The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, with a life of the author


Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, with a life of the author
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
xi, 134 p., 4 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 16 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Robertson, William ( Engraver )
J. Gladding & Co ( Publisher )
J. Gladding & Co.
Place of Publication:
Bristol R.I
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1836   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Rhode Island -- Bristol


Statement of Responsibility:
embellished with engravings by Wm. Robertson.
General Note:
Cover dated 1837.
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 18777269
lccn - 38022694
System ID:

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Ci -tsoe Cii u- ob selrin \T itcC mli ivelc Lti cf IP 1 il' eelrs












DANIEL DE FOE was descended from a respectable
family in the county of Northampton, and- born in London,
about the year 1663. Iis father, James Foe, wasa butcher, i
the parish of St. Gles'. ( ripplegate, and a protestant diaester.
Why the su:je t of this memoir prefixed the De to hipfakily
name cannot now be ascertained, nor did he at any period of
his life think it necessary to give his reasonsto the pitblt.
Ths political scribblers of the day however, thought proper to
remedy th.s !a;k of information, and accused him of possess
ing so little of the amor pnlria. as to make the addition inor.
der that he might not be taken for an Englishman; though
this idea could have had no other foundation than the circuni.
stance of his having, in consequence of his zeal for king Wtllia,'
attacked the prejudices of his countryman in hist True-bor
After receiving a good education at an academy at NeY -
intda., young De Foe, before he ha:l attained hstwventy-fiit
year. coniuenced his career as an author, by writing a pamphS
let agaist a very prevailing sentiment in favour of the TuirB,
whor were at that time laying siege to Vienna. This prewdtl -..
tio:n, being very inferior tn th:, e of hisnmaturer years,. :
little read, and the irid.g:iant author, despairing of 'r e .
with hit pen, hal I eoutrse to the sword; or, as he tea d "t,
when toasting of thll exploit h.s latter yei". -dlspt md I
atta h n3iit toliberty and proteataitun," iqs-. i ly' g hDt ad.
vised insurrection under the duke of ,i.r in the.wet.
On the faJ.lureO- t t lLt u I:"ttilte o ierp0.6ru Aqd
aget ntt the mtrolpolis; aidl not imn a ..
em ansltance of.lIs being a infrae of I mL,- -
*m Aot much known in that put of the kiL d .4-- .
- x' -+1 11

"estlion took place, might faciliate his escape, and be the
means of preventing his being brought to trial for his share in
the transaction. With the professions of a writer and a soldier
Mr. De Foe, in the year 163-, joined that of a trader, he was
first engaged as a hosier, in Cornhill, and afterwards as a
maker of bricks and pantiles nPar Tilbury Fort in Essex: but
in consequence of spending nose hours in the hilarity of the
tavern which he ought to have employed in the calculations
of the countin,-lhouse. his commercial schemes proved unsuc-
cessful; and in ld64 he was o'Alicd to abscond from his credi-
tors, not failing to attribute those misfortunes to the war and
the severity of the times, which were doubtless owing to his
own misconduct. It is much to his credit however, that after
having been freed for n his dcb s by composition, and being in
prosperous circumstances from King Villiam's favour, he
voluntarily paid most of his creditors both the principal and
interest of their claims. This is such an example of honesty
as it would be unjust to De Foe and to the world to conceal
The amount of the sums thus paid must have been very con-
siderable, as he afterwards teelingly mentions to Lord Haver
sham who had reproached him with covetousness; "With a
numerous fa;nly, and no helps but my own industry, I have
forced mry way through a sea of misfortunes, and reduced my
debts exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to
less than five thousand pounds."
At the beginning of the year 1700. Mr. De Foe published a
satire in verse, which excited very considerable attention, call-
ed the True-born Englishman." Its purpose was to furnish
a reply to those who were continually abusing King William
and some of his friends as foreigners, by shewing that the
resent race of Englishman was a mixed and heterogeneous
rood, scarcely any of which could lay claim to native purity
of blood. The satire was in many parts very severe; and
though it gave high offence, it claimed a considerable share
of the public attention. The reader will perhaps be gratified
by a specimen of this production, wherein he endeavours to
account for
What makes this discontented land appear
Less happy now in times of peace, than war;
Why civil feuds disturb the nation more,
Than all our bloody wars had done before;
Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
And men are always honest in disgrace ;

The court preferments make men knaves in course
But th0.y, -whi' wouid be in them would be worse.
'Tis not at foreigners that we repine,
Won d toreiiiners their perquisites resign:
The b gra:~d contention s plainly to be seen.
To get so.Im me; put out and some put in."
ft will be imme:;ate'y per.:eived that Do Foe could have no
pretensio is to the character of a ipo' ; but he has notwith.
ita.l:n11. some nervous and well-versfied lines, and in choice
of sui:)e-t aalnl Imo aal lhe is in genera excellent. The True.
oorn Englishmina concludes thus:-
SCoal.l but oar a,'testora retrieve their fate,
An.l .ee their oT' lArig thus degcarerate;
H1:w we conte id for birth a.l n n nes unknown,
And bui'd on their past actions, not our own;
They'd caice! re :ords, an I their tombs deface,
Ai I openly disoVwn the vile degenerate race.
For ft:n, o' fa nilies is a:l a cheat;
For this defence of foreigners De Foe was amply rewarded
*T Kitig WVi.lia n, who not only ordere.l him a pension. but as
b:s o!)p):i'nts deno trnato I it. appointed him pamphlet-wrrri r
gner.' t, th!. co rt ; a. a o-r f-or wilieh he was peJuliarly well'.n atel, p3ss si i:,. with a stroar mind aiJ a ready wit, kinl of yicl.ling conscience which allowed him to support
the meis. irs oi' his 1)e ie;'acto s, thofugli convinced they were
in'uriou t0I his c,)u:itry. De Foe n)w retired to Newington
with his family, and for a short lime lived at ease; but the
deat'i o' hi; royal p.ttro: depr.ved hin of a renerous protector, peneJ a of sorrow probably embittered his
future life.
lie had always diwaovered a great inclination to engage in
religious controversy, and the furious contest, civil and eccle-
siastical, whi:ih ensu- d on the accession of Queen Anne, gave
hi:n an oppnrtuaiity of gratifying his favourite passion. Ho
tha'"ore pnitlishnd a tra-t'tled "TThe shortest Way with
the liss- ite"-s. or ProIo-al4 fir ihe Estahlish nent of the
Chl-c i. w'i:h nlain;e at iroi:iaf recomnmnundation ofper-
eu'ti3'i. hut writte:i in so sRri- ai a strain, that many persons,
particu iir I)is .a!ter4. at first nmisto'o its real intention. The
hi~r' chur h party however saw, andl felt the ridicules, and by.
their iaIueaou, a proaecutioa was com.enuced against- hi


ad a proclamation published in the Gazette. offering a r
ward for his apprehension.* When De Foe found with how
much rigour himself and his pamphlet were about to tie treat.
ed, he at first secreted hi:nse.f; but hin printer and bookseller
being taken into custody, he uri endeced. bemin reso.vcd, as he
expressed it, *tol throw himn ei' upon the favour of go er.i-
ment, rather than that otimrs smhu.d i.e ru: ned by nis mis-
takes." In Ju:y, 1703, hie was Aoulght to trial, found gutiy,
and sentence.l !o oe imprisoned. to sitad in the pi::ory. aid to
pay a fine of two hludred marks. lie underwent tho inlal-
mous part of the liiistlient with great fortitude. and it senis
to have been genera.iy though! I that he h as treated with un.-
reasonable severity. So 'ar was he from ashamed of
his fate himself thIat he wrote a thnn to the piiory, which
thus ends, alluding to his accusers:-

Tell them, the men that placed him hero
Are scandals to the times;
Are at a loss to tinJ ihs guilt,
Andccan t commit h,. cranes.
Pope, who has thought fit to introduce him in his Dunciad
(probably from no other reason than party difference) charac-
torises him in the following lane:
Earless on high stood unabash'd De Foe.'

"St. James's January 10, 1702-3.
*Whereas Daniel De Foe. a'ias De Fooe. is charged with
writing a s-andalous anl se litious pa, uphl'et. entltleil 1 he
shortest Way with the Dissenters:" lie is a middle-s-zed spare
man, about 40 years old. o. a brown complexion. and dark
brown coloured hair, but wears a win, a hooked nose, a sharp
chin, grey eyes,an I a large inole near iis mouth was born in
I,-ndon, and for many years was a hose-fa-tor. in Freeman's
I ard. in Cornhill. and now is owner of lie brick and panrile
works near Tilbury Fort, in ; whoever shall discover
the said Danie! I)e Foe. to one of her M1aje-ty's Principal
Secretaries of State. or any of' her Majesty s Justices of
Peace, so as he may he iapprehended, shall have a reward of
601. which her Majesty has ordered ummed.ately to be paid
Ipon such discovery."
London Gas. No. 337%k

Thlis i one of those instance' of injustice and malignity whtl
so frequently occur in the Dunciad. and which reflect more
dishonour on the author than on the parties reduced. De Foe
lay friendless and distressed in Newgate, his family ruined and
himself without hopes of deiver.ciie. till Sir Robert Harley,
who approved of hi s principle.A, alnrJ oresaw that durinzi a fac.
tious age such a genius cou.l(! e converted to many uses,
re;resaeoeJ his unmerited sufferings to the Queen. and at
length prno ured- his release. The treasurer, Lord Godolphin,
also sent a considlra )la -umn to his wife and fanii:y, and to him
money to pay his fi 1- and tie expense o; his discharge. Grati-
tude and fidelity are insopara,'le from an honest man; and it
was this !e!,evoicat a-t that prompted Dle Ioe to support Har-
ley, with his a'>le and ingenious pen, when Anne lay lifeless,
and his bc!e'"a-tor in the vicissitude of party was persecuted
by faction, and overpowered, though not conquered by vio
The talents and perseverance of De Foe began now lo be
properly estimated. and as a firm supporter of the administra-
tion. he was sent by Lord Goilolphin to Scotland, on an errand
which, as he says, was far from being unfit for a sovereign to
direct or an honest man to Ierform. IHis knowledge of com-
merce and revenue, his powers of insinuation, and above all
his readiness of pen, were deemed of no small utility, in pro.
muting the union of the two kingdoms; of which he wrote an
able history, in 1709, with two dedications, one to the Queen,
and another to the Duke of Queenshury. Soon afterwards hb
unhappily, by somne equivocal writings, rendered himself sus-
petted iy both pa ties, so that he onwe more retired to New.
ington in hopes of spending the remainder of his days in peace.
His pension being withdrawn. and wearied with politics, he
began to co'npose works o' a different kind.-The year 1715
may therefore be regarded as the period of De Foe's political
life. Faction hence north found other advocates, and parties
procured other writers to disseminate their suggestions, and to
propagate their falsehoods.
In 171), De Foe pu')iished the Family Instructor;" a work the do.nestic duties in a lively nmannel. by narra-
tion and dialogue, and displaying much knowledge of life in
the middle ranks of so.mety. Religious Couttship" also
appeared soon after. wihch, the Family Instructor," is
eminently religious and moral in its tendency, and strongly im-
pruess on the mind that spirit of sobriety and private devo-
'oa tS which the dissenters have generally been distinguish

