The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe : who lived twenty- eight years on an uninhabited island, with an account of his deliverance
Physical Description:
iv, 57 i.e. 58 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Cowper, William, 1731-1800 ( Author, Primary )
Whitehorn ( Printer )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Secondary )
Booksellers in town and country ( Publisher )
Published by the Booksellers in town and country
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1839   ( rbgenr )
Baldwin -- 1893
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Watchet


General Note:
Caption title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
"That the following pages may contribute to the improvement and diversion of the juvenile part of the community, is confidently hoped ... the Editor."--P. iv.
General Note:
Verses composed by the poet Cowper: p. 56-58.
General Note:
Page 57 misnumbered 56 (two p. 56s), p. 58 misnumbered p. 57.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe, abridged.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 27783763
aleph - 001803882
System ID:

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Full Text







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PERHAPS it would be impossible to find in
the adventures of any private individual, so
many striking facts, as are to be met with in
the narrative before us. The public patron-
age it has universally received, has stamped
its fame as a desirable present for youth.

The narrative is detailed with becoming
modesty and seriousness, and the best use of
the occurrences, in their religious application,
are made for the benefit and instruction of
others. Thus, the wisdom and providence of
God who governs the affairs of men, whether
general or particular, is exemplified in all the
variety of interesting circumstances recorded.

This narrative does not wear the garb of
fiction; but, in the simplicity of its relation,
impresses the mind with the conviction, that
it is a just history of extraordinary facts.


That the following pages may contribute to
the improvement and diversion of the juvenile
part of the community, is confidently hoped;
and with this hope it is respectfully presented
for their perusal, by their friend, the Editor.


I WAS born of a good family in the city of
York, where my father, who was a native of
Bremen, had settled, after having got a handsome
estate by merchandize. My heart began to be
very early filled with rambling thoughts; and
though, when I grew up, my father often per-
suaded me to settle to some business, and my
mother used the tenderest entreaties, yet nothing
could prevail upon me to lay aside my desire of
going to sea; and I at length resolved to gratify my
disposition, notwithstanding the extreme uneasi-
ness my father and mother always shewed at the
thoughts of my leaving them. As if bent on my
own destruction, I hardened myself against the
prudent and kind advice of the most indulgent
parents; and being one day at Hull, I met with
one of my companions there, who was going to
sea in his father's ship, and he easily persuaded
me to go with him.


On September 1st, 1751, I went on board
tile Hope, bound for London, and without let-
ting my father know the rash and disobedient
step I had taken, set sail; but no sooner were we
,out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow,
:and the sea to rise in a most terrible manner,
Having never been at sea before, I was extreme-
ly sick, and my mind was filled with terror. I
then began to grow sensible of my wickedness,
in disobeying the best of parents; and their good
counsel, tears, and entreaties, came afresh into
t. my mind, and filled me with fear and remorse.
I expected every wave would swallow us up, and
in the agony of my mind, made vows and resolu-
tions, that if it should please God to spare my
life in this our voyage, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set foot in a ship again.
The next day the wind abated, and the sea
grew calm, I was no longer sea sick and my
companion laughed at my fear lie ridiculed
my gravity, and with a bowl of punch made me
half drunk, and thus drowned my repentance and
all my sober reflections. The weather continued
calm for several days, and we at length came
into Yarmouth Roads, where we cast anchor to
wait for a wind. After riding here four or five
days, the wind blew very hard; the Road however
being reckoned almost as good as an harbour,
we were under no apprehensions, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, till the eighth day in the
morning, when the wind increased, and we had


all hands at work to strike our top masts, and
cast our sheet anchor.
It now blew a terrible storm: I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces'even of the
seamen themselves; and as the master passed by
me, I could hear him say softly to himself, Lord
be merciful to us, we shall be lost. During the
first hurry I was stupid, lying still in my cabin
in the steerage. I could ill resume the penitence
I so apparently trampled upon: I even hardened
myself against it, and thought that this storm
would pass over like the first. But when the mas-
ter came by me, and said we should all be lost,
I was terribly frightened. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked about, but such a dismal sight
I never before saw; the sea ran mountains high,
and broke upon us every three or four minutes;
a ship foundered at a distance, two ships that were
near us had cut their masts by the board, and
the mate and tti boatswain begged of the master
to let them cut away our foremast.
I cannot express the horror of mind with which
I was then seized; I was in ten times more terror
on account of my having slighted my former con-
victions, than even at death itself. The storm
still increased, and I saw (what is but too seldom
seen) the master, the boatswain, and several of
thecrew at prayer, expecting that every moment
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, one of the men who had been down
o~ purpose, cried out we had sprung a leak, and


had four feet wafer in the hold, upon which all
hands were called to the pump. I worked with
the rest, hut the water gained upon us, and it was
apparent that the ship would founder; the storm
however beginning to abate, the master fired guns
for help, and a light ship which had rid it out,
just a-head of us, put a boat out to help us. It
was with the utmost hazard that it came near us,
but the men ventured their lives to save ours;
and our men casting a rope over the stern with a
buoy, they after much labour and hazard got hold
of it, when hauling them close under our stern,
we then got into the boat. We had hardly left
the ship a quarter of an hour, when we saw her
founder; my heart was in a manner dead within
me with fright, horror of mind, and the thoughts
of what was yet before me.
As it was impossible for the boat to get up
with the ship to which she belonged, we endea-
voured to reach the shore, and partly by rowing,
and partly by being driven by the waves, we at
last with great difficulty got to land, and walked
to Yarmouth, where we were received with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town,
who assigned us good quarters, as by the parti-
cular merchants and owners of ships; and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull.
Had I now had the sense to return home, my
father would have received me with tenderness;
but a weak and foolish shame oppressed all


thoughts of it; I was afraid of being laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed
not only to see my father but every body else. I
had, without blushing, committed an action which
bore all the marks of folly; but was ashamed of
returning, though that was the wisest step I could
have taken. I remained some time in doubt,
what course to take; but having money in-my
pocket, I travelled to London by land. -
On my arrival in that city, I happily fell into
no bad company; but being well dressed I con-
tracted an acquaintance with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and having
had good success there, was resolved to go again;
and he taking a fancy to me, told me, that if I
would go the voyage with him, I should be at no
expence; and if I would carry any thing with me,
I should have the advantage of trading for myself.
Encouraged by this offer, by the assistance o
some of my relations, with whom I still corre-
sponded, I raised 401. which I laid out in such toys
and trifles as my friend the captain directed me
to buy. But though in this voyage I was contin-
ually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate; yet, under
my worthy friend, I got a complete knowlede of
the mathematics, and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the shipscourse,
and to take an observation. In a word, this voy-
age tade me both a sailor and a merchant, for I
brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold


dust for my adventure, which yielded me in Lon-
don, at my return, almost 3001.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after
his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and having left 2001. in the hands of my
friend's widow, I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in the former voyage,
and had now the command of the ship. This was
one of the most unhappy voyages that ever man
made; for as we were steering between the Ca-
nary islands and the African shore, we were sur-
prised, in the grey of the morning, by a Moorish
rover of Sallee, who gave chace to us with all
the sail she could make. We also crowded all
the canvass our yards could spread: but finding
that the pirate gained upon us, and would certain-
ly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the pi-
rate eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and a very smart engagement
ensued; but after having twice cleared the deck
of the Moors, and lost three of our men, and
having eight wounded, we were obliged to sub-
mit, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I found was not so dreadful as I at
first apprehended; nor was I carried as the rest
of our men were, to the Emperor's court, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his own prize,
and made his slave. As my master took me home


