Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Chapter XXIV
 Chapter XXV
 Chapter XXVI
 Chapter XXVII
 Biographical notice of Daniel...

Group Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe : from the original work of Daniel Defoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072772/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe from the original work of Daniel Defoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 335 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Wells, C ( Publisher )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: Published by C. Wells
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1836, c1835
Copyright Date: 1835
Edition: New ed., carefully adapted to youth.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1836   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: Gumuchian
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated by engravings.
General Note: Adaptation of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe by S.G. Goodrich, who has attempted to purify the work "from every thought and expression which might sully the mind or manners of youth"--P. 2.
General Note: "Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1835, by S.G. Goodrich"--P. 2.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072772
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13528895

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chapter I
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Chapter II
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Chapter III
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Chapter IV
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter V
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Chapter VI
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Chapter VII
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Chapter VIII
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Chapter IX
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Chapter X
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Chapter XI
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Chapter XII
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chapter XIII
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Chapter XV
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Chapter XVI
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Chapter XVII
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Chapter XIX
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Chapter XX
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Chapter XXI
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Chapter XXII
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    Chapter XXIV
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
    Chapter XXV
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    Chapter XXVI
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
    Chapter XXVII
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
    Biographical notice of Daniel Defoe
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
Full Text








tllustratetr b6 p agIrabifngs.


Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1835,
By S. G. GooDRIcH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.


IN this edition of Robinson Crusoe, it is designed to
present the complete story, as originally published by
Defoe, freed from the exceptionable passages which that
Sir Walter Scott has remarked that this work has
given more pleasure than any other in ourlanguage. It
is perhaps more universally read than any other. It is
desirable, therefore, that it should be purified from every
thought and expression which might sully the mind or
:manners of youth. The work is full of moral truth
and lessons of virtue; and it is hoped that in its present
shape it may be useful and acceptable to young readers.


Mr birth and parentage. I determine to go to sea. Dissuaded
by my parents. Elope with a school-fellow, and go on board
ship. A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened.
Ship founders. Myself and crew saved by a boat, and landed near
Yarmouth. Make a successful trading voyage to Guinea. Sail
another trip. The vengeance of Providence for disobedience to
parents now overtakes me. Taken by a Sallee rover, and all
sold as slaves. Make my escape in an open boat with a Mores-
co boy .................................................. 9

CHAP. 11.
Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European
vessel. See savages along shore. Shoot a large leopard. Am
saved by a merchantman. Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settle-
ment. Sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea. Storms. Sjip
strikes a sand-bank in unknown land. All lost but myself, who
.am driven ashore by the waves....................... 18

Appearance of the wreck and country the next day. Get a
quantity of stores from the ship. Shoot a bird, which turns -oat
carrion. Pitchmy tent. Erect a cross of wood, to serve a a cal-
endar. My cats and dog. Reflections on my situati........ 29


My journal. I kill a she-goat, and the kid follows me home.
Part of the roof of my cave falls in. I tame a goat. My substitute
for candles. Barley and rice. A terrible earthquake. Find a bar-
rel, and procure more stores from the wreck. Catch a turtle. My
sickness and recovery. Set out to explore my island. Find abun-
dance of fruit. Build my bower. Increase of my family of cats.
Another visit to my country-seat ......................... 40

A journey that I made. Discover land, which I suppose to be
the continent of America. Cateh a parrot and a kid. My method
of securing my corn field. I succeed in making earthen-ware.
Think of leaving the island. Make a large canoe, but cannot get
it to the water. Clothe myself in skins. Become resigned to
my lot................................................. 60

I make a smaller boat, and set it afloat. Set out on a voyage
round the island. I encounter dangers, but return in safety. Meet
my parrot away from home. Catch and tame goats. Description
of my mode of life .............................. ....... 70

'Description of my figure. Dreadful alarm on seeing the print of
a man's foot on the sea-shore. Take every possible precaution.
The way I contrived to secure my goats .................... 83

I see a canoe at sea. Find on shore the remains of a feast of the
cannibals. My fright. Doubly arm myself. Terribly alarmed by
a singular grotto, of which I form my magazine. My fears on ao-
oount of the savages begin to subside ...................... 93


Discover nine savages round a fire, on my side of the island.
My horror on finding out the cause of their meeting. A Spanish
ship lost off the island. Go on board the wreck, and procure a va-
riety of articles..........................................102

Discover five canoes of savages on shore. Observe two misera-
ble wretches dragged from their boats, to be devoured. One of
them escapes, and I save his life. Name him Friday; and he be-
comes a fond and faithful servant..........................111

I show Friday what food is proper to eat. He learns English.
A dialogue. He describes some Spaniards who had come to his
nation, and lived there. Friday refuses to leave me........... 20

Friday and I build a large boat. Savages land. Resolve to at-
tack them. Friday and I fire upon the cannibals, and save the life
of a poor Spaniard. List of the killed and wounded. Discover a
poor Indian, bound, in one of the canoes, who turns out to be Fri-
day's father. I learn from the Spaniard that a number of his coun-
trymen are still among the savages. The Spaniard's prudent

The Spaniard and Friday's father sail for the continent. I dis-
cover an English ship at anchor. Her boat comes on shore with
three prisoners. The crew wander into the woods, and the boat is
left aground. Discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to be
the captain and mate of a vessel, and a passenger. Secure te mu-
tineers ....................... ......................... 14


The ship makes signals for her boats. On receiving no answer,
she sends another boat on shore. This boat's crew is secured, and
the ship recovered .....................................155

I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in Eng.
land. Find the greater prt of my family dead. Go to Lisbon for
information respecting my plantation in the Brazils; find an old
friend there, and'get rich. Set out to travel to England through
Spain and France. Meet with wolves on the road. A terrible
battle with an army of them..............................162

Arrive in England, and settle my affairs. Marry, and have a
family. Purchase a farm in the county of Bedford. Death of my
wife. I resolve to revisit my island ; and, for that purpose, settle
my affairs in England. Description of the cargo I carried out with
me. Save the crew of a vessel burned at sea. Steer for the
West Indies. Distressing account of a Bristol ship, the crew of
which we save from starving .............................176

Arrive at the island. Friday's joy at discovering it. Meets his
father. Narrative of the occurrences on the island during my

Narrative continued. Insolence of three of the Englishmen to
the Spaniards. They are disarmed and brought to order. Two ad-
verse nations of savages land upon the island. A terrible battle is
fought between them. Several of the vanquished party are seized
by the Spaniards..................................... .9


Fresh broils between the turbulent Englishmen and Spaniards.
The English make a voyage to the main land, and return with men
and women. The colony is discovered by the savages, who invade
the island, but are defeated................................208

The island is invaded by a formidable army of savages. A terri-
ble engagement, in which the cannibals are routed. Thirty-seven
savages, the survivors, are saved. I inform the colony for what
purpose I came, and what I mean to do for them. Distribution
of the stores I brought with me. Preparations for leaving the
island................................................. .. 230

Sail from the island for the Brazils. Encounter and destroy a
whole fleet of savages. Death of Friday. Arrival at Brazil. I
send recruits and stores to the island, and take leave of it forever.
Arrival at Madagascar. Dreadful occurrences there............ 1

I am angry with my nephew, on account of the cruelties prac-
tised at Madagascar. Arrive at Bengal. The seamen refuse to sail,
if I remain on board. I am left on shore. Make an advantageous
trading voyage, in company with an English merchant Purchase
a ship, which turns out to have been stolen. Make a trading voy-
age in this vessel. Pursued, and escape with difficulty .......252

Come to anchor, on a savage coast, to repair our ship. We are
attacked by the natives, who are dispersed by a whimsical contri-
vance. Sail to the northward, and take an old Portuguese pilot on
board. Conversation with him............................263


Arrive at China in safety. Dispose of the ship. Go to Pekin.
Find an opportunity of returning to Europe ................274

Set out by the caravan. Account of our goods. Description of
the interior of China. Pass the great wall. Attacked by Tartars,
but repel them. I am attacked by robbers, and saved by the old
pilot. Again attacked, but defeat the Tartars ................281

We continue our journey. Meet with an idol, which we destroy.
Are pursued in consequence, but are saved by the cunning of a
Cossack ...............................................296

Arrive at Tobolsk, where I pass the winter. Set out to return
home in company with an exiled nobleman. Harassed by Cal-
mucs on the road. Arrive at Archangel. Sail from thence, and ar-
rive safely in England ...................................310






