The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner : with a sketch of the life of Daniel De Foe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
xvi, 367 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Starling, William Francis ( Illustrator )
Hartley and Walker
Hartley and Walker
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1837   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- Halifax


Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
NUC Pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility:
illustrated with six wood engravings from original designs by Mr. Starling.
General Note:
Gilt decorative spine title: Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Gumuchian gives Halifax, Nova Scotia, but the Pierpont Morgan Library record suggests Halifax, Yorkshire, as the probable place of publication (RLIN ID: NYPR88-B449).
General Note:
"Hartley and Walker, Printers, Halifax."--P. 367.
General Note:
Part I and II (abridged) of Robinson Crusoe.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 27566810
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

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And the next run I took I got to the mainland."
ON THE ISLAND ...... .......... Page 54
"I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation."

"Found melons on the ground, and gapes on the

WRECK ....................... 204
As soon as ever my fire blazed Up I heard another
"I bade him go to the tree, word if he
could see plainly what they were doiig.

"When I took leaveof this Island, I arrived onbeoar
for reliques, the great goat skin cap I had made, ..,
my umbrella, and one of my parrots."
A '

"If it be inquired by what charm it is that these St n
TPISING ADVENTURES should have instantly pleased, and
always pleased, it will be found that few books have ever so
naturally mingled amusement with instruction."





THovGH tens of thousands have persed the surpi du
Adventures of Robinson Croe-tho it has
the young and charmed the aged, pleaded the munie rn ad
astounded the erudite, such ha been he attenti pudd to
the production, that comativy title has been known of
the author. Two hun dre pubcations wed from his
lific pen, amid the wreck ftim may have peaed, afr 3
however yet survive as monument of thgeniu that inspi
them, but RosINsoN Causom havingalreadfound itwlnay-
toeverypartof theciviliedworld, seems detinedtopeet
when the monument shallhaave mouldered, o the
ed marble become obliterated, the learning and fam
Daniel de Foe, according to the best a w ba bum
in 16O, though his birthhas been assgned to Ild a
some biographers to 1660. His name was originally l
Foe, but fom some motive, unknown to others, he ladd if
prefix De, calling himself De Foe. James Foe, ohis
was a butcher in the parish of St. Gies, CMD ir", d ;
appears to have been a nonconformist. Humble awabs
orgin of De Foe, one at advantage was derived him tt
regard for religion which was implanted in his youthfulmind,
combined with a firmess of character and integrity of con
duet so apparent in his future life.
The ingmalpurpose of De Fo's parentswas, tbathebord
enter the ministry, the bias of h mind, however, ineMlied to
politics, md a the age of twenty-one mhe amused bhiIrI
rary career as an author. The firt production tli pm was
entitled Specuum Crape- omn"ra" ; ar, Lehmg as
for the young Academies, New Foyld. W thuuemm fa


some of the late high-flown sermons: to which is added an
essay towards a sermon of the newest fashion. By a Guide
to the Inferiour Clergie. Ridentem discere Verum Quis
vetat? London, 1682." It is impossible, nor would it be
deemed of general interest, to enumerate the titles of De
Foe's works in this sketch of his life; the singular title of his
first production will be read with interest. The pamphlet
was directed against one of the most noted writers of that
day, Roger L'Estrange; it is said, that "in this work De
Foe indulged in" rather intemperate language, and while vin-
dicating the dissenters, reflected in too hostile and indiscrim-
inate a manner upon the established clergy."
Early in the summer of 1685, the Duke of Monmouth made
his rash attempt upon England, landing at Lime, in Dorset-
shire. De Foe, exchanging his pen for the sword, ranged
himself beneath the banner of the usurper, and proved him-
self able to wield either weapon to the discomfiture of his
opponents. The ill-fated Duke, qualified as he might be to
ornament the court, or be serviceable to the country, was
defeated in his enterprise, taken prisoner, and suffered an
horrible death. Luckily for De Foe, he escaped those bar-
barous cruelties and legal persecutions which were entailed
upon the Duke's followers.
The horrors of war, or the total wreck of Monmouth's
party, induced De Foe to enter into the more peaceable busi-
ness of a hosier. This trade he carried on for ten years,
during which time he was admitted a liveryman of London.
The conduct of James, in repealing the test act and supplant-
ing protestant by popish officers, threw the country into a
state of feverish excitement and roused the indignation of De
Foe, who endeavoured to warn the dissenters of the machina-
tions of the reigning monarch. At the revolution, De Foe
partook of the pleasures of that great event. During the
ilarity of that moment, the Lord Mayor invited King Wil-
liam to partake of the city feast on the'29th of October, 1689.
Every honor was paid to the Sovereign of the people's choice.
A regiment of volunteers, composed of the chief citizens and
commanded by the Earl of Peterbough, attended the King
and Queen from Whitehall to the Mansion House. Among
these troopers was De Foe. For several subsequent years our
author seems to have engaged but little in politics, having
launched out to a very considerable extent in the Spanish and
Portuguese trade. The sun of prosperity, however, did not
beam long upon his path; the most prudent merchant may
become entangled in his speculations, and notwithstanding
his foresight or integrity, be involved in embarrassment. Such


was the case with De Foe: in 1692 he fled from hiscreditors,
and a commission of bankruptcy was taken out against him:
this was the act of a single creditor, and it was eventually
superseded, those to whom he was most indebtedagreeing to
accept a composition on his single bond. The kindness thus
shewn him was well repaid, for not only did he fulfil this en-
gagement but every farthing of the original demands of his
creditors was voluntarily paid.
De Foe did not confine himself to prose alone; after the
accession of William to the throne, our author published a
satirical poem, entitled "The True-born Englishman," which
procured him an introduction to the monarch of the real.
This satire was a reply (using his own words) to a vile, ar
horred pamphlet, in very ill verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin,
and called 'the Foreigners ;' in which the author, who he
was then I knew not, fell personally on the king himself, and
then on the Dutch nation. And after having reproached his
majesty with crimes that his worst enemies could not think
of without horror, he sums up all in the odious name of Fo-
reigner. This filled me with a kind of rage against the book,
and gave birth to a trifle, which I never could hope should
have met with so general an acceptance as it did; I mean
"The-True-born Englishman." The hackneyed and of
quoted verse forms the opening lines of this poem:-

Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation."

The conclusion of this poem contains a truth which wil
receive the ready assent of all classes.

"What is't to us what ancestors we had ?
If good what better? or what worse, if bad?
Examples are for imitation set,
Yet all men follow virtue with regret.
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And openly disown the vile degenerate race:
For fame of families is al a cheat,
'Tis personal virtue only makes us great."


Of this celebrated poem De Foe in little more than three
years published four editions,sellin them atone shilling each.
In addition to this, some unprincipled individual from mer-
cenary motives pirated the poem, and it was understood that
in the streets of London alone eighty thousand of the pirated
copies were sold.
The death of William in 1702 was a source of grief to De
Foe, but opened a wide field for extolling that monarch. We
must however hasten with our sketch, and introduce our au-
thor as occupying a high but unenviable situation. Nosooner
had Anne ascended the throne of England, than scenes of
turmoil ensued between the religionistsof the day. Public
attention was excited, and from the violence of the high
church party, was fanned in a ferment rather than soothed
and quieted. During such stirring times it would have been
impossible for De Foe's Pen to have remained idle. When
he saw the church party predominant, and the dissenters ex-
posed to insult, and their preachers subjected to the rude
interference of the mob; when, to use his own language in
his Christianity of the High Church considered." he knew
a person of highChurch principles who observed, "a little time
and pains shall compel all to be of one religion; and as for
those who are obstinate, I hope Queen Mary's bonfires will
blaze again in Smithfield, that they [the Dissenters] may be
all extirpated andnota soul left ;" when, we repeat, such a
state of things as these existed, we should have wondered in-
deed had not De Foe exerted his utmost ability against such
bigotry and intolerant persecution.
Cloaking himself in the garb of an high churchman, he
furiously attacked the Dissenters, employing the most cut-
ting sarcasms, and the bitterest irony, a pamphlet which he
entitled, "The Shortest Way with the Dissenters: or propo-
sals for the establishment of the Church."
He imitated so finely the writers of that day, and expound-
so well the sentiments with which the Tory fanatics had
insulted true religion, that the church party were actually
deceived, nay one of the clique was so elated, that the mea-
sure was thus proposed for sending every dissenting minister
to the gallows, that he wrote a note of thanks to the book-
seller who had forwarded him the pamphlet, adding, I
have such a value for the book, that next to the Holy Bible,
and the sacred comments, I take it for the most valuable
piece I have."
In examining the reasons urged in favor of the Dissenters,
De Foe writes, They are very numerous, they say, and we
cannot suppress them. To this may be answered, 1. They


