The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
viii, 271 p., 10 leaves of plates : ill. (1 col.) ; 14 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Doudney, David Alfred, 1811-1894 ( Printer )
Darton & Clark ( Publisher )
Darton and Clark
Place of Publication:
London (Holborn Hill)
D.A. Doudney
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1845   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


Statement of Responsibility:
written by himself.
General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Variant(?) of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 283, and NUC Pre-1956 0118663, both dated 183-. This printing does not have or is wanting the added ill. t.p. It has one more plate and a different front. from the Lovett description.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 27566807
System ID:

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City Press, 1, Long Lane:
D. A. Doudney.



THE original name of the author of Robinson Crusoe,
was Daniel Foe; which from caprice, or some other
motive, he lengthened with a prefix, calling himself
De Foe. He was a native of London, born in the
year 1660, of humble parentage, his father, James
Foe, exercising the occupation of a butcher. Daniel
De Foe, in the commencement of his career, engaged
in trade: from the business of a hosier he passed to
that of a pantile maker, without any good fortune.
Either from want of prudence, or from dislike to his
occupations, the only reward of his schemes was em-
barrassment and distress.
In the speculations of the literary world he was
more fortunate. In 1701, when King William, dur-
ing the violence of parties, was censured for his at-
tachment to, and employment of, foreigners, De Foe
espoused the cause of his monarch, and ridiculed his

h,^ y.. ',-

enemies in a satirical poem, called, The true-born
Englishman." This production was honoured with an
enormous sale: and he was encouraged to write an-
other satire, entitled, "Reformation of Manners," in
which he attacked the vices of some persons of emi-
nent rank.
A pamphlet, called, The shortest way with the
Dissenters," was so mistaken, or so misrepresented,
that it was declared, by the House of Commons, to be
of a libellous nature. De Foe, for his offence, was
subjected to fine, imprisonment, and even the pillory.
He did not give his enemies much reason to exult over
his despondence; for the subject which he took to amuse
his prison hours, was, "A Hymn to the Pillory."
During his confinement he also undertook the Re-
view," a periodical work of considerable importance,
in the republic of learning, if, as has been imagined,
it suggested the idea of the Tatler and Spectator,
which have enriched our language with essays of in-
comparable beauty.
De Foe was employed in promoting the union of
England and Scotland, of which event he also wrote
the history. Whatever glory he gained from inter-
fering in the bitter differences of politics, he gained
little solid satisfaction. A second imprisonment,
which he suffered, taught him the fate which he was

to expect from the animosity of political opponents.
He began to take a more quiet and useful path of lite-
rature in 1715, and published a religious work, called
" The Family Instructor." Of the multitude of his
other productions, specific notice is scarcely necessary.
It is sufficient to mention The History of the Plague
in 1665 ;" a novel entitled, The History of Colonel
Jack ;"" A new Voyage round the World by a Com-
pany of Merchants;" "The History of Roxana;"
" The Memoirs of a Cavalier;" The History of Moll
Flanders;" and a book entitled, Religious Court-
ship," which has passed through numerous editions.
But De Foe's reputation, in the present day, rests
chiefly upon his "Robinson Crusoe," a work which
almost everyone has read in his childhood, and the
pleasing impressions of which are scarcely obliterated
in old age. Its simple and perspicuous style is admir-
ably suited to the capacity of youth: it possesses
enough of the marvellous to seize and delight the
imagination; and the sentiments which it inspires,
arc such as need not be renounced or corrected in ma-
ture age. Respecting this work there is a story which
it is incumbent to relate, although it never has been
fairly authenticated. It has been affirmed,* that when
C: pain Woodes Rogers touched at the island of Juan
Encyclopedia Britannica.

Fernandez, in the South Sea, he brought away Alex-
ander Selkirk, a Scotch seaman, who, having been
left ashore there, had lived upon the island in desolate
solitude, for the space of four years. When Selkirk
returned to England, it is said that he wrote a narra-
tive of his adventures, and put the papers into the
hands of De Foe, to digest for publication; but that
he ungenerously converted the materials into the cele-
brated History of Robinson Crusoe. Part of this story
may be true, and part false. That De Foe might have
had the inspection of Selkirk's journal, is very possi-
ble; and by his powers of description, and skill in
composition, he might have expanded into an enter-
taining narrative, what, in its original form, was a dull
and awkward composition. But that he was guilty of
any fraud or injustice towards Selkirk, is a suspicion
which his character of general integrity should induce
us to reject. As there is no credible proof against him,
we are bound to give him an acquittal; both because
he is not able to vindicate himself, and one who has
so entertained the rising generation, has more than
an ordinary right not to be condemned upon doubtful
Daniel De Foe died at Islington, in the year 1731.
His daughter was respectably settled in life, by marry-
ing Henry Baker, an eminent naturalist.


I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that county, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving off
his trade, lived afterward at York; from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named :.
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and friq-
whom I was called Robinson Krutenaer; but, by.i
usual corruption of words in .En~itd, we are 'oiP~r
called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,
Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers ; one of whom was lieuten-
ant colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flandew.i
formerly commanded by the famous Oponel Locklartt, -.
and was killed at the battle near Duikirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did
know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and-inot bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as
house education and a country free-school generally
goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my incli-

nation to this led me so strongly against the will, nay,
the commands of my father, and against all the en-
treaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked
me what reasons, more than a wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father's house, and my native
country; where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of rising my fortune by application and
industry, with alife of ease and pleasure. He told me
it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of
aspiring superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and
make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all
too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, and envyof
the upper part of mankind He told me, I mightjudge
of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz., that
this was the state of life which all other people envied;
that kings havefrequently lamented the miserable con-
sequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the Wise man

gave his.testmony to this, as the just standard of true fe-
licity, when he prayed neither to have poverty norriches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the up-
per and lower part of mankind; but that the middle
stations had the fewest disasters, and were not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of
mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many dis-
tempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind. as
those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extra-
vagances, on one hand, or by hard labour, want of
necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet, on the
other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; tha.
temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, a&Ul' ,
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that .
this way men went silently and smoothly through the- "''
world, and comfortably out of it; not embarrassed
with the labours of the hands, or of the head; not
sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed-
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the. .t
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition --
for great things: but in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the
sets of living without the bitter; feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day's experience to
know it more sensibly,
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature, and the station of

life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; ,that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour
to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I were not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere
fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt. In a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed; so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away: and to close all, he told me, I had
my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars; but could not pre-
vail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed: and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and I would have leisure here-
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not
know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears
run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed: and that when
he spoke of my having leisure to repent and none to
assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full, he could say
no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as in-
deed who could be otherwise ? And I resolved not to


