of the time, three times a week, and without having
received any assistance whatever in its production. Throughout this work,
he carried on an unsparing warfare against folly and vice in all their dis-
guises: it pointed the way to the "Tatlers," Spectators," and Guar-
dians," and may be referred to as containing a vast body of matter on
subjects of high interest, written with all the author's characteristic spirit
and vigour.
The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe; but Newgate had
no terrors for him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their
assailant. Upon the accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not
being dissimilar to those of De Foe, the minister made a private communi-
cation to our author, with the view of obtaining his support. No imme-
diate arrangement, however, took place between them, as De Foe remained
a prisoner some months afterwards. Notwithstanding, it is most likely
That the queen became acquainted with De Foe's real merits through the
medium of the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of our
ail..r's sufferings, which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this
purp.ne, she sent money to his wife and family, at the same time transmit-
till i... him a sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses
or.niJing his discharge from prison.
( ii his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party
clamour, and party malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserable
lilIel issued at this time against him, he says, "I tried retirement, and
bantshed myself from the town. I thought, as the boys used to say,
I' ,..1 but fair they should let me alone, while I did not meddle with
Sil-ni. But neither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet, can
cu" .-u a man from the clamour of the pen." In his elegy on the author
'.ol The True-Born Englishman," he alludes to the report that the Tories
had exerted themselves in his favour. He says in answer:-

So I, by Whigs abandoned, bear
The Satyr's unjust lash;
Dye with the scandal of their help,
But never saw their cash."

It appears that in 1705, De Foe was employed by Harley to execute
some mission of a secret nature, which required his presence upon the
continent. The mission, whatever it was, appears to have been attended
with some danger, and to have required his absence for about two months.


Harley seems to have been so well satisfied, that upon De Foe's return, he
was rewarded with an appointment at home. In 1706, De Foe wrote vo-
luminously on the subject of the union with Scotland; which measure lie
advocated with all the strength of his powers. This advocacy obtained for
him a confidential mission to Scotland, where he was received with great
consideration. While in Edinburgh, he published his Caledonia," &c.,
a poem in honour of Scotland and the Scots nation. Of the union, he says
in his Review," I have told Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth,
and shipping, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion of this affair;
and I am pleased doubly with this, that I am likely to be one of the first
men, that shall give them the pleasure of the experiment." In 1708, De
Foe was rewarded with an appointment and a fixed salary. When the
union was completed, he published The Union of Great Britain." In
1710, De Foe resided at Stoke Newington, and appears to have been com-
fortable in his circumstances. In 1712, was closed the last volume of the
" Review." In a long preface to this volume, De Foe has a most eloquent
defence of this work, and of the mode in which he had conducted it.
Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive. In allusions to his
sufferings during the progress of the work, he says I have gone through
a life of wonders,-and am the subject of a vast variety of providence; I
have been fed more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were his
purveyors. I have sometime ago summed up my life in this distich:-

No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.

In the school of affliction, I have learnt more than at the academy,
and more divinity than from the pulpit: in prison, I have learnt to know
that liberty does not consist in open doors, and the free egress and regress
of locomotion. I have seen the rough side of the world as well as the
smooth; and have, in less than half-a-year, tasted the difference between
the closet of a king, and the dungeon of Newgate." This preface may be
considered as a review-a summing up of the events of De Foe's political
life, and as such is of the highest value for the noble spirit of conscious
truth breathing in, and animating every line of it. As a piece of English, it
is exquisite for its innate strength,-the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe,
however, was again doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of Newgate, being
committed there upon the foolish charge of writing libels in favour of the
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer
for thirty years, retired from the thorny field, to the more pleasant paths of
instructive fiction. Whilst writing "An Appeal to Honour and Justice,"
he was struck with apoplexy: he however recovered, and in the early part
of 1715, committed to the press one of his most valuable treatises, "The
Family Instructor." In 1719, appeared the immortal "Robinson Crusoe!"