I WAS born in the city of York, England, in
the year 1632. My father was a foreigner,
being a native of Bremen, and acquired-a hand-
some property by mercantile pursuits, in which
he first engaged in Hull. My mother's maiden
name was Robinson, and I was called Robin-
son Kreutznaer, or, by corruption, Crusoe. We
are now called, nay, we write our name, Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two brothers, both older than myself.
The eldest rose to the rank of lieutenant-colo-


nel in the army, and fell at the head of his
regiment in the battle near Dunkirk, which
was fought against the Spaniards. The fate
of my second brother was never discovered.
It was supposed that, after the loss of two
members of the family, I should be contented
to follow the wishes of my father, and settle
quietly at home, in some peaceful and honora-
ble profession. But, alas! I was bent on going
to sea.
Neither my parents nor relatives were satis-
fied with this idle longing for perilous adven-
ture. My father strongly advised me to relin-
quish my wild projects, and assured me that I
should never go to sea with his consent. In
the kindest manner, he pointed out the dangers
which would threaten me, the hardships I
should be compelled to undergo, and feelingly
adverted to the fate of my two elder brothers,
the remembrance of which caused the tears to
flow down his venerable cheeks. In contrast
to the dangers of the ocean, he painted the
calm and safe delights of domestic life on


shore, and ended by conjuring me to follow
his advice, and listen to his reasoning.
The sight of my father in so much trouble,
for a time, dimmed the adventurous fire within
me, and I internally resolved to remain at home,
and comfort the declining years of my excellent
parents. But it was not long before I began
to be weary of the land, and sigh for the
unknown pleasures of the sailor.
By means of my mother, I endeavored to
obtain my father's consent to my going on
board some vessel; but he was inflexible. To
this day I cannot forget the awful solemnity
with which he said, That boy might be hap-
py, if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch
that ever was born. I can give no consent
to it."
One day, I went by chance to Hull, where
I happened to meet an acquaintance, of about
my own age, who was going to London in one
of his father's vessels. He offered me a pas-
sage, and urged me to accompany him; and,

without consulting my father or mother, with-
out even letting them know of my intention,
without asking God's blessing on my voyage,
in an evil hour, on the 1st of September, 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London.
My misfortunes commenced early; for no
sooner had we got out of the Humber, than the
wind began to rise, and we were soon exposed
to the fury of a tempest. I attempted to walk
the deck, but was soon thrown off my feet, and
compelled to cling to a water-cask for safety.
I was dreadfully sea-sick, and believed that
death was near. In the agony of my spirit, I
prayed Almighty God to save my life, and
promised, if my prayer was heard, and I was
permitted once more to set foot on land, that
I would never leave my poor parents again.
But when the storm ceased, and I saw the
wide waters, lately lashed into fury, smiling
before me in blue beauty, I forgot the promises
I made the night before, and plunged at once in-
to the mad revelry of my shipmates. When I
spoke of the storm, they laughed at its terrors, and


termed it a mere capful of wind" ; and it was,
in fact, nothing to what we soon after encoun-
tered while lying at anchor in Yarmouth roads.
On this occasion, the wind blew in such a
manner, that we were forced to cut away the
masts; and even this was not enough; for, find-
ing the vessel sinking, we had recourse to a
boat, into which we got with great difficulty.
We had not been more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship, when we saw her sink; and
then I understood, for the first time, what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge that I had hardly eyes to look up,
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for,
from the moment they put me into the boat,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
But at length we reached the land in safety.
My misfortunes did not cure my passion for
the sea; and so, instead of going home to my
parents, I embraced an offer made me by the
captain of a vessel bound to the western coast

of Africa, to be his companion in the voyage,
free of expense, and with liberty to traffic with
the natives. My kind friends supplied me with
about 40, which I expended on such toys as
the captain told me would be salable at
Guinea. The voyage proved uncommonly
prosperous; and, on my return, I found myself
the possessor of 300, which so fired my im-
agination, that I determined to continue in the
Guinea trade, doubting not that I should soon
become a rich man.
Alas! these extravagant expectations were
doomed never to be realized. My second voy-
age was disastrous. When near the African
coast, we were attacked by a vessel belonging
to the Moorish pirates of Sallee, and, our ship
being disabled in the fight, three of our men
killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sal-
lee, a port belonging to the Moors.
My treatment was not so harsh as I feared
that it might be; for, while my shipmates were
taken into the interior of the country, to labor

for the emperor, the pirate-chief, pleased with
my youth and activity, kept me to wait upon
himself. Two years were passed in sighing
for my liberty; for I had no means of making
my escape. My master would not take me to
sea with him, and when his ship was in port, I
slept in the cabin, but was closely watched.
However, being once sent in my master's
long-boat, with Ishmael, or Muley, a Moor,
and Xury, a Moresco boy, to catch some fish,
I conceived the hope of making my escape.
This boat had a cabin in the middle, like that
of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to
steer in, and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails. She sailed with
what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the
boom was jibbed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low; it had room in it for my
master to lie with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small lockers to put in
some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to
drink, together with his bread, rice, and coffee.
On pretence of a prospect of sport, I coa-


veyed guns, powder, and shot, on board, previ-
ously to which I had stowed away a great lump
of beeswax, which weighed above half a hun-
dred weight; with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which
were of great use afterwards, especially the
wax, to make candles. Every thing needful
being prepared, we went out of port to fish.
The wind blew from N. N. E., which was
contrary to my desire; for, had it blown south-
erly, I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at least reached the bay of Ca-
diz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it might, I would quit that horrid place where
I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and caught
nothing,-for, when I had fish on my hook, I
would not pull them up, so that he might see
them,-I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not thus be served; we must
stand farther off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set
the sails; and, as I had the helm, I stepped


forward to where the Moor was, and, pretend-
ing to stoop for something behind him, I seized
him by surprise, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea.
He rose immediately,-for he swam like a
cork,-and called to me, begging to be taken
in, and telling me that he would go all over the
world with me. He swam so strongly after
the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I snatched a fowling-piece, and, taking
aim at him, told him I had done him no
hurt, and, if he would be quiet, I would do him
none. "But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make
the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the
boat, I'll shoot you through the head; for I
am resolved to have my liberty."
On this, he turned about, and swam for the
shore; and 1 do not doubt that he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this


Moor with me, in the place of the boy; but there
was no trusting him. When he was gone, I
turned to the boy, and said to him, "Xury, if
you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great
man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me,"-that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father's beard,-" I must throw you into the
sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust
him; and he promised to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.

FOR several days, the wind favored our de-
sign of coasting in a southerly direction; and it
was with sincere pleasure that I found myself
far from the emperor of Morocco's dominions.
At length I determined to land, as we were out
of water, and accordingly dropped anchor, one
evening, in a little creek, where I doubted not
we should be able to supply our wants.


We were deterred from landing that evening,
by the hideous roarings of some huge wild
beasts, which plunged into the creek, and
lashed the waves in their terrible gambols, con-
veying an idea of terror which I never shall
forget. One of these monsters swam to the
boat, but, upon my discharging a fowling-piece
at him, turned round, and made for the shore.
All that I saw and heard convinced me that
this was that vast country south of Morocco,
which the negroes had abandoned to the wild
beasts, and which the Moors occasionally enter
in immense bodies, for the sake of hunting.
Having procured water, I again left the coast.
The want of proper nautical instruments was
a serious one; but I entertained the hope of
meeting with some Christian merchant-vessel
on the coast of Africa. There appeared to be
little prospect of the speedy fulfilment of this
hope, and I began to look upon myself as an
outcast, justly punished for quitting the domes-
tic fireside, and neglecting the excellent advice
of the best of parents.