to his house, I was in hopes he would carry me
with him to sea, and that he would some time or
other be taken by a man of war belonging to some
Christain power, which would give me liberty,
But this hope was soon taken away; for when he
went to sea he left me on shore to look after the
little garden, and do the common drudgery of a
slave about his house.
My master having the long boat of our English
ship, had a little state-room or cabin built in the
middle of it, like a barge, with a place behind it
to steer, and haul home the main sheet, and ano-
ther before, for a hand or two to work the sails.
In the cabin was room to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to
put in some bottles of liquor and provisions such
as he thought fit to drink and eat, particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
In this pleasure boat he frequently went out a
fishing, and as I was most dexterous at catching
fish for him, he never went without me. One
day he had appointed to go out in this boat with
two or three Moors of some distinction, and had
therefore sent over-night a larger store of provi-
sions than usual; and ordered me to get ready
two or three fusils of powder and shot, which
were on board his ship: for that they designed
to have sport at fowling as well as fishing. But
in the morning he came on board, telling me,
that his guests had declined going, and ordered
me with the man and boy to sail out with the


boat, to catch some fish, for his friends were to
sup with him.
At this moment the hopes of my deliverance
darted into my thoughts, and I resolved to fur-
nish myself for a voyage. I told the Moor that
we must not presume to eat our master's bread;
he said that was true, and brought a large basket
of rusks, and three jars of fresh water into the
boat. I knew where my master's case of bottles
stood, which appeared by their make to have been
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat, while the Moor, whom we
called Muly, was on shore; and also a great
lump of bees'-wax, with a parcel of twines, of
which I afterwards made candles, likewise a
hatchet, saw, and hammer.
Every thing being prepared, we sailed out of
the port to fish, but purposely catching none, I
told Muly that this would not do, and that we
must stand further off, which he agreeing to, set
the sails, and I having the helm, ran out near a
league further, and then brought her to, as if I
would fish, when giving the boy the helm, I stept
forwards, and stooping behind the Moor took him
by surprise, and tossed him overboard into the
sea; he rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me to take him in, but fetch-
ing one of the fowling pieces, 1 presented it at
him, and told him, that if he came near the boat,
I would shoot, him through the head; but as the
sea was calm, he might easily reach the shore.


So he turned about, and swam towards the land,
and as he was an excellent swimmer, I make no
doubt he reached it with ease.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if yon
will be faithful to me, I will make you a great
man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me, (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard.) [ must throw you into the sea
too. The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not mistrust him; he
swore to be faithful to me, and go over all the
world with me.
While I was in view of Muly, I stood out to
sea, that he may think me gone to the Streights,
as any body in his wits would have done; but it
no sooner grew dark, than I foolishly changed
my course, and steeredto. the south, and having
a fresh gale of wind, I mrAe such sail, that be-
fore the end of the next day, I believe I was be-
yond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions. Yet
so dreadfnl were my apprehensions of falling
again into my master's hands, that I would not
stop to go on shore, till I had sailed in that man-
ner five days: and then the wind shifted to the
southward, I ventured to come to an anchor at
the mouth of a little river.
The principal thing [ wanted was fresh water.
We entered the creek in the evening, resolving
to swim on shore as soon as it was dark; but
we then heard such a dreadful roaring and howl-.


ing of the wild beasts, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to
go on shore till day. Well, Xury, said I, then
I won't, but we may then see men, who will be
as bad to us as those lions. Then we may give
them the shoot gun, says Xury, laughing, make
them run away: such English Xury spoke, by
conversing with us slaves. About two or three
hours after we saw monstrous great creatures
come down to the sea shore, and run into the
water in order to wash and cool themselves, mak-
ing the most hideous howling and yelling. Xury
was dreadfully frightened; but our terror was
greatly increased when we saw one of them swim-
ming towards our boat. Xury said it was a lion,
and called out to me to weigh the anchor, and
put out to sea, and instantly I saw the wild beast
within two oars length of us; but though I was
much surprised, I stepped to the cabin door, and
snatched up a gun, fired at him, upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the
shore. But it is impossible to describe the hor-
rible noise, the hideous cries and howlings that
was raised, as well upon the edge of the shore, as
higher within the country, upon the report of the
gun; and this convinced me that there was no
going on land at night.
But though I was no less afraid of the savages
than of the wild beasts, our necessities obliged
us to land, for we had not a pint of water left.
The next morning Xury asked me for one of the


jars, and said he would go and seek for water.
I asked him why he would go? The boy an-
swered with such affection that I could not help
loving him. If wild mans come, they eat me,
you go away. Well, Xury, said I, we will both
go, and if the wild men come we will kill them;
they shall eat neither of us. I then gave Xury
a dram out of the case of bottles, and having haul-
ed the boat as near the shore as we thought pro-
per, waded to land, carrying nothing but our
'arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
lest any savages should come in canoes down the
river; but the boy seeing a low place about a
mile up the country, rambled thither; and by and
by I saw him come running towards me, when
thinking he might be pursued by some savages,
or frightened by a wild beast, I ran to meet him;
but when I came nearer, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulder, which was a creature he
had shot, like a hare, different in colour, and long-
er legs, and we found itvery good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans. We therefore filled our jars, feasted on
our hare, and then set sail.
Several times after we were obliged to go on
shore for fresh water, and once in particular,
coming to an anchor, early in the morning, under
a little.point of land, and staying for the tide to
go farther in, ury called softly to me, andsthl


me, that we had best go farther off the shore; for,
says he, look yonder lies a dreadful monster fast
asleep. I looked where he pointed, and saw a
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung a little
over him; upon which charging my three guns,
I took aim at his head. But lying with his foot
a little raised above his nose, the slug broke his
leg. He started up growling, but fell down again;
then rose upon three legs, and gave the most hi-
deous roar that I ever heard, but as he was going
to make off, I fired again, and shooting him in
the head, had the pleasure to see him drop, and
lie struggling for life, At this, Xury asking leave
to go on shore, I consented; so jumping into the
water with the little gun in one hand, he swam
with the other, and coming close to the lion, put
the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which dispatched him quite.
I now resolved to take off his skin, and going a-
shore, the boy and I accomplished it, but not
without great labour. Then spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun dried it in two days time,
and it afterwards served Tme to lie upon.
After this stop, we still proceeded to the south-
ward for ten or twelve days, in hopes of making
the river Gambia or Senegal, or of meeting with
some European ship, living all the while very
sparingly on our provision, which began to grow
short. We now saw that the land was inhabited,
and that the people were black, and stark naked.