are not as numerous as the Protestants in FiPa e, ad yet
the French King effectually cleared the nation of them at
once, and we don't find that he misses them at home. But
I am not of opinion they are so numerous as is pretended.
Those mistaken people of the church, who misled and delu-
ded by the wheedling artifices to join with them, make their
party the greater. But these will open their eyes when the
government shall set heartily about the work, and come off
from them as some animals, which they say always desert
house when it is likely to fall. 2. The more numerous the
more dangerous, and therefore, the more need to suppress
them. 3. If we allow them, only because we cannot sup-
press them, then it ought to be tried whether we can or no.
But I am of opinion, 'tis easy to be done, and could pre-
scribe ways and means if it were proper, but I doubt not the
government will find effectual methods for rooting the con-
tagion out of the land." Again he says,-" 'tis vain to trie
in this manner. The light foolish handling of them by ines
is their glory and advantage. If the gallows instead of the
computer, and the allies instead of the fines, wer the re-
ward of going to a conventicle, there would not be so many
sufferers. The spirit of martyrdom is over. They thatwil
go to church to be chosen sheriffs and mayors, would go to
forty churches rather than be hanged. If one severe law was
made and punctually executed, that whoever was found at a
conventicle should be banished the nation and the preacher
be hanged, we should soon see an end of the tale; theywould
all come to church; and one age would make us all one agin."
I will not enlarge upon the chagrin of the church party,
when the object of the book was discovered, suffice it to say
that great as had been their applause, still greater was their
fierce and deadly indignation. They sounded an'alarm
through the nation, while a royal proelamatiou was issued for
the discovery of the author, and the book was burnt by the
common hangman. De Foe at length was dragged to jus.
twice, and basely found guilty of composing and publishing a
seditious libel; he was condemned to pay a fine of two hun-
dred marks, stand three times in the pilory, be imprisoned
during the Queen's pleasure, and then find sureties for his
good behaviour for seven years.
But the blood thirstiness of his enemies was not satiated,
neither could they disgrace De Foe. The people were his
friends, and in vain shall the court, or the government itself,
fight against a firm, united, free-born people. Da Fee 'tis
true was exalted to the pillory, but the people adorned itwi
roses; they protected him from abuse, they shouted his


praises, and prepared an entertainment when he was taken
down, thus converting a shameful exhibition into a triumph.
De Foe however suffered severely, in a pecuniary point of
view, from the conduct of government; being immured in
prison, his temporal concerns declined, and ere long he was
deprived of a handsome income, and saw himself surrounded
by a wife and six children depending solely upon the exertions
of his pen for their bread. From the prison he published
various works, and commenced The Review," Feb, 19th,
1704. This periodical was published in 4to, and was intend-
ed to treat of news, foreign and domestic ; of politics, Brit-
ish and European; of trade, particular and universal. But
De Foe foresaw, from the aversion of the age to any tedious-
ness of writing, that however profitable, it must be diverting
if read by the multitude. With this design he instituted a&
Scandal Club, which discusses questions in divinity, morals,
war, trade, language, poetry, manners, love, marriage, drunk-
enness and gaming. Amidst these labours our author pub-
lished The Storm." In this work De Foe exhibits consi-
derable ability in explaining the natural causes of wind, and
in delivering the opinions of the ancients that this Island was
more subject to storms than other parts of the world.
In the month of August, of the same year, De Foe was
liberated at the instance of Mr. Harley, afterwards Earl of .
Oxford, who coming into office at that time, represented his
case to the Queen, who not only granted him pardon, but
sent a sum of money to his wife and children, and another to
discharge his fine and prison expenses.
Upon his release De Foe retired to St. Edmunds Bury, in
Suffolk. This retreat did not screen him from the hand of
persecution, in spite of which he published "a Hymn to Vic-
tory." In 1705 he published a second volume of the author
of the True-born Englishman," in which are several origi-
nal pieces of poetry. This was a year of great disquietude to
our author; formerly he had to complain of the persecutions
of government, but now he suffered from those of party.
Torrents of abuse were showered upon him, violence and
threats were used, and while at Exeter in the month of Octo-
ber, a project was formed to send him as a soldier to the army;
that failing, some of the magistrates determined to appre-
hend him as a vagabond; and this stratagem proving futile,
actions at law were commenced against him for fictitious
debts. Such brutes and savages once were Englishmen !
In his work "The Review" these circumstances are com-
mented upon. The scene of his life changes, for in 1706 De
Foe, at the recommendation of Harley, was sent on a Mis-


sion to Scotland respecting its Union with England, a mea-
sure which he had previously warmly advocated. After an
absence of about sixteen months he returned to England,
when his services obtained for him an appointment with a
fixed salary.
His History of the Union" appeared in 1709, a work
teeming with incident, and interesting in whatever point of
view it may be contemplated. The history seems to have
been little noticed when it first appeared; for as the preface
states, it had many difficulties in the way; many factions
to encounter and parties to please." Yet it was republished in
1712; and a third time in 1786. The exact minuteness with
which he describes what he saw and heard on the turbulent
stage, and on which he was no mean performer, is extreme-
ly interesting. He introduces the highest peers and the
lowest peasants, speaking and acting, according as they were
each actuated by their characteristic passions; and while the
man of taste is a mused by his manner, the man of business
may draw instruction from the documents which form an
appendix, and are interspersed in every page.
The residence of De Foe was now at Newington, in some-
what comfortable circumstances; his employment consisted
chiefly in writing for The Review." With regard to this
publication Gay has unjustly remarked, the poor Review is
quite exhausted [in May 1713 it was relinquished] and grown
so very contemptible, that though he has provoked all his
brothers of the quill, none will enter into a controversy with
him. The fellow who had excellent natural parts, but wanted
a small foundation of learning, is a lively instance of those
wits, who as an ingenious author says, will bear but one
skimming." We wonder that an author like Gay should
form such an opinion of De Foe. Bear but one skimming "
How many times has the Family Instructor, and Robinson
Crusoe been skimmed, and yet there remains a rich cream ?
We now approach an interesting era in the life of De Foe,
at least as regards the town from which the present work
emanates; for it is no small boast that Halifax formed an
habitation for such a writer as De Foe, and especially when it
is strongly conjectured that the principal part of his most
splendid production,-Robinson Crusoe-was written here.
Upon Harley's resignation, and the agitation of the times,
the mind of our author gradually declined from politics, and
to avoid the clamour of parties, he withdrew to the North of
England: or it may be he fled the metropolis on account of
his political writings. According to tradition he resided at
the Rose and Crown, in Cheapside, cultivating an acquain-

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tance with Dr. Nettleton, a renowned physician and author,
and Mr. N. Priestley, a dissenting minister, ancestor of the
celebrated Dr. Priestley.
Observing the conduct of the Jacobite party, and how they
insinuated the Pretender's right, he observes I set pen to
paper again, by writing 'A Seasonable Caution:' and to ope
the eyes of the poor ignorant country people, I gave away
this all over the kingdom, as gain was not intended." With
the same laudable purpose he wrote three other pamphlets
"What, if the Pretender should come ?" "Reasons against
the succession of the House of Hanover," and "What, if
the Queen should die ?" "Nothing could be more plain, [he
says] than that the titles of these were amusements, in order
to put the book into the hands of those people, who had been
deluded by the Jacobites." And yet for these pamphlets
was De Foe arrested and put upon his trial before the bar of
the Queen's Bench I Here he had to explain to the brainless
wights who had originated the absurd trial, that the intention
of these pamphlets was not to advance the Pretender's cause,
but in favor of the House of Hanover. The Queen however
granted De Foe her royal pardon, and this outrageous prose-
cution terminated.
Four years after the publication of the Family Instructor, a
work containing one of the most valuable and useful systems
of practical morality in the English language, appeared Tra
grand production of our author's gemus: "The Life and
strange and surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of
York, Mariner: wholived eight and twenty years all alone in
an uninhabited island on the coast of Oronooque; having
been cast on shore by shipwreck, wherein all the men perished
but himself. With an account how he was at last strangely
delivered by pirates. Written by himself. London, 1719."
It would be presumption in us to criticise upon so great a
work: the most brilliant eulogium would seem frigid, and
would add nothing to that fame which the work has gained
both in this and other lands. The wisest and the greatest,
among poets, philosophers, and critics, have lauded the
author and his performance, and have exhibited both to the
admiration of the world. It may be interesting information
to the reader to know that Robinson Crusoe passed through
four editions in four months, a circumstance at that time
unprecedented in the annals of literature.
Great as must have been the satisfaction of De Foe in wit-
nessing so rapid a sale, and such an unquenchable demand
for his production, grief was mingled with that satisfaction.
Envious individuals were found who basely attempted to