One day, on approaching the coast, I per-
ceived a huge lion lying on the side of a hill.
" Xury," said I to the boy, "you shall go on
shore and kill him." Xury looked frightened,
and said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth! "
one mouthful, he meant: however, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him lie still, while
I took our largest gun, and loaded it with a
good charge of powder, and two slugs, and laid
it down. Then I loaded another gun with two
bullets; and the third,-for we had three pieces,
-I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first
piece, so as to shoot him in the head; but he lay
with his leg raised a little above his nose, and
the slugs hit his leg above the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but,
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hide-
ous roar that I ever heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
upon the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and, though he began to

move off, fired again, and shot him through the
head, and had the. pleasure to see him drop, and
make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and insisted on going
ashore. Well, go," said I; so the boeyjump-
ed into the water, and, taking a little gun in
one hand, swam to shore with the other hand,
and, coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and, shooting himn
through the head a second time, despatched
This was game, indeed, but no: food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot, upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, thinking that his
skin might be, in one way or other, of some
value to us, Xury and I went to work upon
him; but it took us both the whole day. At
length we got off the hide of him, and, spread-
ing it on the top ofQour cabin, the sun effectu-
ally dried it n two days' time; and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
It was some tim~abefe we saw any of the


natives, The first negroes we beheld were
naked and unarmed, and brought us water and
food. I was at a loss how to reward these poor
friendly creatures, until an incident occurred
which enabled me to do them an essential ser-
vice. As they stood upon the shore, a wild
animal from the mountains, in pursuit of an-
other beast, dashed through them, and plunged
into the water.
As he approached rather nearer our boat than
was agreeable, I fired my fowling-piece at him,
and sent a ball through his brain. His com-
panion escaped. On drawing him out of the
water, he proved to be a large and beautiful
leopard, the skin of which I carefully preserved.
It is impossible to express the astonishment
of the poor negroes at the noise and fire of my
gun: some of them fell upon the sea-beach al-
most lifeless. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk in the water, they took heart,
and held up their hands in admiration of the
weapon I had killed the leopard with.
When I was in doubt where I should ever


behold a Christian face again, the welcome
sight of a sail on the horizon revived all my
hopes. But doubt soon mingled with my hope.
The vessel might be an enemy-might not be
coming to meet us. Joy! joy! she nears!
She descries us! We can see them lower a
boat. Yes; we were rescued from our perilous
solitude by a Portuguese merchant-ship, bound
for the Brazils! 0
The captain behaved with great generosity
towards me. He purchased my boat, and such
articles as I was willing to sell, and even in-
duced me to part with the boy Xury. 1 was
very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, when
he had assisted me in gaining my own; but 1
stipulated that the captain should agree to free
him in ten years, on condition of his turning
When, shortly afterwards, 1 settled in the
Brazils, and commenced raising sugar-canes
and tobacco, I found, more than ever, that I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder.


However, I went on with my plantation,
gradually accumulating property, but too rash
and too ambitious to be satisfied with the ordi-
nary means of gaining wealth. I had been dis-
contented with my early home; 1 was discon-
tented now, and must go and leave the happy
prospect of being a rich and thriving man in
my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus, as will
be seen, I cast myself down into the deepest
gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or that is consistent with life and a state of
health, in this world.
It happened that three merchants came to
me one morning, to make, as they said, a secret
proposal to me. They told me that they had a
mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they all had plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants. As
negroes could not be sold publicly, they desired
me to make but one voyage, to bring the ne-
groes on shore privately, and divide them


among our own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go as their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea; and they
offered to give me an equal share of the negroes,
without providing any part of the stock.
I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the guilty offer, than I
could restrain my first rambling designs, when
my father's good counsel was lost upon me.
I went on board, in an evil hour, on the
1st of September, 1659, being the same day,
eight years, that I went from my father and
mother, at Hull, in order to act the rebel to
their authority, and the fool to my interest.
Our ship carried about one hundred and
twenty tons burthen, mounted six guns, and
carried fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no cargo
of goods, except such toys as were fit for
our trade with the negroes, as beads, bits of
glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and
the like.


After passing the line, being in about 7 de-
grees 22 minutes north latitude, a violent tor-
nado or hurricane, which settled into a regular
nor'easter, took us quite out of our knowledge,
and drove us along for twelve days. Finding
out, at length, something about our position, the
master and I concluded that it was most pru-
dent to steer for Barbadoes, which we judged
to be the nearest land.
But, being in latitude 12 degrees 18 minutes,
another storm came upon us, and drove us west-
ward, out of the track of commerce. In this
distress, we discovered land; and soon after, the
ship struck upon a sand-bank. With great dif-
ficulty, we launched our only boat, got into it,
and, shoving off from the vessel, committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner; and, the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling, as
well as we could, towards the land.
As we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea. After
we had driven about ten miles, as we reckoned

it, a raging wave took us with such fury, that
it overset the boat at once ; and, separating us
from one another, gave us not time even to
utter a prayer, for we were swallowed by the
waves in a moment.
I was, myself, cast at length upon the rocks
by a tremendous wave, and there I clung fast,
that I might avoid being drowned. After a
little time, I found that the waves were not as
high as at first, and being near land, I held
on till they abated. I then took a run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next
wave, though it went over me, did not carry
me away; and the next run I took brought me
near the main land, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and was
out of the reach of the water.
I now knelt down upon the grass, and, look-
ing upward, thanked my gracious God for pre-
serving my life, when, but a few minutes before,
there appeared to be no hope. I believe it is
impossible to express what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave. I do not


wonder now, that, when a malefactor, who
has the halter about his neck, and is just going
to be hurled into eternity, if he has a re-
prieve brought him-I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon to bleed him the moment he
is informed of it, that the surprise may not drive
the life from his heart;
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I now cast my eyes toward the stranded
vessel, but the breach and froth of the sea were
so great, that I could hardly see it in the dis-
tance, and could not but wonder how I could
have got to the land.

HAVING secured myself in the branches of a
tree, I enjoyed a comfortable night's rest, and
awoke the next day much refreshed. I found
that the vessel had been stranded within about.
a mile of the shore, and saw that, had we re-

mained on board, all of us would have been
saved. But, alas! none but myself wasleft. I
swam to the vessel, and found that, although
there was a great deal of water in her, the pro-
visions were dry; and I made a hearty meal on
I built a raft of spare yards and planks, and
the first article that I committed to it, was a
carpenter's chest of tools. My next care was
to get ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols: these I secured, with a small bag
of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew
there were three barrels of powder in the ship,
but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two
of them dry and good, the third wet. I got
them into my boat, with the arms.
I had three encouragements in getting them
on shore: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The
tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What
little wind there was blew favorably for me.
I fortunately found two or three broken oars


belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put
to sea. For about a mile, my raft went very
well, only I found it drive a little way from
the place where I intended to land; by this 1
perceived that there was some current in the
water, and 1 hoped to find a creek or river, in
which I could land my cargo with safety.
I soon saw a little opening of the land, and
I found a strong current of the tide set into it;
so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep
the middle of the stream. But now I almost
suffered shipwreck, by running on a shoal, from
which the rising tide finally lifted me off. I was
carried on shore in a little creek, and the turn
of the tide left my cargo high upon the land.
The next thing I did was to view the coun-
try, and seek some spot whereon to build a
dwelling, to shelter my goods. Ascending a
high hill, about a mile from the creek, I ascer-
tained that I was on an island, which appeared
barren, and was probably inhabited only by
wild beasts.


Though I saw many birds, I could not tell
whether they were fit to eat or not. On coming
back, I shot a large bird in a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had
no sooner fired, than, from all parts of the wood,
there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
various kinds, making a confused screaming.
They were all unknown to me; and the flesh
of the bird I shot was like carrion.
I built a temporary hut with the articles that
composed my cargo, and lay down to sleep, but
not without fear of wild beasts. The second
voyage I made to the ship, I brought away
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing, called a grind-
stone. All these I secured, together with sev-
eral things belonging to the gunner, particularly
two or three iron crow-bars, two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, and anoth-
er fowling-piece, with an additional quantity
of powder, and a large bag full of small shot.


I found also a great roll of sheet lead, but this
was so heavy that I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's
clothes that I could find, and a spare foretop-
sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
these I loaded my second raft, and brought them
all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my
absence from the land, that, at least, my pro-
visions might be devoured on shore; but, when
I came, I found no sign of a visitor, except a
creature, like a wild-cat, that sat on one of the
chests. She did not appear to be afraid of me,
nor did she attempt to harm me; so I threw her
a bit of biscuit, which she ate with satisfaction.
She looked as if she should like more; but I
showed her, that I could spare no more; so she
marched off.
My next care was to build a tent with sail-
Scloth and some poles that I had cut; and into
this I conveyed those articles that I feared
might be injured by the sun and rain. I then

piled up all the empty chests and casksin a
circle round the tent, to fortify it against any
sudden attempt, either of man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an
empty chest set upon end without; and, spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying
my two pistols just at my head, and my gun
by my side, I went to bed for the first time.
I slept very quietly all night, for I was very
weary, and the night before, I had slept little,
and had labored very hard all day, as well to
bring all the things from the ship, as to get
them on shore.
I had now the largest magazine, of all kinds,
that was ever laid up for one man; but I was
not satisfied still; for, while the ship sat upright,
I thought I would get every thing out of her
that I could. So every day, at low water, I
went on board and brought away something.
Having got every thing out of the vessel that
I thought would be of any service to me, I
began to think it necessary to secure myself

against savages, or wild beasts, should any ap-
pear. I found the place I was in was not fit for a
settlement, as I wasupon a low, marshy ground,
near the sea, and I believed the spot would not
be healthy, particularly .since there was no
fresh water near it; so I resolved to look for a
more healthy and convenient spot of ground.
At length, I found a little plain at the foot of
a rising hill; the front of this hill, toward the
plain, was steep as a house-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top. On
the side of this, there was a rock with a hollow
place worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at alL
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain
was not above a hundred yards-broad, and about
twice as long, and lay like i green before my
door, and, at the end of it, the ground descended
irregularly every way down into the low lands
by the sea-side. It was oa the north-west side
of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat

.*. ,? .,


every day, till it came to a west-by-south sun,
which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I pitched my tent, I drew a half-
circle before the hollow place, in which I plant-
ed two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm, like piles;
the biggest end being about five feet and a half
out of the ground, and sharpened at the top.
The two rows did not stand above six inches
from each other.
I next took the pieces of cable, which I had
cut in the ship, and laid them one upon another,
within the circle between the two rows of
stakes, up to the top; then placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post. This
fence was so strong that neither man nor beast
could get into it, or over it. It cost me a
great deal of time and labor, especially the
cutting and driving in of the piles.
The entrance into this place was not by a
door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted down


after me; so that I was completely fenced in,
and fortified, as I thought, from the world;
and, consequently, slept secure in the night,
which, otherwise, I could not have done.
I succeeded in excavating the rock, and
making a cave just behind my tent, which
served me as a cellar. The first day I went
out shooting, I discovered that there were
many wild goats on the island. After I had
resided on the island some ten or twelve days,
it occurred to me that I should lose my reckon-
ing, for want of books, pen and ink, and should
even be unable to distinguish the Sabbath from
the working-days ; so, to prevent this, I erect-
ed a great cross upon the sea-shore, and in-
scribed upon it with my pen-kaife, I came on
| shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this post, I cut, every day, a
notch with my knife; and every seventh notch
was as long again as the rest, and every first
Sday of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
or monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

I forgot to mention, that I brought out of the
ship, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in the
captain's, mate's, and carpenter's keeping, three
or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of
navigation; all of which I huddled together,
uncertain whether I might want them, or no.
I also found three very good Bibles, some
Portuguese books, and among them two or
three prayer-books, beside several other books;
all of which I carefully secured. I must not
forget to mention, that we had on board the
ship, two cats and a dog. I carried the cats on
shore: the dog swam to land the day after the
wreck, and was a trusty servant to me for many
years. I wanted nothing that he could bring
me, nor any company that he had the power
to furnish. I only wanted to have him talk to
me; but that he could not do.
I was in want of a spade, pick-axe, and shov-
el, needles, pins, and thread; and it was a long
time before I got my other-things to rights.
But I made a table, and chair, and shelves, and


then set to work to keep my journal. I had
reason to be thankful that I was alive-that
there was no prospect of my starving-that I
was cast upon an island where there were
neither savages nor wild beasts to trouble me-
and that God had wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, to enable me to get
necessaries to supply my immediate wants,
and provide for myself as long as I lived.
Although singled out and separated from all
the world, I was also singled out from all the
ship's crew, to be spared from death.

I KEPT my journal as long as my writing ma-
terials lasted. I shall not copy the whole of
this, because it will only be repeating what the
reader already knows. My first entry in my
journal was the following:-
September 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable
Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a

..------c.- --,~j ~I-.-c--~~

dreadful storm, came on shore on this dismal,
unfortunate island, which I called the Island
of Despair; all the rest of the ship's company
being drowned, and myself almost dead.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into
the island, with my gun, and killed a she-goat:
her poor kid followed me home. The little
thing refused to eat, and I was forced to kill
it also.
December 10. I began to think the cave, or
vault, in the rear of my tent, finished, when, on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large), a
great quantity of earth fell down from the top, on
one side, terrifying me greatly. It would have
killed me had I been in at the time. Accord-
ingly, this day I commenced erecting posts to
secure my cave, and made shelves across be-
tween them, and drove nails into them to hang
up things upon.
December 27. Killed one young goat, and
lamed another, so that I caught it, and led it
home a string. When I reached home, I


found that his leg was broken, and so set to
work, and splintered it. I took such care of it
that it lived, and the leg grew as strong as
ever; but, by nursing it so long, I had tamed
it completely, and it refused to leave me, feed-
ing on the green before my door. This was
the first time I thought of breeding tame crea-
tures to serve me for food, when I had fired
away all my powder and shot.
From January to April, I kept hard at work
upon my dwelling and wall, though my work
was often interrupted by the rain, which, in the
wet season, falls almost incessantly. Among
other things, of which I stood in need, and
could not make, was a hooped cask. I
also wanted candles, and, to supply myself,
made use of the following contrivance. When
I killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and put
it in little dishes of baked clay, to which I
made wicks of oakum; and these gave me a
pretty bright, but an unsteady kind of light.
Happening to find a little bag, which had
once contained corn, that had been eaten by the


ship rats, I threw out the dust that remained
at the bottom, just before the rainy season,
when, to my great surprise, about a month af-
terwards, ten or twelve ears of English barley
sprung forth. I gathered these, with some
stalks of rice; and they afterwards yielded me
abundant harvests.
April 17. There happened a most terrible
earthquake, that shook the earth from the top
of my cave, and cracked two of the posts, for-
cing me to plant my ladder, and fly over the
wall, in fears for my life. I had no sooner
reached the ground without, than I perceived
that it swelled frightfully, like the surge of the
sea, and made me giddy by its motion. A huge
rock, about a mile off, was shaken from its base,
and the ocean boiled and roared like the waters
of a vast caldron.
The earthquake was followed by a heavy
rain. The dreadful scene I had just witnessed
made me think that it would be necessary to
remove my tent to some secure place; but I
concluded to stay where I was, till I found a
spot that suited me.


May 1. In the morning, looking towards the
sea-side, the tide being low, I saw something
lying on the shore, which, on my coming up
to it, turned out to be a small barrel from the
wreck. Finding the wreck much broken up, I
determined to get what I could from it.
June 15. This day I ceased laboring to pro-
cure articles from the wreck, having obtained a
vast store of necessaries.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I
found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the
first I had seen, which, it seems, was my mis-
fortune, and.not a defect of the place, or scarci-
ty. The next day I spent in cooking the turtle.
The flesh was the most agreeable I ever tasted
in my life, and formed a pleasant change from
that of the goats and pigeons I had been eating
all along.
June 18. This day brought the commence-
ment of an attack of fever and ague, which last-
ed, with a few intervals, until July 3, w i
the fits left me, but left me so weak that I did
not recover my strength for some weeks after.
In all this time, I used tobacco, in variou~aI

ways, as medicine; but I doubt if it was any
advantage to me.
While I was gathering strength, my mind
dwelt upon the passage in Scripture, Call on
me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver
thee, and thou shalt glorify me." I began to
think that I did not feel the gratitude I ought.!
I was forced to ask myself these questions, viz.
Had I not been delivered, and wonderfully
too, from sickness-from the most distressing
condition that could be ? and what notice had
I taken of it! Had I done my part? God had
delivered me, but I had not glorified him; that
is to say, I had not owned and been thankfukl
for the deliverance; and how could I expect a
greater ?
These reflections touched my heart very much,
and I immediately kneeled down, and gave God
thanks aloud for my recovery from sickness.
From the fourth of, July to the fourteenth,:
was chiefly employed in walking aboulwimdr
myqen in my hand, a little and a littleat at
time, as is necessary to one that is gatheaim


his strength after a fit of sickness; and it can
hardly be imagined to what weakness I was
reduced. In one of my brief expeditions, I en-
countered two seals upon the sea-shore; but,
the moment they espied me, they made off, with
clumsy haste; and I was too weak and spirit-
less to give them chase. I now learned, by ex-
perience, that being abroad in the rainy season
was most pernicious to my health.
I had now been in the Island of Despair more
than ten months, and saw no possibility of an
escape from it; but I had secured my habita-
tion fully to my mind, and had a great desire
to make a fuller survey of the island, and see
what productions I might find, that might be
useful to me.
On the 15th of July, I began my particular
survey of the island. I first went up the creek,
where I brought my rafts on shore, and found,
after I came about two miles up, that the
tide did not flow any higher, and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water,
very fresh and good; but, this being the dry


season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it; at least, not enough to run into a
regular stream.
On the banks of this brook, I found many
pleasant savannas, or meadows, plain, smooth,
and covered with grass; and, on the rising parts
of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water never overflowed, I found a great deal of
tobacco. There were, also, many other plants,
but I did not know their names. I searched in
vain for the cassava root, of which the Indians
make their bread. I saw large plants of aloes,
although I did not then know them, and sever-
al sugar-canes, in a wild state.
On the 16th of July, I went up the same
way again; and, after going something farther
than I had done the day before, I found that
the brook and savannas ceased, and the coun-
try became more closely covered with trees.
In this part of the country, I found different
fruits-melons lying on the ground in abun-
dance, and grapes growing upon vines, which
hung in beautiful festoons from tree to tree.