Nearly the whole circle of booksellers had in vain been can passed for a
publisher. William Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared
a thousand pounds by the work, which rose into immediate popularity,
despite of the rancorous assaults of the petty, vulgar minds abounding
amongst De Foe's political enemies. There can be no doubt, that the idea
of the work was first suggested to De Foe, by the story of Alexander Selkirk,
which had been given to the public seven years before. The enemies of
De Foe charged him with having obtained this man's journal, and from its
contents, producing Robinson Crusoe." The truth is, De Foe was as
much indebted to Selkirk, for the materials used in his immortal work, as
was Vandyke for his portraits, to the colourman who furnished him with
pigments. In a number of The Englishman," Sir Richard Steele gave
* the true and particular history of Selkirk. The place in which Robinson
Crusoe" was composed, has been variously contested. It seems most pro-
bable (says Mr. Wilson) that De Foe wrote it in his retirement, in Stoke-
Newington, where he resided during the principal part of Queen Anne's
reign, in a large white house, re-built by himself, and still standing in
Church-street. The work has been printed in almost every written lan-
guage-has been the delight of men of all creeds and all distinctions-from
the London apprentice in his garret, to the Arab in his tent.
Robinson Crusoe was speedily followed by the Account of Dickory
Crooke," the Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton," the History of
Duncan Campbell," the Fortunes and Misfortunes of Mloll Flanders," the
Life of Colonel Jacque," the Memoirs of a Cavalier," and that extraor-
dinary work, the Account of the Plague." We might possibly have laid
before the reader a correct list of the multifarious productions of our author,
many of them, until of late, most difficult to be obtained-had not the spirit
of the times called for complete editions of De Foe's Works; most wel-
come and valuable offerings to the reading part of the nation.
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of competence,
a most honourable competence, insured to him by his works, and the
rapidity with which editions followed editions. There is, however, a too
miserable proof of his sufferings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and un-
dutifulness of his son, who, to quote a letter of De Foe, written in his
anguish, has both ruined my family and broken my heart." De Foe
adds,-" I depended upon him, I trusted him, I gave up my two dear un-
provided children into his hands; but he has no compassion, and suffers
them and their poor dying mother to beg their bread at his door, and to
cr i.:. .s if it were an alms, what he is bound under hand and seal, besides
tl.. i.:.:t sacred promises, to supply them with; himself, at the same time,
lii ,.; rn a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me."
F...r some years before his death, De Foe was tormented with those dread-
UIf Il i.,ldies, the gout and the stone, occasioned, in part, most probably by
S..i i.1:e application to study, whilst making posterity the heirs of undying
:..I..ii De Foe expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was about


seventy years of age, having been born in the year 1661. The parish of
St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in which he drew his first breath, was also destined
to receive his last. lie was buried from thence, on the 26th of April, in Tin-
dall's burial-ground, now most known by the name of Bunhill-Fields. His
wife died at the latter end of the following year. De Foe left six children,
two sons and four daughters, whose descendants are living at the present
lThe character of De Foe was but the practical example of his noblest
writings. As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience, the
cheerfulness with which lie endured the obloquy and persecution of his
enemies, endear himn to us as a great working benefactor to his race. His
memory is enshrined with the memories of those who make stedfast our
faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature. As a writer, De Foe
has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of the highest and the most useful
wisdom. If lie paint vice, it is to shew its hideousness ; whilst virtue itself
receives a new attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguished
for its fine common sense; it has no flights-it never wraps us by its
imagination, but convinces us by its terseness; by the irresistible eloquence
of its truth. De Foe's prose, though occasionally careless, is remarkable
for its simplicity and strength. What lie has to say, le says in the shortest
mater, and in the simplest style. lie does not-the vice of our day-
Iide his thoughts under a glittering mass of words, but uses words as the
pictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this unforced power,
that De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden volume
now offered to the reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of the
despair of Crusoe, we have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a won-
drotus delineation of the soul of man in a most trying and most terrible
hour. De Foe is, in the most emphatic sense of the word, an English
writer. Cobbeit has been compared to him: and in many of the minor
parts of authorship there is, certainly, a similitude ; but Cobbett was sin-
iularly deficient of imagination, the power which gave a colour and a
beauty to all that De Foe touched, even though of the homeliest and most
promising materials.