Drawing nearer to land, they ran along the shore
a good way, with no weapons in their hands, ex-
cepting one of them, who had a lance. I made
signs to them for something to eat, and they ma-
king signs to me to stay, I lowered my sail, and
laid by, while two of them run up into the coun-
try, and in less than half an hour returned with
two pieces of dried flesh and some corn; but
though I was willing to accept it, I was loath to
venture on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us, but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it on the shore, and laying it
down, went away, and stood at a distance till we
fetched it on board, and then returned. We
made signs to thank them, for we had nothing
that-we could give them in return.
At this instant an opportunity offered of ob-
liging them, for a furious lion came running with
great swiftness from the mountains. These na-
ked people were terribly frightened, especially
the women; and all fled except the man who had
the lance. But without attempting to fall on the
Negroes, he plunged into the sea, and at last came
nearer our boat than I at first expected. How-
ever, I was prepared for him, and as soon as he
came within my reach, I fired, and shot him
through the head; when, struggling for life, he
made towards shore, but died before he.eould
reach it.
It is impossible to express the astonishment
of these poor creatures at the noise and ire of


the gun; some were ready to die with fear, and
fell down as if dead with terror. But when they
saw the creature dead, and that I made signs to
them to come to the shore, they took courage,
returned, and began to search for the creature
who had sunk. I found him by his blood stain-
ing the water, and by the help of a rope which I
flung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul,
they dragged him to land.
I soon found that the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of the lion, and I made signs to them
that they might take it, at which they seemed ex-
tremely pleased. They immediately fell to work,
and with a sharpened piece of hard wood, took
off his skin more readily than I could have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined accepting; but made signs for
the skin, which they freely gave me, and brought
me a great deal more of their provisions, which
I accepted. I then took one of my jars, and hold-
ing it bottom upwards, let them see that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. This
they understood, and two of them running away,
returned with a large vessel made of earth, which
seemed as if burnt in the sun; this they set down
as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,
where he filled them.
About ten days after, as I was steering out to
sea, in order to double a cape, I had the view of
some islands, which I supposed to be those of
Cape Verd. I was afraid of venturing so far fridi


the shore, for if I should be taken with a fresh
gale of wind, I might never be able to reach again
either the one or the other. In this dilemma I
sat down in the cabin; when on a sudden Xury
cried out in a fright, Master, master, a ship! fool-
ishly imagining that it was his master's ship,
come so far in pursuit of us. I jumped out of
the cabin, and saw that it was a Portuguese ves-
sel. I instantly stretched out to sea with all the
sail I could make: but when I began to despair
of my ever coming near enough to make any sig-
nal to those on board, they perceived me by the
help of their glasses, and supposing it some Eu-
ropean boat belonging to a ship that was lost,
shortened sail to let me come up.
On my coming near, they asked me what I
was. in Portuguese, in Spanish, and in French,
but 1 understood none of them; at last, a Scots
sailor on board, called to me, and I answered I
was an Englishman, that had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They
then bid me come on board, and very kindly took
me in and all my goods.
My joy at this deliverance was inexpressible.
I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship; but he generously told me he would
t&e nothing from me; he said that all I had
KMlB be delivered safe to me when I came to the
ia'mils; and that he would save my life on no
other terms, than on such as he would be glad to.
s. eaved himself, if ever he happened to ibedO

"c.. a,:


my condition. He offered me 80 pieces of eight
for my boat, 40 ducats for my lion's skin, and
for my boy Xury he offered me 60 pieces of eight,
which I was loath to take, for I was unwilling to
sell the boy's liberty who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own; but when I told
him my reason, he owned it to be just, and offer-
ed to give the bov an obligation to set him free
in ten years, if he turned Christian; and Xury
readily consenting, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils,
and arrived in All .Saints' Bay in about twenty
two days. The'generous treatment of the captain
I can never enough admire; he recommended me
to an honest man who had a plantation and a su-
gar house, with whom I lived till I had learnt
the manner of planting and making sugar; after
which I took out a letter of naturalization, pnr-
chased a piece of land that was uncured and be-
came a planter.'
I at first laboured under some difficulties, and
was obliged to undergo much fatigue. For two
years I rather planted for food than any thing
else; but having at length' cleared a sufficient
quantity of land, I planted some tobacco and a
few sugar canes, and began to thrive. Mean
while the good captain who had taken me up at
sea, and whom I had entrusted with getting for
me, on his return to Europe, half the money I
had left in London, received 1001. out of the 200/.
I had left there, and laying it out to the best ad-


vantage in tools and English cloth, stuffs, &c.
he arrived in Brasil with his treasures, which
turned to great account, and enabled me to ad-
vance my plantation, and to purchase two negro
slaves, and an European servant.
Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I might have been happy; but growing rich apace,
my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach. I had lived here
about four years, and had not only learned the
language, but contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow planters, and several
merchants. I had frequently talked to them of
the method of purchasing Negroes on the coast
of Guinea, and they being pleased with the pro-
ject, easily prevailed on me to make a voyage
for that purpose. We fitted out a ship of about
120 tons burden, which carried 6 guns and 14
men, besides the master, his boy, and myself;
and had no other cargo but such toys as were fit
for trading with the Negroes.
In this vessel I set sail, with the hopes of pur-
chasing slaves, to assist us in our plantations; and
Stood to the northward in order to stretch over
to the African coast. We had very good weather
for about twelve days; but soon after we had
crossed the Line, a violent hurricane drove us
quite out of our knowledge, and for many days
together, not any in the ship expected to save
their lives. In this distress one of our men died
.of a calenture, and a man and a boy were walked


overboard; but about the twelfth day, the storm
abating, we found we were in 11 deg. north lat.
upon the coast of Guinea, upon which it was re-
solfed to stand away for Barbadoes, in order to
With this design we changed our course, but
soon after a second storm arose, which carried
us with the same impetuosity westward, and drove
us out of the way of all human commerce. In
this distress, one of our men, early one morning,
cried out Land! and we had no sooner run out of
the cabin, in hopes of seeing where we were, but
the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being stopped, the sea broke over her
in such a manner, that we expected we should all
have perished. It is not easy to conceive our
consternation, for as the rage of the sea was still
great, we supposed that the ship would in a few
minutes break to pieces. Before the storm we
had a boat at the stern, but she was staved by
dashing against the ship's rudder. We had an-
other boat on board, which the mate laid hold of,
and with the help of the rest of the men, flung
her over the ship's side, and getting all into her,
being eleven in number, committed ourselves to
God's mercy; the wind driving us towards the
shore, we soon plainly saw, that the sea went so
high, that the boat could not escape, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. However, we
steered towards land; but after we had rowed, or
rather been driven about a league and a half, a


wave, mountain high, came rolling a-stern of us,
and took us with such fury, that it overset the
boat at once, and separated us one from another.
This wave carried me a vast way towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back and left
me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I had taken in; I had, however, so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land thau Iexpect-
ed, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make
towards it as fast as I could, before another wave
should return; but I saw the sea come after me
as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy,
which I had no means or strength to contend
with; my buisness was to hold my breath, and
raise myself upon the water, if I could; at the
same time taking care that it did not carry me
back with it, when it retired towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried
me twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with prodigious
swiftness a very great way towards the shore,
but I held my breath, and endeavoured to swim
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the wa-
ter; and though I could scarcely keep myself in
this situation above two seconds, yet it gave me
breath and fresh courage. I was covered again
with water a good while; however, I held out,
and finding the water had spent itself, I struck


forwards and soon felt the ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover
breath, till the waters went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with all the strength I
had left towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which
overtaking me, and hurrying me along as before,
dashed me against a piece of rock, and left me
senseless; but recovering before the return of the
waves, I held fast by the rock till the wave a-
bated; and then ran again. In short, after an-
other wave or two, I got to the main land, clam-
bered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass.
I now began to thank God that my life was
saved, and rising up, I walked about on the shore
filled with extacy, and wrapt up in the contem-
plation of my own happy deliverance.
But I soon found my comforts abate, for I was
wet, and had no clothes to shift me; and looking
round saw no prospect but that of perishing with
hunger, or of being devoured by wild beasts, for
I had no weapon either to kill any creature for
my sustenance, or to defend me from any beasts-
that might desire to kill me for theirs; in a word,
I had nothing about me, but a knife, a tobacco- :
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was all
my provision, and, night coming on, I waliv'.
about a furlong from the shore to see if I cowW.`'.,
find any fresh water to drink, which I did tolry .'
great joy; and having drank, and put a little*.T'.i


bacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, 1 climbed
into a tree. 1 then cut a short thick stick for
my defence; endeavoured to place myself so
that if 1 should go to sleep, I might not fall; and
being much fatigued, 1 slept very comfortably
till morning.
When I awaked it was broad day, the weath-
er clear, and the storm abated; but what sur-
prised me most was, that in the night the ship
had been lifted up from the sand by the swelling
of the tide, and driven almost as far as the rock,
against which 1 had been dashed, and she stand-
ing upright, I wished myself on board.
A little after noon, 1 found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship, when I saw
that if we had stayed on board, we had all been
safe, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left destitute of all company and comfort; and
this forced tears into my eyes. The weather
being extremely hot, I pulled off my clothes and
took to the water; but when I came to the ship,
I found no means of getting on board, she lying
so high, that 1 could find nothing within my
sejh0; I swam round her twice, and the second
S tiAe, observing a small piece of rope hanging
S ian, 1 got hold of it and got into the forecastle.
ere 1 found that the ship was bulged, and had
.'a great deal of water in the hold; but to 'Ir.
-'- erat joy saw that all the ship's provisions were

, -Ij c


dry; and being well disposed to eat, I went to
the bread room, and slipping on a waistcoat, fill-
ed my pockets with biscuit, and eat as I went
about other things. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, to
enable me to accomplish my design.
As I found several spare yards, and some
large spars of wood, I let them down with ropes
by the ship's side, and going down to them, tied
them together and made a raft, placing several
pieces of plank upon them cross ways; after
which, I laid upon it all the pieces of board that
came to hand. I next broke open and emptied
three of the seamen's chests, then lowered them
down upon the raft, and filled them wilh bread,,
some dried goat's flesh, and three Dutch cheeses.
I found several cases of bottles, in which were
some cordial waters; and about five or six gal-
lons of arrack; these I stowed by themselves,
there being no room for them in the chests- I
also let down the carpenter's chest, which was
worth more to me than a ship-load of gold. 1
next found two good fowling pieces, and two
pistols, with some powder horns, two barrels of
powder, and two old rusty swords, all of which
I placed on the raft, and with this invaluable
cargo resolved to put to sea, without either sails,
oars, or rudder; but the tide was now rising
*and set in for the shore, and the little wind thwer
was blew towards land; besides, I found twoo 0';


three broken oars that belonged to the boat,
which served me to push the raft along.
For about a mile my raft went very well, and
with it I entered a creek; but after having seve-
ral times narrowly escaped overturning it, I
thrust it on a flat piece of ground, over which
the tide flowed, and there fastened it by sticking
my broken oars into the ground. Thus I stayed
till the water ebbed, when I placed my cargo
safe on land.
At night I barricadoed myself round with the
chests and boards I had brought on shore, of
which I had made a kind of hut.
The next day, considering that I might yet
get many useful things out of the ship, particu-
larly the rigging and sails, I resolved to make a
second voyage. My raft being too unwieldy, I
swam to the ship and made another, on which I
placed two or three bags of nails and spikes,
some hatchets, a grindstone, two or three iron
crows, seven muskets, and another fowling piece,
two barrels of musket bullets, a large bag of
small shot, all the men's clothes I could find, a
square fore-top sail, a hammock and some bed-
ding; and all these to my very great comfort, I
brought safe to land.
I Dew went to work to make a little hut with
the sails and some poles, which I cut for that
purpose; and into it I brought every thing I
Should spoil either with the sun or rain: I

V^ -


piled all the empty chests and casks in a circle
round the hut, to fortify it from any sudden at-
tempt of man or beast: I blocked up the door
with boards, and spreading-one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my to pistols just by my
head, and my gun by r, I went to bed and
slept very quietly all night.
Every day at low water I went on board,
and brought away something. On my seventh
voyage I brought away a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, a box of fine
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour.
1 had been thirteen days on shore, and ele-
ven times on board the ship, but in one of these
excursions I had the misfortune to overset my
raft; but it being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out. Indeed, had calm wea-
ther continued, I believe I should have brought
away the whole ship, piece by piece: but pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise; however, at low water,
I went: rummaging the cabin, I discovered a.
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found
two or three razors, a pair of large scissars, with
ten or a dozen good knives and forks, and in
another about 361. value of gold and silvw coin.
At sight of this money I smiled to myself and
said aloud, 0 drug! what art thou good furw
One of these knives is worth all the heap; I, ha.:



no manner of use for thee; e'en remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping
it all in a piece of canvas, began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing
it, the wind began to rise, and to blow off shore.
I then found that it was time to be gone, lest I
should not be able to reach the shore; accord-
ingly I let myself down in the water, and swam
to land, which I performed with great difficulty,
from the weight of the things I had about me,
and the roughness of the water.
It blew very hard all night; and in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, no more ship was to be
seen. I now went in search of a place where I
might fix my dwelling, endeavouring to choose
one where I might have the advantage of a
healthy situation, fresh water, and security from
being surprised by man or beast. I found a lit-
tle plain on the side of a rising hill, which was
there as steep as the side of a house, so that no-
thing could come down to me from the top; on
the side of the rock was a hollow place, like the
entrance of a cave, before which I resolved to ix
my tent. This plain was not above,100 yards
broad, and twice as long, descending to the sea,
Before I set up my tent, I drew an half ciifr
cle before the hollow place, which extendel4*-
yards, an in is half circle pitched two rows:- 'J-
S,:trOng ata8, driving them into the groundllti

2- wr
jB 'X


piles; they stood about five feet and a half out
of the ground, sharpened on the top. Then I
took the pieces of cable I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows one upon another up to
the top ; and the fence was so strong, that neither
man nor beast could enter it. The entrance [
made by a short ladder to go over the top, which,
when I w, i I lifted over after me. Into this
fence, : agrees carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, and made
a large tent to secure them and myself from the
weather. When I had done this, I began to
work my way into the rock, laying all the earth
and stones I dug out against my fence in the
manner of a terrace; and thus I had a cave just
behind my hut.
But before the above works were completed,
a sudden storm of thunder and lightening filled
me with the greatest horror; my gunpowder sud-
denly darted into my mind, and my heart sunk
within me at the thought, that at one blast it
might all be destroyed; on which not only my
defence, but the providing of my food, entirely
depended. No,sooner was the storm over, than
I laid aside every other work to make boxes and
bags, in order to separate my powder. I put
then in holes up and down the rocks in such a
manner tha ~OQeparcel could not fire another.
While all this *as doing, I walked out at
least once every day. with my gun, to see if I


could kill any thing fit for food, and to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first
time I went out, I had the pleasure to find, that
there were goats in the island; but they were so
shy, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come up with them; but observing that
they did not easily see objects above them, I kill-
ed them by climbing the rocks, and shooting at
those in the valley. I found in the woods a kind
of wild pigeon, which built in holes iii the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, hut when they grew old
they flew away; however, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.
After I had been about ten or twelve days on
shore, it came into my thoughts that I should
lose my reckoning of time, and should not be
able to distinguish the Sundays from the working
days. To prevent this, I set up a large square
post on the shore where I first landed, and cut
upon it with a knife, I came on shore here the
30th of September, 1659. Upon the sides I
every day cut a notch, and every seventh notch
was as long. again as the rest, and every first day
of the month as long again as that long one; and
thus I kept my weekly, monthly, and yearly
I had got from the ship, some pens, inks and
paper; some mathematical instruments, and thftb