think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few
days wore it all off; and in short, to prevent any of
my father's further importunities, in a few weeks I re-
solved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act so hastily neither, as the first heat of my resolu-
tion prompted; but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told
her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that 1 should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it; and my father
had better give me his consent, than force me to go
without it : that I was now eighteen years old, which
was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, but I should certainly run away
from my master before my time was out, and go to
sea: and if she would speak to my father to let me go
one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise by
a double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told
me, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to
my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing, after the dis-
course I had with my father, and such kind and ten-
der expressions, as she knew my father had used to
me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there
was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it : that, for her part, she
would not have so much hand in my destruction; and
I should never have it to say, that my mother was
willing, when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterward that she reported all the dis-
course to him ; and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That
the boy might be happy, if he would stay at home ,
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it.'
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the mean time I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclination prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement that time; but, I
say, being there, and one of my companions being
going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and
prompting me to go with them, with the common al-
lurement of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of
it: but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The
ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind
began to blow, and the sea to rise, in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what
I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the

judgment of Heaven, for my wickedness in leaving
my father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind;
and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached
me with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my
duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after.
But it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and have never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more. In this agony of mind, I
made many vows and resolutions, that if it pleased
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got '
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived: that I would take his advice and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations
about the middle station of life, how easy, how com-
fortable, he had lived all his days, and never been ex-
posed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore : and, in :
short, I resolved that I would like a true repenting
prodigal go home to my father,
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; hut the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it.
However I was very grave all that day, being also a
little sea-sick still: but towards night the weather

cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed: the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose so the next morning and having lit-
tle or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful: looking with wonder
upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so lit-
tle a time after. And now, lest my resolution should
continue, my companion, who indeed had enticed me
away, comes to me: 'Well, Bob,' says he, clapping
me upon the shoulder, 'how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted wa'n't you, last night, when
it blew but a capfull of wind ?' A capfull d'you call
it?' said I, "twas a terrible storm.' 'A storm you
fool you!' replies he: 'do you call that a storm?
Why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
of wind as that: but, you're but a fresh-water
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that. D'you see what charming
weather 'tis now ?' To make short this sad part of my
story, we went the way of all sailors: the punch was
made, and I was made half drunk with it, and in that
one night's wickedness I drowned all my re-
pentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to its smoothness of
surface, and settled calmness, by the abatement of that
storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my
fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the
sea being forgotten, and the current of former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that


I made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals
of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
then off, and roused myself from them, as it were from
a distemper; and applying myself to drinking and
company, soon mastered the return of those fits (for
so I called them); and I had, in five or six days, got
as complete a victory over conscience, as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could de-
sire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, re-
.olved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I
would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such a one, as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into
Yarmouth Roads: the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since' the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor: and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days:
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle
came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we
should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of dan-
ger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea: but thfe eighth day in the morning
the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to

strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon, the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered
out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet, as
he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him, softly to himself, say several times, 'Lord, be
merciful to us We shall be all lost: we shall be all
undone !' and the like. During these first hurries I
was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill
resume my first penitence, which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I
thought the bitterness of death had been past; and
that this would be nothing too, like the first. But
when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes. When I could look about, 1 could
see nothing but distress round us. Two ships that
rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the
board, being deep loaden ; and our men cried out, that
a ship, which rid about a mile ahead of us was
foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that not with a mast standing. The light

ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away, with only their sprit-sail out, be-
fore the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain beg-
ged the master of our ship to let them cut away the
fore-mast which he was very unwilling to do; but the
boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the
ship would founder, he consented: and when they
had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But, if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in ten-fold more horror of
mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, then I was at death itself;
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet: the storm con-
tinued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had
a good ship, but she was deep loaden, and so swallowed
in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was
so violent, that I saw what is not often see, the mas-
ter, the boatswain, and some others more sensible
than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment that the ship would go to the bottom. In
the middle of the night, and under all the rest of

our distresses, one of the men that had been down
on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak;
another said, there were four feet water in the hole.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I
fell backwards upon the side of the bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However the men roused me, and told
me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as
well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up,
and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master who seeing some
light colliers, which not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of dis-
tress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so
surprised, that I thought the ship had broken, or some
dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so sur-
prised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a
time when every body had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me : but an-
other man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been
dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hole,
it was apparent that the ship would founder; and
though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was
not possible she could swim till we might run into any
port, so the master continued firing guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured awbeat out to help us. It was with the ut-
most hazard the boat came near us; but ft was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship-side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our


men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after much labour and hazard, took hold of ; and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship: so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull
her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon
shore, he would make it good to their master. So
partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away
to the northward, sloping towards the shore, almost as
far as Wintertonness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had
hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put
me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in;
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror, of mind, and the thoughts
of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people running
along the strand to assist us when we should come
near. But we made but slow way towards the shore;
nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past
the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer; and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in;
and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
on shore; and walked afterward on foot to Yarmouth,


where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants
and owners of ships ; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing
the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances
that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason, and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do
it. I know not what to call this; nor will I urge,
that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
though it be before us, and that we push upon it with
our eyes open, Certainly, nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it
was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of
my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible
instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for
we were separated in the town to several quarters; I
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was
altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, asked me how I did: and telling his father

who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for
a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his father turning
to me with a very grave and concerned tone, 'Young
man,' says he, 'you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token, that you are not to be a seafaring man.' 'Why,
sir,' said I, will you go to sea no more ?' 'That is
another case,' said he ; it is my calling, and therefore
my duty; but, as you made this voyage for a trial,
you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist: perhaps all this has
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of
Tarshish. Pray,' continued he, 'what are you? and
on what account did you go to sea ?' Upon that I told
him some of my story; at the end of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion. What had I done,'
says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again for a thousand pounds !' This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which
were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than he could have authority to go. However,
he afterward talked very gravely to me, exhorting me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see the visible hand of
Heaven against me: 'And, young man,' said he,
'depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you
go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and dis-
appointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went, I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself, what course


of life I should take, and whether I should go home,
or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately oc-
curred to me how I should be laughed at among the
neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even every body else.
From whence I have since often observed how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason that ought to
guide them in such cases; viz. that they are not as-
hamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to
be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off: and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it,
and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from
my father's house, which hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that im-
pressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties, and
even the commands, of my father: I say, the same
influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these ad-
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,