,: 0".--

to ,

* ) 1 j $A






country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who
settled first at Hull: he got
a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving offhis trade,
lived afterwards at York;
--.from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations


were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we are now called,-nay we call
our selves, and write our name, Crusoe ; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant-colonel to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what
was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my
father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of
learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school gene-
rally go, and designed me for the law ; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called ine one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons more than a mere wandering inclination I had for-
leaving my father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it
was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, and who went abroad upon adventures, to
rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in ii'.L i, kiii oI- a
nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me ; that mine was the middle state,
or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had


found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.


lie bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part of
mankind ; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and
was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part
of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers,
and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their
way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty
were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; that temperance, modera-
tion, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all
desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of
life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the
world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread,
or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest ; nor enraged with the passion of envy,
or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy,
and learning by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, lie pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to
have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread ; that lie would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had been just recommending
to me ; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and
settle at home as lie directed, so he would not have so much hand in


my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away: and
to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed;
and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
1 say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when lie spoke of my brother who was killed: and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so
full he could say no more to me.
1 was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could
be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of myn father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily neither as the
first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time
when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to any thing with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if
I did, I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if
she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I would
promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.


This put my mother into a great passion : she told me she knew
it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such sub-
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent
to any thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father
had used to me ; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me ; but I might depend I should never have their con-
sent to it: that for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
-*. ., when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, 1 heard
afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after she-wing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh,
"l That boy might be happy if lie would stay at home ; but if he goes
abroad he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I
can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment that time ; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me
to go with them, with the common allurement of a sea-faring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but,
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing,
or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber but the
wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner;


and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick
in body and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my
duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach of
my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since : no, nor
what I saw a few days after : but it was enough to affect me then.
who was but a young sailor, and had never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more : in this agony of
mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore;
and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after: but the next day, the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it : however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-
sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.


I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion who had indeed enticed me away, comes to
me, Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how

.... __----.-....

do you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, wer' n't you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ? "-" A cap-full d'you call
it said I; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you,"
replies he, do you call that a storm ? why it was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that ; but you re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye


sec what charming weather 't is now.'" To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was
made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the
sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness
by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot tile vows and promises that I made in my distress. I
found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes ; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over my conscience, as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire : but 1
was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse:
for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
an one, as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the River.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh ; and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as an harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after


the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make every thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet anchor, so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-



selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say several times, Lord, be merciful to us !
we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone! and the like. During
these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in
the steerage, and cannot describe my temper : I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been
past; and that this would be nothing too like the first : but when
the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted: I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw ; the sea
went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes:
when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us :
two ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which
rid about a mile a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at
all adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships
fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea ; but two or
three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only
their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very un-
willing to do: but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
Saway the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship
. so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
Swho was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having
returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first,


than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the
storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wal-

T'n- j I', ., /

.,.,,,* '- V

-;i 1
I -ii,,N : :

lowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out, she
would founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I enquired. However, the
storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master,
the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to

;--s--~ ----


the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest o'
our distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four teet
water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very word, my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell
backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that 1, that was able to
do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another ; at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able
to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of dis-
tress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, was so surprised, that
I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fill down in a swoon. As this
was a time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or what was become of me ; but another man stepped
up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie.
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while betire I came
to myself.
W e worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began
to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we
might run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us, ven-
tured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the
boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out
a great length, which they, after much labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the
boat, to think of reaching to their own ship ; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could;