m tch the budding laurel from his brow. While some avowed
the materiel of the work was surreptitiously obtained from
the papers of one Alexander Selkirk, others strenuously de-
nied Doeoe to be its author. In 1711 considerable atten-
tion was excited by the narrative of this Alexander Selkirk, a
Scottish sailor, who in consequence of a quarrel with his
commander had been set on shore on the deserted island of
Juan Fernandez, where he lived in solitude upwards of four
years. Returning home, Selkirk used to relate his adventures
at a coffee-house in London, where De Foe doubtless heard
his strange narration. Steele in his paper of The English-
man," Dec. 1713, communicates some further particulars of
Selkirk;-" he could discern that he had been much sepa-
rated from company, fromhis aspect and gesture. There was
a strong but cheerful seriousness in his looks, and a certain
disregard to the ordinary things about him, as if he had been
unk in thought. The man frequently bewailed hi return to
the rorld, which could not, he said, with all its enjoyments,
restore him to the tranquillity of his solitude." De Foe could
not fail of being struck y these interesting particulars, and
withthhese facts before him and the vision of Selkirk inahe
lonely isle, Robinson Crusoe was doubtless suggested. in
" Curiosities of Literature," (1st series) vol. iii. p. g82, we
have the following remarks:-" In this artless narrative [Sel-
kirk's] we may discover more than the embryo of Robinson
Crusoe. The first appearance of Selkirk, 'a man clothed in
goats' skins, who looked more wild than the first owners of
them.' The two huts he had built, the one to dress his
victuals, the other to sleep in: his contrivance to get fire, by
rubbing two pieces of pimento wood together; his distress for
the want of bread and salt, till he came to relish his meat
without either; his wearing out his shoes, till he grew so
accustomed to be without them, that he could not for a long
time afterwards, on his return home, use them without incon-
venience; his bedstead of his own contriving, and his bed of
goat skins; when his gunpowder failed, his teaching himself
by continualexerise to run as swiftly as the goats; his falling
from a precipice in catching hold of a goat, stunned Lad
bruised, till coming to his senses he found the goat dead under
him: his taming kids to divert himself by dancing with them
and his cats; his converting a nail into a needle; his sewing
his goat skins with little thongs of the same; and when his
knife was worn to the back, contriving to make blades out of
some iron hoops. His solacing himself in this solitude by
singing psalms, and preserving a social feeling in his fervent
prayers. And the habitation which Selkirk had raised, to



reach which, they followed him with difficulty, climbing up
and creeping down many rocks, till they came at last to a
pleasant spot of ground full of grass and trees, where stood
his two huts, and his numerous tame goats showed his soli-
tary retreat; and, finally, his indifference to return to a world
from which his feelings had been so perfectly weaned. Such
were the first rude materials of a new situation in human na-
ture: an European in a primeval state, with the habits or
mind of a savage."
Selkirk then only supplied the man of genius with that
which lies open to all; and which no one had, or perhaps
could have converted into the wonderful story we possess, but
De Foe himself." That De Foe pillaged the papers of Selkirk,
as some have said, is impossible, for he had none. And that
the author of Crusoe was guilty of imposing upon public
credulity by a feigned story is equally based upon error.
Though the work of De Foe was not hurried carelessly into
the literary world, yet the stirring narrative of Sclkirk was the
rough marble block, out of which he chiselled so beautiful and
symmetrical a statue. Crusoe was not without his prototype,
forbi the artless narrative which suggested the work, we find
thevery sufferings and privations literally detailed. Even the
person of Friday (according to a celebrated author) is not a
mere coinage of the brain:-" a Musquito Indian, described
by Dampier, was the prototype." His striking descriptions
of sea-faring life were founded upon passages in his own
history, and in his own person he suffered shipwreck by the
loss of a vessel in which he was a shareholder. While from
his familiarity with imprisonment, his acquaintance with
foreign countries, his experience in trade, his reverence for
religion, his sufferings and afflictions, we have traced out to
us the peculiar features of his own mind. In every point of
view we regard Robinson Crusoe as one of his most pleasing
performances, and to use the words of Sir Walter Scott:-
Society is for ever indebted to the memory of De Foe, for
his production of such work, in which the ways of Providence
are simply and pleasingly vindicated, and a lasting and useful
moral is conveyed through the channel of an interesting and
delightful story."
Though De Foe was fast declining in years, The History
of Moll Fianders" : The Life of Colonel Jaque" ; The
"Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton"; with Dickory
Crooke," "Duncan Campbell," and a host of others, were
published in rapid succession. Each work evincing such an
air of real matter of fact, and plain, unvarnished truth, that
the author seemed bereft of imaginatory capability, or inven-


tion. In proof of this the reader must pardon another refer-
ence to the work for which this biographical sketch is penned;
such is its unpretending and natural style, that we cannot
conceive the narrative to be other than true; while the lan-
guage is so simple and familiar, that even the school-boy
minds the narration perfectly co-equal with his capacity, and
imagines, in the imperfection of his understanding, that it
required but little ability to write such a life. Subsequent to
the above works, and yielding to none in its seeming veracity,
appeared The "History of the Plague," before referred to,
and considered by many, and by some even in the present
day, as an authentic document, and a true recital of that great
national calamity.
Notwithstanding the profits accruing from the rapid sale
of his works, De Foe was still doomed to misfortune, and
his sufferings were the more poignant as his difficulties arose
from his own family. His daughters were exceedingly kind
and affectionate; but Sophia, who in 1729 had married Mr.
Baker, the celebrated natural philosopher, was particularly
endeared to her father. His son, however, possessed an
hard, unfeeling heart, and in the end proved himself a di.
honest and treacherous wretch. To this son De Foe hid
conveyed his property, for the understood and avowed pur-
pose of appropriation to his wife and two unmarried daughters.
The persecution of some relentless creditor rendered this pro-
ceeding necessary. De Foe was pounced upon by this brutal
creditor, arrested and thrown into prison. He regained his
liberty, after a limited confinement, but the shameless con-
duct of his unnatural son struck a death-blow to the heart of
the parent. The following extract from one of his letters to
Mr. Baker, will lay bare the keen anguish of his soul:-
It is not the blow I received from a wicked, perjured, and
contemptible enemy, that has broken in upon my spirit. But
it has been the injustice, unkindness, and I must say inhu-
man feeling of my own son, which has both ruined my family,
and in a word, has broken my heart. I depended upon him,
I trusted him, I gave up my two dear unprovided children
into his hands: and to crave, as if it were an alms, what he
is bound under hand and seal, besides the most sacred pro-
mises, to supply them with, himself at the same time living
in a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me. Excuse
my infirmity, I can say no more; my heart is too full. I only
ask one thing of you as a dying request:-Stand by them when
I am gone."
It was not long ere Mr. Baker was called to fulfil this dying
request; on the 24th of April, 1731, De Foe diedin the parish


in which he was born, leaving a widow, who did not long sur-
vive him, and six children. Thus ended the days of one of
the most successful of British authors I Thus perished all
of Daniel De Foe that could die. Afterthe variedvicissitudes
of 70 years, in which he had borne the brunt of glorious con-
flict for the people's rights, basked in the sunshine of the
royal smile, or in the cause of truth and justice had endured
the indignation and iron hand of an offended government,
the author of works which have immortalized his name, and
given glory to the country where he lived, hastened to the
grave forsaken, penniless, broken-hearted. But RosINsoN
CausoB is imperishable, and the genius, piety and benevo-
lence, as well as the name of its author, lives with it.

Hal(fiu, Dec. 1836.

*'W i3, -




I WAS born in the year 16%, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a 'oreigner of Bremen, whosettled first
at Hull; he got a good estate by meohandisz, and,
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, ftm
whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very goed family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Krentznaer; but by the usual corruption of words
in England, we are now called, nay, we call our-
selves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was a lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot, in
Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous 0I-. .
lenel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle mam
Dunkirk, against the Spaniards: what became of
my second brother, I never knew, any more tha
my father ormother knew of what was become of4a.
Being the third son of the family, andnot bred o
any trade, my head began to be killed very earlywith
rambing thoughts: my father who was very aged,
ad given a competent share of learning, as far as.
housredncation and a country genmaUy..