though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the
duty and office of a fore-mast man and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for
a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my
pocket, and good clothes on my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I
neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to do
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen to
such loose and unguided yaung fellows as 1 then was;
the devil, not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early: but it was not so with me. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of the ship who had been on
the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again. This captain,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not
disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind
to see the world, told me, if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his
messmate, and his companion; and if I could carry
any thing with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest plain-
dealing man, went the voyage with him; and carried
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very
considerably; for I carried about 40. in such trifles as
the captain directed me to buy. This 401. I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I


believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to con-
tribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was suc-
cessful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain: under
whom I also got a competent knowledge of the ma-
thematics, and the rules of navigation; learned how
to keep an account of the ship's course, take an ob-
servation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant: for I brought t home five pounds
nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which
yielded me in London, at my return, almost 3001.;
and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which
have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes
too; particularly that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate, our principal trading being upon the
coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees N, even to the
line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again: and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
1001. of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200/.
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; and the first was this; viz. our ship,
making her course towards the Canary islands, or

rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Moorish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail
she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and
the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred
men which he had on board. However, we had not a
man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but,
laying us on board the next time upon the other quar-
ter, he entered ninety men upon our decks, who im-
mediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our decks of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were ob-
liged to yield; and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country,
to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were,
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable

slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked
back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
1 should be miserable, and have none to relieve me,
which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass, that I could not be worse; that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to
his house, so I was in hopes that he would take me
with him when he went to sea again, believing that it
would be some time or other his fate to be taken by a
Spanish or Portugal man of war; and that then I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away ; for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
We were frequently out with this boat a fishing;
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he
never went without me. It happened one day, after
I had been with him about two years, that he had ap-
pointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or
for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction,
and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and
had therefore sent on board the boat over night a
larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered
me to get ready three fusils with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship; for that they designed
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ancient and pendants out, and every thing to ac-

commodate his guests; when, by and by, my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had put
off going, upon some business that fell out, and or-
dered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out
with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his
friends were to sup at his house. He commanded me
too, that as soon as I had got some fish, I should
bring it. All which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fish-
ing, but for a voyage: though I knew not, neither
did I so much as consider, whither I would steer; for
any where to get out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must riot presume
to eat of our patron's bread. He said, that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their
kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which,
it was evident by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat,
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about
half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which
were of great use to us afterwards: especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also. His name was
Ismael, whom they called Muley, or Moley; so I
called to him: Moley,' said I, our patron's guns are
all on board the boat: can you not get a little powder

and shot ? it may be we may kill some alcomies (a
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves; for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship.' 'Yes,' says he,
' I'll bring some.' Accordingly he brought a great
leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that
had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat. At the same time I bad found some
powder df my master's in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no
notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port, before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to
fish. The wind blew from the N. N. E. which was
contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and
at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing
(for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them), I said to the
Moor, This will not do: our master will not be thus
served. We must stand farther off.' He, thinking
no harm, agreed; and being in the head of the boat,
set the sails, and, as I had the helm, I run the boat
out near a league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him
by surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed

him clear overboard into the sea. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him I had done him
no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I woult do him
none: But,' said I, you swim well enough to reach
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head,
for I am resolved to have my liberty.' So he turned
himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make
no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no
venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned
to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
'Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me,' that is, swear by Mahomet, and his fa-
ther's beard, I must throw you into the sqa too.' The
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that
I could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do) ; for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,

where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
never once go on shore, but we should be devoured by
savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and by
east, bending my course a little towards the east, that
I might keep in with the shore; and, having a fair
fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made
such sail, that I believe, by the next day at three
o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite
beyond the emperor of Morocco's dominions, or in-
deed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wtnd
shifting to the southward, I concluded also, that if any
of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river,
1 knew not what or where, neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw
nor desired to see any people: the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in
the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it
was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready
to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore

till day. Well, Xury,' said I, then I won't; but it
may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad
to us as those lions.' Then we may give them the
shoot gun,' says Xury, laughing, 'make them run
way.' Such English Xury spoke, by conversing
among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy
so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our pa-
tron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xury's advice was good, and I took it: we dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for
we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures, we knew not what to call them, of
many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into
the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such
hideous howlings and yelling, that 1 never heard the
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I
too; but we were both worse frighted when we heard
one of the mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat: we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and fu-
rious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and that it might
be for aught I know. Poor Xury cried out to me to
weigh the anchor, and row away. 'No,' says I,
'Xury, we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and
go to sea; they cannot follow us far.' I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars length, which something surprised
me: however I immediately stepped to the cabin door,
and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he
immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible
noises and hideous cries and cowlings that were


raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a gun;
a thing, I have some reason to believe, these crea-
tures had never heard before. This convinced me
that there was no going on shore for us in the night
upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the
day, was another question too; for, to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to
have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint
in the boat: when or where to get it, was the point.
Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go,
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection that made me
love him ever after. Says he, 'If wild mans come,
they eat me; you go way.' Well, Xury,' said I, we
will both go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill
them: they shall eat neither of us.' So I gave Xury
a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before, and
we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought
was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river:
but the boy seeing a low place, about a mile up the
country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come
running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
ran forward towards him to help him; but when I
came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his

shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like
a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs. How-
ever, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with,
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.
But we found afterward that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where
we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was
out, which flows but a little way up: so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of
any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from the
coast. But as I had no instruments to take an obser-
vation to know what latitude we were in, and did not
exactly know, or at least not remember what latitude
they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I
might now easily have found some of these islands.
But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till
I came to that part, where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual de-
sign of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was must be that country which, lying between
the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes,
lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts, the
Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south,
for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness, and in-
deed both forsaking it because of the prodigious num-
bers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious crea-


tures which harbour there, so that the Moors use it
for their hunting only, where they go like an army,
two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw
nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts
by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out in hopes of reaching thither; but, having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the
Several times we were obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an an-
chor under a little point of water, which was pretty
high,'and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells
me that we had best go farther off the shore, 'For,'
says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the
side of that hillock, fast asleep.' I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed; for it
was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung
as it were a little over him. 'Xury,' said I, 'you
shall go on shore, and kill him.' Xury looked
frighted, and said, 'Me kill! He eat me at one
mouth !' one mouthful he meant. However, I'said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two


slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun
with two bullets, and the third (for we had three
pieces) 1 loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the
best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him
into the head; but he lay so with his leg raised a lit-
tle above his nose, that the slug hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up growling
at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got upon three legs, and gave the most hideous
roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I
had not hit him on the head: however, I took up the
second piece immediately; and, though he began to
move off, fired again, and shot him into the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop, and making but lit-
tle noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would let me have him go on shore.
'Well, go,' said I. So the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the creature,
put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
into the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot, upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him: so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?' said I. 'Me
cut off his head,' said he. However, Xury could not
cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it
with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might one way or other be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him: but Xury was much
the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to