Till 1.11" AND AD1VElNTURIi'ES

and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon
shore, lie would make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness. *
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking ; for from that moment they rather put me into the
boat, than that I might be said to go in ; my heart was, as it were.
dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and
the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition,-the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore,-we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand to assist us when we should come
near ; but we made but slow way towards the shore ; nor were we
able to reach the shore, till, being past the light-house at Winterton.
lie shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the
town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either
to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had 1 now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads,
it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my
reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no


power to do it. 1 know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it
is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments
of our owni destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning
and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who wa.
the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ; and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, asked me how I did,
and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage
only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father turning to
me, with a very grave and concerned tone, Young man," says he,
"you ought never to go to sea any more ; you ought to take this for
a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
" Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more?" That is
another case," said he, it is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has
all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.
Pray," continues he, what are you; and on what account did you
go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of
which he burst out into a strange kind of passion : "What had I
done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come into my
ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a
thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than lie could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand
of Ieaven against me.' And young man," said he, depend upon


it. if! ou do not go back, whenever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more ; which way lie went, I know not. As for me, having
some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course
of life 1 should take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts: and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my father and mother only, but even every body else ; from whence
I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason

--c~-~~ 2_


-which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., lihat they. are ioi
ashamed to sin. and yet are ashamed to repent not ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,. uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible
reluctance continued to going home and as I stayed a while, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as thai
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's
house,-which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties
and even the commands of my father: I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view ; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa:
or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the
duty and office of a foremast-man ; and in time might have qualified
myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had any
business in the ship, nor learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and unguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with me. I first fell
acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved

lo ;o again : liii captain taking a lancy to miy colnvlrsation, which
was not at all disa1greceable at that time, hearing menc say I had a mind
a) see the world, told Ino if I would go the voyage with him I should
i,, at no expei'e : I shjouild be his messnmate and his companion; and
ir I coild carry any thing with me, I should have all the advantage
of i that the trade wouiild admit: and perhaps I iight meet with some
enllcO1urall emclit.
I tembiraced tile oile'r: and entering into a strict friendship with
I liis captain, who was an honest plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honest of my ftieild tile captain. I increased very consider-
;ably: Il- 1 carried alhout C 10 in sichl toys iland trifles as the captain
ditectid mie to huv. 'This (i 1I had mustered together li thet
as.ista'ce of' some of' my relations whom I corresponded witli; and
o hi. I believe, got my xlataher. or at least inm mother, to contribute
ii, lmuch as that to im lirst advent ure.
This vi as the only voyxtag," which I lma say was successful in all
my adve\ntui'res, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
trieudi tile captain: u under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the maithenmatits and the rules ot' navigation, learned how to keep an
accoumll of' tlie ship's 'coise, take an observation, and, ili short, to
lundelrstand some things that were needful to be understood bv ;a
sailor : for, as lie took delight to introduce me. I took delight to learn :
and. in a woird, this voyage miadc lilt both a sailor and a merchant :
lor I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gnold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded ime in London, at inl return, almost 300.
and this filled me witl those aspiring tlouights which have since so
completedtit my ruin.
Yet even ill this vovage I had my misfortunes too; particularly.
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by
the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the
coast, from the latitude of' 15 degrees north even to the line itself.
Sxwas lnow set up for a (Guincea trader; and my friend, to nlv great
mistfortune, dvinllg soon after his arrival, I resolved to go tlhe same
\voy-ag again aln I embarked in tlie same vessel with one who iw;s

T I 1 1, 1 i F I. % 11 11 ,p N I,,, I I. it I"


his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage;
and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore,
Swas surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,

who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to have got clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broad-
side upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire, and pouring in also his small-shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all
< i ',

which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all


our men keeping close. lHe prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, lie entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-
diately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied
them with snmall-slot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men
killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was 1 carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a miserable slave, 1 was perfectly overwhelmed; and now
I looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I
should le miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so eftectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of' leaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption : but, alas this was but a taste of the misery 1
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that lie would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would sometime or other be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; fbr
when lie went to sea, lie left me on shore to look after his little garden,
and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house ; and when he
came home again from his cruise, lie ordered me to lie in the cabin to
look after the ship.
Here 1 meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probabi-
lity in it : nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me,
no fellow slave. no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but