These rich and abundant clusters of grapes
were now just ripe.
I knew, by experience, that it was imprudent
to eat freely of them from the vine, but I made
them useful by drying them in the sun; thus
securing a supply of excellent raisins for the
season when fruit was scarce.
In the night, I slept in a tree, and the next
morning pursued my course of discovery, travel-
ling about four miles, keeping to the north, with
a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of my march, I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the
west; and a little spring of fresh water, which
issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, to the east. The country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every
thing being in constant verdure, and in the bloom
of spring, that it seemed like a fairy garden.
I descended a little on the side of that deli-
cious valley, surveying it with a secret kind of
pleasure, to think that this was all my own-that
1 was king and lord of all this country, and

had an indisputable right to it. I saw here abun-
dance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and cit-
ron-trees, but all wild, and few bearing any fruit;
at least, not then; however, the green limes that
I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water, which made it very whole-
some, and very cool and refreshing.
I now resolved to lay up a store of grapes,
limes, and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In
order to do this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, and a smaller heap in an-
other place, and a great parcel of limes and lem-
ons in another place; and, taking a few of each
with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved
to come again, and bring a bag, or sack, or
what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my
tent and cave); but, before I got thither, the
grapes were spoiled: the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken and


bruised them, they were good for little or noth-
ing. As to the limes, they were good; but 4
could bring only a few.
The next day, being the 19th, 1 went back,
having made me two small bags, to bring
home my harvest. But I was surprised, when,
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so
rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces, and
dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I con-
cluded that there were some wild creatures
thereabouts; but what they were, I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying
them up in heaps, and no carrying them away
in a sack, but that one way they would be de-
stroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; I gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the outer branches
of the trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and, as for the limes and lemons, I car-
ried as many back as I could well walk under.


When I came home from this journey, I con-
sidered, with pleasure, the fruitfulness of the
valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side of the water,
and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched
upon the very worst part of the country for my
abode. Upon the whole, I began to think of
removing my situation, and looking out for a
safe dwelling-place in that pleasant, fruitful part
of the island.
I thought on this subject for a long time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but
when I came to a nearer view of it, and con-
sidered that I was now near the sea-side, where
it was, at least, possible that something might
happen to my advantage, and that the same ill
fate that brought me hither might bring some
unhappy wretches to the same place; and though
it was scarcely probable that any such thing
should ever happen, yet to enclose myself
among the hills and woods, in the centre of
the island, was to ensure my bondage, and to
render my release not only improbable, but


impossible; I thought, therefore, I ought not, by
any means, to remove.
However, I was so charmed with this place,
that I spent much of my time there for the
whole remaining part of the month of July; and
though I resolved not to remove, yet I built me
a little kind of bower, and surrounded it, at a
distance, with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and
filled between with brushwood; and here I lay
very secure, sometimes two or three days to-
gether, always going over the fence by a ladder,
as before; so that I now congratulated myself
on having a country house and a sea-coast house.
This work occupied the beginning of August.
As soon as my fence was finished, I thought
I should enjoy the fruit of my labor, when the
rains came on, and made me keep to my first
habitation; for, though I had made me a tent,
like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread
it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill
to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me.
to retreat into during extraordinary rains.


About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself.
The third of August, I found that the grapes
I had hung up were perfectly dry, and were,
in fact, excellent raisins. So I began to take
them down from the trees; and it was very
lucky that I did so, for I had more than two
hundred large bunches of them; and no sooner
had I taken them all down, and carried most of
them to my cave, than it began to rain. From
that time (the 15th of August) it rained, more
or less, every day, till the middle of October,
and sometimes so violently that I could not stir
out of my cave for several days.
One of my cats, that had been missing for some
time, came back again with a troop of kittens
at her heels; and, as they soon grew up, I began
to be afraid that the little cats would eat me
out of house and home; so I found myself oblig-
ed to clear them out without much ceremony.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, there
was incessant rain, so that I could not stir out.


In this confinement, I began to be straitened for
food; but, venturing out twice, I one day killed
a goat, and the last day, which was the 26th,
found a very large turtle, which was a treat
to me. My food was regulated thus:-1 ate
a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a piece of
the goat's flesh, or turtle, broiled, for my din-
ner, and two or three of the turtle's eggs for
During my confinement, I worked daily, t*o
or three hours, at enlarging my cave; and, by
degrees, worked it on towards one side, till I
came to the outside of the hill, and made a
door or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
September 30. I had now reached the un-
happy anniversary of my landing. I added
up the notches on my post, and found I had
been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting
it apart for religious exercises, prostrating my-
self on the ground with the most serious humil-
iation, confessing myself to God, acknowledg-


ing the righteousness of his judgment upon
me, and praying him to have mercy upon me,
through Jesus Christ. I did not taste any food
until the going down of the sun, when I ate a
biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I had begun it.
As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the
month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower; where, though I had not
been there for some months, I found all things
just as 1 had left them. The circle, or double
hedge that I had made, was not only firm and
entire, but the stakes, which I had cut off some
trees that grew thereabouts, had shot out into
long branches, like willows.
I was pleased to see the young trees grow;
and in three years they formed a delightful
grove, which afforded a charming shade and
pleasant lodging-place, during the dry season.
I found, now, that the seasons of the year
might generally be divided, not into summer
and winter, as in Europe and North America,


but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons,
as follows:-
Half February,
March, Rainy.
Half April,
Half April,
June, Dry.
Half August,
Half August, }
September, Rainy.
Half October,
Half October,
December, Dry.
Half February,
1 spent a great deal of time in basket-mak-
ing, for I had found good materials, and soon
grew very expert at the business. I employed
myself in this wicker-work, and in planting jay
second rows of stakes, all the summer, or dry


season, when another business took up more
time than it could be imagined I could spare.

HAVING resolved to go across my island, I
set out with plenty of powder and shot, some
biscuit and raisins in my pouch, with my gun
and hatchet, and my faithful dog as a compan-
ion. I passed from my bower until I saw the
sea to the west; and, as it was a clear day, dis-
covered land, stretching from the westward to
I had very little doubt that this was the con-
tinent of South America, but supposed it was
that portion inhabited by savages, who are canni-
bals, and dreaded by the Spaniards. How much
reason, then, had I to be thankful that I had not
been thrown upon their inhospitable shore !
I found this side of the island much pleas-
anter than the one on which I had settled;
there being abundance of fruit, birds, a kind of


hare, and foxes, and plenty of turtles. I must
not forget to mention that I succeeded in knock-
ing down a young parrot with a stick, and carri-
ed him home with me; but it was some years
before I could teach him to pronounce my name.
I travelled along the shore to the east, about
twelve miles, when I set up a pole to mark the
spot, intending, at some future time, to travel
from my dwelling towards the east, till I should
reach this post. On returning, I got lost among
the woods and valleys; and when I finally
reached my habitation, I was so overjoyed, that
I resolved not to quit it, for some time, at least.
In this journey I caught a young kid, which I
succeeded in taming.
My crops of corn, from which I had hoped so
much, and which I had carefully enclosed, to
keep off beasts, were destroyed by birds, until
I shot some of the offenders, and hung them up
imy cornfield; after which I was no more
The want of earthen-ware induced ine to
try my hand at the potter's trade. Tio


months' labor produced me a pair of the ugliest
jars that ever I set my eyes on. I soon got to
making smaller things quite handily; but, as they
were only baked in the sun, they would not hold
water and beer. I wanted an earthen pot that
would do both.
It happened, after some time, when I went
to put out a large fire that I had made, I found
a broken piece of one of my earthen-ware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as
a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and
said to myself that, certainly, they might be
made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
I placed three large pipkins and two or three
pots in a pile, one upon the other, and placed
my fire-wood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I kept supplying the fire
with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite
through, and observed that they did not crack at
all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat for about five or six hours, till
I found one of them, though it did not crack,