ed. The most celebrated of all his works, "The Life and
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe," appeared in 1719. This
wor! has passed through numerous editions, and been trans-
lated into alnmost all modern languages. The great invention
whi;:h is displayed in it, the variety of incidents and circum-
sta'les which itrontains. related in the most easy and natural
manner. together w:th the exce'!encv o. the moral and reli-
g;ous relections, render it a performance of very superior and
un!io:ninc n merit, and one of the most interesting works that
ever appeared. It isstron .l' recommn:niidd by Rosseau as a
b~:,k ad'nirably calculated to promote the purposes of natural
education ; and Dr. Blair says. No fiction in any language,
was ever better supported than the adventures of Ho!'inson
Crus:,e. while e it is carrie.1 on with that appearance of truth
and simplicity, which takes a st-ong hold on the imagination
of all readers, it suggests, at the same time. very useful in.
struction; by showing how much the native powers of nen
may be exerted for surmounting the difficulties of any exte, nal
situation." It has been pretended, that De Poe su:rre;titionis-
ly appropriated the papers of Alexander Selkirk. a Scotch
mariner, who lived four years alone on the island of.'unn
Fernandez. and a sketch if whose story had before appeared
in the voyage of Captain Woodes Rogers. But this charge,
though repeatedly and confidently brought, app-ars to be to-
tally destitute of any foundation. l)e Foe pro!a'llv took
some general hints for his work from the story of Selkirk. but
there exists no proof whatever. nor is it reasona!,le to suppose
that he poseesse- any of his papers or memoirs, which had
been published seven years before the appeara!re of Robinson
Crusoe. As a farther proof of De Foe's innocence, Captain
Roger's account of Selkirk may le produced, in which it is
said that the later had neither preserved pen. ink. or paper,
and had in a great measure lost his lanngage; consequent'y
De Foe could not have received any written assistance, and
we have only the assertion of his enemies to prove that he
had any verbal.
The great success of Robinson Crusoe induced its author
to write a nunimer of other lives and adventures some of whieli
were popular in their times, though at present nearly forgotten.
One ofl his latest lp.i' liration was A Tour through the Is-
and of Great Bri:ain." a perf',rmrlnn-e of very infivr'r crit,
hut De Foe was now the garrulous old ain. and his spirit (to
use the words of an inffenious biographer.) "ilke a candle
struggling in the socket, blazed and sunk, till it disappeared

at length in total darkness." His laborious and unfbirtemot
life was finished on the 26th of April, 1731,in the parish of &
Giles', Cripplegate.
Daniel De Foe possessed very extraordinary talents; aft
commercial writer, he is fairly entitled to stand in the forn
most rank among his cotemporaries, whatever may be theto
performances or their fane. His distinguished characteristic
are originality, spirit, and a profound knowledge of his saU.
ject, and in these (prticulars he has seldom been surpased
As thb author of Rolbinson: Crusoe he has a claim not only tU
the admiration, hut to the gratit ude (of his countrymen; and q
long as we have a regard for su-erem';nent merit and take as
interest in the welfare of the rising generate on. that gratitude
will not cease to exist. But the opinion of the learned and i*
genious Dr. Beattie will be the best eulogium thatean be produo
ed on that celebrated romance: Robinson Crusue,"says ths
Doctor." mu st be allowed by the most rigid moralist, to be one
those novels which one may read not only with pleasure butalm
with profit. It breathes throiirihout a spirit of piety and be4
nevolence; it sets in a very string light the importance (
the mechanic arts. which they, who knowv nut what it is to bh
without them. are so apt to undervalue; it fixes on the mind;
lively idea of the horrors of" solitude and. consequently o
the sweets of so -ial life. anm of the blessings we derive fro6
conversation and mutual aid; and it shews how, by laboal
ing with one's own hands, one nmay secure indelpendencean
open for one's self, many sources of health and amusement
I agreo, therefore, with Rosseai. that it is one of tae bt
aooiu that can be put into the hands of children."





I was born in York, in the year 1632, of a reputable
fI.ily. My father was a nativeof Bremen; who by
m-rchandizing at Hull for some time, gained a very
plentiful fortune. He married my mother at York,
wno received her first breath in thatcountry; and as
her maiden name was Robinson, I was called Robin-
son Kreitznaer; which not being easily prouounced in
the English tongue, we are known by the
name of Crusoe.
SI was the youngest of three brothers. Tt'e eld
est was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's regiment,
but slain by the Spaniards ; what became of the other
I could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my education
My father designed me for the law, yet nothing
could serve me but I must go to sea, both against the
will of my father, the tears of my mother, and the en-
treaties of friends. One morning my father expostu-
lated very warmly with m.. What reason, says. he,
have you to leave your native country, wliere there
must be a more certain prospect of cniitte and hap-
piness, to enter into a wandering condition of unea-
siness and uncertainty ? He IecoJmiint:dedl to ii:e
Agar's wish, neither to desire poverty nor rice ;
4at a middle state of lilfu was most happy ; and that

the high-towering thoughts of raising our condition by
wandering abroad, where surrounded with misery and
danger, and often ended with confusion and disap-
pointment. I entreat you, nay I command you (says
he,) to desist from these intentions. If you will go
(added he,) my prayers shall, however, he offered foi
your preservation ; but a time may conLt-, when deso.
late, oppressed, forsaken, you may wish you had
taken your poor despised father's counsel.-He pro-
nounced these words with such a moving and pa-
ternal eloquence, while floods of tears ran down his
aged cheeks, that it seemed to stem the torrent of my
resolution. But this soon wore off; and a little after,
I informed my mother that I could not settle at any
business, my res1futions were so strong to see the
world, and begged -he would gain my father's con-
sent only to go one vynage: which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a second.
But my desire wa:, as vain as my filly in asking. My
mother passionately expressed herdislike to this pro-
posal, telling me that as she saw I was bent on my
own destruction, contrary to their will and my duty,
she would say no more, but leave me to myself to do
whatever I pleased.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when one
time being at Hull, I met a school-fellow of mine go-
ing along with his father, who was master ofa ship.
to London; and acquainting him with my wandering
desires, he assured me of a free passage, and a plentiful
share of what was necessary. Thus without implor-
ing a blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, I
took shipping on the Ist of September, 1651.
Upon the 6th day, we came to an anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with some
Newcastle ships; and there being a good anchor-
age and our cables sound, the seamen forgot thuir'

weiurisoW CRh t no. *1
fat tol and danger, and speit- tle time as weran 'itl s-
ifthey had been on shore. Bqt on th'e eighth',diy,
there aroe a brisk gale of wind, which preventeif
our tiding it up the river; aol it sti!!'-iinrelising, our(
ship rode forecastle in, and shipped several lairg
seas '
It was not long before horror seized the seamen
themselves, and I heard the master express 4his-
melanchuly ejaculation, Lord have mercy upon un, we-
shall all be lst and undone. For my part, sick unto
death, I kept my cabin, till the universal and terri-
bly dreadful apprehensions of our speedy fate made
me get upon deck, and there I was affrighted indeed.
The sea went mountains high: I could see nothing
but distress around us: two ships, had cut away their
masts, and another had foundered; two more 'that
had lost their anchors, were forced out to the mercy
of the ocean; and, to save our lives, we were forced
to cut our foremast and mainmast quite away.
Who is there so ignorant as not to judge of my
dreadful condition? I was but a fresh water saihor,
and therefore seemed more terrified. Our ship was-
very g od, but overloaded: which made the sailors'
often cry out, She will founder'; words I was then ig-
norant of. All this while, the storm continuing and
rather increasing, the master and the more sober part
of the men went to prayers, expecting death- every
moment. In the middle of the night, one cried out;
We had sprung aleak; another, That there waslur-
feet water in the hold. I was just ready to expire:
with--fear, when immediately all hands were called to:
the pumpi;:add the men forced me also in that ex-
tremity to share with them in their labour. White'
ths employed, the master espying some colliers, fr-
ed auna a signal of disjiess; and I not under:
adu19 what it meant, thinking that eitheriherhi*-

stroke, or some dreadful thing happened. fell into a
swoon. Even in that condition of woe, nobody mind
ed me, excepting to thrust me aside with their feet,
thinking me dead ; and it was a great while before
I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when upon the signal given
they ventured out their boat to save our lives. All
our pumping had been in vain, and vain had all our
attempts been, had they not come to our ship's side,
and our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
bouy to it, which after great difficulty they got hold
of, and we hauling then to us. got into their boat,
and left our ship which we perceivedd sink within
less than a quarter of an hour ; and thus I learnt wha
was meant by fouln(ring iat sea. And now the nime
incessantly labored to recover their own ship ; hut
the se'a ral so high, ainl the wind blew so hard, that
they th'u;ght it convener'i. to haul in shore, which
with g-r ', it dliti uV ai : danger at last we happily ef.
fected, :t.ndi Ig at. a place called Cro-iner, not lar from
Wititerton lig'ht-housc : from whence we all walk-
ed to Var nouth, where, as oljeocts of pity, many
rood people fiuriiis!.d us with the necessaries to car-
ry us either to Hull or London.
Strange that after all this, I did not, like the prodi-
gal son, return to my father; who hearing of the
ship's calamity, for a long time thought ne entombed
in the deep. No douilt but I should ha v- shared in
the fatted calf, as the S'riplture ex'resseth it ; but my
wayward dispositi, n still pushed me on in' spite of
the powerfid convictions of reason and conscience.
When we hal Yarmouth three days I met
my old companion, who had given me the invitation
to go on board along with his father. His behavior,
and speech was altered, and, in a melancholy man
ner he asked me how I did ? telling his father who I.