do it. Indeed it took us up the whole day: but at
last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on
the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterward served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to
make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship, and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape or those islands, and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship or must
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look
at us: we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them, but Xury was my better counsellor,
and said to me, No go, No go.' However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them, and I
found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except
one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said
was a lance, and that they would throw them a great
way with good aim: so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could, and particularly


made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to
me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we
were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury,
from the mountains towards the sea: at last one of
them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head.
Immediately he sunk down into the water, but he
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life; and so indeed he was. He im-
mediately made to the shore; but, between the wound,
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun: some
of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down
as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the
creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart
and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water,
and by the help of a rope, which I flung round him,
and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard,
spotted and fine to an admirable degree; and the ne-
groes held up their hands with admiration, to think
what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, fi-ighted with the flash of fire,

and the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran
up directly to the mountains from whence they came ;
nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I
found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though
they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily-nay, much
more readily-than we would have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them; but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my
jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel, made of
earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun: this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore
with my jars, and filled them all three. The women
were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I
made forward for about eleven days more, without of-
fering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out
a great length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me, and, the sea being very
calm, I kept a large offing to make this point: at
length, doubling the point at about two leagues from
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward; then I concluded-as it was most certain, in-


deed-that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the
islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh wind, I might neither reach one nor
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship was a sail! and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some
of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew
we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not
only the ship, but what she was; viz., that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the
Coast of Guinea for Negroes. But, when I observed
the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to go any
nearer to the shore, upon which I stretched out to sea
as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship
that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my pa-
tron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which
they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though


they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in
about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of
them: but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was
an Englishman; that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in. I immediately offered all I had to the
captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance;
but he generously told me he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me
when I came to the Brazils. 'For,' says he, 'I have
saved your life on no other terms than as I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or
other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,' says he, when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what little you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I have given.
No, no,' says he, 'Signor Inglese (Mr. Englishman),
I will carry you thither in charity, and these things
will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.'
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
seamen that none should offer to touch anything I
had: then he took everything into his own possession,

and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them again, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it. I told
him he had been so generous to me in everything, that
I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me 80 pieces
of eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my
boy, Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was
not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very
loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian. Upon this, Xury saying he was willing to
go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and ar-
rived in the Bay te Todos los Santos, or All Saints
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself, I
was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember: he would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me 20 ducats for the leo-
pard's skin, and 40 for the lion's skin, which I had in
the boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing
to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of

my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'-wax, for 1
had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about
220 pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this
stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but, being recommended
to the house of a good, honest man, like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it-that is, a plantation
and a sugar-house-I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and, seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle there,
I would turn planter among them; resolving, in the
meantime, to find out some way to get my money
which I had left in London remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from Eng-
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neigh-
bour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we
went on very sociably together; my stock was but
low, as well as his, and we rather planted for food than
anything else, for about two years. However, we be-
gan to increase, and our land began to come into order,
so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come: but we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy, Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong, that never did right,


was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on.
1 was gotten into an employment quite remote to my
genius, and directly contrary to-the life 1 delighted in,
and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice; nay, I was coming into
the very middle station, or upper degree of low life,
which my father advised me to before, and which, if 1
resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at
home, and never fatigued myself in the world, as I
have done: and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as well in England, among my friends,
as have gone 5,000 miles off to do it, among strangers
and savages in a wilderness, and at such a distance as
never to hear from any part of the world that had the
least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with, but now and then this neighbour; no work to be
done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used to
say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some deso-
late island, that had nobody there but himself. But
how just has it been, and how should all men reflect,
that, when they compare their present condition with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
felicity, by their experience I say, how just has it
been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probabi-
lity, been exceedingly prosperous and rich!
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;


for the ship remained there, in providing her loading,
and preparing for her voyage, near three months;
when, telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice:-' Signor Inglese,' says he (for so he always
called me), if you will give me letters, and a procu-
ration here in form to me, with orders to the person
who has your money in London, to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return;
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders for 1001. ster-
ling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way, and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply.'
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my
money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the huma-
nity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now
in, with all other necessary directions for my supply;
and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found
means, by some of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story, to a merchant in London, who presented it
effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered


the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Por-
tugal captain a very handsome present for his huma-
nity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 1001. in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them
all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for I was too young in my business to
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my planta-
tion, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the 51. which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
six years' service, and would not accept of any consi-
deration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all Eng-
lish manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize, and
things particularly valuable and desirable in the coun-
try, I found means to sell them to a great advantage;
so that I may say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of
my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a Negro slave, and a European servant also: I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But, as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my
own ground, more than I had disposed of for necessa-

ries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls being
each of above 1001bs. weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now, increasing in business and wealth, my head
began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach-such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the
best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of
all my own miseries : and particularly to increase my
fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which,
in my future sorrows, I should have leisure to make.
All these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wander-
ing abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contra-
diction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a
fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those
measures of life, which Nature and Providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now; but I must go
and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of
this part of my story:-You may suppose that, having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and begin-

ning to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion, 1 had not only learned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fel-
low-planters, as well as among the merchants of St.
Salvadore, which was our port, and that, in my dis-
course among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the
manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how
easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like, not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants' teeth, &c., but Negroes for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock, so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and talk-
ing of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed of with
them the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and, after enjoining on me secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because
they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide


them among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have
my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had
it been made to any one that had not had a settlement
and plantation of his own to look after, which was in
a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with
a good stock upon it. But for me that was thus esta-
blished, and had nothing to do but go on as I had be-
gun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other 1001. from England, and who, in that time,
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth 3,0001. or 4,0001. sterling, and that
increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was
the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, 1 told them I would go
with all my heart, if they would undertake to look
after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or
covenants, to do so; and I m-ide a formal will, dis-
posing of my plantation and effects, in case of my
death-making the captain of the ship that had saved
my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him
to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will;
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my


effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I used
half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what 1 ought
to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking;
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons
I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dic-
tates of my fancy, rather than my reason; and, ac-
cordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur-
nished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil
hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their au-
thority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
Negroes; such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd
trifles-especially little looking-glasses, knives, scis-
sors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with de-
sign to stretch over for the African coast, when they
came into about ten or twelve degrees of northern la-
titude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course
in those days. We had very good weather, only ex-
cessively hot all the way upon our own coast, till we
came to the height of Cape St. Augustino, from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the Isle of