'! ^


good bibles, with several other books, which I
carefully secured I also brought on shore with
me two cats, and a dog swam on shore, who was
a trusty servant to me many years; nay, he was
so good a companion, that I was at a loss for
nothing that he could fetch me; and he only
wanted the power of speech to become a mobt
agreeable friend.
When my habitation was finished, I found it
far too small to contain my moveables; I had
hardly room to turn myself; so I set about en-
larging my cave, and laboured till I had worked
sideways into the rock farther than my outside
pale, and hewing a way through, made a back
door to my store-house. I then made a table and
chair, which were great conveniences; shelved
one side of my cave, and knocked up pieces of
wood into the rock, to hang my things on. When
my cave was set to rights, it looked like a ge-
neral magazine of all.uecessary things.
What a different situation was I in now,
from that I was in when I first landed, when I
was afraid of perishing with hunger, or of being
devoured by wild beasts!
But I had scarcely finished my habitation,
when an earthquake had like to have buried me
in its ruins. The fear of being swallowed up
alive prevented my sleeping in quiet, but the ap-
prehensions of lying abroad were equally terri-
ble, and when I saw myself concealed and safe


from every other danger, I was loth to remove.
In a little time I recovered from my fright,
and after that I frequently killed goats for my
subsistence, whose fat supplied my lamp, which
was a dish made of clay, and baked in the sun;
and for a wick I made use of oakum. In the
rummaging among my things, I found a little bag
with some husks of corn in it; and wanting it, I
shook it out by the side of my fortification. This
was just before some heavy rain; and about a
month afterwards, I saw some green stalks shoot-
ing out of the ground; but how great was my
astonishment, when some time after I saw about
ten or twelve ears of barley! It was some time
before I recollected the bag with the husks: and
I thought that they could have been produced by
nothing less than a miracle. With this barley
there also came up a few stalks of rice; and
these were worth more to me than fifty times
their weight in gold; and I carefully preserved
them for seed.
When I had been about a year on the island,
I was taken extremely ill, which frightened me
terribly, imagining I should die for want of help.
This fit of illness proved a violent ague, which
made me so weak, I could hardly carry my gun;
and when the fit was on me, I was almost perish-
ing with thirst. One night, as I was ruminating
om my sad condition, expecting the return of my
:iPt occurred to my thoughts, that the Bral-



ians took no physic but tobacco; and I went di-
rected by Heaven no doubt, to search for some
in the chest: and there I found a bible! I brought
both that and the tobacco to my table; I steeped
some of the last in rum; some I burnt in a pan
of coals, holding my head over the fiume; and
some I chewed; during the interval of this ope-
ration, I opened my book; and the first words
on which I cast my eyes were, Call upon me
in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee."
The words struck me; but I could read no more,
for the tobacco made me excessively sleepy. I
therefore went to bed, and falling into a sound
sleep, I believe I slept two days; and awoke per-
fectly recovered.
I now took a survey of the island; and at
about two miles distance from my habitation,
came to some fine savannahs, and, a little far-
ther, a variety of fruit; melons upon the ground,
and vines covered with clusters of ripe grapes.
I proceeded with my discoveries, and came to an
opening that seemed to descend to the west,
where every thing was in such constant verdure,
that it looked like a beautiful garden. I carried
some grapes and a few limes back with me; but
the grapes were spoiled before I got home. I
went the next day and gathered a large quantity
of grapes, and hung them upon the out branches
of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun; but as for the limes and lemons, I carried
as many as I could well stand under.


I was so enamoured with this place that I built
myself a bower fenced with a double hedge;
and this country-house as I called it, cost me two
months labour; but I hardly began to enjoy my
habitation when the rains came on, and I was
obliged to retreat to my ol'! one, taking with me
my grapes, which were now become fine raisins
of the sun.
"I had been concerned for the loss of one of
my cats; but about this time she came home, and
increased my family with three kittens; she
having bred, as I supposed by a wild cat, of
which there were some in the woods, and they
soon multiplied so fast, that I was obliged to
drive them from me.
The rainy and dry seasons now appeared
quite regular to me. I dug a piece of ground as
well as I could, with a wooden spade of my own
making, and began to sow my grain; but as I
was doing it, it occurred to my thoughts that I
would not sow all, for fear it should not grow, so
I reserved about a handful of each sort; and well
it was I did so; for it did not come up till many
months afterwards. When I saw it did not grow,
I sought for moister ground, and dug up a piece
nearer my bower, which answered to my wishes;
and my crop amounted to about half a peck of
each kind; by this means, I was made master of
my business; knew when to sow, and that I
might expect two seed times, and two harvests


every year; for the corn I set came up after the
next wet season.
When the rains were over, I made a visit to
my bower, n here I found the stakes I set in for
my defence were shot up to trees, which I prun-
ed and made as much alike as possible; and they
became a complete shade. This was my work
in the dry season: and to employ myself when I
could not go abroad, I made baskets; having
when a child, taken much delight to see a basket-
maker work.
In one of the dry seasons, I took another
ramble, armed with my gun and a hatchet, and
guarded by my faithful dog. When I had pass-
ed the valley in which stood my bower, I came
within view of the sea; and it being a clear day,
I plainly discovered land; but whether islands or
continents, I could not tell: I guessed it could
not be less than twenty leagues off. I imagined
it was some savage coast, and such indeed it
proved. In this journey I caught a parrot, hav-
ing knocked it down with a stick, brought it
home with me, and taught it to speak. I found
hares in the lower grounds; but as they were not
like what I had seen, I was afraid to eat them;
and I had no need to make experiments, as I bad
goats, pigeons, and turtle, which added to my
grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have fur-
nished a better table, The shore was covered
with fine large turtles; though, on myside, I had


found but three in a year and a half. Here was
also an infinite number of fowls; but I was two
sparing of my powder to shoot them. I travel-
led about twelve miles eastward along the shore,
and then, setting up a great post for a mark, re-
turned homeward, designing that my next tour
should be the contrary way, till I came to this
I took a different way home from that I went;
but unfortunately lost myself, and wandered about
uncomfortable; till at last I was obliged to find
out the sea-side, to seek for my post, being tired
to death with the heat of the weather and the
weight of my arms. In this journey my dog
seized a young kid, and I saved it alive, highly
pleased with the hopes of having a breed of tame
goats; but as I could not bring it along without
difficulty, I left it within the inclosure of my.
I now rested myself a week, employed in the
weighty affair of making a cage for my parrot,
which soon became one of my favourites. I now
bethought me of my kid, and hastened to my
bower to bring it home, or to give it food; and
the poor creature was so tame by hunger, that it
followed me home like a dog. From that time
it became one of my domestics also, and would
never leave me.
My corn was now coming up; aud the goats
and hares having tasted the sweetness of the blade,


lay at it night and day as soon as it sprang out of
the ground, so that it could get no time to shoot
into a stalk. To defend it I surrounded it with
a hedge, and, in the mean while, shooting some
of the creatures by day, I set my dog to watch it
by night, which he did so faithfully, that the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew, and
began to ripen apace. When the corn was in ear,
I was nearly as much troubled by birds; but
having killed three, I used them as we do mur-
derers in England, hung them in chains, to serve
as a terror to the rest. Not a fowl afterwards
came near my corn, nor indeed, near the place,
as long as my scare-crows hung there.
When my corn was ripe I made a scythe with
a sword, and cut off none but the ears, which I
rubbed out with my hands. At the end of my
harvest, I guessed I had a bushel of rice, and
two bushels and a half of barley. I kept all for
seed, and bore the want of bread with patience,
as I had now a tolerable prospect of having as
much as I wanted.
The article of bread was a great difficulty; I
had neither plough nor harrow: for the first 1
made my shovel do; and to supply the place of
a harrow, I went over it myself, dragging after
me the heavy boughs of a tree; and when I came
to make bread, I had innumerable wants; I want-
ed a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and
salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it.