was, and how I had made this voyage for a trial only,
to proceed farther abroad. Upon. which the old gen
tieman turning to me, said, Young man, you ought
never to go to sea any more, but take this for a cer
tain sign, that you will never prosper in a sea-faring
condition.- Sir, answered I, will you take the same
resolution? It is a different ease, said he, it is my
calling, and consequently my duty ; but as you arve
made this voyage for a trial, you see what ill luck
heaven has set before your eyes; and perhaps our
miseries have been on your account, like Jonah in
the ship of Tarshish. But, pray, what are you, and
on what accoiut did you go to sea? Upon which. I
very freely declared my whole story; at the end of
which he ina le this exclamation, Ye sacred powers ?
what had I committed that such a iwretch should en-
ter into my S!iip, tI heap upon me such a deluge of
miseries! But soon recollecting himself, Young
man, said he, if you do not go back, depend upon it,
wherever you go, you will meet with disasters, and
disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled
upon you. Andl-s we parted.
I thoughtat first to return home; but shame oppos-
ed that good notion, as thinking I should be laughed
at by my neighbours and acquaintances. So strange
is the nature of youth! They are not ashamed to
sin, but yet ashamed to repent, and so far from beiug
sorry for those actions tr which they may be account-
ed! fools, they think it folly to return to their duty,
which is the principal mark of wisdom. In short, I
travelled up to London, resolving upon a voyage, and
a voyage I soon heard -of, by my acquaintance with a
captain who took a fancy to me, to Lo to the Coast of
Guinea. Having some money aul alppe.ring like a
gentleman, I went on board, not as a common sailor or
foremast-man, nay, the commander agreed I should


go that voyage with him without any expense; thA
I should be his messmate and coippanion, gnd hat I1
was welcome to carry any thing iith me, and make
the best merchandise I could.
I blessed imy hiippy fortune, and humbly thanked
my captain for his ofler, and acquainting my friends
in Yorkshire, forty pounds were sent me, the great-
est part of which my dear father and mother contrib-
uted, with which I bought toys and tiifles as the
captain directed me. My captain also taught ne
navigation, how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and led me into the
knowledge of several useful branches of the rHathe-
matics. And indeed this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pound
nine ounces of gold dust, for my adventure, which
produced, at my return to London, almost three
hundred pounds; but in this voyage I was extremely
sick, being thrown into a violent fever, through ex-
cessive heat, trading upon the coast from the latitude
of'fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.
But, alas my dear friend, the captain, soon de-
parted this life after his arrival. This was a sensible
grief to me; yet I resolved to go another voyage
with his mate, who had now got command of the ship.
This proved a very unsuccessful one; for though I
did not carry a hundred pounds of my late acquired
wealth, (so that I had two hundred pounds left,
which I reposed with the captain's wido'v, who was
an honest gentlewoman,) yet my misfortunes in this
unhappy voyage were very great. For our ship sail-
ing towards the Canary Islands, we were chased by
a Salee rover; and in spite of all the haste we could
make, by crowding as much canvass as our yards
could spread, or our masts carry, the pirate gained
upon us, so that we prepared ourselves to fight.

oBixasow cRasoe 9
They had eighteen guns, and we had but twelve.
About three in the afternoon theie as- a ; desperate
engagement, wherein many were killed and nom.ded
on both sides; but fil(ding,,ettou(relies overptiowred
with numbers, our ship disable,, and oumselves too
impotent to have the least hopes ol stucess, we were
forced to surrender ; and aCcordit._ly V- e were all
carried prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men
were sent to the Emperor's court to be sold here;
but the pirate captain taking notice of me, kept.,me
to be his own slave.
In this condition. I thought myself the most n iser-
able creature on earth, and the Iroplihey )of ny lather
came afresh into my thoughts. lionwevtr, amy con
dition was better than I thought it t, ble, as will sotcn
appear. Some hopes, indeed, 1 lh;d tliat mn new
patron would go to sea again, where lie might te
taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and
then I should be set at liberty. But in this I was
mistaken; for he never took mie with him, but left
me t6 look after his little garden, and do the drud.
gery of his house, and when lie returned from sea,
would make me lie in the cabin aind look alier the
ship. I had no one that I could coirnimnicate my
thoughts to, which were cottiniully medlitatinr' my
escape. No Englishman, Irishman, or rctel:iiman
here but myself: and for two years I coukl see nox
thing practicable, but only pleased inyself with the
After some length of time, my patron, as I fondl,
grew so poor, that he could not t lit ot hi, ship as
usual and then he used constantly, once or iwtife a:
wePk, if the weather was fair. to go out a I4siin.,:
taking me and a young Moorish boy, to row the b nat ; A-
4d so much pleased was he with ne ftir my dex- ,
tb ty in catching the fish that he would fte ea n ..
'"J. a

me with a Moor, who was one of his kinsmen, and
the youth before-mentioned to catch a dish of fish
for him.
One morning, as we were at sport, there arose
such a thick fag, that we lost sight 4f the shore; and
rowing, we knew not which way, we laboured all
the nigilt, aind in tl e nmioring we firii d olwselves in
tlhe caii, two Icagucs from land. I!owtvcr, we
attained th(re at length, and n.ade the rt atest haste,
because our stoniacls were exceedingly sharp and
nungry. In order to prevent such disasters for the
future, my patron ordered a carpenter to build a
little state-room or cabin in the middle of the long-
boat: with a place behind it to steer and haul home
the main-sheet, with otler conveniences to keep him
from the weather, as also lockers to put in all man-
ner of provisions; with a handsome shoulder-of-
mutton sail gibing ever the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fishing; and
one time, inviting two or three persons of distinction
to go with him, laid in provisions extraordinary;
providing also three fisees, with powder and shot,
that they might have some sport fowling along the
sea-coast. The next morning, the boat was made
clean, her ancients and pendants out, and every l.iig
ready; but their minds altering, my patron ordered
us to go a fishing, for that his guests would certainly
sup with him that night.
And now I began to think of my deliverance in
deed. In order to this, I persuaded the Moor to get
some provisions on board, and to procure some pow-
der and shot, pretending to kill sea curlews, which
he ino cently and readily agreed to. In short, being
pro'idf',(d smith all things necessary, we sailed out.
\Vh en we had passed the castle, we fell to fishing;
but though I knew there was a bite, I concealed the

matter, in order to put farther out,to sea. Accord-
ingly we ran a league farther, when, giving the boy
the helm, and pretending to stoop for something, I
seized Muley by surprise and threw him overboard.
As he was ian excellent swiimIrer, he soon arose and
made'towards t!. hIat; iupoln wilich 1 took ( ut a
fusee, and presented it at hi n : Mt y," said I,
" 1 never vet desitnd to do you any ha ii, iiii settk
nothing now but nMy frceeio I ki.ow you are able
enough to swim to shore, and save your lifi; but it
you are resolved to follow me to the endangering of
mine, the very moment you proceed, I will shoot you
through the head." The harmless creature, at these
words, turned himself from me, and 1 make no doubt,
got safe to land. Then turning to the boy Xury, I
perceived he trembled at the action; but I put him
out of alel'ar telling him, that if he would ,e true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him and not hurt
We then pursued our voyage ; I kept to the south-
ward, to the truly Barbal;rian coast ; but in the da k of
the evening, 1 chal,:red m;r corse, tl:;t I might keep
near :lhe shore; aind hl. vinig a fresh gale of wind, with
a very p'easaniit snooth sea, 1b three o'clock next
davy, I was one hundred and fifty-milt s beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominiolns. I continued sail-
ing for tive days, successively, till such time as the
wind shifting to the southward made me conclude,
that if any vessel was in chase of me, they would
proceed no farther.
After so much fatigue and thought, I anchored at
the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or u here,
neither did I then see any people. What I princi-
pally wanted was fresh water; and I was resolved
about the dusk of the evening to swim ashore: but
no sooner the gloomy clouds of night began to suc-

ceed the declining day, than we heard such barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that one
miaht have li,1ought the very strongest monsters ol
nature had their residence there. Poor Xury, who
was almost d(eal with fear, entreated mue not to go
on shore thlt night. "Suppose I don't Xury," said
I, aid iln the morning we should see rjien who are
worse tlhat those we fear, what then ?" 0 den we
may give them the shoot gun," said he, latuhing,
"and the gua make them all run away." The wit,
and broken English which the boy had learned
among the captives of our nation pleased me e:ttirely,
an:' r;;d.e me still fonder of him than before. We
iou-!,i get but little sleep all night for the terrible
howlin-s Ite.y made; and indeed we were very much
alirfi ted.
The next morning, I was resolved to go on shore
to get in fresh water, and venture myself among the
beasts or savages, should either attack me. Xury
said L.e l,* ".l' iake one of the jars and bring me
snmr. I .-kcd ib:m why he would go and not IP
The i ",- ')yv answered, "If wild rans come, they
eat me, you av ,way." This, indeed, increased my
affecti:.n ';. e ciild. W(ell, dear Xury," said I,
"xwe -,,~i! ;- 'h go ashore, lboth kill wild nans, and
they sh ill eat neither of us." So giving Xury a
pice, of brr;- to eat, we waded ashore, carrying no-
thing with us but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not go out of sight of the boat, as dreading the
savages coming down the river in their canoes: but
the boy seeing a low descent or vale about a mile in
the country, he wandered to it; and there running
baek to me with great prccipit;atiln, I thought he was
pursued by some savages or wild beasts; upon which
I approached, resolving to perish, or protect him
from danger. As he came nearer to me, 1 saw some-

thing hanging over his shoulder, which was a crea-
ture lie had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and with longer legs ; however we were glad of it,
for it proved wh'oisomue and ninouisiiiig nieat; but
what added to our joy was, my boy assiued me there
was plenty 'of water, and that he "saw no wild
nian.s." And greater stiil was our con;fort when we
found fresh W;ler in the creek where we were when
the tide was out, without going so far up into the
In this place I began to hope that I should meet
some of the Eng!ish trading vessels, who would re-
lieve and take us in.
The place I was in, was no doubt, that wild country
inhabited only by a few, that lies between the Em-
peror of Morocco's dominions and the negroes. It
is filled with wild beasts, and the Moors use it for
hunting chjefly. From this place I thought I saw
the top of the mountain Teneriftf, in the Canaries,
which made me try twice to attain it, but as often
was I driven back, and so forced to pursue my for-
tune along shore.
Earlv one morning, we came to an anchor under a
little point of land, but pretty high ; and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay ready to go further in; but
Xury, whose youthful and penetrating eyes were
sharper than mine, in a soft tone desired me to keep
far from land, lest 've should be, devoured; For
look vonder master, arnd see te dreadful I::onster
fast asleep on de si le of de hill." Ac cordingly look-
ing where he pointed, I espied a feartfl monster in
deed. It was a terrible great lion that lay on shore
covered as it were by a shade of a piece of the hill
"Xury," said I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." But the boy looked amazed. "Me kill him!'
says he, "he eat me at one mouth," meaning one