Fernand de Norouba; holding our course N.E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were,
by our last observation, in 7 degrees, 22 minutes,
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurri-
cane, took us quite out of our knowledge; it began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled into the north-east-from whence it blew
in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve days toge-
ther, we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate, and the
fury of the winds, directed: and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was
in about 11 degrees of north latitude, but that he was
22 degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazones, towards that of the river Oro-
noque, commonly called the Great River: and now he
began to consult with me what course he should take;
for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Ca-
ribee Islands; and, therefore, resolved to stand away
for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid


the indraught of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days'
sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage
to the coast of Africa, without some assistance, both to
our ship, and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered
away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our
voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the
latitude of 12 degrees, 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of
being devoured by savages, than ever returning to
our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early one morning, cried out, Land!'
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were even driven into
our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven-whether an island or the main, whether inha-
bited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind

by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about.
In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and ex-
pecting death every moment, and every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this: that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we
had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship, having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had no-
thing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as
we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm; but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so
there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board; but how to get her off into the sea, was a
doubtful thing. However, there was no room to de-
bate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute; and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her flung over the ship's side; and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea:
for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the
sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might
well be called, Den wild zee,' as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we
all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat

could not escape, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if
we had, could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew,
that when the boat came near the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling, as well as we could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not: the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was,
if we might happen to get into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where, by great chance, we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was no-
thing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once,
and, separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, '0 God!' for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the
waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on to-
wards the shore, and, having spent itself, went back,

and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead
with the water I took in. I had so much presence of
mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer
the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavoured to make on towards the land, as fast
as I could, before another wave should return, and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high
as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I
had no means or strength to contend with: my busi-
ness was, to hold my breath, and raise myself upon
the water, if I could, and so, by swimming, to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way to-
wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it, when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I
could feel myself carried, with a mighty force and
swiftness, towards the shore a very great way; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up,
so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though
it was not two seconds of time that I could keep my-
self so, yet it relieved me greatly-gave me breath
and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and
finding the water had spent itself, and began to return,
I struck forward against the return of the waves, and
felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then I took to my heels, and ran with

what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried for-
wards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of
a rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless,
and, indeed, helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath,
as it were, quite out of my body ; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and, seeing I should be covered again with
the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the
rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the
wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got
to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I'clam-
bered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon
the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach
of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a
case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of
the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the grave: and I do not wonder now at that custom,
viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about

his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off,
and has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not
wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the
surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm hinm:-
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe-reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterward, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly
see it-it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how
was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to see
what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be
done, and I soon found my comforts abate, and that,
in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet,
had no clothes to shift me, nor anything, either to eat
or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any pros-
ect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was
particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon
either to hunt and kill any creature, for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for their's. In a word, I had

nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a
while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what
would be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I re-
solved to sit all night, and consider the next day what
death I should die; for, as yet, I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth, to prevent hunger, I went to
the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might not fall;
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for
my defence, I took up my lodging; and& having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as I believe few could have done in my
condition; and found myself the most refreshed with
it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and.
swell as before; but that which surprised me most
was, that the ship was lifted off, in the night, from tla
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up almost as far as the rock which 1 first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dash-
ing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where 1 was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, 1 wished myself on board, that,
r 2

at least, I might save some necessary things for my
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again; and the first thing I found
was the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had
tossed her upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore,
to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad ; so I came back for the present, being more in-
tent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon 1 found the sea very calm; and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh
renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we
had kept on board we had been all safe, that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so
miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity,
and took the water; but when I came to the ship, my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board;
for as she lay aground, and high out of the water,
there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I
swam round her twice, and the second time I espied
a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see
at first, hang down by the fore chains, so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, afid, by the help
of that rope, got up in the forecastle of the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal
of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of
a bank of hard sand or rather earth, that her stern


lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost
to the water; by this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see what was
spoiled, and what was free; and first I found that all
the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and
ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of
which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself
with many things which I foresaw would be necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had; and this extremity roused my application.
We had several spare yards, and two large squares of
wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship; I re-
solved to fall to work with these, and flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage for their weight:
tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the
ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends, as well as I could, in the
form of a raft; and laying two or three short pieces
of plank cross ways, I found I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light: so I went to work with a
carpenter's saw, I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal
of labour and pains; but the hope of furnishing my-
self with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond
what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.


My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surface of the sea: but I was not long considering
this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it I
could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft. The first of these I filled with pro-
visions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much
upon, and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we
had brought to sea with us: but the fowls were
killed: there had been some barley and wheat
together, but to my great disappointment, I found
afterward that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belong-
ing to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and in all above five or six gallons of arrack : these I
stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor any room for them. While
I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore
upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which
were only linen and open-knee'd, I swain on board in
them and my stockings. However, this put me upon
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but
took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon: as first,
tools to work with on shore, and it was after long
searching I found out the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-loading of gold would have been


at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as
it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them, but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water: those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, or rudder, and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. First, a smooth, and
calm sea. Secondly, the tide rising and setting
into the shore. Thirdly, what little wind there was,
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found
two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an ax and a hammer, and with this cargo I put
to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the
place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
there was some indraught of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.
As I imagined so it was; there appeared before me
a little opening of the land. I found a strong current
of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream, But here
I had liked to have suffered a second shipwreck, which

if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft run aground,
at one end of it, upon a shoal, not being aground at the
other end, it wanted but a little that my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water: I did my utmost by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but, holding up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time
the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my
raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current of tide running
up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get
to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up
the river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as
I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to whichwith great pain and difficulty I
guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that, reach-
ing ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in ;
but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo in the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to
say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of the float, it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower, as before, that it would en-
danger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar, like an anchor, to hold the side of it
fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I

expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough (for my raft drew
about a foot of water), I thrust her upon that flat
piece of ground, and there fastened and moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one
on one side near one end, and one on the other
side near the other end; and thus I ebbed away, and
left all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the con-
tinent or on an island; whether inhabited or not in-
habited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and, thus
armed, 1 travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got up, I immediately saw my fate, to my great
affliction : viz. that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some
rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, ex-
cept by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none:
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds,
neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was
fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a large wood. I believe it was the first

gun that had been fired there, since the creation of
the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all the
parts of the wood there arose an extraordinary number
of fowls, cf many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, every one according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk,
its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons
or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of the day. What to do
with myself at night, I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not
knowing but what some wild beast might devour me,
though I afterward found there was really no need
of those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging: as for food, I yet saw not which way to sup-
ply myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to hand, and I re-
solved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if
possible; and as I knew the first storm that blew
must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart, till I got every thing out of
the ship that I could get: then I called a council, that
is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back