However, I had six months to contrive all these
things in. In the mean time I enlarged the en-
closure of my arable land. I made some mis-
shapen pots of clay, that all broke in the sun,
except two, which I cased in wicker-work; but
I succeeded better in little pans, flat dishes, and
pitchers, which the sun baked surprisingly hard:
but they would not bear the fire so as tohold any
liquid, and I wanted one to boil my meat.
One day, after I had dressed my dinner, I
went to put out my fire, and found a piece of one
of my earthen vessels burnt as hard as a stone,
and as red as a tile: this taught me to burn my
pipkins; and I soon wanted for no sort of earth-
en vessel: when I found that I had made a pot
which would bear the fire, I set it on with a piec,
of kid, in order to make some broth, which an-
swered tolerably well.
1 made a wooden mortar and pestle, and also
a sieve out of some of the seamen's neck-cloths,
and at length made a sort of oven of a broad
shallow earthen vessel, and a tiled hearth. When
I baked, I drew the live embers forwards .p,
the hearth, till it was very hot; then swelts.
them away, I set down my loaves, whelMi-g1 "
earthen pot over them, which baked my barley-
bread, as well as the best oven in the world; and
I became a complete pastry-cook.
My thoughts often ran upon the land I had.
seea4 and I began to make myself a canoe. I


felled a great cedar, but when the impossibility
of launching this heavy thing came to my mind, I
gave myself the foolish answer, Let me but
once make it, and I'll warrant I'll get it along
when it is done." But all my devices to get it
into the water failed me, and therefore I gave it
over, determining to enjoy what I had, without
repining for what 1 could not get.
My clothes now began to decay ; so I made
myself two waistcoats out of some watch-coats,
which lasted me a great while. I made a cap
out of a goat's-skin, with the hairy side outwards,
to throw off the rain, and also another waistcoat
of the same skin; but I must acknowledge that
they were wretchedly done. I made me too an.
umbrella, which I could shut up, and take abroad
with me; and this secured me both from the heat
and the rain.
I now built me a small boat, intending to go
round my little kingdom, but in which I had
nearly lost my life. Almost dead with fatigue,
I at length arrived at my little castle. I got
over the fence, and laid me down to sleep in the
shade; but judge my surprise, when I was awaked
by a voice calling me by my name several times,
" Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor Robin Crusoe,
where are you; where have you been ?" I was
so dead asleep at first, that I thought I dreamt
somebody spoke to me; but as the voice con-
tinued to repeat Robin Crusoe," I awoke dread.


fully frightened; but no sooner were my eyes open,
than I saw my parrot sitting on the hedge, and
immediately knew that it was him that spoke to
me. I called him, and the poor sociable creature
came as he used to do, and sat on my thumb,
crying, Poor Robin Crusoe," as if he had been
overjoyed to see me again."
This dangerous ramble reconciled me to ny
desolate island, and resigned me to the dispen-
sations of Providence.
My powder being considerably abated, I be4-:`.
gan to perceive that this was a want which- it wo
impossible for me to supply. Dreading wh< t
would become of me when I could kill no mrA.'-
goats, (for my kid did not breed,) I set snaies
to catch some alive, and particularly wanted a
she-goat with kid; but my snares were broKl
and my bait devoured. At length I resqito
try pit-falls; in one of which I found a large old
he-goat, and in another three kide, am- le and
two females. The old one was so fierce, that I
durst not meddle with him; but the three kids I
brought home. It was some time before they
would feed; but, however, they grew tame, and
I had the pleasure to find that I might supply
myself with goat's flesh, when I had no powder
or shot left, I enclosed a piece of ground to keep
my goats, proposing, as my flock increased, tp
add more ground to my enclosure; and I had
soon not only goat's flesh to feed on, but milk



too; for I now set up a dairy, and made myself
butter and cheese. It would have made a Stoic
smile, to see me and my family sit down to din-
ner: There was my majesty, all alone like a king,
attended with my servants. Poll, my favourite,
was the only person permitted to talk to me.
My dog having grown very old, sat always at my
right hand, and my two cats, one on the one side
of the table, and the other on the other, expect-
ing now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark
of special favour.
I had at length a great mind to go to the
point of the island, to see how the shore lay, and
resolved to travel thither by land. And now,
reader, I will give thee a short sketch of the
figure I made. I had a great, high, shapeless
cap, made of a goat's skin; a jacket, with the
skirt coming down to the middle of my thighs;
and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same
with the goat's hair hanging to the middle of
my leg. Stockings and shoes I had none; but
I had made a pair of somethings, I scarce knew
what to call them, to flap over my legs like spat-
terdashes, but of a most barbarous shape; and
so indeed were all the rest of my clothes. I had
a broad belt of goat-skin dried; and 1 hung on
one side a saw, and on the other a hatchet. I
had another belt, not so broad, fastened over my
shoulder. Under my arm hung two pouches,
for my shot and powder. On my back I carried


a basket; on my shoulder a gun, and over my
head, a great clumsy, ugly umbrella. My beard
was cut short, except what grew on my upper
lip, which I had trimmed into a pair of large
Mahometan whiskers. But as for my figure, I
had so few to observe me that it was of no man-
ner of consequence.
In this figure I went my new jouriiey, and
was-out five or six days. I was exceedingly
surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on
the shore, which was plainly to be seen in the
sand. I listened, butcould hear nothing; I went
upon a rising ground to look farther; but I could
see only that one impression. There was plainly
a foot, toes, heel, and every part very distinct, I
hurried home to my fortifications, looking behind
me every two or three steps, and fancying every
tree, bush, and stump, to be a man. I
sleep that night; but my terror gradually wore
off; however, I strengthened my fortification, and
planted a number of stakes outside my wall
which growing, became a thick grove.
After having secured my habitation in the
strongest manner possible, I sought for a place of
security for my live goats; and at length found
a piece of ground, rendered almost inaccessible
by nature, so that it cost me but little pains to
make it so; and then I removed the she-goats and
two he-goats into it.
After I had thus secured one part of my live


stock, 1 went about the whole island, and ram-
bled more to the western point than I had ever
done before. I was presently convinced, that
the seeing a print of a man's foot was not such a
strange thing in the island, as 1 had imagined,
for on my approaching the shore, I was perfectly
confounded, nor is it possible to express the hor-
ror I felt at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies;
and particularly a place, where, as I supposed,
there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in
the earth for the savage wretches to sit down to
their inhuman feasts. I turned away my face
from the horrid spectacle, and left the place as
soon as possible.
One day when I was cutting some brush-
wood, 1 found behind the bush I was cutting a
hollow place, which I was curious to look into;
and getting with difficulty into its mouth, 1 found
it was sufficient for me to stand upright in; but
looking further into the place, which was per-
fectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes, which
twinkled like two stars, from a dim light reflect-
ed from the mouth of the cave. At this I return-
ed out faster than I got in: but plucking up my
courage, I took a great firebrand, and rushing in
again with it flaming in my hand: when I was
almost as much frightened as before; for I heard
a loud sigh followed by a broken noise, and then
a sigh again. I stepped back, struck with such