mouthful. Upon which I bid him lie still, and charge.
ing : biggest gun with two slugs, and a good charge
of p,. .:der, I took the best aim I could to shoot him.
thrc,:ugh the head ; but his leg lying over his nose, the
slug oroke his knee-bone. 'Tne lion awaking with
t iie pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving the most
hiiieous groan I ever heard ; but taking my second
piece, 1 shot him through the head, and then he lay
struggling for life. Upon this, Xury took heart, and
desired my leave to go on shore. Go then," said I.
Upon which, taking a little gun in one hand, he swam
to shore with the other, and coming close to the lion
put a period to his life, by shooting him again through
the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in vain, the
flesh not being good ito eat. Xury was like a cham-
pion, and comes on board fir a hatchet to cut off the
head of his enemy ; but wanting strength to perform
it, he cut off and brought me a foot. 1 bethought me,
however, that this skin would be of use. This cost
Xury and me a whole day: when spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the hot beams of the sun effectually
dried it in two day's time, and it afterwards served me
for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living sparingly on
our provisions, and went no oftener on shore than
we were obliged for fresh water, in hopes to meet
some European ship. If Providence did not favour
me, ily next course was to seek for the islands, or
lose my life among the negroes; in a word, either I
must meet with some ship or certainly perish.
One day, as we were sailing along, we saw people
stand on the shore looking at us; we could also per-
ceive they weie black, and stark naked. I was
incllined to go on shore; but Xury cried, No, no;
however, I approached nearer, and found they ran

along the shore by me a long way. They had no
weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
Stick, which Xury told me was a lance, with which
they could kill at a great distance. I- talked to them
by signs, and made them sensible I wanted some-
tlnng to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat,
while two of them ran up into the country, and in
less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh, and some corn, which
we kindly accepted; and to prevent any fears on
eilhei side, they brought the food to the shore, laid
it down, then went and stood a great way off, till we
fetched it on board and then came close to us agnin.
But while we were returning thanks to them, L ing
all we could aflbrd, two mighty creatures came ioin
the mountainis, one as it were purisuing the other
with great fury, which we were the rather inclined to
believe, as they seldom appear but in the night, and
both these switily passing by the negroes, jumped into
the sea, wantonly about, as though the
diversion of the water had put a stop to tflir fierce-
ness. At last one of them coming nearer to my boat
han I expected, or desired, I shot him directly
through the head, upon which he sunk immediately,
yet rising again, he would have willingly made to
the shore, but between the wound and the.struggling
of the water, he died before he could reach it.
It is impossible to express the consternation the
poor negroes were in at the firing of my gun ; much
iess can 1 mention their surprise, when they per-
ceived, the creature to be slain by it. I made signs to
them to draw near it with a rope, and then gave it to
them to haul on shore. It was a beautiful leopard, wlich
made me desire its skin ; and the negroes seeming
to- covet the carcase, I freely gave it to them. As
for the other leopard, it made shore, and ran with

a prodigious swiftness out of sight. The negroes
having kindly furnished me with water, and- with
what roots and grains their country afforded, I took
nmv Lave, and. afltr eleven days' snii, cni.e in sight
of the Cape de Verd. 3But the great t instance I was
from them, and fearing contrary wi:ids would prevent
me reaching them, I bIg an to ro w melancholy and
Ilejected; when upon a suildlen Xury cried out, Mas-
.er, Master,'," looking; as aifrighlted as if it was his
master's s.ip Tent in search lif uos. But I soon dis-
covered she was a Poritunuese ship. Upon wlich I
strove for life to come up to tlhem.. But in vain had
it been, if through their perspective glasses, they had
not perceived us, amd shorltne.d their sail to let us
come in. Encouraged at, I set up my 'patron's
ancient. and fired a gun, tboth as sig-nals of distress;
upon which they very kindllv lay to, so that in three
hours' time I came up with them. They spoke to me
in Portuguese, Spanish, a;nd Fremlch, but none of
these did I undersi(ut d, till at length a Scotch sailor
called, and tlieha I told hiim I was an Ei ulishman,
who had escaped froiti tle Mom(s at S;!ee, upon
which they took me kindlyl on board, will all iy
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we ar-
rived in the Bay de 'Toos los Siantos, or, All Saints
Bay, in twenty-two days lfiler. And here I cannot
forget the generous treatment of t.e captain. iHe
would take nothing for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's.
Every thing he caused to be delivered, and what I
wonld sell, lie hotiiuht. In short, I made '20 pieces
of my cargo, and with this stock I entered once
nio're, as I r a;v say into t:he scene( of life.
To be brief, 1 bought a settlei;ent, next to an hon-
est and kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of English

parents, whose plantation joining to mine, we im-
proved very amicably together. Both our stocks
were low; and for two years we planted only for
food; but the third year we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of ground for
the ensuing year for planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the captain
who took me up departed from the Brazils. One
day 1 went to him, and told him what stock I had in
London, desiring his assistance in getting it sent out
to me; to which the good gentlenkan readily con-
sented, but would only have me send for half my
money, lest it should miiscurry, which, if it did. I
might still have the rcimailnder to support me ; and
so taking letters of procuration lium me, bid me
trouble myself no fluthler about it.
And indeed he not only procured the money I had
drawn lor upon my captain's widow, but sent me
over a servant, with a cargo proportionable to my
condition. He also sent me tools of all sorts, iron
work, and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncommon
success crowning my prosperous labours. I.might
have rested haly in that middle state of life my fa-
ther s ) oft :1 recommended ;; yet nothing would con-
tent me. Having lived Iour years iii Brazil. I had
not only learned the faniguage, but contracted ac-
quaintance with the most eiiiinent planters, and even
with the merchants of St. Salvadore, three of whom
came one morning to me saying they had a secret
proposal to make. After eznjoit:ig me to secrecy,
they told me they had a ,Iind to fit out a ship, to go
10 Guinea, in order to stock the plantation with ne-
groes, which as they could not be publicly sold, they
would divide among them, and if I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part,

I should have an equal share of the negroes, without
providing any stock. 'Tih thing indled wi s fair
enough, had I been in another condition: h.,wv v r
I could not resist tlie prop ',al, Ibut1 ac( pi. d tlie, ot r,
upon condition of their l.lo)kiig a:;er nl. p .i1,tat on.
T''le ship being litted ,out, and all tl, iijes .ia yv, \te
set ,ail the first of Septemiber, I5l:). V e sailed
northward u|pon the coast, from \U hence goii, harirther
into the oceaan out of the sight of land, we ste tiedr as
tliouaih we were bound for the isla:nl Fcrnand die
Noieinbha, leatviig the islands on the ea.t, and then
it was we nimt with a terrible temp; st, which con-
tinued for twelve days successively. so tiii:t lthe inids
carried us whercso(ver they tleas(d. In tper-
plexity one of our limen div,!, and a man miid a boy
were washed overbl)ard. \h itn ii t Oi'aithr cleared d
up a little, we foundl ourselves upon the coast of
Guinea. Upon this the captain gave reasons lor
returning, which I opposed, rouniise.ii n him to stand
away for Barbadoes, %l which as I supposed niigiht be
attained in fifteen days. So alluring i;ur course, we
sailed north-west and by west in lrder to reach the
Leeward Is.lanrds; b-t a second stlnn succeeding,
drove ius to the;1, s)I that we were justly
afraid of calling illt the L]ands of cruel savages, or
the paws of the devourin-g bt asts of pray.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in the
morning, cried out, Land lan I which he had no
sooner said, than our ship struck tn im a sand -bank,
and, in a moment, the sea broke over her in such a
manner that we expected we shoultl parish imniedi-
ately. .We knew not where we wwre. or upon what
land we were driven, wl.cilihr it w"as ian island, or
the main, inhabited or not inhabited a;n' we could
not so much as hope that the ship would hold out
many minutes, without breaking in pieces, unless thr


tw'nd by a miracle should turn about immediately.
while e e stood looking at one another, expecting
dean every moment, the mate lays holil of the boat,
awl wi.h the help if the rest g ,t her flung over the
ship's si le; i.ito, this we all got, being eleven in num-
ber, andI, conii ilteil ourselves to (Grod's mercy, and
the wild sea. An I nw we s'v th:ut this last effort
wculd nit be a suifli'ient I)protcc:ion from death: so
high did the sea ri:c, t!sat it was imp ssible the boat
shituld live. A ; to in i ig a sail, we had nonlf, nei-
ther if we Ihad c)uldl we make use of any. So that
when we haid rowed or raithier were driven abott a
lea;tue anId a hall, a raging wave. like a lofty miuin-
tain came rollilna a-teini of us. and took us with such
firy, that at oce it overset the Iboat. Thus being
swallowedr u ii) n a miioine:1n, we had oVly time to call
upi l the awful name of G od, and to imlplore, in dying
ejacu'ations, his infinite mercy to receive our depart-
ing so5ls.
Men are Lene:l'allv coiinted insensible, when strig-
glin-L in the pani's of' death ; but while I was ivcr-
whel neil with water, I hiil the most dtrea ful appre-
hensions imaginable, fr tl e j:vs of heaven, and the
torments of hell, seenwed to present themselves before
me in these dyins agonies, and even small space ot
time, as it were, between life and deatli. I was going
I thought I knew not whither, in a dismal, ulf un-
known, and as yet unperceived, never to behold my
friends, nor the light of this world any more! I
strove however to, thie last extrenilt, wi ile all my
rompaniim s were ove'rpoweried ;arid entombed in the
deep; and it was whh grvat diifficull. I k-p.t my
breath ti'l the wave sp-nt itself. and, retiring back,
left nme ol the shore Iillf dead with the water I ha4
taken in. As soon as I got on my feet, I ran at-ift"
u I could, lest another wave should pursue me, a ',
''^ ".1


carry me back again. But for all the haste I made,
I could not avoid it, for the sea cane after me like a
high mountain, or a furious eney ; so that ni husi-
ness was to hold mry breath, and by raising nmyse lfon
the water, to save mysell by siimingi. lThe next
dreadful wave buited me at once twentv or tl.irtv fret
deep, but, at the same time, carried me with a i.ighty
force and swiftness towards the shore, when raising
myself, I held out as well as possible, till at length, the
water having spent itself, began to return, at which I
struck forward, and feeling ground again with my feet,
I took to my heels. Thus being served twice more,
I was at last dashed against a piece of rock, in such a
manner as left me senseless, but recovering a little
before the return of the wave, which no doubt would
then overwhelm me, I held fast by the rock till
those succeeding waves abated; and then fetch-
ing another run, was overtaken by a small wave,
which was soon conquered. But before any more
could overtake me, I reached the main land, where
clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired and al
most spent, I sat down. on the grass, free from the
danger of the foan ing ocean.
No tongue can express the transports that my soul
felt at this happy deliverance. I was wrapt up in
contemplation, and often lifted up my hands with the
profoundest humility, to the Divine Power for saving
my life; when the rest of my companions were all
drowned. And now I began to cast my eyes around,
and to behold what place I was in, and what 1 had
next to do. I could see no house nor people; I was
wet, yet had no clothes to shift me; hungry and theirs
ty, yet nothing to eat or drink, no weapon to
destroy any creature for my sustenance, nor defend
myself against devouring beasts; in short, I had
nothing but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a box