the raft, but this appeared impracticable, so I resoluvd
to go as before, when the tide was down, and I didlo,
only that I stripped before I went from my hut,
having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of
linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard;
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me; as first, in the carpenter's store I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw jack,
a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone: all these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more: a
large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead: but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it
up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock,
and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them also safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be
devoured on shore ; but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came
toward it, ran away, to a little distance, and then stood
still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be ac-
quainted with me. I presented my gun at her; but
as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-

cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by
the way I'was not very free of it, for my store was
not great. However I spared her a bit, I say, and
she went to it, smelled it, and eat it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them
by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks), I went to work to make a little tent with the
sail and some poles which I cut for the purpose; and
into this tent I brought every thing that I knew would
spoil, either with rain or sun: and I piled all the
empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man
or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without, and spreading one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my two pistols, just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed, for the
first time, and slept very quietly all night, being very
weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept
little, and laboured very hard all day, as well to
fetch those things from the ship, as to get them on
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out
of her that I could: so every day at low water, I went
on board, and brought away something or other. But
particularly the third time I went, I brought away so
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small

ropes, and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon oc-
casion, and the barrel of wet gun-powder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails first and last, only that I
was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at
a time as I could; for they were no more useful to me
for sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voy-
ages as these, and thought I had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,
I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box of sugar,
and a barrel of fine flour : this was surprising to me,
because I had given over expecting any more pro-
visions, except what was spoiled by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead, of that bread, and wrapt it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut
out, and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also,
though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable, and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a haulser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and having cut down the sprit-
sail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing I
could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods and came away. But my good luck be-
gan to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so
overladen, that after 1 was entered the little cove,
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset,
and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;

but as to my cargo it was a great part of it lost, es-
pecially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out,
. got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour, for I was fain
to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this I went every day on board,
and'brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though 1 believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the old ship, piece by piece. But pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water, I went
on board; and though I thought 1 had rummaged the
cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers in it,
in one of which I found two or three razors, and one
pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen good knives
and forks : in another, I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
When I was gotten home to my little tent, I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure: it blew
very hard all that night; and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection; viz. that I had lost no time, nor
abated any diligence, to get every thing out of her
that could be useful to me; and that indeed there was
little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had
had more time. I now gave over any more thought
of the ship, or of any thing of her, except what might

drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed divers
pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.
Some days after this, after I had been on board the
ship, and had got all I could out of her, I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then
fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail; please my-
self with the hopes of it; and then, after looking
steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things, in some mea-
sure, and having settled my household stuff and habi-
tation, made me a table and a chair, and all as hand-
some about me as I could, I began, I say, to keep a
journal, of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over
again), as long as it lasted ; for at last having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.


SEPTEMBER 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate
island, which I called the Island of Despair, all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly
to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
G 2

before me, either that I should be devoured by wild
beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for
want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island, which,
as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the
wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food
and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the
other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or at least that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and
that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent
great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but at length seeing the ship almost dry, I
went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board. This day also continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to get
all I could out of the ship, which 1 brought on shore
every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in
these days, though with some intervals of fair wea-
ther; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods I
had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the
things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
October 25. It rained all night, and all day, with

some gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke
in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in cover-
ing and securing the goods which I saved, that the
rain might not spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly
concerned to secure myself from any attack, in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night
I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and marked
out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, or wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cable, and
without with turf.
From the o6th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the is-
land with my gun, to see for some food, and discover
the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid
followed me home, which I afterward killed also, be- i
cause it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards,
and thg pieces of timber which made my rafts, and
with them formed a fence round me, a little within
the place I had marked out for my fortification.
SNovember 3. I went out with my gun, and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In
the afternoon, went to work to make me a table.
November 4. This morning I began to order my

times of work, of going out with my gun, time of
sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun, for two or three hours, if it
did not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live on : and
from twelve to two, I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessively hot, and then in the evening to work
again. The working part of this day and the next
were wholly employed in making my table, f6r I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and ne-
cessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe it would do anyone else.
November 5. This day I went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty
soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature
I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back, by the seashore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls which I did not understand; but was sur-
prised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what
they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that
November 6. After my morning' walk, I went to
work with my table again, and finished it, though not
to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair wea-
ther. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th
(for the Ilth was Sunday, according to my reckon-
ing), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with
much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it to
pieces several times. Note, I soon neglected keeping
my Sunday; for, omitting my mark for them on my
post, I forgot which was which.

November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was ac-
companied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of
powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.
November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder;
and so putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and remote from one another as possible. On
one of these three days I killed a large bird that was
good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my farther con-
veniency. Note, three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work; viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
barrow or basket: so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for the pick-axe, I made use of
the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade ;
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
November 18. The next day, in searching the
woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which,
in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceed-
ing hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home
too with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine;
for I worked it effectually, by little and little, into the

form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped
like ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me
so long: however, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to: but never was a
shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a
wheel-barrow: a basket I could not make by any
means, having no such thing as twigs that would bend
to make wicker-ware, or at least none yet found out;
and, as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that 1 had no notion of, neither
did I know how to go about it: besides, I had no
possible way to make iron gudgeons, for the spindle
or axis of the wheel to run in, so 1 gave it over: and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the
cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the labour-
ers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days : I mean, always except-
ing my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home
something fit to eat.
November 23. My other work having stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on; and, working every day as much
as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen
days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note, during all this time I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,

and a cellar; as for a lodging, I kept to the tent, ex-
cept that sometimes in the wet season of the year it
rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry;
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale, with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags,
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when, on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large), a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side, so much that, in short, it
frighted me, and not without reason too; for if I had
been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger.
Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work to do
over again: for I had the loose earth to carry out,
and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.
December 11. This day I went to work with it ac-
cordingly, and got two shores or posts, pitched upright
to the top, with two pieces of boards across over each
post. This I finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more 1 had the
roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
December 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang
every thing up that could be hung up; apd now I be-
gan to be in some order within doors.
December 20. Now I carried every thing into the
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me.
Also I made me another table.