myself; so that for two years, though 1 often pleased myself with
the imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of
putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual with-
out fittin out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money,
be used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road
a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young Maresco with him
to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dex-
terous in catching fish ; inlsomuch that sometimes lie would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth-the Maresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm morn-
ing, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half-a-league from
the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night, and when the
morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in
for the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from the shore:
however, we got well in again, though with a great deal of labour and
some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat
ol o.ir English ship lie had taken, he resolved lie would not go a-
fiiung anymore without a compass and some provision; so he ordered
the u.irpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a
'little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of
a Lt irg-., %ith a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the
nm:]in-.-h ..l ; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work
the .1l: -lie sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and
tlie h..-.in gibed over the top of the cabin; which lay very snug and
Slo%. .lid lhd in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table
i Lo .t i..n, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such


liquor as he thought fit to drink; and particularly his bread, rice,
and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It hap-
pened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or tor fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place,
;ind for whom lie had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordi-
nary: and had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with powder and
shot. whIich were on board his ship ; for that they designed some sport
of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things read as he had directed, and waited the next
lmornling with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,
;i ved every thing to accommodate his guests ; when by-and-by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
upon some business that fell out, and ordered me with the man
and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish,
for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and commanded that as
soon as 1 got some fish I should bring it home to his house ; all which
I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now 1 found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand ; and my master being gone, 1 prepared to furnish myself, not
fbr fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew not, neither did
I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere, to get
out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told him
we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread ; he said, that was
true : so lie brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind,
and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master: I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat,


which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great
use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Another
trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also : his name
was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him,
"Moely," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you
not get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a foul like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship." Yes," says he, I'll bring some;"
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound
and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat; at the



-.- _2_ : ;


same time, I had found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which
was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us : and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire ; for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not
see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do ; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off." IIe, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat set the sails; and, as
I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and then
brought her to as if I would fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm
under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged
to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him,
and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none : But," said I, "you swim well enough to
reach to the shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way
to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat,
I 'l shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty :" so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and
I make no doubt but lie reached it with ease, for he was an excellent

i s-

If you will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahlimct
and his father's beard, I must throw you into the sea too."


I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and
said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I '11 make you a
great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,"
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must throw
you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to sur-
round us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that
I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's domi-
nions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dread-
ful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not
stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair
till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting
to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make
to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I
knew not what, or where; neither what latitude, what country,
what nation, or what river: I neither saw, or desired to see any


people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as
it was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may be we
may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, make
them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not
what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and


run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the plea-
sure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howling
and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast ; Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
" No," says I, Xury ; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it,
and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous
cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the
gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had never
heard before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore
for us in the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the
day was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
hands of lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of
the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ; when or
where to get it, was the point: Xury said, if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ? why I should
not go, and he stay in the boat? The .boy answered with so much
affection, that made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury," said I, "we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they


shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles which I men-
tioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and so waded on shore; carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards
towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs : however,
we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.

C Uc-Nr=j,-~-~=


But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up ;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to
take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and not
exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were
in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea
towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till
I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some
of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was, must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's do-
minions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for
fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness: and, indeed, both forsaking it because of
the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious
creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand
men at a time: and, indeed, for near an hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day,
and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Te-
neriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.


Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place ; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we
came to an anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury,
whose eyes were more about him than it sems mine were, calls softly
to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore ; for,"
says he, "look yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that
hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth ;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie stilk and I took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets ; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with
five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece
to have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little
above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke
fell down again ; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had
not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second piece imme-
diately, and, though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore; "Well, go," said I; so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam
to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put
the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food ; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would

1: '- ---- -
-. -


I; -_

The slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.



have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I. Me cut off his head,"
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off
a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might,
one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off
his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to
do it. Indeed it took us both up the whole day, but at last we got
off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the
sun effectually dried it in two day's time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we
were obliged to for fresh water ; my design in this was, to make the
River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship;
and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea
or to Brasil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands;
and in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw them
a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with


them by signs as well as I could ; and particularly made signs for
something to eat ; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ; but
we neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we were
willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us : but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it
to the shore and laid it -down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea ; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter ; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come
for their diversion: at last, one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head : immediately, he sank down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to
the shore ; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.