IfiDtIS(IN CifttSqov 21

half filled with tohbaco. The darksome night cor.
ing upon me, inrcireasedl mi vi a r of' lwit 4!evolured
b n l ct-vatill-es, 111V Ii l was 1 pIuctlgd int., dles-
pair, Zi] Ii I thliuli ilt, )1* life
bef'Ore hhin, I lcrtI)e!1 Cor aniiotur I. ind of dcath il an
Wl'hat I had latcf I es jutlw. I walki-d ia lli a fil.
111n11r, t) See if* I r-11d fillI aInv fr611h mater. %i Lich I
li.l, t I)).%- r atjl !y iA z a (111;(] of*l, a( o l I
I') ier: ire e l:4 I. 1 W l l )11 ijltl( a th ick 1); l;% life
an I s I~eatin', v iivse-l* ,, that I cull tnot fiall, a deii,
Sluee overtook k ine, an i! tbr Lihat iii,ltl, buiried my

sorIrows iii a (llif~~CdllSrt~l~ qlol rl.n le
It l'as broad day i thl text morning hikfore I wivoke,
when I wiit only percelve illhl tveIill J'lt was cea'ie4I
but sai the shia p d ri ven almost as far as the rock
before-me ntoned, which wits abouiIt a nAtle from time
place where I was.-Vhen I Can-e down from lily
apartment ii Ihe tree, I perei ved the ship'?.e be-t
twit rifles d istat on tv v iht hatd. lig Ilcl o shore
a.t.e wa yes had t er I tll u1et. to hade her.
tit tier :buit there hei 'u(r al inlet of %%,m r about ha if
a mile'-; lreadidi, betiven it an l( m, I ruimmed again
tuwardls the slip, as hwpi ig to find 1 trltthing for
mvl more 1w nied ii Ic sublsistanlce. About noon, wlteq
th~e Sea wvas so callm that I CouIld collie iitl: a qtuar,-
ter of a nmile of1 her, it was, i4) mny griief I p, received,
that if we ha! kept(it on mr~i. All otir five's wituld
have beent suv'd. TIhese thoughts. amnd ill solitude,
drew tears front myv evvq, though all ill vainl. So
resol1vi ng to get to the sL~ip. I st ripped ~and leaped
Into the water ; when swinin-ing rolundi her, I was
afraid I could not act any tlinlg to lay hold o)f; h~ut
it wa,. my grood foritune to espy~ It S'. Itll piere of rope
hanging down -olow. that, b~y the bell ( ,i it, thonghl
with areat (lifficntllt, I got into the ship. Here I
'itind that the ship was bilged, and hahd a great deal of

water in her, her stern was lifted up against a bank,
a Ad her head almost in the water. All her quarter,
and what was there, we re free and dry. The provi-
sions I found in good order, and loosing no tini ate
while I was doing other t.ings. 1 also f'oud some
rum, of which I took a little: and now I % antld for
nothing except a b,,at, wl ich in-Leed was all, to carry
away what wi;s need ifuil for n.e.
Necessity ocnasioins a quickness of th:uight. We
had several slari, yard'", a sl ase tol n .at or two, and
two or three large sI ars of wood. V\ iih this 1 fell
to work, and sung as many of th(in Ii :veiboaid as I
could manage, tying every one of thl mn with a rope
that they might not drive away. TLis done, I went
down the ship's side and tied four of them fast to-
gether at both ends, in form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of i'lank upon them cross ways,
I found it would bear me but not any considerable
weight. Upon thich I went to work again, cutting
a spare topmast into three lengths, adding them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. I
then, first layirg upon it all the planks and boards I
could get, next lowered don n tllree of the scan men's
chests, after I had filled them with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheese, five pieces of dried gcat's fiesh, and
some European corn, what little the rats had sl.ared;
and for liquors, I found several cases of bottles, in
which were some cordial waters, and four or five
gallons of arrack. By this tin.e the tide beginning
to flow, I perceived my coat, and shirt
swimi away, wl,;ch I l:;'i hlft on shore; as for ny
linen, bri echcs, an! stockings, I swum w'ilh to
the ship; but I soon flunld cloil( s enough, though
I took no more than I wanted for the prestint. My
eyes were chiefly on tools to- work with, and after a
long search, I found out the carpenter's chest, wbich

oBsOw col0 C1L
I got safe down on my raft. I then looked for arms
and ammunition, and in the great cabin, found two
good fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a snall bag of shot, and two rusty
swords. I like ise found three barrels of powder,
two of which were good(, but the third had taken
water, also two or three broken oars, two saws, an
axe, and a iha it er. I then put to sea, and in getting
to shore three en comaacements. 1. A smooth
calm sea: 2. The tide rising and setting in to the
shore: 3. The little wind there was blowing towards
land. After I had sailed about a mile, I found tth
raft driving a little distance from the place where I
first landed, and when I perceived an openhtf of the
land, with a strong current of the tide running into
it, upon which I kept the middle of the stream. 9t$
great was my concern, when on a sudden the fo'
part of my raft ran aground. But after some ti,
the rising of the water caused the raft to float ag,.5
and coming up a little river, with land on both sides.
I landed in a little cave, as near the mouth as powj
ble, the better to discover a sail, if any such proviV
dentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous height,
surrounded with smaller hills about it, and thither I
was resolved to go and view the country, that I
might see what part was best to fix my habitation
in. Accordingly, arming myself with a pistol, a
fowling piece, ponder, and ball, I nacended thi
mountain. There I perceived I was in an island,
encompassed by the sea, no distant lands to beree,
but spattering rocks that lay to the west: t44at
seemed to be a barren place, and as I though T;r
inhabited by wild beasts. I perceived abndua
of. fo(ls, but was ignorant of what kind, or whether
wood for nourishment I shot m i,f them Mtlf
or foi4L.-




v ,

return, which occasioned a confused screaming
among the other thirds, and I found it, by its colouw
and beak, to be a kind of hawk, but it thleshl was per
feet carrion.
When I care to my raft, I broigl:t nmy effect
on shore, which work sp)* lt thIat dalyv c('lirlv : ami
fearing that sowme 'rum I night devour nmt in tne
night time whliil I stiept. I IMade a kinild of hii1. or
barricade, within ti:" ch- st aiid bouir s 1l ad hbru1iint
on shore. Tlit niiilt I sliv.t v rv r .l' orta'l : a l
the next mornl i," y ti chiihiit ils wete iithlovyed c
make. a futii r aiten'mpt lt tohe shi p. and bring away
what neces~-;ries I child ftid, before an other strwW
should break her iii pieces. Accordiiigly, I got ,o
board as befirc, anld prerparcd a seco'ii rafi. lhr I\w
ter than the first; upon which I brought away the
carpenter's stores, two or three bags full of nails, a
great jack-screw, a dozen or two of hatchetr and a
grind-stone. I also took two or thrie iron crows,
two barrels of ninslet-bullets, another fowling piec?,
a small quantity of powder, anl a large bag full of
small shot. Besides tlese, I took all 1te nwen's
clothes I could fi d, a spare fore-top-sail, a hal;-
mock, and some heddinL ; and thus completed my
second cargo, I made all the haste on shore I conld,
fearing some wild east might destroy, what 1 had
there already. But I only found a little wild cat
sitting on one of the chestS. who not seeming to fr'a
me or the uin that I presented at her. I threw her a
piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and ldepa, ted.
Whnn I had got these effects on shore, I went to
work, in order to make me a little tent with the sail
and some poles, which I had cut for the purpose, and
having finished it, what things ni~gt he damaged
by the weather, I brought in, piling all the Pn'pI
chests and casks in, the better to fortLyWj

against any sudden attempt of man or beast. After
this, I blocked up the doors with some boards, and
an empty chest turned the long way out. I then
charged my gun and pistol, and laying my bed on
the ground, slept as comf irtably till the next morn-
ing, as though I had been in a christian country.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me a long
time, yet despairing of a sudden deliverance, and
fearing that both ammunition and provision might
be spent before such a thing happened, I saved as
much as I could, and so long as the ship remained in
that condition, I daily brought away one necessary or
other; particularly, the rigging, sails, and cord-
age, some twine, a barrel of wet powder, some sugar,
a barrel of meal, three casks of rum, and indeed
what was most welcome to me, a whole hogshead of
The next time I went, I cut the cables in pieces,.
carried off a hawser whole, with a great deal of iron
work, and made another raft; but this being so un-
wieldy, by the too heavy burden upon it, and I not
being able so dexterously to guide it as the former,
both my cargo and myself were overturned. For
my part all the damage I sustained was a wet skin;
and at low water, after much labour in diving. I got
up most of the cables, and some pieces of iron. Thir-
teen days had I now been on the island, and eleven
days on board, bringing away all that was possible
As I was going the twelfth time, the wind began to
rise; however, I ventured at low water, and rummag-,
ing in the cabin, in a locker, I found several razors,
scissors, and some dozens of knives and forks, and in,
another, thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight, silver and
gold. I wrapped the money up in a piece of caasls,
and began to think of making another raft; but!
goon perceived the wind beginning to rise a fresh


gale blowing from the shore, and the sky overcast
witt clouds and darkness. So thinking a raft to be
in vain, I let myself into the water with what things
I hail abi)ut ime ; an: it was with igr'at difficulty I got
ashore, when soon after it blew a fi'arful storm
That night I slept very contlteitely in my little
tent,surrounl leI with all i v effIctsw; but when I looked
outing the iiloriii'), nl ml ore<'l ship was to be sell. Ihis
rlinu surprised .- f;r the present: yet, when I (on
si lered th:At I ha:i lIo t n > liine, abated nlo p liis, alld
hal got every thing useful olt of' her, I citomforted
myself in the bestmianner, and entirely submitted to
Divine Providence. 4
My next thoughts were, how I should defend and
secure myself from savages and wild beasts, if any
such were in the island.
Whien I considered the ground where I was, that
it was marshy, a:ll ihul n > fresh water near it, my
resolutions were to search fl'r a soil healthy and well
watered, where I might not only be sheltered froni
the .sun's scorching heat, hlit be more conveniently
situated, as well to be secured fromn wild men, and
beasts of prey, as more easy to) discover any distant
sail, should it ever so happen.
And indeed it was not lonwg before I had my desire.
I found a little plain near a rising hill, the front to-
wards which, being as steep as a house side, nothing
could descend on me from the top.
On the side of this rock was a little hollow place,
resembling the entrance or door of a cave. Just be-
fore this place, on the circle of the !:reein I res-lved
my tent shoulil stan 1. T is plin di I not much ex-
ceede a hn fre I var Is broad !, and abh ut twice as long,
like a delightful green here my door. with a pleas-
ing, though irregular descent every way to the hiw
grounds by the sea side, sheltered from the excessive I