December 24. Much rain all night and all day:
no stirring out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young zoat, and lamed an-
other, so that I watched it, and led it home in a string;
when I had it home I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke. N. B. I took such care of it, that
it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever;
but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away.
This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot were all spent.
December 2s, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening for food. This time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late, with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys,
which lay to the centre of the island, I found there
were plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard
to come at: however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.
January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out
with my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was
mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and
he knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
January 3. I began my fence or wall, which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong. I was no less
time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of April,

working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length,
being a half circle, from one place in the rock, to an-
other place about eight yards from it, the door of the
cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes, weeks together;
but I thought I never should be perfectly secure till
this wall was finished: and it is scarcely credible what
inexpressible labour everything was done with, espe-
cially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
tnem into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself, that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive anything like a
habitation: and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me, and
made frequent discoveries in these walks of something
or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind
of wild pigeon which build not as wood-pigeons in a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks: and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew
older, they all flew away, which perhaps was at first
for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give
them: however, I frequently found their nests, and
got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed as
to some of them it was: for instance, I could never


make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads,
or join the staves so true to one another, as to make
them hold water; so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles;
so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remem-
bered the lump of bees-wax, with which I made can-
dles in my African adventure ; but I had none of that
now: the only remedy I had, was, that when I had
killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp: and
this gave me light, though not a clear steady light,
like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it hap-
pened, that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon : what little remainder of corn had been in the
bag, was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of
it, on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of anything, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there; when, about a month
after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting up on the ground, which I fan-
cied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was

surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a
little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come
out, which were perfect green barley, of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion: I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; in-
deed I had very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of anything that had be-
fallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God; but now I thought these the
pure productions of Providence for my support.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, which was about the end of
June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread: but it was not till
the fourth year that I would allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same
care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the
same purpose; viz. to make me bread, or rather food;
for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though
I did that also, after some time. But to return to my
I worked excessively hard these three or four months,
to get my wall done; and, the 14th of April, 1 closed
it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over
the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on
the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder: so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me,
and let it down on the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and

nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.
May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore, bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask;
when I came to it I found a small barrel, and two or
three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by an hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the bar-
rel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was
a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and
the powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the
ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed: the forecastle, which lay before buried in
the sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the
stern, which was broken to pieces, and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast
on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next the stern, that whereas there was a great place
of water before, so that I could not come within a
quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I
could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded
it must be done by the earthquake, a violent shock of
which I had felt some days previously; and as by this
violence the ship was more broken upon than formerly,
so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.
Having resolved to pull every thing to pieces that I

ROBINSON cnusoE. 75
could of the ship, concluding that every thing I could
get from her would be of some use or other to me,
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part, or quarter-deck, together: and when I had cut
it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could,
from the side which lay highest: but the tide coming
in I was obliged to give over for that time.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
was ebbed out: and, by this time, I had gotten timber
and plank, and iron work enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got at several
pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any
defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in
her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at that
time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted
in my life, having had no flesh but of goats and fowls,
since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18. Rained all the day, and I staid within.
I thought at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was
something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.

June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in the head,
and feverish.
June 21. Very ill, frightened almost to death with
the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and
no help. Prayad to God, for the first time since the
storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why:
my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent head-ach.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak: however
I killed a she-goat, and, with much difficulty, got it
home, and broiled some of it, and eat: I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay a-bed
all day, and neither eat nor drank. I was ready to
perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to
stand up, or to get myself any water to drink; prayed
to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was
not, I was so ignorant, that I knew not what to say ?
only I lay, and cried, ,ord, look upon me Lord,
pity me Lord, have mercy upon me!' I suppose
I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake till far in
the night. When I awaked, I found myself much re-
freshed, but weak. and exceedingly thirsty: however,
as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
The good advice of my father now came to my
mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned

at the beginning of this story; viz. That, if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist me in my recovery. Now,' said I, aloud, my
dear father's words are come to pass: God's justice
has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mer-
cifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein
I might have been happy and easy; but I would
neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing
of it from my parents : I left them to mourn over my
folly, and now I am left to mourn under the conse-
quences of it. I refused their help and assistance,
who would have lifted me into the world, and would
have made every thing easy to me: and now I have
difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature
itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.' Then I cried out, 'Lord, be my_
help, for I am in great distress I'
This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that
I had made for many years. But I return to my
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got
up; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square
case bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in
reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or agueish
disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together; then I
got me a piece of goat's flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little; I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal, very sad and heavy-hearted
in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day: at night I


made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I
roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, even, as I could remember,
in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found my-
self so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I
never went out without that) : so I went but a little way,
and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the
sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me.
What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much ? Whence is it produced ? And what am I,
and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal, whence are we ?
Sure we are all made by some secret power, who
formed the earth and sea, the air and sky : and who
is that ?
Then it followed most naturally : it is God that has
made it all. Well, but then it came on strongly : If
God has made all these things, he guides and governs
them all, and all things that concern them; for the
Being that could make all things, must certainly have
power to guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful con-
dition; and if nothing happens without his appoint-
ment, he has appointed all this to befal me.
.Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any
of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me
with the greater force, that it must needs be, that God
has appointed all this to befal me; that I was brought

to this miserable circumstance by his direction, he
having the sole power, not of me only, but of every
thing that happened in the world. Immediately it
Why has God done this to me ? What have I done
to be thus used ?
My conscience presently checked me in that in-
quiry, as if 1 had blasphemed; and, methought, it
spoke to me like a voice, Wretch dost thou ask what
thou hast done! Look back upon a dreadful mispent
life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask, why
is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed; Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth roads ? killed in the
fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of
war ? devoured by wild beasts on the coasts of Africa ?
or, drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I done ?
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say, no, not to an-
swer to myself; but rose up, pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I
had been going to bed: but my thoughts were sadly
disturbed, and 1 had no inclination to sleep; so I sat
down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began
to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return
of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but
their tobacco, for almost all distempers; and I had a
piece of roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was quite cured, and some also that was green, mI.
not quite cured. i'
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in tbit
chest I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened
the chest, and found what I looked for, viz. the to-
bacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there

I took out one of the Bibles which I had mentioned be-
fore, and which to this time, I had not found leisure,
or so much as inclination, to look into: I say I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to
my distemper, or whether it was good for me or not;
but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was re-
solved it should hit one way or other. I first took a
piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which
indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain; the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much
used to it: then I took some, and steeped it an hour
or two in rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it, as
long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as the
virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bi-
ble, and began to read; but my head was too much
disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at
that time: only, having opened the book casually, the
first words that occurred to me were these, Call on
me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou shalt glorify me.
The words were very apt to my case, and made
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of
reading them, though not so much as they did after-
ward; for, as for being delivered, the word had no
sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote,
so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I
began to say as the children of Israel did, when they
were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?' So I began to say, Can God
himself deliver me from this place ? And as it was

not for many years that any hope appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts. But, however,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much,
that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in
the cave, lest I should want any thing in the night,
and went to bed: but before I lay down, I did what
I never had done in all my life, I kneeled down, and
prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that, if I
called upon him in the day of trouble, he would de-
liver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco,
that indeed I could scarce get it down. Immediately
upon this I went to bed, and I found presently it flew
up into my head violently; but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more, till by the sun, it must ne-
cessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon, the
next day : nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise I knew not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of
the week, as it appeared some years after I had done;
for if 1 had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line,
I should have lost more than one day; but certainly,
I lost a day in my account, and I never knew which
Be, that, however, one way or other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits
lively and cheerful. When I got up I was stronger
than I was the day before, and my stomach better;
for I was hungry, and in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better. This
was the 29th.