surprise that it put me into a cold s#at. Flow-
ever I recovered resolution enough to step for-
ward again, and lifting up my light, I saw lying
on the ground a most monstrous he-goat gasping
for life. I now recovered from my fright, and
began to look round me. This cave was but
twelve feet over: and I observed, that on the
further side was an opening, into which I crept;
but as I had no light, I deferred going farther
than the entrance till the next day; when I crept
about ten yards: after which the roof rose to
about twenty feet high, and the wall reflected a
hundred thousand lights from the light I carried.
It was a delightful grotto, the floor dry and level,
and no damp to be felt. To this place I brought
all my powder and all my spare arms, and now
kept at my castle only five guns, which stood
ready mounted.
Some time after, in the midst of a very stormy
night, I was.startled at the firing of a gun: I
hastened up to the top of my hill; and heard an-
other. I imagined that these were the signals of
a ship in distress; and such it proved, as I dis-
covered the next day. I cannot explain the
emotion I felt at the sight of this wreck. 0
that there had been but one saved!" cried I,
" that I might have had one companion, one
fellow-creature to have spoken to, and have com-
forted me in this affection!"
Under the power of this impression, nothing


would serve me, but I must go to this wreck, which
lay at a little distance. I furnished myself with
a stock of provisions, for fear of being driven
out to sea; and having begun my voyage, I in
two hours time reached the ship, which was
Spanish built. She stuck fast, jammed in be-
tween two rocks, and all the stern and quarter
were beaten to pieces by the sea. On coming
near it, a dog yelped, and cried: but there was no
other living creature on hoard; and all the goods
were spoiled by the water. I however took two
of the seamen's chests into my boat, without
knowing what was in them.
When I had got my treasure home, and be-
gan to unload, I found several bottles filled with
cordial waters, and some neckcloths and shirts,
which were very useful to me; 11,000 pieces of
eight, and about a pound weight of solid gold,
but of what use was this to me! I would have
given it all for three or four pair of shoes and
After this acquisition, I lived in my old man-
ner, though terrified by fear of the savages.
One morning, very early, I saw five canoes of
them on shore. I clambered up my hill; and by
the help of my perspective, discovered no less
than thirty dancing round a fire. I soon after-
wards saw two miserable wretches dragged out
of the boats, one of whom was immediately
knocked down; but the other, starting from them,


ran with incredible swiftness along the sand to-
wards me. I confess, I was horribly frightened,
when I saw him come my way, imagining he
would be pursued by the whole body; however, I
kept my station, and quite lost my apprehensions
when I found but three followed him. He greatly
outran them, and was in a fair way of escaping
them all, when, coming to a creek, he plunged
Into it, landed, and ran on as swift as before.
Of the three that followed, but two entered the
water, and the other returned back. I hastily
fetched my guns from the foot of the ladder: and'
having a short cut down the hill, I clapped my-
self in the way between the pursuers and pur-
sued, hallooed aloud to him that fled, and then
beckoned my hand for him to stop; then rushing
at once upon the foremost, knocked him down
with the stock of my piece. The other stopped,
as if frightened, but when I advanced toward
him, I perceived he was fitting his bow to ahooet
me; upon which I shot him dead directly. The
poor savage who had fled was so terrified at tih
noise of my piece, though he saw his enemies
fallen, that he stood stock still, but seememmather
inclined to fly than to come towards me. How-,
ever, when I gave him signs of encouragement; .
he came nearer, kneeling down every ten orf
twelve steps; on his coming close again, he laid
his head upon the ground and placed my foot upoal 4'
it. But there was more work to do; the manl -i


knocked down came to himself, and my savage
began to be afraid. I then presented my piece
at the man, when the poor fellow, whose life I
had saved, made a motion for my sword, which
I gave him; and he struck off his enemy's head at
one blow, and in a quarter of an hour buried both
the bodies in the sand. I then took him away
to my cave at the farther part of the island.
Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, which he wanted
much; and having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to lie down upon some rice-straw, which
the poor creature did, and soon went to sleep.
He was a well-made handsome fellow, of
about twenty-six years of age, and of an olive-
colour complexion, with long black hair. He
had a small nose, that was not flat; and fine teeth,
as white as ivory. After he had slept about half
an hour, he awaked again, and came running to
me in the inclosure, just where I had been milk-
ing my goats; then falling down again, he laid
his head flat upon the ground, and set my other
.foot upon it, as before; and after this made all
possible signs of thankfulness, subjection, and
submission. I began to speak to him, and to
teach him to speak to me; and first I made him
know that his name should be Friday, which
was the day whereon I saved his life. I taught
him to say Master, and let him know that was to
be my name. The next day I gave him clothes,


at which he seemed pleased. As we went by
the place where he had buried the two men, he
pointed exactly to the spot, making signs that he
would dig them up again, and eat them; at this I
appeared very angry, and beckoned with my
hands to come away, which he did immediately.
Having now more courage, and consequently
more curiosity, I took my man Friday with wp,
giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow
and arrow at his back, which I found he could
use very dexterously. I also gave him a gun to
carry: and taking two for myself, away we
marched to the place where his enemies had beer ::' '
when I came there, my blood ran cold in my
veins; the place was covered with human bones,
and the ground dyed with blood; great pieces of
flesh were left here and there, half eaten, mangled,
and scorched. I saw three skulls, five hands,
and the bones of three or four legs and feet; and
Friday by his signs, made me understand that
they brought over four prisoners to feast upon;
that three of them were eaten up, and he, point-
ing to himself, was the fourth; and that they had
been conquered, and taken prisoners in war.
I caused Friday to collect the remains of this
horrid carnage; then to light a fire and burn them
to ashes. When this was done we returned to our
castle. The next day I made a little tent on the
outside of my fortification, and at night took in
my ladder, that he might not be able to get at me


while I sleept. But there was no need of this
precaution; for never man had a more faithful
servant; he had the same affection for me as a
child has for a father; and I dare say, he would
have sacrificed his life to save mine. I was
greatly delighted with him, and made it my busi-
ness to teach him every thing proper to render
him useful; especially to speak, and understand
me when I spoke: and he was the aptest scholar
that ever was; then he was so merry, so diligent,
and so pleased when he could understand me, or
make me understand him that he was very agree-
able company.
After I had been two or three days returned
to my castle, I was desirous to bring him off from
the relish of human flesh; so I took him out with
me one morning to the woods, in order to take a
kid from the herd; but as I was going, I saw a
she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young
kids sitting by her: when, making signs to Friday
not to stir, I shot one of the kids. Poor Friday,
who had at a distance seen me kill the savage his
enemy, but did not see how it was done, trem-
bled, and looked so amazed, that 1 thought he
would have sunk down: he did not see the kid I
had shot, but ripped up his waistcoat to feel if
he was not wounded, and thought I was resolved
to kill him; for he came kneeled down to me, and
embracing my knees, seemed to entreat me not
to shoot him. But taking him by the band, I