goes and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea, and my in-
clination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propensity of nature tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was
my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject;
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere incli-
nation, I had for leaving his house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and
industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was for men, either of desperate fortunes, or
such whose affluence enabled them to attempt it,
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enter-
prize, and make themselves famous in undertakings
of nature out of the common road; that these things
were all either too far above me, or too far below
me; that mine was the middle state, or the upper
station of low life, which he had found by long ex-
perience was the best state in the world, and most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the mi-
series and hardships, the toil and sufferings of the
labouring part of mankind, and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
great. He told me, 1 might judge of the happiness
of this state, by this one thing, that this was the
state of life which all other pe-ople envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable con-
sequences of being born to great things, and wished


they had been placed between the two extremes,
the mean and the great; that the wise man gavehis
testimony of this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He then pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor
to precipitate myself into miseries which the station
of life I was born in seemed to have provided against,
and that if I was not easy and happy in the world,
it must be my own fault that must hinder it, that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus
discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he knew would be to my hurt. But that if I
would stay and settle at home, he would do every
thing in his power for me. He concluded with tell-
ing me, I had my eldef brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same persuasions to keep
him from going iqto the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed: and
though he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
advice when there might be none to assist me in my
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
proved truly prophetic, that the tears ran down his
face very plentifully, and especially when he men-
tioned my brother who was killed: and when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to
assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full, he could
say no more.
I was sincerely affected with this advice, as indeed
who could be otherwise ? and I resolved notto think


of going abroad any more, but to settle at home ac-
cording to my father's desire. But, alas! a few
days wore it all off; and I took my mother, at a time
when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to
any thing with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his consent
than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go appren-
tice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; and that if
she would speak to my father to let me go one voy-
age abroad, if I came home again and did not like
it, I would go no more, and I would promise by a
double diligence to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak
to my father upon any such subject; that for her
part she would not have so much hand in my des-
truction; and I should never have it to say, that
my mother was willing when my father was not.
It was almost a year after this, being one day at
Hull, where I went casually, and without any de-
sign of making an elopement, I met one of my com-
panions who was going by sea to London, in his
father's ship, and pressing me to go with them, tell-
ing me it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father or mother, nor so much as
sent them word, but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the
first of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London; never any young adventurer's
misfortune, I believe, began sooner, or continued
longer than mine. The ship was no sooner out of
the Humber, but there arose a violent storm, and
as I had never been at sea before, I was most inex-


pressibly sick in body and terrified in mind; I
thought the judgments of God deservedly followed
me for my disobedience to my parents. It was then
only I called to mind the good advice of my father,
how easy and comfortable was a middle state oflife;
and if it pleased God to set me on dry land once
more, I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go
home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day the wind was abated, and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it: however I was very grave for all that day, being
still a little sea sick: but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; having little or no
wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that
I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with won-
der upon the sea that was rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so
little time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me, Well, Bob," says
he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do you do
after it I warrant you were frighted, wa'n't you,
last night, when it blew but a capfull of wind?"
"A capfull d'you call it F" said [, "'twas a terrible
storm." "A storm, you fool, you!" replies he, "do
you call that a storm 1" Why it was nothing at
Small: give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but,
you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us


make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that.
D'you see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors: the punch was made, and I was
made half drunk with it, and to that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my resolu-
tions for the future. Inaword, as the seawas return-
ed to its smoothness of surface,and settled calmness,
by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of
being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entire-
ly forgot the vows and promises that 1 made in my
distress. I found indeed some intervals of reflection
and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour
to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them, as it were from a
distemper; and applying myself to drinking and
company, soon mastered the return of those fits,
(for so I called them); and I had,in five or six days,
got as complete a victory over conscience, as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with
it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without ex-
cuse: for, if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one, as the worst and most
hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into
Yarmouth Roads: the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor: and here we lay, the wind continuing


contrary, viz. at south- west, for seven or eight da 3s:
during which time a great many ships from New-
castle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for
the river.
We had nat however, rid here so long, but we
should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea: but the eight day in the
morning the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and made every
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon, the sea went very high
indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,shipped seve-
ral seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home: upon which our master ordered
out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two an-
chors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end. -
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed: and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces even of the seamen themselves. The master
though vigilant in the business of preserving the
ship, yet, as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him, softly to himself, say several times,
' Lord be merciful to us! we shall be all lest: we
shall be all undone!' and the like. During these
first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which
I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened

myself against. I thought the bitterness of death
had been past; and that this would be nothing too,
like the first. But when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be
all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of
my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress round
us. Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut
their masts by the board, being deep loaden; and
our men cried out, that a ship, which rid about a
mile a head of us, was foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of
the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with
a mast standing.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut away
the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do;
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented: and when
they had cut away the fore mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear
The storm continued with such fury, that the sea-
men themselves acknowledged they had never seen
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
loaden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what
was not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship

would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night,
and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down on the purpose to see,
cried out we had sprung a leak: another said, there
was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands
were called to the pump. At that very word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of the bed where I sat, into
the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was
as well able to pump as another: at which I stirred
up, and went up to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant,was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word,
I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when every body had his own life
to think of, nobody minded me, or what was be-
come of me: but another man stepped up to the
pump, and, thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.
The master continued firing guns for help; and
a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the ut.
most hazard the boat came near us: but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship-side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to
it, and then veered it out a great lengthwhich they
after much labour and hazard, took hold of; and

we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then
I understood, for the first time, what was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge
I had hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead with-
in me, partly with fright, partly with horror ofmind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet la-
bouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people
running along the strand to assist us, when we
should come near. But we made but slow way to-
wards the shore; nor were we able toreach the shore,
till, being past the light-house at Winterton, the
shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer :
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in; and, though not without
much difficulty, got all safe on shore; and walked
afterward on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortu-
nate men, we were used with great humanity, as
well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's pa-
rable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went away in wast cast away in


Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me be-
fore, and who was the master's son, was now less
forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three
days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appear-
ed his tone was altered: and, looking very melan-
choly, and shaking his head, asked me how I did:
and telling his father who I was, and how I had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad; his farther turning to me with a
very grave and concerned tone, Young man," says
he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token, that
you are not to be a seafaring man." Why sir," said
I, "will you go to sea no more ?" That is another
case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my
duty; but, as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of whatyou
are to expect if you persist: perhaps all this has
befallen as on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continues he," what are you
and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon
that I told him some of my story; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
" What had I done," says he," that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou.
sand pounds!" This indeed was, as I said, an ex-
cursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could.
have authority to go. However, he afterward talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my
father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told


me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me: "young man," said he, "depend upon it, if
you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till
your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more: which way he went,
I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket,I travelled to London by Land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with my-
self, what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, which hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands, of my fa -
ther: 1 say, the same influence, whatever it was,
presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to
the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call
it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved
to go again. This captain, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate, and

his companion; and if I could carry any thing with
me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict
friendship, with this captain, who was an honest
plain-dealing man, went the voyage with him; and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about
401. in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 401. I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-
responded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in-all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom I also got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics, and the rules of navigation; learn-
ed how to keep an account of the ship's course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sai-
lor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
i delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my re-
turn, almost 3001.; and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes
too; particularly that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate, our principle trading being upon the


coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees N. even to
the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again:
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who
was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappi.
est voyage that ever man made; for though I did
not carry quite 1001, of my new-gained wealth, so
that I had 2001. left, and which I lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this; viz. our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowed also as much canvass as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got
clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and
the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us, and bringing to by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns
to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after return-
ing our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from
near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and
we to defend ourselves; but, laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered ninety
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting

and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied them
with some small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our decks of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men
killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield;
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the coun-
try, to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as
his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this sur-
prising change of my circumstances, from a mer-
chant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me, whieh I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not
be worse: and now the hand of Heaven had over-
taken me, and I was undone without redemption.
But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was
to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my new patron or master had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would be some time or other his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden,
and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, and look
after the ship.


After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual, without
fitting out his ship, which as I heard, was for
want of money, he used, constantly once or twice a
week sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to
take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a
fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him ve-
ry merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; inasmuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the
Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish
for him.
I happened one time, that going a fishing with
him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league from the shore,
we lost sight of it; and, rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the
shore, and that we were at least two leagues from
the land. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger: for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning:
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and,
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a fishing any more without a compass, and some
provision: so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who was also an English slave, to build a little state-
room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to

stee, and haul home the main-sheet; and room be-
fore for a hand or two to stand and work the saib.
Sheiailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton-
sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink: paiticu-
larly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently Out with this boat a fishing;
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened one day,
that he had appointed to go out in tis boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction, and for whom he had provided ex-
traordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat over night a larger store of provisions than
usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship;
for that they designed tome part of fowling as well
as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ancient and pendants out, and every thing to
accommodate his guests: when, by and by, my pa-
tron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his house. He com-
manded me too, that as soon as I got some fish, I
should bring it home to his house. All which I
prepared to do.
'This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command: and my ma-,

ter being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not
for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I would steer; for any where to get out of that place
was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get'something for our sub-
sistence on board: for I told him we must not pre-
sume to eat of our patron's bread. He said, that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh wa-
ter into the boat. I knew where my patron's case
of bottles stood, which, it was evident by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I convey-
ed them into the boat, while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the
boat, which weighed about half a hundred weight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw,
and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us
afterward; especially the wax to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, whichhe innocently
came into also. His name was Ishmael, whom they
called Muley, or Moley; so I called to him; Mo-
ley," said I, "our patron's guns are all on board the
boat: can you not get a little powder and shot? it
may be we may kill some alcomies (a fowl like our
cuflews) for ourselves: for I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll
bring some." Accordingly he brought a great lea-
ther pouch, which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and anotherwith shot, that
had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found
some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,

which was almost empty,pouring what wasin it into
another; and thus furnished with every thing need-
ful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle,
which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not
above a mile out of port, before we hauled in our
Ssail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from
the N. N. E. which was contrary to my desire : for
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have
made the coast of Spain, and atleast reached to the
bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which
way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched no-
thing (for when I had fish on my hook, I would not
pull them up, that he might not see them), I said to
the Moor, "This will not do: our master will not
be thus served. We must stand farther off." He,
thinking no harm, agreed: and being in the head of
the boat, set the sails, and, as I had the helm, I run
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought
her to, as if I would fish : when, givingthe boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as if I stooped for something behind
him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
twist, and tossed him clean overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would have reached me
very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of
the fowling pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet, I would do him none : "But," said I, "you
swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is

calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I
will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty." So he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he
reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swim-
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, "Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me," that's, swear by Maho-
met, and his father's beard, "I must throw you into
the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to see with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to sur-
round us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could never once go to shore, but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless sava-
ges of human kind ?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and, having a
fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I

llew ~-w -w--rF- --

made such sail, that I believe, by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
land I could not be less thirT 150 miles south of
Sallee, quite beyond the emperor of Morocco's do-
minions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore,
or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till
I had sailed in that manner five days; and then
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
also would now give over; so I ventured to make to
the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a
little river, I knew not what or where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people: the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the count.
try; but as soon as it was quite dark, we hbqd such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, aq. ailing
of wild creatures, of we knew not what kia dit
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and b
of me not to go on shore till day. "Well,
said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see
men by day, who will be as bad to us as thoselions."
" Then we may give them the shotgunn" says Xury,
laughing, "make them run way." Such English
Xury spoke, by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles)
to cheer him up. After all Xury's advice wasgood,
and I took it: we dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in


two or three hours we saw vast great creatures, we
knew not what to call them, of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves: and they made such hideous
howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was
I too; but we were both worse frighted when we
heard one of the mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat: we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and that it might be for aught I know. Poor Xury
cried out to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
"No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our cable with a
buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far."
I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars length, which some-
thing surprised me; however I immediately stepped
to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at
him, upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam towards the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrid
noises, and hideous cries and howlings that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a
gun ; a thing, I have some reason to believe, those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore
in the day, was another question too; for, to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint
in the boat; when or where to get td it, was the
point. Xury said if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go, why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat. The boy answered with so much affection
that made me love him ever after. Says he, If
wild man's come, they eat me; you go way." "Well,
Xury," said I, "we will both go; and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them; they shall eat nei-
ther of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread
to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bot-
ties, which I mentioned before, and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river: but the boy seeing a low place, about a mile
up the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had a shot, like a hare, but different in co-
lour, and longer legs. However, we were very glad
of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had
found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterward that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up: -o we

" tl,

filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take ob-
servations to know what latitude we were in, and did
not exactly know, or at least not remember what la-
titude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was must be that country which, lying between
the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Ne-
groes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone ,
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness, and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious number of tigers, lions, leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbour there, so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time; and indeed for near a hundred miles toge-
ther upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
cowlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Several times we were obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and oncein par-


ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of water, which was
pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the
shore, "For;' ays he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." 1
looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed; for it was a terrible great lion, that lay
on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece
of the hill, that hung as it were a little over him.
" Xury," said I, "you shall go on shore, and kill
him." Xury looked frighten, and said, "Me kill!
He eat me at one mouth!" one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him
be still, and took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then
I loaded another gun with two bullets, and the third
(for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece, to have shot him in the head; but he lay so
with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the
slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.
He started up growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got upon three legs,
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head: however, I took up the second piece im-
mediately: and, though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him into the head, and had the plea-
sure to see him drop, and making but little noise,
he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,
and would let me have him go on shore. Well,
go," said I. So the boy jumped into thd water,


and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the crea-
ture, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and
shot him into the head again, which dispatched him
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of pow-
der and shot upon a creature that was good for no-
thing to us. However, Xury said he would have
some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet For what, Xury ?" said
I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury
could not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot;
and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some va-
lue to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I
could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both
the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of
him, and, spreading it on the top of our cabin, the
sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterward served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparing-
ly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than we
were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this
was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to
say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship;
and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from

Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea,
or to Brasil, or to the East Indies, made this cape
or those islands, and, in a word, I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us; we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them, but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way. I observed they had no wea-
pons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they would throw them a great way with good aim:
so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop
my boat, and they would fetchme some meat. Upon
this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less
than half an hour came back, and brought with them
two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew what
the one or the other was: however we were willing
to accept it But how to come at it, was our nett
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us; but they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore,
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off, till we fetched it on board, and then came close
to again


We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportunity
offered that instant to oblige them wonderfully; for
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury, from the mountains towards the
sea: whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell any more than we could tell whether it was
usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter,
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second
place we found the people terribly frighted, especi-
ally the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did. How-
over, as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not seem to offer to fall upon the Negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam a-
bout as if they had come for their diversion: at last
one of them came nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had load-
ed my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly
into the head. Immediately he sunk down into the
water, but be rose instantly, and plunged up and
down as if he was struggling for life; and so indeed
he was. He immediately made to the shore; but,
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he
reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun:
some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the



water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore,
and began to search for the creature. I found him
by his blood staining the water, and by the help of
a rope, which I flung round him, and gave the Ne-
groes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine
to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think what it was
I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire,
and the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and
ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came, nor could I at that distance know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me, which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him, and though they had no knife, yet
with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his
skin as readily, nay, much more readily, than we
would have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs (for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provision, which though I
did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made
Signs to them for some water, and held out one of
Smy jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to shew
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it fil.
led. They called immediately to some of their
Friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
Sin the sun: this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled


them all three. The women were as stark naked
as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me, and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point;
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most cer-
tain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd
Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not tell what best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh wind, I might neither reach
one nor other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I step-
ped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having
the helm, when on a sudden the boy cried out,
" Master, master, a ship was a sail !" and the foolish
boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw not only the ship, but what she was; viz. that
it was a Portuguese ship, and as I thought, was
bound to the coast of Guinea for Negrces. But
when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did
not design to go any nearer to the shore, upon which
I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible: so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this,
and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made


a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired
a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and
lay by for me, and in about three hours time I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of
them: but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him, I
was an Englishman, that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.

IT was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one win
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in. I immediately offered all I had to the
captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance;
but he generously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered sae
to me when I came to the Brazils. "For," say he,
"I have saved your life on no other terms than as
I would be glad to be saved myself; and itjsayoae
time or other be my lot to be taken up in samue
condition. Besides," says he," When I caory yoe
to the Brazils, so great a way from your own comn-
try,if I should take from you what little you have

-~ U.-. -. ~ .~




you will be starved there, and then I only take away
that life I have given. No, no," says he, "Signor
Inglese [Mr. Englishman], I will carry you thither
in charity, and these things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered
the seamen that none should offer to touch any thing
I had: then he took every thing into his own pos-
session, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them again, even so much
as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat it was a very good one, and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it.
I told him he had been so generous to*me in every
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me 80 pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when it
came there, if any one offered to give more, he would
make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight
more for my boy, Xury, which I was loath to take;
not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him,but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liber-
ty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my rea-
son, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation
to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Upon this, Xury saying he was willing to go to
him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de todos los Santos, or All Saints
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I


was once more delivered from the most miserable of
all conditions of life; and what to do next with my-
Sself, I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I
can never enough remember : he would take nothing
of me for my passage, gave me 20 ducats for the
leopard's skin, and 40 for the lion's skin, which I
had in the boat, and caused every thing I had in
the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what
I was willing to sell, he bought, such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
of bees wax, for I had made candles of the rest:
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all
my cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in
the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommend-
ed to the house of a good honest man like himself,
who had an ingenio, as they call it, that is a plan.
station and a sugar-house, I lived with him some-time,
and acquainted myself by that means with the
manner of their planting and making of saugW
and seeing how well the planters lived, and howthew
grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get ~i
cence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them; resolving, in the mean time,to find oat some
way to get my money which I had left in London
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
better of naturalization, I purchased as much land
hat was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
such a one as might be suitable to the stock
ich I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour a Portuguese of Lisbon, bnt
Sof English parents, whose name was Wells,
Sin much such circumstances as I was. I call
Sneighbour, because his plantation lay next to


mine, and we went on very sociably together: my
stock was but low as well as his, and we rather plant-
ed for food than any thing else for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began
to come into order, so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help; and now I found, more
than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy, Xury.
I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now
and then this neighbour: no work to be done but
by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself. But
Jhowjust has it been, and how should all men reflect,
that, when they compare their present condition
with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity, by their experience I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflect.
ed on in an island of mere desolation should be my
lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the
life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceedingly prosperous
and rich!
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend,
the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there in providing her
loading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: Signor Inglese," says he (for
so he always called me), if you will give me let-

ters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return: but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders for 1001. sterling which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first, so that if it come safe, you may order the rest
the same way, and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how
I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for
my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over not the order only, but.
a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who presented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but out of her own
pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 100. in
English goods, such as the captain had written for,
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them all safe to me to the Brasils; among which,