The 80th was my well day, of course, and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too far.
I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand-
goose, and brought them home, but was not very
forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the tur-
tle's eggs, which were very good. This evening I
renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me
good the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum,
only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew
any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke.
However, I was not so well the next day, which was
the Ist of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I
had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I
did not recover my full strength for some weeks after.
While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts
ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, I will deliver
thee;' and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it.
But as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts,
it occurred to my mind, that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disre-
garded the deliverance I had received; and I was, as
it were, made to ask myself such questions as these:
viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too,
from sickness; from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? And
what notice had I taken of it ? Had I done my part ?
God had delivered me: but I had not glorified him;
that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for
that as a deliverance: and how could I expect greater

This touched my heart very much, and immediately
I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my
recovery from sickness.
July 4. In the morning, I took the Bible; and,
beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously to
read it, and imposed upon myself to read every morn-
ing and every night, not tying myself to a number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage
me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work,
but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of a dream revived, and the words 'All
these things have not brought thee to repentance,' ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of
God to give me repentance, when it happened provi-
dentially, the very day, that, reading the Scripture, I
came to these words, He is exalted a Prince, and a
Saviour, to give repentance, and to give remission.'
I threw down the book, and, with my heart as well as
my hands lifted up to Heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, 'Jesus, thou Son of David,
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me re-
pentance !'
This was the first time that I could say, in the true
sense of the word, that I prayed in all my life; for
now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with
a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the en-
couragement of the word of God; and from this
time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
C Call on me, and I will deliver you,' in a different
sense from what I had ever done before; for then I
had no notion of any thing being called deliverance,
but my being delivered from the captivity I was in;


for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the
island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world; but now I learned to take
it in another sense. Now, I looked back upon my
past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but de-
liverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my
comfort. As for my solitary life it was nothing; I did
not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it: it was all of no consideration in comparison of
this; and I add this part here, to hint to whoever -
shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense
of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much
greater blessing, than deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less
miserable as to my way of living, yet much easier to
my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a con-
stant reading the Scripture, and praying to God, to
things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort
within, which till now I knew nothing of. Also, as
my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself
to furnish myself with every thing that I wanted, and
make my way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my hand,
a little and a little at a time, as a man that was gather-
ing up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it is
hardly to be imagined, how low I was, and to what
weakness I was reduced. The application which I
made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had
never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend
it to any one to practice, by this experiment; and
though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weaken me: for 1 had frequent convulsions in my
nerves and limbs for some time.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten
months: all possibility of deliverance from this condi-
tion seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I
firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot
upon that place. Having now secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to
make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I
knew nothing of.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the
creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on
shore. I found, after I came about two miles up,
that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water, and
very fresh and good; but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it, at least
not enough to run in any perceptible stream.
On the bank of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannas or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as it might be sup-
posed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of
tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong
stalk. There were divers other plants, which I had
no notion of, or understanding about; and might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not
find out.
1 searched for the Cassava root, which the Indians,
in all that climate, make their bread of; but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not
then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes,
but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way
again: and, after going something farther than I had

gone the day before, I found the brook and the savan-
nas began to cease, and the country became more
woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees: the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and
the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery,
and I was exceedingly glad of them; but I was warned
by my experience, to eat sparingly of them, remem-
bering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating
of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were
slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers:
but I found an excellent use for these grapes; and
that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep
them as dried raisins are kept, which I thought would
be, as indeed they were, as wholesome, and as agree-
able to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to
my habitation, which, by the way, was the first night,
as I might say, I had lain from home. In the night I
took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree,
where I slept well, and the next morning proceeded
upon my discovery, travelling near four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still
due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north
side of me.
At the end of this march, I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west;
and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is,
due east: and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure,
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
I descended a little on the side of that delicious

valley, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure
(though mixed with other afflicting thoughts), to think
that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of
all this country indefeasibly, and I had a right of pos-
session; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in
inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees;
orange, and lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and
few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterward with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool and refreshing.
I found now I had business enough to gather and
carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for
the wet season, which I knew was approaching.
In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, and a lesser heap in another
place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in ano-
ther place; and, taking a few of each with me, I tra-
velled homeward, and resolved to come again, and
bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry
the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in my journey,
I came home (so I must now call my tent and my
cave); but, before 1 got thither, the grapes were
spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the weight of
the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they
were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having
made me two small bags to bring home my harvest;
but I was surprised, when coming to my heap of
grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered


them, I found them all spread abroad, trod to pieces,
and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded
there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had
done this; but what they were, 1 knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up
on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack; but
that one way they would be destroyed, and the other
way they would be crushed with their own weight, I
took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of
the grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches of
the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun;
and as for the limes, and lemons, I carried as many
back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contem-
plated, with great pleasure, the fruitfulness of that
valley, and the pleasantness of the situation, the se-
curity from storms on that side of the water, and the
wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place
to fix my abode, which was, by far, the worst part of
the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out for a place
equally safe as where I now was situate, if possible, in
that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought run long in my head, and I was ex-
ceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of
the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, and to consider that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage, and that the same ill
fate which brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to the yme place; and though it
was scarce probable that any such thing should ever
happen, yet, to enclose myself among the hills and
woods, and to render such an affair not only impro-

bable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not,
by any means, to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place, that
I spent much of my time there, for the whole remain-
ing part of the month of July; and though, upon
second thoughts, I resolved as above, not to remove,
yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure,
sometimes two or three nights together, always going
over it with a ladder, as before, so that I fancied now
I had my country house, and my sea-coasthouse; and
this work took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to
enjoy my labour, when the rains came on, and made
me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of
a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into, when the rains were extra-
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The
3rd of August, I found the grapes 1 had hung up
were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good
raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down from
the trees; and it was very happy that I did so, for
the rains which followed would have spoiled them,
and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I
had above two hundred large bunches of them. No
sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of
them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from
hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained more
or less every day till the middle of October; and some-