about to melt; for the sand which was mixed
with the clay melted with the violence of the
heat, and would have run into glass, if I had
gone on. So I slacked my fire gradually, till
the pots began to lose their red color. I watch-
ed them all night, that I might not let the fire
die away too fast, and in the morning found I
had three very good-I will not say very hand-
some-pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as
hard burnt as could be desired. One of them
was perfectly glazed with the running of the
The care with which I cultivated my corn
and rice, was repaid by abundant harvests, till,
at length, I raised forty bushels of barley and
rice a year, which, I calculated, was full enough
to supply my wants. My corn I beat with a
pestle of iron-wood, in a huge wooden mortar.
I succeeded so well with my pottery, that I was
at no loss for the means of baking.
When I had arranged all my things comforta-
bly, I began to think seriously about leaving the
island, and I wondered how I should be able to


accomplish it. If I had had my boy Xury and
the long boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail,
we could have left the island in a twinkling, and
skimmed the waters like a sea-bird-but it was
vain to think of these !
I worked away a long while upon our ship's
boat, that was cast upon the shore in the storm;
but all my labor was thrown away, for I could
not refit her. At length I determined to make
a canoe in the woods.
I went to work upon this boat like a man
who had none of his senses about him. To be
sure, the difficulty of launching my boat often
came into my mind, but I put a stop to my own
inquiries with this foolish answer, Let me
first make it-I warrant I'll find some way or
other to get it along, when it is done."
This was a most preposterous method; but
the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to
work I went, and felled a cedar tree: I question
much whether Solomon ever had such an one
for the building of the temple of Jerusalem. It
was five feet ten inches in diameter, at the lower

part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
in diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
after which it diminished for a while, and then
parted into branches.
It was not without infinite labor that I felled
this tree. I was twenty days hacking and hew-
ing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more
getting the branches and limbs, and the vast
spreading head of it, cut off, which I hacked and
hewed through with my axe and hatchet with
inexpressible labor.
After this, it cost me a month to shape it,
and cut it to proportion, and to something like
the bottom of a boat, that it might swim up-
right, as it ought to do. It cost me nearly
three months more to clear the inside, and work
it out so as to make an exact boat of it. This
1 did by mere mallet and chisel, and by dint of
hard labor, till I had brought it to be a very
handsome periagua, large enough to carry six-
and-twenty men.
When I had gone through with this work, I
was delighted with it, and, entering it, surveyed

it in triumph. The boat was really much larg-
er than I ever saw a canoe or periagua that
was made out of one tree in my life. Many a
weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and
now there remained nothing to do but to get it
into the water. If I could have got it into the
water, I should have begin the maddest voyage
that was ever undertaken.
But all my plans for getting it into the water
failed, though they cost me infinite labor. It
lay about one hundred yards from the water,
and not more; but the first inconvenience was,
it was uphill towards the creek. With prodi-
gious pains I dug away the surface of the earth,
so as to make a descent from the canoe; but I
could no more stir the canoe than I could the
other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and
resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the
water up to the canoe, seeing that I could not
bring the canoe to the water. Well, I began
this work, and when I began to enter into it,
and calculated how deep it was to be dug-


how broad-how the stuff was to be thrown
out-I found it must have been ten or twelve
years before I should have gone through with
it; for the shore lay high, so that, at the upper
end, it must have been, at least, twenty feet
deep. At length, with great reluctance, I gave
over this attempt. This grieved me sadly;
and now I saw the folly of beginning a work,
before we count the cost, or know our own
In the middle of this work, I finished my
fourth year in this place, and kept my anniver-
sary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort, as before. I had now been here so
long, that many things which I had brought
from the wreck, were either gone or nearly
spent. My ink was almost gone:-but what
troubled me most, my clothes had decayed.
I do not know that I have mentioned, that I
had saved the skins of all the creatures I had
killed, and dried them in the sun. The first
thing I made of these was a great cap for the
head, with the hair on the outside to shed the


rain. 1 afterwards made a whole suit of clothes
from these skins; that is to say, a waistcoat
and breeches, open at the knees, both loose,
and badly enough made, for I was a very indif-
ferent tailor.
Lastly, I made an umbrella, and covered it
with skins, so that it served to keep off both
sun and rain. When I had no use for it, I could
close it and carry it under my arm
Thus I lived comfortably, and resigned my-
self to the will of God, throwing myself wholly
upon the disposal of his providence. This
made my life better than sociable; for, when I
began to regret the want of conversation, I
would ask myself, whether thus conversing with
my own thoughts, and, as I hope I may say,
even with my Maker, in my prayers, was not
better than the utmost enjoyment of human
society in the world.



FOR about five years, nothing extraordinary
happened to me, but I lived along in the old
way. Besides my yearly labor of planting my
barley and rice, and curing my raisins, and my
daily sporting with my gun, I went to work to
make me a canoe. I kept hard at it till I had
finished it, when, by digging a little canal, I
fairly got it afloat.
As for the large canoe, it was of no use to
me, and so I let it stay where it was, to remind
me to avoid undertaking any thing again before
I had calculated my means for finishing it. My
little periagua, being finished in two years, was,
as I have just said, fairly afloat.
Yet the size of it would not permit me
to cross to terra firma, and so I gave up all
thoughts of doing so; but I resolved to sail
round my island. For this purpose, I fitted up
a little mast to my boat, and made a sail to it
out of some of the pieces of the ship's sails that


I had saved. Having tried the boat, and found
that she sailed very well, I made little lockers
or boxes at each end of the boat, to put provis-
ions, necessaries, ammunition, &c. into, to be
kept dry. I cut a little hollow place in the in-
side of the boat, where I could lay my gun,
making a flap to hang down over it to keep
it dry.
I fixed my umbrella, also, in a step at the
stern, like a mast, to stand over my head, and
keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning;
and thus I make my first little trip in comfort.
At last, being eager to sail round my little
kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and, accord-
ingly, victualled my ship for the voyage, putting
in two dozen of my loaves of barley-bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, of which I was
very fond, half a goat, powder and shot for kill-
ing more, and two large watch-coats, which I
had formerly got out of the seamens' chests.
These I took, one to lie upon, and the other to
cover me in the night.
It was the sixth of November, in the sixth

year of my reign, or my captivity, whichever
you please, that I set out on this voyage, and
it was much longer than I expected; for though
the island itself was not very large, yet, when
I came to the east side of it, I found a great
ledge of rocks reaching about two leagues into
the sea, some above water, some under it; and
beyond this, a shoal of sand, lying dry half a
league more; so that I was obliged to go a
great way out to sea to double that point.
When I first discovered these rocks, I was
going to give up my enterprise, and return, not
knowing how far 1 might be obliged to put to
sea, and, above all, not knowing how I could
get back again. So 1 came to an anchor, took
my gun, went on shore, climbed up a hill, and,
having satisfied myself about the length of the
point, resolved to keep on.
In viewing the sea from the hill where 1
stood, I perceived a furious current which ran to
the east, and came close to the point; and I took
particular notice of it, because I knew, if I got
into it, I might be carried out to sea, and not


be able to make the island again. There was
the same current on the other side of the island,
only it set off at a greater distance; and I saw
that there was a strong eddy under the shore;
so that I had nothing to do but to get out of
the first current, and I should presently be in
the eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the
wind blew pretty fresh, and the surf rolled upon
the shore; so that it was unsafe to keep close
to the beach, on account of the surf, and dan-
gerous to keep farther out, on account of the
stream. The third day, in the morning, the
wind having abated over night, the sea was calm,
and I ventured; but no sooner had I reach-
ed the point, and was only a boat's length
from the shore, than I found myself in deep
water, and in a current like the sluice of a mill.
It carried my boat along with such violence,
that all I could do could not keep her so much
as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me
farther and farther out from the eddy, which
was on the left hand. There was no wind


stirring to help me, and I could do nothing with
my paddles. And now I began to give myself
up for lost, for, as the current was on both
sides of the island, I knew the currents must
soon join, and then I should be lost. I had the
dreadful prospect of perishing, not by the sea,
for that was calm, but by hunger. I had in-
deed found a turtle on the shore, and tossed it
into the boat, and I had a pot of fresh water;
but what was this to being driven into the vast
ocean, where there was no shore, no main land
or island, for a thousand leagues, at least!
And now I even desired to be placed in my
former condition, miserable as I then thought it.
I looked back on my desolate, solitary island,
as the pleasantest place in the world, and
the greatest wish of my heart was to be there
again. I stretched out my hands towards it
with eager wishes. Oh, happy desert !" said
I, I shall never see thee more !"
Then I reproached myself with my unthank-
ful temper, because I had repined at my solita-
ry condition: and now, what would I not give