*- *- ,'5 P K- ~- -r .. -;

heat of the sun. After this, I. drew a semicircle,
twenty yards in diameter, dii ving down two rows of
stron. stake 's iot sixi ilncl,s from each other.' Then,
with the pieces oft rable which I had tl ut oni blord, .
regu!'arly laid the|m iii a ci;rle between the piles,,up
to their tops, wi ichl w'ere i1tore than five feet olut of
the eartti, anld lthein (drove another row of piles, look-
ivig within against them, between twU or three
feet high, which miiiJade me conclude it a little
catlei, illp)r*'g nablle y ihv m and boasts. And fir my
better security I oituld have ito door, but entered-in
and came out by the help of a ladder, which I also
, Here was imy fence and f stress, into.whichI car-
ried all my ric-hes, alluniiiliiition, and store'. After
which, working on the rock, what \ ith the dirt and
stones I dug omut, I not only raised my ground two
feet, hbt made a little cellar to my manision-house
'and this cost me many days' labouir ami pains. Oie
day in particular, a shower of rain falling, thunder
and lightning ensued, which put me in terror kest ni
powder shwoull take. tire, and not only hinder my
necessary siubsistence, by killing my food, but even
blow uip.mi and my lii biatioTi. To prevent which,
I fell to making boxes and ba g, in order to separate
it, having by me near 150ib. weight. And this leing
established as king of the island, every day I went
out with my grun to see what I could kilt ti!lwas fit
to eat. I so:,o perceived numbers of ga.lut v. o
shy : yet having watched t! ein unrrU lyv, anqtj
could! better shoot ofi tLh rocks ttila It In in it Itluw
g. '"ild. I happened to shoot a she-gffant s,,klinft
yonilig ki;. ; which, not thinking its duan slainii,
by her concernedd andl when I took the dead crl
up. the young otie followed me even to the ence.Ji
I lifted the kid over the pales, and would
.. ." ,

ly have kept it alive, but finding it cotild not be
brought to eat, I was forced to slay it also for my
Thus, entered into as strange a state as ever etv
man was in, I hud most meiamnholy apprelhesions
concerning my deplorable condil ona; nad many times
the tears would pleutiiully run down ny lace. uhen
I considered how I was tit barred from all couminiu-
eation with human kind. Yet % lile these dcspondirg
cogitations would s em to make me accuse Provi-
.ence, other good thoughts would interpose and tr-
nrove me after this mannmr ; Well, sI.)j)pposimg y",
are desolate, is it not bIetter to be so, tl.iai totally pe--
sh? Why should you comil:lain, ihlul not only y1rr.
-fe is preserved; but the ship dirien into y(;ur reach,
n order to take what was n cessary out of her for a
subsistence?" But to proceed: it wa's, by the accown.t
I kept, the thirtieth of September, when I/first land I
oa this island. About twelve days after, fearing leAt
I should lose my reckoning of time, nay even fore-t
the sabbath days for want of pen, ink, and paper, I
carved with a knife upon a large post, in great letters
' I came on shore, Sept. 30, 1659," and set it up -u
the similitude of a cross, on the sea shore where I
landed- Every day I cut a notch with my knife 4'-1
the sides of the square posj, and that on the sabbs~
was as long again as the rest, and every first day I
the month as long again as that long one. In t L.
manner I kept my calender, weekly, monthly. -,
yearly reckoning of time. But had I made a mwn* I
strict search (as I did afterwards.) I need n- t
have set up t:is mark. For among the parcels t-
longing to the gunner, carpenter, and captain
mate, I found those very thing I wanted ; partica-
larly pens, ink. and paper; also I loutnd two or thrre
compasses, some mathematical instruments, diki
A '*

perspective glasses, books of navigation, three Eng.
lish Bibles, and several other good books, which I
carefully put up Here I cannot but call to mind, o,
having a dog and two cats on board, whom I made
inhabitants with me in my castle. Though one might
think I had all the necessaries that were desirable,
yet still I found several things wanting. My ink was
daily wasting: I wanted needles, pins, and thread to
mend or keep my clothes together: and particularly
a spade, pick-axe, or shovel, to remove the earth.
It was a year before I finished my little bulwark;
and having some intervals of relaxation, after my
daily wandering abroad for provisions, I drew up this
plan alternately, as creditor and debtor, to remind
me of the miseries and the blessings of my life, under
so many various circumstances.

I am cast upon a de-
solate island, having no
prospect of a welcome
deliverance. How mise-
rable am I, singled out
from the enjoyment or
company of all mankind.

Like a hermit (rather
should I say a lonely an
chorite,) am I forced from
human conversation.
My clothes, after some
time will be worn out,
and then I shall have
none to cover me.

But yet I am preserv-
ed while my companions
have perished in the rg-
ing sea.
Yet set apart to be
spared from death. And
Hle, who has so preserv-
ed me can deliver me
from this condition.
However, I have food
to eat, and even a happy
prospect of subsistence
whilst life endures.
At present I enjoy
what is absolutely need-
ful; and the climate i* oe
hot, that had I ever i. .i'
many I should ha ".
wear them.
-5 ^ -



When my ammunition
is wasted, then shall I
remain without any de-
fence against wild men
and beasts.
I have no creature, no
soul to speak to; none
to beg assistance from.
Some comfort would it
be to resound my woes
where I am understood,
and beg assistance where
I might hope for relief.

Yet even thus, I see
no danger of any to hurt
me, as in Africa; and
what if I had been cast
away upon that coast.
Is there not God to
converse with, and is he
not able to deliver thee?
already has he afforded
thee sustenance and put
it in thy power to pro-
vide for thyself, till he
sends thee a deliverance.

And now, easing, my mind a little by these reflec-
tions, I began to render my life as easy as possible.
I must here add to the description I have given of
my habitation, that having raised a turf wall against
the outside of it, I thatched it so close as might keep
it fiom the inclemency of the weather I also im-
proved it within, enlarged my cave, and made a pas-
sage and a door in the rock, which came out beyond
the pale of my fortification. I next proceeded to
make a chair and table, and so began to study such
mechanical arts as seemed to me practicable. When
I wanted a plank or board, I hewed down a tree with
my hatchet, making it as thin with my axe as possi-
ble, and then smooth enough with an adze, to answer
my designs; yet though I could make no more this
way than one board out of a tree, in length of time,
I got boards enough to seller all my stores, every
thing being regularly placed, and my guns securely
hanging against the side of a rock. This made it a
very pleasant sight to me, being the result of vast
labour and great diligence; which leaving for a
while, and me to the enjoyment of, I shall give the


reader an account of some parts of my journal from
the day of my landing, till the setting of my habita-
tion, as heretofore shown.

SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659, I, unhappy Robinson Cru-
soe, having suffered shipwreck, was driven on this
desolate island, which I named the Desolate Island
of Despair, the rest of my companions being swal-
lowed up in the tempestuous ocean. The next day
I spent in consideration of my unhappy circum-
stances, having no prospect but of death, either to be
starved with hunger, or devoured by wild beasts or
merciless savages.
Oct. 1. That morning, with great comfort, I be-
held the ship drove ashore. Some hopes I had, that
when the storm was abated I mighi be able to get
some food and necessaries out of her; which I con-
Sceived were not damaged, because the ship didstand
upright. At this time, I lamented the loss of my
companions, and our misfortune in leaving the vessel.
When I perceived the ship, as it were, to lie dry, I
waded through the sands, then swam aboard, the
( weather being very rainy, and with scarcely any wind.
To the 14th of this month, my time was employed
in making voyages every tide, getting what I could
out of the ship. The weather very wet and uncer-
Oct. 24. My raft, and all the goods thereon were
overset; yet I recovered mostagain at low water.
Oct. 25. It blew hard, and rained night and day,
when the ship went in pieces, so that nothing wap
seen of her but the wreck at low water. This day
I secured my goods from the inclemency of the

Oct. 26. I wandered to see where I could find a
place convenient for my abode: I fixed upon a rock
in the evening, marked out a half moon, intending
to erect a wall fortified with piles, lined within with
pieces of cables, and covered with turf.
Nov. 3. I shot two wild fowls, resembling ducks,
which were good to eat, and in the afternoon made
me a table.
Nov. 4. I began to live regularly. In the morn-
ing I allowed myself two or three hours to walk out
with my gun; I then worked till near eleven o'clock;
and afterwards refreshed myself with what I had to
eat. From twelve to two, I would lie down to sleep.
Extreme sultry weather. In the eveninggo to work
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog, shot a
wild cat with a soft skin, but her flesh was good for
nothing. The skins of those killed I preserved.-
On my return I perceived many wild birds, and was
terrified by some seals which made off to sea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Fair weather, I worked to the 12th, but
omitted the 11th, which according to my calculation
I supposed to be Sunday.
Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rock, yet was obli-
ged to desist for want of a pick-axe, shovel, and
wheel-barrow. Iron crows I used to supply the place
of the first, but with all my art I could not make a
Nov. 19. It was my fortune to find a tree resem-
bling what the Brazilians call an iron tree. I had
like to spoil my axe with cutting it, it being very
hard, and exceedingly heavy; yet with much labour
and industry I made a sort of a spade out of it.
Nov. 23. These tools being made, I daily carried
on my business; eighteen days I allowed for enlar-


going my cave, that it might serve me not only for a
ware-house, but kitchen, parlour, and cellar. I com-
Smonly lay in the tent, unless the weather was so rainy
that I could not lie dry. So wet would it be at cer-
tain seasons, that I was obliged to cover all within the
pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees resembling a thatch.
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habitation fin-
ished, but suddenly a great deal of the top broke in,
so that it was a mercy I was not buried in the ruins.
This occasioned a great deal of pains and trouble to
me before I could make it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. I nailed up some shelves, and drove
nails and staples in the wall and posts, to hang every
thing out of the way.
Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place, then
made a sort of dresser, and another table.
Dec. 27. I chanced to light on some goats, shot
one, wounded another; I led it home in a string,
bound up its leg, and cured it in a little time; at
length, it became so tame and familiar as to feed be-
fore the door, and follow me where I pleased. This
put me in mind to bring up tame creatures, in order
to supply me with food after my ammunition was spent.
Dec. 28. 29. 30. The weather being excessively hot,
with little air, obliged me for the most part to keep
within doors.
Jan. 3. to 14. My employment this time was to fin-
ish the wall before described, and search the island. I
discovered a kind of pigeons, like our house-pigeons,
in a nest among the rocks. I brought them home,
nursed them till they could fly and then they left me.
After this, I shot some, which proved excellent food.
Some tire I spent vainly contriving to make a cask,
I may well say it was in vain, because I could iieither