business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools; iron work, and utensils ne-
cessary for my plantation, and which were of great
use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and
my good steward, the captain, had laid out the 51.
which my friend had sent him for a present for him-
self, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize,
and things particularly valuable and desirable in
the country, I found means to sell them to a very
great advantage; so that I may say, I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean
in the advancement of my plantation; for the first
thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave and a Eu-
ropean servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours, and these
fifty rolls being each of above 1001b. weight, were
well cured and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon, And now increasing in business and
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach, such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Having now lived almost four years in the Bra

sils, and begin to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plan- i, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants of St. Salvadore, which was
our port, and that, in my discourse among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of tra-
ding with the Negroes there, and how easy it was
to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such as
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like, not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,
elephant's teeth, &c. but Negroes for the service of
the Brasils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade at that time not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public stock, so that few Ne-
groes were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in. company one day with
some merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly, three of
them came to me the next morning, and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed -of with them the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a
mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, ard were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as it was not
a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to

bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea: and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the Negroes, without
providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not had a set-
tlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me that was thus established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other 1001. from
England, and who in that time, and with that little
addition, could scarce have failed of being worth 3
or 40001. sterling, and that increasing too; for me
to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered in writings or covenants to do so; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantations and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of
the ship that had saved my life, as before, my uni.
versal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will: one half of the pro-
duce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgement of what
I ought to have done and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a
thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and,
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in, an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo
of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes; such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with.
design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came in about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very goodwea.ther,
only excessive hot all the way upon our qciboast
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augotino,
from whence keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight



of land, and steered as if we were bound for the
Isle of Fernand de Norouba, holding our course
N. E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east
In this course we passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were by our last observation, in 7
degrees, 22 minutes,northern latitude, when a vio-
lent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our
knowledge: it settled in the north-east, from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive:
and scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever
fate and the fury of the winds directed: and during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up: nor did any in the
ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and the boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees of north
latitude, but that he was 22 degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or
the north part of Brasil,beyond the river Amazones,
towards that of the river Oronoque, commonly cal-
led the Great River: and now he began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship
-was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for
going directly back to the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and. looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country for us
to have recourse to, till we came within the circle
of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at


sea, to avoid the indraught of the Bay or Gulf of
M exico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail: whereas we could not pos-
sibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa,
without some assistance both to our ship, and to
With this design, we changed our coast, and
steered away N. W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for, be-
ing in the latitude of 12 degrees, 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages,
than ever returning to our own country. .
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early one morning, cried out,
" Land!" and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and, in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished immediately;
and we were even driven into our close quarters,
to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in
the like condition, to describe or conceive the con-
sternation of men in such circumstances. We knew
nothing where we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than
at first, we could not so much as hope to have the

-- -r- __ imIL


ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking upon
one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for
another world, for there was little ornothing more for
us to do in this: that which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was, that contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that
the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern, just be-
fore the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and in the next place she
broke away, and either sunk or was driven of to
sea, so there was no hope from her. We had ano-
ther boat on board; but how to get her off into sea,
was a doubtful thing. However, there was no room
to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute; and some told us she was
actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship's side, and
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated consi-
derably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the.
shore, and might well be called, Den wild zee,"
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that

he boat could not escape, and that we should be
evitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
one; nor, if we had, could we have done any
thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards the
and, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew, that when the boat
amie near the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces, by the breach of the sea. How-
Sver, we committed our souls to God in the most
arrest manner; and the wind driving us towards
e shore, we hastened our destruction with our
wn hands, pulling, as well as we could towards
After we had rowed or rather driven, about a
ague and a half as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain like, coming rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.' In a
ord, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the
oat at once, and separating us as well from the
oat as from one another, gave us not time hardly
say, 0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk in the water, for though
swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
rom the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way
n towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
ack, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
alf dead with the water 1 took in. I had so much
( reence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
yself nearer the main land than I expected,I got
) pon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
he land, as fast as I could, before another wave
bould return, and take me up again. But I soon
und it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the

sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with; my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so by swimming to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it,
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me
at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to
burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt my-
self rising, up, so, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not above two seconds
of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved
me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I
was covered again with water a good while, but not
so long but I held it out, and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to
recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then I took to my heels, and ran with what
strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again, and
twice more was I lifted up by the waves, and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat
The last time of these two had well near been
fatal to me; for the sea having hurried me along

1 before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
piece of rock, and that with such force as it left
te senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
liverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
,at the breath, as it were, quite out of my body,
ad had it returned again immediately, I must
are been strangled in the water; but I recovered
little before the return of the waves, and, seeing
should be covered again with the water, I resolved
Should fast b) a piece ofthe rock, and so to hold my
rtath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now,
Sthe waves were not so high as at first, being near
Iid, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
*tched another run, which brought me so near the
lore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
Pt did not so swallow me up as to carry me away;
ad the next run I took, I got to the main land,
here, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
iffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass,
ee from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
1 was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
Look up and thank God that my life was saved,
na case wherein there was some minutes before
carce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
o express to the life, what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may
Bay, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder
now at that custom, viz. that when a malefactor,
who has the altar about his neck, is tied up, and
iust going to be turned off, and has a reprive brought
to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a
surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm


For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in
the contemplation of my deliverance, making a
thousand gestures and motions which I cannot de-
scribe, reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself: for, as for them, I never saw
them afterward, or any sign of them, except three
of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that wereltot
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore !
After I had solaced my mind with the comforta-
ble part of my condition, I began to look round me,
to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done, and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deli-
verance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor any thing either to eat or drink to comfort me,
neither did I see any prospect before me, but that
of perishing with hunger, or be devoured by wild
beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to
me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature, for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire
to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box: this was all my provision, and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for
a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot, if there were any ravTeasn


beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time, was, to get up in a thick bushy tree, like a
fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die; for, as yet, I saw no pros-
pect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco in my mouth, to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should
sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up
my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as I be-
lieve few could have done in my condition; and
found myself the most refreshed with it that I think,
I ever was on such occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did not
rage and swell as before: but that which surprised
me most, was, that the ship was lifted off, in the
night, from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock, which 1 first mentioned, where I had been so
bruised by the dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartments in the
tree, I looked about me again; and the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and
the se had tossed her upon the land, about two

miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore, to have got to her,but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat, which
was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm;
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evi-
dently that if we had kept on board we had been all
safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left en-
tirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now
was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if pos-
sible, to get to the ship; so I pulled offmy clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water; but, when I came to the ship, my difficulty
was still greater to know how to get on board; for
as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I
swam round her twice, and the second time I espied
a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not 4
see at first, hang down by the fore chains, so low as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and, by
the help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of
the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand or
rather earth, that her stein lay lifted up upon the
bank, and her head low almost to the water; and
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry: for you may be sure my
first work was to search and to see what was spoiled,


and what was free: and first I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with bis-
Scuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which
I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had; and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight: tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft;
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon
them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very
tell, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to
work, and, with a carpenter's saw, I cut a spare
top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains; but
the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries en-
couraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering

this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's
chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and
lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these
I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of Euro-
pean corn, which had been laid by for some fowls,
which we brought to sea with us: but the fowls were
killed: there had been some barley and wheat to-
gether, but to my great disappointment, I found
afterward that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
longing to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters, and in all about five or six gallons of arrack:
the.e I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm, and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-knee'd,
I swam on board in them and my stockings. How-
ever, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of
which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon: as first, tools to work with
on shore, and it was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more valua
ble than a ship-loading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as
it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and


arms. There were two very good fowling pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder horns, a small bag of shot,
and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them, but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third
had taken water; those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore withthem, having neither sail, oar, or rudder,
and the least capfull of wind would have overset all
my navigation.
I had three encouragements. First, a smooth,
and calm sea. Secondly, The tide rising and set-
ting in to the shore. Thirdly, What little wind
there was, blew me towards the land. And thus, ha-
ving found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest,
I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with
this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts,
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed be-
fore, by which I perceived there was some indraught
of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or liver there, which I might make use of as
a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before
me a little opening of the land. I found a strong
current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a se.
cond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily
would have broken my heart; for knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft run aground, at one end of it,
upon a shoal, .not being aground at the other end,

., ... A ~


it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen
into the water; I did my utmostby setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but,
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my
raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar
I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher,
I at length found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to
be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which with great pain and difficul-
ty I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped all
my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of the float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar,
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as
I found water enough, (for my raft drew about a
foot of water,) I thrust her upon that flat piece of

ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stick-
ing my two broken oars into the ground, one on
one side near one end, and one on the other side
near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on
the continent, or on an island; whether inhabited,
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me
which rose up very steep and high, and which seem-
ed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it northward. I took out one of the
fowling pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of
powder, and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with
great labour and difficulty got up, I immediately
saw my fate, to my great affliction: viz. that I was
in an island, environed every way with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great
way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a large wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been firedthere
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but from all the parts of the wood there aroes