to be on shore there again! I found it true.
that we do not know how to value any thing
till we lose it. It is scarcely possible to im-
agine my consternation on being driven from
my beloved island into the wide ocean, almost
two leagues. I almost despaired of ever being
able to return to it again.
However, I exerted myself to the utmost,
and until I was nearly exhausted, to keep my
boat as much to the northward as I possibly
could. About noon, as the sun passed the me-
ridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind
in my face, springing up from the south-south-
east. This cheered me up a little, especially
when, in about half an hour, it blew a gentle
By this time, 1 was a great way from the
island; and, if it had been cloudy, I should have
lost all hope of finding it again, for I had no
compass, and should not have known which
way to point the head of the boat. But, the
weather continuing fine, I put up my mast


again, sailed away to the north, and endeavored
to get clear of the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the
boat began to move forward, I saw, by the
clearness of the water, that some alteration of
the current was near; for, where the current
was very strong, the water was foul. I found
that some rocks caused the current to part: the
largest part of it ran to the south, leaving the
rocks to the north-east; and the other part, re-
turned by the repulse of the rock, made a
strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-
west, with a very sharp stream. Gladly I
spread my sail, and ran cheerfully before the
wind, with a strong tide in my favor.
This eddy carried me about a league in my
way back again directly towards the island,
but about two leagues more to the northward;
so that, when I came near the island, I found
myself on the northern shore, opposite to the
place at which I had set out.
About four o'clock in the evening, being then


within about a league of the island, I found that
the point of rocks, stretching out, as I have
described before, to the southward, and casting
off the current more southwardly, had of course
made another eddy to the north; and this I
found very strong. However, with a fresh gale,
I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-
west, and, in about an hour, came within a mile
of the shore; and, as it was smooth water, I
soon got to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees,
and gave God thanks for my deliverance, re-
solving to lay aside all thoughts of escaping by
my boat. I refreshed myself with what things
I had with me, brought my boat into a little
cove under the trees, and lay down to sleep,
quite worn out with the labor of the voyage.
The next day, being resolved not again to
encounter the perils of the sea, I determined to
find a harbor for my boat, which I did, and
stowed it away in a safe place. I then went
on shore to see in what part of the island I

I soon found that I was near the place where
I had been before, during my journey on foot;
so, taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and my umbrella,-for it was exceedingly
hot,-I began my march homeward. I reached
my old bower in the evening, where I found
every thing standing in good order, just as I
had left it.
I got over the fence, and lay down in the
shade to rest my limbs, for 1 was weary, and
soon fell asleep. Judge of my surprise, when I
was awakened from my sleep by a voice call-
ing me by name several times-" Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe! Where
are you, Robin Crusoe? Where have you
been ?"
I started up in the utmost terror; but no
sooner were my eyes fairly open, than I saw
my Pol, sitting on the hedge, and knew that it
was he that had been calling me, in that mel-
ancholy language I had taught him. He would
frequently sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, Poor Robin Crusoe,


where are you? Where have you been? How
came you here ? "
I wondered how the creature came there,
and why he should keep about the place. How-
ever, as I was well satisfied it could be nobody
but honest Pol, I held out my hand, and called
him by name; and the sociable creature came
to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to
do, and continued saying to me, Poor Robin
Crusoe, how did you come here? and where
have you been?" just as if he had been over-
joyed to see me again. So I carried him along
with me, and we reached our home in safety.
Being now in the eleventh year of my resi-
dence, and my ammunition growing low, I
began to devise some plan by which I might
trap and snare the goats, and keep them alive.
I accordingly made pitfalls, and succeeded both
in catching and taming them. In about a year
and a half, I had a flock of about twelve goats,
kids and all; and in two years more, I had
forty-three, besides several that I took and kill-
ed for my food. After that, 1 enclosed five


pieces of ground to feed them in, with little
pens to drive them into, and gates leading from
one pen to another.
But this was not all; for now I not only had
goat's flesh to feed on when I pleased, but
plenty of milk; a thing which, in the beginning,
I had not thought of. I soon learned to milk
my goats, and had sometimes a gallon or two
of milk in a day. After a great many attempts,
1 made butter and cheese, which were a great
addition to my comforts.
How merciful is God! How can he sweet-
en the bitterest misfortunes, and give us cause
to praise him in dungeons and prisons! What
a table was here spread for me in the wilder-
ness, where, at first, I expected only to perish
with hunger!
It would have made tne gravest of men smile,
to have seen me, and my little family, sit down
to dinner. There was myself, the prince and
lord of the whole island. I had the lives of all
my subjects at absolute command; to give life


and liberty, or take them away, as I pleased;
and I had no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a king 1 dined, too;
all alone, and attended by my servants! Pol,
as if he were my fatitif s was the only person
permitted to talk to me: rity dog, now grown
very old and crazy, sat at my right hand; and
two cats were placed, one on one side of the
table, and one on the other, expecting now and
then a bit from my hand, as an especial favor.
With this attendance, and in this manner, I
took my meals. When I passed my threshold,
and crossed my wall, I found new attendants
in my goats, which would often surround me
on my return from the chase, as if to welcome
me home.

I NOW resolved to go down to the point
where my boat lay; but, surely, never before
did man travel in such a dress. My appear-


ance would have drawn a crowd of boys to my
heels, in any civilized country. I had a great,
high, shapeless cap, made of goat skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, to keep the sun and
rain from my neck. I had a short jacket of
goat's skin, the skirts coming down to about
the middle of my thighs ; and a pair of open-
kneed breeches of the same stuff. Instead of
stockings and shoes, I had a pair of huge boots
or buskins, that flapped over my legs, and
were laced at the sides, like gaiters.
I had on a broad belt of dried goat's skin,
in which hung a sword and hatchet, one on
each side. Another belt, slung over my shoul-
der, supported two goat-skin pouches, which
contained my powder and shot. At my back
I carried my basket-on my shoulder my gun-
and over my head I held a great, clumsy, ugly
goat-skin umbrella; but which, after all, was
the most necessary thing I had about me, next
to my gun. My beard was short, with the ex-
ception of a pair of very formidable mustachios
on my upper lip.


So much for my looks-about which I was
not at all particular, as there was no soul to
see me. I first ascended a hill, so that I could
overlook the point of rocks I was to double
with my boat, and was surprised to find the
sea perfectly calm, without any more motion
or current than in other places. I was soon
convinced, from observation, that the current
was owing to the ebbing and flowing of the
One day, towards noon, as I was going to
my boat, I saw the print of a man's naked foot
upon the shore. This filled me with horror
and astonishment. I stared wildly around me,
expecting to see a furious savage, or, perhaps,
a dozen of them, every moment. Every stump
and bush took the shape of a man; and I fled
home, as if half a hundred cannibals were hard
upon my heels. For weeks and months my
fears continued.
One morning, early, as I was lying in my
bed, and filled with dread at the thought of
meeting the savages, the word of Scripture


came into my mind, Call upon me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me."
Upon this, rising cheerfully, I not only felt
comforted, but encouraged to pray earnestly, to
my God for my deliverance. When I had done
praying, I took up my Bible, and, opening it,
saw these words: "Wait on the Lord, and be
of good cheer, and he shall strengthen thy
heart. Wait, I say, on the Lord." It is im-
possible to express the comfort this gave me.
My cheerfulness did not soon abate; for 1
began to flatter myself that the print of the
foot which I had seen was no other than my
own, and that I had absolutely been frightened
to death at nothing at all; so I took courage,
and ventured to go abroad again once more. I
had not stirred out of my castle for three days
and nights; so that 1 began to be in want of
provisions, having little or nothing within doors,
but some barley cakes and water.
I knew, too, that my goats wanted to be
milked. This was, usually, my evening's


amusement; and the poor creatures now must
be sadly in want of my help. Therefore,
strengthening myself in the belief that what I
had seen was nothing but the print of my own
foot, I took courage, and went abroad again;
travelled to my country-house, and milked my
flock. But, to tell the truth, I went along with
fear and trembling, looking anxiously about me,
and starting at the rustling of every leaf.
However, as I went out two or three days
without seeing any thing, I grew bolder, and
determined to go to the place where I had seen
the print of the foot, and measure it by my
own, to discover whether or no I had cause for
alarm. I found that my foot did not half fill
the print on the sand; and I was again filled
with consternation. I thought that the island
might be inhabited, and that I was not safe a
. My fears did not suffer me to sleep that
night; and I passed the hours of darkness in
thinking what I could do to avoid an attack of
the savages. I thought, at first, that I would

tear down all my fences, destroy my barley,
and drive my goats into the woods, so that the
savages should find nothing to keep them on
the island, or induce them to repeat their visit.
Then I thought I would tear down my tent and
bower, and destroy every thing which might lead
them to think that the island was inhabited.
In the morning I fell asleep, and awoke rath-
er refreshed and comforted. I now laid aside
the foolish thoughts of the night. I concluded
that this island, which was so fruitful, pleasant,
and near to the main land, was not wholly de-
serted, but that, though it was not regularly
inhabited, yet boats might often come off from
the shore, either by design, or driven by con-
trary winds.
I had lived here fifteen years now, and had
not met with a single being; so I concluded
that, if any men were driven on the island at
times, they probably went away again, with-
out remaining long. All I had to do, was to
look out for some safe retreat, in case the sav-
;ages should land near me.