laughed at him, and, pointed to the kid I had
killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which
he did.
The next day I set him to beat out some corn,
and sift it; and in a little time Friday was able to
do all the work for me, as well as I could do it
myself. In short, this was the pleasentest year I
had led in this island; for as my man began to
talk pretty well, I had some use for my tongue
From this time I had aaaind to venture over
and see if I could possl jobin these bearded
men, not doubting but we might find some means
of escaping from thence.
I was now entered into the 27th year of my
captivity, and intended soon to set sail; wheu one
morning I bid Friday go to the sea-shore, to see
if he could find a turtle; but he had not long
been gone, when he came running back, and
cried, "O Master! 0 Master! 0 sorrow! 0 bad!
' What's the matter, Friday?" said I. O yon,
der there," said he, one, two, three canoe! one,
two, three! "Well, Friday," said I, "do not-:_
be frightened."
I then took my perspective glass, and went'
up the side of the hill, when 1 saw twenty-one
savages, three prisoners, and three canoes. I
bid him see what they were doing: he did so, and
told me, that they were all about the fire, eati.g
the flesh of one of their prisNers; and that a



bearded man lay bound upon the sand, whom he
said they would kill next
I had not a moment to lose, for two were
stooping down to untie the Christian, in order to
murder him. Now," said I, Friday, do as
you see me do." I laid the musket down, and
took one, and then we both fired. Three were
killed, and five wounded. The rest jumped up
immediately on their feet; but knew not where to
I resolved to pursue them, and ran to the
canoe, calling to Friday to follow me; but I was
no sooner in the canoe, than I found another poor
creature lie there alive, bound hand and foot. I
immediately cut the twisted flags; and seeing that
lie had been bound so tight, that he was almost
dead, I gave him a dram, and ordered Friday to
tell him of his deliverance; but when the poor
fellow looked in his face and heard him speak, it
would have moved any one to tears, to have seen
how he kissed, embraced, hugged him, cried,
danced, sung, and then cried again. It was some
time before I could make him tell me what was
the matter; but when he came a little to himself,
he said, it was his own dear father. He then sat
down by him, held the old man's head close to his
bosom, and chafed his arms and ancles, which
were stiff with binding.
The Spaniard having expressed to me the ut-
most gratitude for his deliverance, gave me an

4, ?


account of his shipwreck, and the situation of his
companions; and it was resolved, that Friday's
father and the Spaniard should go in the boat to
fetch them over.
About cight days after they were gone, Friday
awakened me one morning, by crying out Mas-
ter, they are come!" I dressed and hastened to
the top of the hill, and plainly discovered an Eng-
lish ship laying at anchor.
They ran the boat ashore on the beach, and
eleven men landed, threeef them unarmed, who
by their gestures seemed to be prisoners; and one
of them I could perceive using the most passionate
gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair; while
the two others, though their grief seemed less ex-
travagant, appeared pleading for mercy. At this
instant, I saw a villain lift up his arm to kill one
of the prisoners; but he did not strike him. The
men having left the prisoners and gone into the
woods, I went up to them with my man Friday,
and said to them in Spanish, "What are you,
gentlemen!" they started at the noise,-but pre-
pared to fly. I then said in English, "Gentlemen,
perhaps you may have a friend near you, whom
-you little expect. Tell me your case." I was
commander of that ship (replied one of the pri-
soners,) my men have mutinied against me, and
if they. do not murder me, they intend to leave
me and these two gentlemen ashore in this deso-
late place; they are but in that thicket, and-


tremble for fear they have seen you." Having
concerted matters with the captain, and armed
ourselves, we went to the sailors, and the captain
reserving his own piece, the two men shot one of
the villains dead and wounded another. lie who
was wound d cried out for help, and I coming
up. gave orders for sparing their lives, on condi-
tion of their being bound hands and feet while
they staid on this island.
A little while after another boat came. We
formed an ambuscade, but one of the principal
ringleaders of the mutiny, with two of the crew,
coming towards us, the captain was so eager that
lie let fly, killed two on the spot, the third ran for
it. I immediately advanced with my whole army,
upon which Will Atkins, one of the ring-leaders,
called out, For God's sake, captain, spare my
life!" The captain told him he must lay down his
arms at discretion, and trust to the governor's
mercy, upou which they all siibmitted. And
with their assistance \se seized the ship.
WVhen 1 saw my deliverance thus put in my
hands, I was ready to sink with surprise; 1 was
not able to answer one word, but a flood of tears
brought me to myself, and a little while after I
recovered jIy speech. I then in my turn em-
braced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced to-
gether. Having brought the prisoners before
me, I asked w hat they had to say in their own
defence, telling them I had power to execute
them there.


They pleaded the captain's promise of mercy.
I then told them, that I intended to go passenger
in the ship, with all my men; but that they, if
they went, could only go as prisoners; observing
however, that they might, if they chose it, stay
on the island. This they gladly accepted, and I
prepared to go on board the next day. The cap-
tain returned to the ship, to get every thing rea-
dy for my reception.
When he was gone, I talked to the men, told
them my story, and how I managed all my house-
hold business; left a letter for the fifteen span-
iards, and made them promise to treat them in
common with themselves. The next day I went
on board the ship, taking Friday with me: thus
I left the island after being on it twenty-eight
years, and arrived safely in England, 8ome
time after I went to Lisbon, to look after my
effects in the Brazils, and found the generous
captain, who had been so much my friend, still
alive, and he put me in a way for recovering the
produce of my plantations. And a few months
afterwards there arrived ships from the Tagus,
with effects for my use, to the amount of 50,0001.
besides 1,0001. a year, which I expected to re-
ceive annually from my plantation.




The following beautiful VERSES, composed by the
Poet COWPER, on the Narrative just recited, will
always be perused with pleasure.

1 am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
O Solitude! where are the charms,
That sages have seen in thy face?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms,
Than reign in this horrible place.

I am out of humanity's reach,
I must finish my journey alone,
Never hear the sweet music of speech,
I start at the sound of my own.
The beasts, that roam over the plain,
My form with indifference see;
They are so unacquainted with man,
Their tameness is shocking to me.


Society, friiend4hip,, and love.
Divinely bestow'd upon man.
0, had 1 tdh wings of a dove,
low soon would I taite you again;
My sorrows I then might assuage
in thet ways of religion and truth.
Might l'arn from the wisdom of age.
Aid he clheir'd by the sallies of youth.

lRligion! what tr rasure untold
Residents in that heavenly word!
Moro prt'eious than silver imd gold.
Or all that this earth can atford.
Iut the sound of the church.goinKg hell
These valliens and rocks never heard,
Never sigh'd at the sound of a knell,
Or smiil'd when a sabbath appear'd.


'e winds, that have Iimade mII your sport,
(onvt'e to this desolute shor*
Somen cordinll iirndlering report
Of a, I shall visit ino more.
My friends, do they now nid then send
A wish or a thought after nme
0 tell.nL t yet have a friend.
Though friend I am never to see.


Ilow fleet is a glance of the mind!
Coompar'd with the speed of it's fight,
The tempest itself lags behind,
And the swift-winged arrows of light.
When I think of my own native land,
In a moment I seem to be there;
But alas! recollection at land
Soon hurries me back to despair.


But the seafowl is gone to her nest,
The beast is laid down in his lair;
Even here is a season of rest,
And I to my cubin repair.
'There's mercy in every place,
And mercy, encouraging thought!
(6ives even affliction a grace,
And reconciles man to his lot.

Whitehorn,[Printer, Watchet.

ir;.? F