41-i 9~t a~ar-~~rs2rc~~-a~'rr


an extraordinary number of fowls, of many sorts,
making a confused screaming and crying, every one
according to his usual note; but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for that creature I kill-
ed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common: its flesh was carrion, and fit
for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of the day. What to do
with myself at night, I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though I afterward found there was really no need
for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging: as for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
hand, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel if possible; and as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her all
in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got every thing out of the ship that I could
get: then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only


that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard; but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's store I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone:
all these I secured, together with several things be-
longing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven mus-
kets, and another fowling piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last
was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find,and a spare fore topsail, bammock
and some bedding; and with this I loaded m so-
oond raft, and brought them also all safe (a shore,
to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my ab-
sence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore; but when I came back
I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a crea-
ture like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away to a little distance,
and then stood still She sat very composed and
unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her; but as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she of-
fer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of


biscuit, though by the way I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great. However, I spared her
a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and
eat it, and looked (as pleased) for more: but I
thanked her, and could spare no more; so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks,) I went to work to make a little tent
with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing
that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun;
and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a
circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without, and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols,
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, being very weary and heavy; for the
night before I had slept little, and had laboured very
hard all day, as well to fetch those things from the
ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds no7 that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could: so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to mend

..... N


the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun.
powder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last, only I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voy-
ages as these, and thought I had nothing mote to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with, I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead
of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by
the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that
bread, and wrapt it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails, which I cut out; and, ir a word, I got
all this safe on shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage: and now
having plundered the ship of what was portable,
and fit to hand out, I began with the cables; and
cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could
move, I got two cables and a haulser on shore, with
all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down
the sprit sail-yard, and the mizen yard, and every
thing I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with
all those heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so
unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of ',
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I 4W
the other, it overset, and threw me a~talllmy cargo
ato the water. As for myself, it was negreat harh
I was near the shore: but as to my cargo it was
great pt of it lost, especially the iron, which I ex-


pected would have been of great use to me. How-
ever when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour, for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After
this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship, in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
tke wind began to rise; however, at low water I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with draw-
ers in it, in one of which I found two or three ra-
zors, and one pair of large scissors, with ten or a
dozen good knives and forks: in another, I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some Eu-
ropean coin, some Brasil, some piecesof eight, some
gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "0
drug!" said I, aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.
One of those knives is worth all this heap. I have
no manner of use for thee : even remain where thou
art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is
not worth saving!" Hdowever, upon second thoughts
I took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft;
but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a qua
ter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore


NoI B soNw caruo. 59
it presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to
pretend to make araft, with the wind off shore, and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of blood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all: accordingly I let myself
down into the water, and swam cross the channel,
which lay between the ship and the sand, and even
that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight
of the things I had about me, and partly the rough-
aess of the water, for the wind rose very hastily,
and beforeit was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I got to my ttle tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure: it blw very hard
all that night; and in the morning, when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a
little surprised, but recovered myself with this satis.
factory reflection; viz. that I had lost no time, nor
abated any diligence, to get every thing out of her
that could be useful to me; and that indeed there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away,
if I had had more time. I now gave over any more
thought of the ship, or of any thing out of her, ex-
cept what might drive on shore from her wreck, as
indeed divers pieces of her afterward did; but those
Things were of small use to me.

i, *




MY thoughts were now wholly employed about se-
curing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make; whether
I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the .earth; and, in short, I resolved upon
both; the manner and description of which it may
not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would
not be wholesome, and more particularly because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me; first, Health, and
fresh water, as I just now mentioned; secondly,
Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, Security
from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast;
fourthly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any
ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, for which I was not willing to ba-
nish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front to..
wards this little plain was as steep as a house sid,
so that nothing could come down upon me from thl

-- ~------.~- -- ~1YSiytLI....--~ --lirryT


top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave, but there was not really any cave or
wa3 into the rock at all
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and at the
end of it descended irregularly every way into the
low grounds by the sea-side. Itwason theN.N.W.
side of the hill, so that it was sheltered frem the
heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun,
or thereabouts, which in those countries is near the
Before I set up my tent, I drew a be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty
yards in its diameter, from its beginning and end.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows cf strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground about five feet and a half, and sharpen-
ed on the top; the two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows upon one ano-
ther, within the circle between these two rows of
stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the in-
side, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was
so strong, that neither man nor beast could get
into it, or over it. This cost me a great deal of
time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the teice, and drive them into

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by
a door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top ;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done: though, as it appeared afterward,
there was no need of all this caution from the ene-
mies I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammuni-
tion, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made me a large tent also, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz.
one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above
it; and covered the uppermost with a large tar-'
paulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay in a hammock, which was indeed
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
I next began to work my way into the rock; and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down,
out through my tent, I laid them up within my
fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised
the ground within about a foot and a half; and
thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before
all these things were brought to perfection. It
happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash
of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap
of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was
not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was


with the thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder! My
very heart sunk within me, when I thought, that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended: I was no-
thing near so anxious about my own danger; though
had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works,
my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes to separate my powder, and.
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes,
that whatever might come, it mightnot all take ire
at once, and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. Ifinish- "
ed this work in about a fortnight, and I think my
powder, which in all was about 1401b. weight, was
divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As
to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen;
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, markingvery
carefully where I laid it
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any
-hingfit for food, and, as near as I could,to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The.first
time I went out, I presently discovered, that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satis-
faction to me; but then it was attended with this
misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the diftel-


test thing in the world to come at them; but I was
not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for
after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait
in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if
they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded, that by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did
not readily see objects that were above them. So
afterward I took this method: I always climbed the
rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she goat which had a
little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her till I came and took her
up; and not only so, but when 1 carried the old
one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down
the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried
it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame;
but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while; for I ate sparingly, and saved my
provisions (my bread especially) as much as possi.
bly I could.
I must now give some little account of myself,
and of my thoughts about living, which it may well
be supposed were not a few. I had a dismal pros-
pect of my condition; for as I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm quite out of the course of our in-
tended voyage, and a great way, viz. some hun-


dreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course other
trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end
my life. The tears would run plentifully down my
face, when I made these reflections; and some.
times I would expostulate with myself, why Provi.
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so with-
out help, abandoned, and so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for
such a life
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and par-
ticularly one day, walking with my gun* in my
hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the
subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, put in, expostulating with me the other way,
.-A,.us: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is
true, but pray remember,where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat t
where are the ten ? why were not they saved, and
you lost? why were you singled out? is it better to
be here or there? And then I pointed to the sea.
All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them, and with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have
been my case, if it had not happened, which was a
hundred thousand to one, that theship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things oat of her ? What would have been my
case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries
ef life, or any means to supply and procure them S

Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself,) what
would I have done without a gun, without ammu-
nition, without any tools to make any thing, or to
work with? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of coverings And that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fairway
to provide myself in such a manner, as to live with-
out my gun when my ammunition was spent, so
that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
in the manner as abovesaid, I first set footuponthis
horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in its au-
tumnal equinox, was almost just over my head; for
I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the la-
titude of 9 degrees 22 minutes North of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts, that I should lose my
reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and
ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days from
the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and,
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed; viz. I came on shore here the
30th of September, 1659. Upon the sides of this
square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among
the many things which I brought off the ship in the

several voyages, which, as above-mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not at
all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down
before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, se-
veral parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and
carpenter's keeping, three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments,dials,perspectivesoharts,
and books of navigation, all whieh I huddled to-
gether, whether I might want them or no; also I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed
up among my things: some Portuguese books also,
and among them two or three Popish prayer-books,
and several other books, all which I carefully se-
cured. And I must not forget that we had in the
ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I
may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me; and as forth
dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, andswam
on shore to me the day after I went on short with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many
years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me;
I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he
could not do.
I found that I wanted a great many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, that of ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much diffiulty.
TWs want of tools made every work 1 did go on
beav'ly, and it was near a whole year before I had
entiplfy finished my little pale, or surrounded habi-
tation= the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as
I oNwellr lft, were a long time ~cutting ad pir
9 2

L~a ~ ~ ~ a ).-


paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cut-
ting and bringing home one of those posts, and a
third day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at
last bethought myself of one of the iron crows,
which however, though I found it, yet made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
1 now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing; not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me,
for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and af-
flicting my mind; and as my reason began now to
master my despondency, I began to comfort myself
as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed,
against the miseries 1 suffered, thus:



I am cast upon a hor-
rible desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out, and
separated, as it were, from
all the world to be mi-

I am divided from man.