It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun ; some of them were even
ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I
made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came
to the shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him by
his blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which I
slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and
fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands
with admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this
creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;

T .- h

-- :-= ---- .. 7L-


which, when I made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs
for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
stand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to shew
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called
immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women,
and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed
in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing, to make this point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side,
to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the
boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail !" and the foolish
boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of
his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and im-
mediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was


a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound o the coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered,
I was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out
to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them : but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by he help of their per-
spective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened
sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had
my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots
sailor, who was on board, called to me; and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors, at Sallee: they then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came
to the Brasils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no
other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may,
one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides," said he, when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way
from your own country, if I should take from you what you have,
you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have


given. No, no," says he; Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman),
" I will cariy you thither in charity, and those things will help to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
offer to touch anything I had : then he took everything into his
own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that lie saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for my ship's use ; and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him, he had been so generous to
me in every thing, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me lie would
give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at
Brasil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more
for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was not
willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the
poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian : upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to do next with myself,
I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which
I had in my boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be
punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought
of me; such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of


the lump of bees-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest : in a
word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all
my cargo ; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio as they
call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar house). I lived with him

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some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner
of planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolving,
in the mean time, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of a letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was un-


cured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock which
I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as
I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his ; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come : but we both wanted help ; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an
employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and
broke through all his good advice : nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised
me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world,
as I had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five
thousand miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilder-
ness, and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then
this neighbour ; no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands;
and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some
desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has
it been! and how should all men reflect that when they compare
their present conditions with others that are worse, heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former


felicity by their experience I say, how just has it been that the
truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation,
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the
life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all pro-
bability, been exceeding prosperous and rich !
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea went back; for the ship remained there, in providing
his lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice: Seignior Inglese," says he,
for so he always called me, if you will give me letters, and a pro-
curation here in form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but,
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which,
you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first,
so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portu-
gal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition
I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply ; and
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but
a full account of my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her : whereupon she not only delivered the money,


but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to
him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils:

among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it ; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under

~41~ i


bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any considera-
tion, except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being
of my own produce.
Neither was this all ; but my goods being all English manufac-
tures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable
and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very
great advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times
the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor
neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation : for the
first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and an European
servant also: I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of
tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for neces-
saries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of
above a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increasing in business
and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was
now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life,
and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of: but other things attended me, and I was still to be the
wilful agent of all my own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were
procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination
of wandering abroad; and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which
nature and providence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.


As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy
view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast myself down again
into the deepest gulph of human misery that ever man fell into, or
perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state of health in the
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part
of story :-You may suppose, that having now lived almost four
years in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and
that, in my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissars,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea
grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the
Brasils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes ;
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or permission
of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public
stock; so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to
me : and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had
a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea ; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as


servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes
on shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations:
and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very consider-
able, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus
entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other


hundred pounds from England; and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or
four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever
man, in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when
my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after
my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so : and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case of my death;
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life as before, my
universal heir ; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one half of the produce being to himself, and
the other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation : had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the pro-
bable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy, rather than my reason : and accordingly, the ship being fitted
out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st
of September, 1659, being the same day eight year that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty ton burden, carried
six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself;
we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as


were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissars, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast, when they came about ten or twelve degrees of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in
those days. We had very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape
St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on
the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge; it began from the south-east, came about to
the north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22 degrees
of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brasil, beyond the river Amazons, toward that of the river
Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of


I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for
Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the
bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our
ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise determined; for,
being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all
our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country,
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning cried out, Land !" and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished immediately; and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like condition,
to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circum-
stances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven ; whether an island or the main, whether inhabited
or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes, without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another


world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this : that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and
had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place,
she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there
was no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the
ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful
high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the
Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none : nor,
if we had, could we have done any thing with it; so we worked at
the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going
to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the
sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the




gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps
made smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but
as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it
took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and sepa-
rating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not
time hardly to say, God!" for we were all swallowed up in a


Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water 1 took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to
make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high
as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by
swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being, that the sea,
as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came
on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with
all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so,
yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and
till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran,
with what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring


in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me ; for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite
out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in the water : but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not to high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till
the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over
me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and
the next run I took, I got to the main land; where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave: and I do not wonder now at the custom, viz., that when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him ; I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that th surprise may not
drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliver-

* *


I ,J -II T

I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upo tihe grars.



ance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them,
I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three
of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place 1
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either to eat or
drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but
that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts:
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my pro-
vision ; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a
while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were
any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was
to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,
I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so as that if I should sleep, I might not fall; and having cut
me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my


lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep,
and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition; and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think
I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but
that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the
night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it.
This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

..h-*i- s;-'


When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her ; but found a neck, or inlet, of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the
ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship :
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to
be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was.
This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was little relief
in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my
clothes, for the whether was hot to extremity, and took the water ;
but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
so low, as that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold;
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free :
and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and un-
touched by the water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it
as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,


and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was
before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself
with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application: we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung
as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying
every one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied
bour of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was
not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light : so I
went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessa-
ries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
MIy next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the


chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon
the sand, swim away ; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work
with on shore: and it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without
losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.


- 'I


My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols;
these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, or rudder ; and the least cap-full of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea; 2dly,
The tide rising, and setting in to the shore ; 3dly, What little wind
there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having fund two
or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer;
and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port
to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think verily would have broke my heart ; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little
that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and
so fallen into the water. I did my utmost by setting my back against
the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in but, holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that

I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel.

,, ,





manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the
oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again ; for that shore lying pretty steep,-that is to say, sloping,
-there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran
on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of
water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground; one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side,
near the other end: and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or an island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited ;
whether in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, north-
ward. I took out one of the fowling pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up


to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour and
difficulty, got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz.
that I was in an island, environed every way with the sea ; no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the
I found also that the island I was in was barren; and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except'by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit
for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the crea-
tion of the world : I had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of
the wood, there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts,
making a confused screaming, and crying, every one according to his
usual note ? but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of
that day: what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed
where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not
knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though, as I after-
wards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a
hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way
to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like
hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and 1 resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if


possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I had got every thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I
called a council,-that is to say, in my thoughts,-whether I should
take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved
to go as before, when the tide was down ; and I did so, only that I
stripped before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a che-
quered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me : as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen
or two of hatchets ; and, above all, that most useful thing called a
grindstone. All these I secured together, with several things belong-
ing to the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more ; a large bag-full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but
when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a
creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came
towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat
very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her,
but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at
it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,


smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I
thanked her, and could spare no more : so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,-though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large casks,- I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose ; and into
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a
circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either
from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my
head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and
slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy ; for the
night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as
well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man : but I was not satisfied still : for while the
ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything
out of her that I could : so every day, at low water, I went on board,
and brought away something or other; but particularly the third
time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could ; for they were' no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with ;-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and
three large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given


over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in
a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard,
and everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all
those heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck began now
to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that
after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself
it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected
would have been of great use to me: however, when the tide was
out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour; for 1 was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought
away the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth time
to go on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low
water, I went on board; and though I thought I had rummaged the
cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet I dis-
covered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money,-some European coin, some Brasil, some pieces-
of-eight, some gold, and some silver.



-' ---- ~ --~)I

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money : 0 drug !" said I
aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me,-no,
not the taking off of the ground ; one of those knives is worth all
this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away ; and
wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making
another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-


cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it
was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore ; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly,
I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel which
lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and
partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night,
and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to
be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me;
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did ; but those things were of
small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,-whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth: and, in short,
I resolved upon both; the manner and description of which, it may
not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, par-
ticularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea,
and I believed it would not be wholesome ; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it ; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would


be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just now
mentioned: 2ndly, Shelter from the heat of the sun : 3rdly, Security
from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts : 4thly, A view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage
for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as
a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little
way in, like the entrance or door of a cave ; but there was not really
any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad,
and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door ; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low
ground by the sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill;
so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near
the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the
rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of the ground about five feet and a-llalfand sharpened
on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to tile top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a-half high, like a spur to
a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and



labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by
a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I
lifted over after me ; and so I was completely fenced in and forti-
fied, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure
in the night, which otherwise I could not have done ; though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.




Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all im provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above ; and I made me a large tent, which, to preserve
me from tie rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there,
I made double, viz. one smaller tent within, and one larger tent
above it: and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I
had saved among the sails.
And now 1 lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good
one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance which till now I bad left open, and so passed
and repasseLd, as I said, by a short ladder.
IWhen I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace,
so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a-half; and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection ; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time, it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
lent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that,
a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it; I was
not so much surprised with the' lightning, as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my
powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at
one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger,
though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who had
hurt me.



S ,

A- L .

I presently discovered that there were goats in the island.





Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and ap-
plied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to
keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might
come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that
it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet,
I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at
least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me ; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at them: but I was
not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot
one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in
the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me ; from whence I con-
cluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that
were above them: so, afterwards, I took this method,-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently
a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily ; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by


her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when 1
carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill
it, and ate it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I
did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences
I made, I shall give a full account of in its place : but I must now
give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent
storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great
way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determi-
nation of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin
its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so without
help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me : and particularly, one day, walking
with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were, expos-
tulated with me the other way, thus : Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true ; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you '
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the ten ?
Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were you singled
out ? Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the


sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them,
and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not hap-
pened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated
from the place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her : what would
have been my case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or neces-
saries to supply and procure them ? Particularly," said I, aloud
(though to myself), what should I have done without a gun, without
a;imunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with.
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?" and
that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of
subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the beginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and strength
should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast,-I mean my powder being blown up by
lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9
degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books,


and pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath days from the
working days : but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a
large post, in capital letters ; and making it into a great cross, I set
it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., I came on shore here
on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and


every first day of the month as long again as that long one; and
thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper ; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation ; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no : also I found three very good bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three
Popish prayer books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog,
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something, in its place : for I carried both the cats with me ; and as
for the dog, lie jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years ; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me ; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them
to the utmost; and I shall shew that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone I could not; for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, this of ink
was one ; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it
was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or
surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as


heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing
in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home ; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts,
and a third day in driving it into the ground ; for which purpose, I
got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of'
one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it
made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything
I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any
other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or
less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind : and as my
reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort
myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I
stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor,-the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible, de-
solate island, void of all hope of
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to be

I am divided from mankind,-a
solitaire; one banished from human
I have not clothes to cover me.

But I am alive; and not drowned,
as all my ship's company were.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and he that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and pe-
rishing on a barren place, affording
no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.


I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island
means to resist any violence of man where I see no wild beasts to hurt
or beast. me, as I saw on the coast of Africa:
and what if I had been shipwrecked
there ?
I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have gotten out so many ne-
cessary things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it:
and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may always find in
it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description
of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,-I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accommo-
date my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside : and after
some time (I think it was a year and a-half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found
at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room
to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther
into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to


the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe
as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock; and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.


This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back-way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and a table; for
without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the
world ; I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much
pleasure, without a table: so I went to work. And here I must



needs observe, that as reason is the substance and original of the
mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and
by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be,
in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in my life ; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things,
even without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and a
hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other wav but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and
hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the
prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it
was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a
foot and a-half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to
lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on ; and, in a word, to separate
everything at large in their places, that I might come easily at them.
I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up : so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind;
and my journal would have been full of many dull things: for ex-


ample, I must have said thus, Sept. 30th. After I got to shore,
and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my
deliverance, having first vomited with the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a
little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my
head and face; exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was
undone, undone!' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose ; but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to
the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing
a ship ; then fancy at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself
with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite and sit down and weep like a child, and thus
increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal; of which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will
be told all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted ; for,
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.


Septemberr 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore
on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called The Island of
Despair;" all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me; either that I should be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of


food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand, for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved, we
might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things ; but, at length,
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather : but,
it seems, this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it;
but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I reco-
vered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time, the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing
a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from
any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a

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