joint the staves, nor fix the heads, so as to make it
tight: so leaving that, I took some goats tallow I had
by me and a little oakum for the wick, and provided"
myself with a lamp, which served instead of can-
But now a very strange event happened. For be-
ing in the height of my search, what should come into
my hand, but a bag which was used to hold corn (as I
supposed,) for the fowls; so immediately resolving to
put gunpowder into it, I shook all the husks and
dirt upon one side of a rock, little expecting what the
consequence would be. The rain had fallen plenti-
fully a few days before: and about a month after, to
my great amazement, something began to look out
very green and flourishing; and when I came to view
it more nicely, every day as it grew, I found about ten
or twelve ears of green barley of the very same shape
and make as that in England.
I can scarcely express the agitation of my mind at
this sight. Hitherto, I had looked upon the actions
of this life no otherwise than only as the events of
blind chance and fortune. But now, the appearance
of this barley, flourishing in a barren soil, and my ig-
norance in not conceiving how it should come there,
made me conclude, that miracles were not yet ceas-
ed ;" nay, I even thought that God had appointed it to
grow there without any seed, purely for my suste-
nance in this miserable and desolate island. And in-
deed such great effect had this upon me, that it often
made me melt into tears through a grateful sense of
God's mercies ; and the greater still when I perceiv-
,ed about this little field of barley, some rice stalks,
.also wonderfully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded there
must be some more corn in the island; and therefore
.made a diligent search narrowly among the rocks;

but not being able to find any, on a sudden it came
into my mind, how I had shaken the husks of corn
out of tne bag and then my admiration ceased, with
my gratitude to the Divine Being, as thinking it was
but natural, and not to be conceived a miracle; though
even the manner of its preservation might have
made me own it as a wonderful event of God's kind
It was about the latter end of June when the ears
of corn ripened which I laid up very carefully, together
with 20 or 30 stalks of rice; expecting one day I
should reap the fruit of my labour; yet four years
expired before I could allow myself to eat any barley
bread, and much longer time before I had any rice.
After this, with indefatigable pains and industry for
three or four months, at last I finished my house on
the 14th of April, having no. way to go into it, but
by a ladder against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder,'and ascended it;
afterwards pulled it up, then let it down on the other
side, and decended into my new habitation; where I
had space enough, and so fortified, that nothing coula
attack me without scaling the walls.
But what does all human art and industry airil,
if the blessing of God does not crown our labous ?
Or who can stand before the Almighty, when he
stretcheth forth his arm ? For one time as I wiat a I
the entrance of my cave, there happened suci,'Ys
dreadful earthquake, that not only the roof of ti
cave came tumbling about my ears, but the pos(sf
seemed to crack terribly at the same time. This t
my in a great amazement; and running to the Ia r
and getting over the wall, I plainly khew it wa ..
earthquake, the place I stood on sustaining theltr -':
rible shocks in less than three minutes. BMt6
*f my terror when I saw the top of a great r'o i ,


into the sea; I then expected the island would be
swallowed up every moment; and what made the
scene still more dreadful, was to see the sea thrown
into the most violent agitations and disorders by
this tremendous accident.
For my part, I expected every moment to be
swallowed up. At the moving of the earth, I was
as it were sea-sick; and very much afraid lest the
rock, under which was my fence and habitation,
should overwhelm me and it in a lasting tomb.
It was not long after, when a horrible tempest arose
attended at the same time with a hurricane of wind.
Three hours did this storm continue, and in so violent
a manner as to tear the very trees up by the roots,
which was succeeded by abundance of rain. When the
tempest was over, I went to mytent butthe rain coming
on in a furious manner, I was obliged to take shelter in
the cave, where I was forced to cut a channel through
my fortification, to let the water out. It continued
raining all that night, and some time the next day.
These accidents made me resolve, as soon as the
weather cleared up, to build me a little hut in some
open place, walled round to defend me from wild
creatures and savages; not doubting, but at the next
earthquake, the mountain would fall on my habitation
and me, and swallow up all in its bowels.
April. 16-20. These days I spent in contriving
how and in what manner I should fix my place of
abode. All this while, I was under the most dreadful
apprehensions. When I looked round my habitat
tion every thing I found in its proper place. I had
several debates whether I should move or not; but
at length resolved to stay where I was, till I found
out a convenient place where I might pitch my tent.
April 22. When I began to put my resolutions in
practice, I was stopped for want of tools and instru


ments to work with. Most of my axes and hatchets
were useless, occasioned by cutting the hard timber
that grew on the island. It took me up a full week
to make my grindstone of use to me; and at last I
found out a way to turn it about with my foot, by
help of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed my-
self but one biscuit a day.
May 1. As I walked along the sea-shore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces of the
wreck, which the sea had flung up. Having secured
these, I made to the ship, whose stern was torn off,
and washed a great distance ashore; but the rest lay
in the sands. This, I suppose, was occasioned by,
the earthquake. I now resolved tojeep my old
place of abode: and also to get to th hip that day,
but found it impossible.
May 3. This day I went on board, and with my
saw, sawed off one of the beams, which kept her
quarter-deck. I then cleared the sand till flood.
May 4. I caught some fish, but they were not
wholesome. The same day, I also caught a young
May 5. This day also I repaired to the wreck,
and sawed another piece of timber; and wben the
flood came, I made a float of three great planks,
which were driven ashore by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brnaght off the iron
bolts, opened the deck with the iron croy, and car-
ried two planks to land, Thai"ing. made a way into the
very middle of the wreck. : '
May 10-13. All this timnie spentin bringing off
great quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatcheteatsppoae
to cut off some lead from the roll, but ir*3 fuor.
it Jay too low under water.
*.4 4


May 24. To this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with great difficulty loosened some things so
much with the crow, that at the first blowing tide,
several casks floated out, and several of the seamen's
chests; yet that day nothing came to land but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead which had some pork in
it. I continued working to the 15th of June : (except
necessary times for food and rest,) and had I known
how to build a boat, and had I known how to build a
boat, I had timber and planks enough; I had also a
hundred weight of sheet lead.
June 16. As I u as wandering towards the sea-
side, I found a large tortoise or turtle, being the first
I had seen on the island, though, as I afterwards
found, there were many on the other side of it.
June 17. This day I spent in cooking it, found
in her threescore eggs, and her flesh the most savory
and pleasant I ever tasted in my life.
June 18. I staid within this day, there being a
continual rain ; and it was somewhat more chilly and
could than usual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a trembling
and shivering.
June 20. Awake all night, my head racked with
pain, and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with dis-
mal apprehensions of my condition. Prayed to God
more frequently, but very confusedly.
June 22. Something better, but st.i. uneasy in
my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 21. Mended a second time.
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours, cola
and hot fits, succeeded with faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak; yet I scrambled
out, shot a she goat, brought it home, and broiled

some of it; I would .willingly have stewed it and
made some broth, but had no. pot.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with an
ague; thirsty, yet could not help myself to water;
prayed to God in these words: Lord; in pity look
upon me, Lord have mercy upon me, have mercy
upon me !" After this I fell asleep, which, when I
awoke, I found had much refreshed me.
I rose up, in a pensive manner, being so thoughtful
that I could not go to sleep: and fearing the dread-
ful return of my distemper, it caused me to remem-
ber, that the Brazilians use tobacco for almost all
diseases. I then went to my chest, in order to fiqd
some, where heaven, no doubt, directed me to final a,
cure, both for soul and body; for there I
of the bibles, which, till this time, I had neither li-:
sure nor inclination to look into; I took both the
tobacco and that out of my chest, and laid them on
the table. Several experiments did I try with the
tobacco. First, I took a piece of leaf, and chewed
it; but it being very green and strong, almost stupi- ,
fled me: next I steeped it in some rum an hour or
two, resolving when I went to bed, to take a dose
of it: and, in the third place, I burnt some over a
pan of fire, holding my nose over it as long as I could
endure it without suffication.
In the intervals of this operation, though my head,
was giddy and disturbed with the tobacco, I took up
the Bible to read. No sooner did I open, but there
appeared to ne these words, Call on Iue in the <4ay
of trouble and I will deliver thee, and, thou shalt
glorify me."
At fist, this sentence made a very deep impression
on my heart: but it soon Forq off again when I con-
sidered the word deliver" was foreign to me. And
as the children of Israel said, when they were pro-:
S ,^ -a'"'' ..*** o

mised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?" in the like manner I began to say, Can
God himself deliver me from this desolate Island ?
However, the words would still return to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression upon me.
As it now was very late, and the tobacco had dozed
my head, I was inclined to sleep; but before I would
lie down, I fell on my knees, and implored the pro-
mise that God had made to me in the holy Scriptures,
that, "if I called on him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me."
With much difficulty I afterwards drank the rum,
wherein I had steeped the tobacco, which flying into
my head, threw me into such a profound sleep, that
it was three o'clock the next day before I awoke; or
rather I believe, I slept two days, having certainly
lost a day in my account, and I could never tell any
other way.
When I got up, my spirits were lively and cheer-
ful; my stomach much better, being very hungry;
and, in short, no fit returned the next day, which was
the 29th, but I found myself much altered for the
July 3. The fit quit left me, but very weak. In
this condition, I often thought of these words, "I
will deliver thee :" and while at sometimes I would
think of the impossibility of it, other thoughts would
reprehend me, for disregarding the deliverances I had
received even from the most forlorn and distressed
condition. I asked myself, what regard have I had
to God for his abundant mercies? Have I done
my part ? He has delivered me, but I have not glo-
rified him;" as if I had said I had not owned and
been thankful for these as deliverances, and how could
I expect greater ? So much did this sensibly touch
my heart, that I gave God thanks for my recovery
from sickness, in the most humble posture.