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company was.
But I am singled out
too, from all the ship's
crew, to be spared from
death; and He that mi-
raculously saved me from
deathcandeliverme from
this condition.
But I am not stare4d,


kind, a solitary one ba-
nished from human so-
I have no clothes to
cover me.

and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no
But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where, if I had.
clothes, I could hardly

wear tem.
I am without any de- But I am cast on au
fence or means to resist island where I seenowil
any violence of man or beasts to hurt me, as
beast saw on the coast ofAfrica
and what if I had beel
shipwrecked there
I have no soul to speak But God wondMrful:
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in nea
enough to the shore, tha
I havegotten out so man,
necessary things as wil
either supply my wants
or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as

Upon the whole, there was an undoubted test
mony, that there was scarce any condition in thi
world so miserable, but there was something nega
tive, or something positive, to be thankful for in it
and let this stand as a direction from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world
that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description ofgooc
and evil, on the credit-side of the accompt.
Having now brought my mind a little to relia
my condition, and giving over 1ioking outto seat
see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over theb
thiag, I began to apply myself to aocommodt











my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with
a strong pale of posts and cables, but I might rather
call it a wall; for I raised a kind of wall up against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and
after some time (1 think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I
found at some times of the year very violent.
I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked far.
other into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it;
and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to the
beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right hand
into the rock; and then, turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out
on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
was a back way to my tent, and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the
world; I could not write or eat, or several things,
with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here 1 must needs ob-
serve, that as reason is the substance and original of
the mathematics, so by stating and squaring every
thing by reason, and by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labour, appli.


cation, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially
if I had tools: however, I made abundance ofthings,
even without tools, and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite
labour. For example: if I wanted a board, 1 had
no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is
true, by this method I could make but one board
cut of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for,
but patience, any more than I had for the prodi-
gious deal of time and labour which it took me up
to make a plank or board: but my time or labour
was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I didout
of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship; but when I had wrought out
some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron-work, and, in a word, to separate every
thing at large in their places, that I might easily
come at them: also, I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things;
and I had every thing so ready at my hand, that it
was great pleasure to me to see all my goods in
such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.
r- --~ m--^- ***- ***. .. ._


I now began to keep my journal, of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for at last having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.


SEPTEMBER 30,1659. I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful
storm in the offing, came on shore on this dismal
unfortunate island, which I called the Island of
Despair, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting my-
self at the dismal circumstances I was brought to,
viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or
place to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw no-
thing but death before me, either that I should be
devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night, I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
and was driven on shore again much nearer the is-
land, which, as it was some comfort on one hand
(for seeing her sit upright, and not broken in pieces,
1 hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my
relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief
at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we
had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or at least that they would not have been all
downed, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat

24> Y4~\j

out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent greatpart of
this day in perplexing myself on these things; but
at length seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain
also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and
the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of
them when the tide was out
October 25. It rained all night, and all day, with
some gusts of wind, during which time the ship
broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder
than before, and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which
I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly
concerned to secure myself from any attack, in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or forti-
fication, made of double piles, lined within with
cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard-
in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,

"* -* ,. *

though some part of the time it rained exceeding
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the is-
land with my gun, to see for some food, and disco-
ver the country; when I killed a she goat, and her
kid followed mehome, which I afterward killed also
because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock,
and lay there for the first night, making it as large
as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
mock upon.
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards,
and the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and
with them formed a fence round me, a little within
the place I had marked out for my fortification.
November 3. I went out with my gun. and kil-
led two fowls like ducks, which were very good food.
In the afternoon, went to work to make me a table.
November 4. This morning I began to order
my times of work, of going out with my gun, time
of sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every morning
I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if
it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live
on: and from twelve to two, I lay down to sleep,
the weather being excessive hot, and then in the
evening to work again. The working part of this
day and the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would
do any one else.
November 5. This day I went abroad with my
gun and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin
pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every
creature I killed, I took off the skins and preserved


them. Coming back, by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost was frighted, with two
or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not
well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
November 6. After my morning walk, I went
to work with my table again, and finished it,though
not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the
12th (for the llth was Sunday, according to my
reckoning,) I took wholly up to make me a chair,
and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it to pieces several times. Note, I soon neg-
lected keeping my Sundays; for omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
November 13. This day it rained, which re.
freshed me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but
it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to se-
parate my stock of powder into as many little par-
cels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
November 14,15,16. These three days I spent
in making little square chests or boxes, which might
hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of pow-
der; and so putting the powder in, I stowed it in
places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind
my tent into the rock, to make room for my farther
I . .. _.-

convenience. Ncte, Three things Iwanted exceed-
ingly for this work; viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and
a wheelbarrow or basket: so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that
want, and make me some tools. As for the pick-
axe, I made use of the iron crows, which were pro-
proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely ne.
cessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make I knew
November 18. The next day, in searching the
woods, I found a tree of thatwood, or like it, which
in the Brasils they call the iron tree, for its ex-
ceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home too with difficulty enough, for it was ex-
ceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having
no other way, made me a long while upon this ma-
chine; for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long; however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion ip
put it to: but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a
wheel-barrow: a basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware, or at least none yet
found out; and, as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel; but that I had no
notion of, neither did 1 know how to go about it:
besides, I had no possible way to make iron gud.


geons, for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run
in, so I gave it over; and so, for carrying away the
earth which I dug out of the cave, 1 made me a
thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar
in, when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the at-
tempt which I made in vain to make awheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days: 1 mean, al-
ways excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also
of bringing home something fit to eat.
November 23. My other work having stood still
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on; and, working every day as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, thatit
might hold my goods commodiously.
Note, During all this time, I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate
me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-
room, and a cellar; as for a lodging, I kept to the
tent, except that sometimes in the wet season of
the year it rained so hard, that could notkeep my-
self dry; which caused me afterward to cover all
my place within my pale, with long poles, in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags, and large leaves of trees, like a
December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when, on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large), a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side, so much that, in
short, it frighted me, and not without reason too;
for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great


deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more impor-
tance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might
be sure that no more would come down.
December 11. This day I went to work with it
accordingly, and got two shores, or posts, pitched
upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across
over each post. This I finished the next day; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts, stand-
ing in rows, served me for partitions to part off
my house.
December 17. From this day to the 20th, I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts,
to hang every thing up that could be hung up; and
now I began to be in some order within doors.
December 20. Now 1 carried every thing into
the cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up
some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon: but boards began to be very scarce
with me. Also 1 made me another table.
December 24. Much rain all night and all day:
no stirring out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26. No rain, and the earth much
cooler than before, and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I catched it, and led it home in a
string; when I had it home I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke. N. B. I took such
care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well, and
as strong as ever; but by nursingit so long it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I
entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.


December 28, 29. 30. Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening for food. This time I spent in putting all
my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad
early and late, with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys, which lay to the centre of the is-
land, I found there was plenty of goats, though ex-
ceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I re-
solved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt
them down.
January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went
out with my dog, and set him upon the goats; but
I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them.
January 3. I began my fence or wall, which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by some-
body, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
[N. B. This wall being described before, I pur-
posely omit what was said in the journal: it is suf-
ficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 3rd of January to the 14th of April, working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it wasno
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being
a half-circle, from one place in the rock, to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the
cave being in the centre behind it.]
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hin-
dering me many days, nay, sometimes, weeks toge-
ther; but I thought 1 should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished: and it is scarce
credible what inexpressible labour every thing was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made
them much bigger than I needed to have done.


When this wall was finished, and the outside
double fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to I
it, I persuaded myself, that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive any
thing like a habitation: and it was very well 1 did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very re-
markable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me,
and made frequent discoveries in these walks of
something or other to my advantage; particularly
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks: and taking some young
ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and
did so; but when they grew older, they flew all
away, which perhaps was atfirst for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them : however, I
frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs
I found myself wanting in many things, which I
thought at first it was impossible for me to make, as
indeed as to some of them it was: for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as 1 observed before, but I
could never arrive to the capacity of making one
by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so
true to one another, as to make them hold water;
so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for can-
dles; so that as soon as it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, 1 was obliged to go to
bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax, with '
which I made candles in my African adventure;

but I had none of that now: the only remedy I
had, was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick
of some oakum, I made me a lamp: and this gave
me light, though not a clear steady light, like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it hap-
pened, that, rummaging my things, I found a lit-
tle bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon; what little remainder of corn
had been in the bag, was a!l devoured by the rats,
and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust;
and being willing to have the bag for some other
use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divi-
ded it for fear of the lightning, or some such use),
I shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of
my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now
mentioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking
no notice of any thing, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown any thing there; when,
about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting up on the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had
not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly asto-
nished, when after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect
green barley, of the same kind as our European,
nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thought on this occasion: I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;
indeed I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of any thing


that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance,
or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; without
so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or his order in governing events in
the world: but, after I saw barley grow there, in
a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,
and especially that I knew not how .it came there,
it started me strangely, and I began to suggest,
that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow, without any help of seed sown, and that it
was so directed purely for my sustenance in that
wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself, that
such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the side of
the rock, some other straggling stalks which proved
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I
had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support; but, not doubting but
that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
see for more of it; but I could not find any: at
last it occurred to*my thoughts, that I had shaken
the bag of chicken's meat out in that place; and
then the wonder began to cease; and I must con-
fess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence
began to abate too, upon the discovering that all
this was nothing but what was common, though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen providence, asif it had been miraculous;
for it was really the work of Providence as to me,