Upon consideration, 1 resolved to make a
second fortification, in a half-circle, at a dis-
tance from my wall, just where I had planted a
double row of trees, about twelve years before.
These trees had been planted so thick, that
there wanted only a few piles to be driven be-
tween them to make a thick and strong wall.
This was soon done, and I was very well satis-
fied with my work.
I now had a double wall. The outer wall
was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables,
and every thing I could think of, to make it
strong. In this I cut seven holes, large enough
for me to put my arm through. Inside, I piled
up dirt, and stamped it down; so that the foot
of the wall was about ten feet thick. Through
the seven holes I planted the seven muskets
that I got out of the ship. I fitted them into
frames, like gun-carriages, so that I could work
them handily, and fire the seven guns in two
minutes. I planted nearly twenty thousand
stakes of a tree like the willow, that grew easi-
ly in front of my wall, leaving a space between

them and my wall. Thus, in two years, I had
a thick grove, and in five years, a wood before
my dwelling, so thick and strong, that it was
really impossible to pass through it. Thus I
took all the measures human prudence could
suggest, for my own preservation.
While I was thus employed, I did not forget
my goats. They were of very great-use to
me: indeed, the loss of them would have been
felt severely. They supplied me with milk;
and it is well known that goat's milk is the
nicest in the world; and I made abundance of
butter and cheese from it. When I wanted
meat, I killed a goat; and this saved my pow-
der and shot, of which I had good reason to be
very careful.
I could think of but two ways to preserve
my goats: one was, to find another convenient
place to dig a cave under ground, and drive
them into it every night; and the other was, to
enclose two or three little bits of land, remote
from one another, and as much concealed as I
could, that I might keep about half a dozen


young goats in each place; so that, if any acci-
dent happened to the flock in general, I might
be able to bring some up again with little
It was now my object to find some nice, re-
tired spots, suitable for my purpose. 1 pitched
upon one, which was as private as my heart
could wish; for it was a little, damp piece of
ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick
woods, where I almost lost myself once before.
Here I found a clear patch of land, contain-
ing about three acres, so surrounded by woods
that it appeared enclosed by nature. At least,
it did not want nearly so much labor to make
it so, as the other pieces of ground I had work.
ed so hard at.
I immediately went to work with this piece
of ground, and, in less than a month, I had so
fenced it round, that my flock or herd, which
had lost much of their wildness, were well
enough secured in it. I then removed some
goats into it. All this labor was in conse-
quence of seeing the print of a man's foot.



I HAD now lived two years in fear of the
cannibals. After I had secured part of my live
stock, I went about the island to try to dis-
cover another place of equal security, where I
might place the rest. One day, wandering
more to the west point of the island than I had
ever done before, and looking out to sea, I
thought I saw a boat at a great distance. I
had found one or two spy-glasses in a sea-chest,
which I had saved out of the ship; but I had
neither of them with me. I gazed and gazed
upon the boat, which seemed like a speck upon
the sea, till my eyes fairly ached; but it was
too far off for me to make any thing out of it;
so I thought I would come down the hill, re-
solving not to go out again without a spy-glass.
When I came down the hill to the shore,
being the south-west point of the island, I was
perfectly confounded and amazed; for I saw the
shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other


bones of human bodies. I also observed a
place where there had been a fire made, and a
circle dug in the earth, where I supposed the
savage wretches had been feasting on the
bodies of their unhappy brethren.
I gazed and gazed at the dreadful spectacle,
without any thought of my own danger. I was
filled with horror and astonishment at the sight.
To think of men so brutal, so cruel, as to mur-
der their fellow-creatures, and then cook and
eat them! It made the blood run cold with-
in me. Then I became very sick and faint,
and crawled away from that dreadful place as
fast as I was able.
As soon as I had recovered, I lifted up my
eyes to heaven, and gave God thanks that I
was set apart from these miserable wretches,
and that I had been comforted with the knowl-
edge of himself, and the hope of his blessing,
which was a happiness that made up for all the
misery I had suffered, or could suffer. I also
felt relieved by the thought, that I had been
here eighteen years without seeing any canni-


bals; and it might be as long before they saw
me, unless I chose to show myself to them,
which I thought I might easily avoid doing.
Yet I felt such an abhorrence of the savage
beings that I have been speaking of, and of
their wicked, inhuman custom of eating one
another up, that I continued pensive and sad,
and kept close within my own circle for almost
two years after this. When I say my own
circle, I mean by it my three plantations,
namely, my castle, my country-seat, or bower,
and my enclosure in the woods.
All this time, I did not go to look after my
boat; and thought of building myself another,
for I did not wish to go round the island to get
it, for fear of meeting some of the inhuman
wretches, who, I did not doubt, would devour
me, if I fell into their hands. Time, however,
began to wear off my uneasiness about them;
and I lived much in the same manner as be-
fore, except that I was cautious, and kept con-
stantly on the lookout. I was particularly care-
ful about firing my gun, lest it should be heard


on the island. It was, therefore, fortunate that
I had furnished myself with a tame breed of
goats, as I was now under no necessity of
For two years after this, I believe, 1 did not
once fire a gun, though I never went out with-
out one; and, if you add to my former descrip-
tion of myself, the particular of a brace of pis-
tols, and a naked broadsword, hanging in a belt,
you must allow that I was now a most formida-
ble person.
I found a place in the side of a hill, where I
was satisfied I could securely watch for the
cannibals' boats. In that case, before they
were ready to come on shore, I formed a plan
of removing to a thicket of trees, in one of
which there was a hollow large enough to con-
ceal me entirely. Here I might sit and ob-
serve all the bloody doings of these wretches,
and take my full aim at their heads, when they
were so close together, that it was next to im-
possible that I should fail of wounding three or
four of them at the first shot.

In this place, I prepared two muskets, and
my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets
I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four or
five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-
bullets. The fowling-piece I loaded with nearly
a handful of swan-shot, of the largest size. I
also loaded my pistols with about four bullets
each; and thus, well provided with ammunition
for a second and third charge, I set out on my
After I had thus laid my plans, I continually
made my tour, every morning, up to the top of
the hill, which was about three miles from my
house, to see if I could observe any boats upon
the sea, coming towards the island ; but I al-
ways came back without making any discovery,
though I kept strict watch for three months.
But my feelings gradually changed with re-
gard to the savages, by a train of serious reflec-
tion. I considered that, although the actions
of the cannibals were doubtless very wicked,
yet I had no right to punish them myself; and
to fire upon them would be an act little short

of murder, and guilty in the sight of Almighty
God. Besides, by interfering with them, I
might bring destruction on myself; and thus
no one good purpose would be gained.
In this disposition I continued nearly a year;
and so far was I from desiring an opportunity
of falling upon these wretches, that, during all
this time, I never went up the hill to ascertain
whether any of them had been on shore or not.
I removed my boat, which was on the other
side of the island, and carried it down to the
eastern shore, where I put it into a little cove,
which I found under some high rocks, where I
knew the savages would not venture with their
My fears, as to my safety, now almost put a
stop to my contrivance and inventions. I could
not drive a nailor chop a stick of wood, but with
fear that the noise should be heard; and I was
very unwilling to make any fire, lest the smoke,
which is seen from a great distance in the day,
should betray me. For this reason, I removed
that part of my business which required fire,


such as burning of pots and pipes, &c., into my
new apartment in the wood, where, after I had
been some time, I found, to my unspeakable
consolation, a natural cave, which was very
deep, and extended some distance into the
The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of
a great rock, where I had cut some thick branches
of trees, to make charcoal. Before I proceed,
1 must tell you why I made this charcoal. 1
was afraid of making a smoke about my habi-
tation, as I said before; and yet I could not live
without baking my bread, cooking my meat,
&c. So I contrived to burn some wood here
under the turf, till it became chark, or dry coal;
and then, putting the fire out, I preserved the
coal to carry home with me.
While I was cutting some wood here, I es-
pied a hollow place behind some low brush-
wood. I was curious to look into it; and,
crawling with difficulty into the mouth of
it, I found it large enough for me to stand up-
right ia. But I must confess that I made moaQ

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