July 4. This morning I began seriously to ponder
on what is written in the New Testament, resolving
to read a chapter every morning and night, a. long
as my thoughts would engage me.
As soon as I set about this work seriously, I found
my heart deeply affected with the impiety 9f my past
life. After this, I begged of God to assist me with
his holy Spirit in returning to my duty. One day,
in perusing the Scriptures, I came to these words,
" He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give re-
pentance, and to give remission,;" Immediately I
laid down the book, and, witl pIifted hands to
heaven, loudly cried, O blessed Jesusithou son ot
David! Jesus, thou exalted Piince and Saviour, give
me repentance;" And, now indeed, I prayed with a
true sense of my condition, and a more certain hope,
founded on the word of God. Now I had a different
sense of these words, "Call on me, and I will deliver
thee," that is from the dreadful load of guilt, which
oppressed my sinful soul, and not from a solitary
life : in a word, I came to this conclusion, that a de
liverance from sin was a much greater blessing than
a deliverance from affliction.
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my gun,
little and little at a time, having been reduced to the
greatest extremity of weakness. The applications
and experiments I used were perfectly new : neither
could I recommend them to any one's practice. For
though it carried off the fit, it very much weakened
me; and I had frequently convulsions in my nerves
and limbs for some time From hence I learned,
that going abroad in rainy weather, especially when
it was attended with storms and hurricanes of wind,
was most pernicious to health. I had now been above
ten months in the island; and as I had never seen
any of the human kind, I therefore accounted myseL
S 4


as sole monarch; and as I grew better, having,'se
cured my habitation to my mind, I resolved to make
a tour round my kingdom, in order to make new dis-
The 15th of July, I began my journey. I first
went to the creek, where I had brought my rafts on
shore: and travelling farther, found the tide went
no higher than two miles up, where there was a little
brook of running water, on the bank of which were -
many pleasant savannahs, or meadows, smooth, plain
and covered with grass. On the rising parts, where
I supposed the water did not reach, I perceived a
great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong stalk.
Several other plants I likewise found, the virtue of
which I did not understand. I searched a long time
for the cassava root, which I knew the Indians in
that climate made their bread of; but all in vain.
There were several plants of aloes, though at that
time I knew not what they were: likewise I saw
several sugar-canes, but imperfect for want of culti-
vation. With these few discoveries, I came back
that night, and slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the same
way, but farther than the day before, I found the
country more adorned with woods and trees. Here
I perceived different fruits in great abundance. Mel-
ons in plenty lay on the ground, and clusters of
grapes, ripe and very rich, spread over the trees.
You may imagine I was glad of this discovery, yet
ate very sparingly, lest I should throw myself into a
flux or fever. The grapes I found ot excellent use;
for when I dried them in the sun, which preserved.
them as dried raisins are kept, they proved very
wholesome and nourishing, and served me in those
seasons when no grapes were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended upa tree,

and slept very comfortably, though it was the first
time I had slept out of my habitation. And when the
morning came, I proceeded with great pleasure on
my way, travelling about four miles, as I imagined,
by the length of the valley. At the end of this valley
I tame to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west; there I found a spring of fresh
water, proceeding out of the side of a hill, with its
crystal streams running directly east. And indeed
here my senses were charmed with the most beauti-
ful landscape nature could afford; for the country
appeared so flourishing, green and delightful, that to
me it seemed like a planted garden. I then descended
on the, side of that delicious vale, when I found abun-
dance of cocoa, orange, lemon, and citron trees, but
very wild and barren at that time. As for the limes,
they were delightful and wholesome, the juice of
which I afterwards used to mix in water, which made
it very cool and refreshing. And now I was resolved
to carry home and lay up a store of grapes, limes,
and lemons, against the approaching wet season.
So laying them up in separate parcels, and then tak-
ing a few of each with me, I returned to my little
castle, after having spent three days in this journey.
Before I got home, the grapes were so bruised that
they were utterly spoiled; the limes indeed were
good, but of those, I could bring only a few.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I returned
thither again, but to my great surprise, found all the
grapes spread about, trod to pieces, and abundance
eaten, which made me conclude there were wild
beasts theredaouts. To prevent this happening
again, I gathered. a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the tree, both
to keep them unhurt, and that they might cure and
dry i, the sun; and having well loaded myself with

limes and lemons, I returned once more to my old
place of residence.
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of this val-
ley, the pleasantness of its situation, its security from
storms, and the delightfulness of the adjacent woods,
I concluded I was settled in the worst part of the
country, and therefore was thinking to remove my
But when I considered again, that though it was
pleasant, it was off from the sea side, where there
was a possibility, some time or other, a ship might
either be driven or sail by; and that to' inclose my-
self among hills and woods, must certainly put an end
to my hopes of deliverance; I resolved to let my
castle remain where Providence had first placed it.
Yet, so delighted was I with this place, that I made
a little kind of bower, surrounding it with a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and
filled with bulrushes : and having spent a great part
of the month of July, I think it was the first of Au-
gust before I began to enjoy my labour.
August 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I
took them from the trees, and they proved excellent
good raisins of the sun : the most of which I carried
to my cave: and happy for me I did so, by which I
saved the best part of my winter food.
August 14. This day it began to rain; and though
I had made me a tent like the other, yet having no
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat to, I was obliged to return to
my old castle, the rain continued more or less every
day, till the middle of October; ad sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days. This season I found my family to in-
crease: for orie of my cats that had run away froi
me, and which I thought had been dead, retuned

about August, with three kittens at her heels, like
herself; from these cats proceeded such numbers,
that I was forced to kill and destroy them as I would
do wild beasts or vermin.
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir out, it
raining incessantly; when beginning to want food,
I was compelled to venture twice, the first of which
times I shot a goat, and afterwards found a very
large tortoise. The manner of regulating my food
was thus: a bunch of raisins served me for my break-
fast; a piece of goat's flesh or turtle, boiled for my
dinner, and two or three turtle eggs for my supper.
While the rain lasted, I daily worked two or three
hours at enlarging my cave, and, by degrees, worked
it on towards one side of the hill, and made a door,
or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall,
and so I came in and out this way. But after I had
done this, I was troubled to see myself thus exposed;
though I could not perceive any thing to fear, a goat
being the biggest creature I had seen upon this island.
September 30. Casting up the notches on my
post, they amounted to 365. I concluded this to
be the anniversary of my landing; aAil therefore,
humbly prostrating myself on the ground, confessing
my sins, acknowledging God's rqwhteous judgments
upon me, and praying to Jesus Ch rst to nave mercy
upon me, I fasted for twelve hours, till the going
down of the sun; and then eating a biscuit and a
bunch of grapes, laid me on a bed, and with great
comfort, took my night's repose. Till this time, I
seldom had distinguished the Sabbath-day; but now
I made a long% notch than ordinary, for the days of
rest, and divided the weeks as well as I could. though
Found I had lost a day or two in my account. My
ink failing soon after, I omitted in my daily memo-
randum, things of an indifferent nature, and contented .
"* ; N t

myself to write down only the m.:lt. IL-!:i,-.1e
events of my life. The rainy riry. seac on ap-
peared now regular to me, and -.I' II. nc- I I IIht me
how to provide for them; yet in on.- il.;ii I :,i go-
ing to relate, my experience very ,nv.:h I i.ll me.
You may call to mind, what I have mentioned of
some barley and rice which I had save}-; about
thirty stalks of the former, and twenty oft'fe latter;
and, at that time, the sun being in its --.iiilin L .I -i-
tion, going from me, together, with ti,: r.din,. ,nide
me conclude it a very proper season to -.1 f Ac-
cordingly I dug up a piece of gro,.I,. Ni; 1 in1V
wooden spade, and dividing it in two parts, sowed
abort two-thirds of my seed, preserving by me a
handful of each. And happy it was I did so; for no
rains failing, it was choked up, and never appeared
above the earth till the wet season came again, and
then part of it grew, as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial; and
seeking for a moirter piece of qrou.rmd near my bower,
I there sowed the rest of my seed in February, which,
by having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, yielded a noble crop, and sprung up very
pleasantly. I had still saved part of the seed, not
daring to venture all; and by the time I found out
the proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might ex-
pect every year, two seed-times and two harvests,
my stock amounted to above half a peck of each sort
of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes,
which I had cut from th'e trees, shot out like wil-
lows, the first year after lopping their heads. I was
ignorant of the tree I cut them from; but they grew
so regularly bU dutiful, that they made a most lively
appearance, and so flourished in three years time,
that I resolved to cut more of them ; and these soon

growing, made a glorious fence, as afterwards I shall
And now I perceived that the seasons of the year
might generally be divided, not into summer and
winter, as in Europe, but into wet and dry seasons,
as in this manner.
From February 15, Rainy, sun coming near the
To April 15, E f.inox, 2 months.
From April 15, Dry, sun getting north from
To -August 15, the line, 4 months.
From f August 15, Wet, the sun being then come
To 1 October 15, back, 2 months.
Fiom f October 15, ) Dry, sun running south of
To February 15, the line 4 months.
The wet seasons would continue longer or shorter,
as the wind continued or ceased to blow. But hav-
ing found the ill consequences of being abroad in the
rain, I took care before hand to furnish myself with
provisions: and, during the wet months, sat within
doors as much as possible. At this time, I contrived
to make many handy things that I wanted, though it
cost me much labour and pains, before I could ac-
complish them. The first I tried, was to make a
basket; but all the twigs I could get, proved so brittle,
that I could not then perform it. It now proved of
great use tome, that when a boy, I took great delight
in standing at a basket makers, in the same town
where my father lived, to view his men at work:
like other boys being curious to see the manner oi
thbir working these things, and very officious to as-
sist, I perfectly earned the method of it, and wanted
M~lb@ng but the tools. And it coming into my mind,
it the twigs of that tree of which I made my stakes,
A- bigte as tough as a sallow, willow, or osiers grow
.- bIngland, I resolved to make an experiment
Ifdwent the next day to my country scat, and fCo.nd

some fit for my turn; and after cutting down a quan-
tity with my hatchet, I dried them in my pale, and
when fit to work with, carried them to my cave,
where I employed myself in making several sorts of
baskets, insomuch that I could put in whatsoever I
pleased. It is true, they were not cleverly made, yet
they served my turn upon all occasions.
But still I wanted two necessary things. I had no
cask to hold my liquor, except two almost full of
rum, a few bottles of an ordinary size, and some
square case bottles; neither had I a pot to boil any
thing in, only a large kettle, unfit to make broth, or
stew a bit of meat: I wanted likewise, at the begin-
ning of this dry season, a tobacco-pipe; but for this
I afterwards found an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my second row
of stakes. But remembering that when I travelled up
to the brook, I had a mind to see the whole island.
I now resumed my intention, and taking my dog, gun,
hatchet, two biscuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins,
with a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
I began my journey. Having passed the vale where
my bower stood, I came within view of the sea ly-
ing to the west; when, it being a clear day, I fairly
described land, extending from the west to the south-
west, about 10 or 15 leagues, as I concluded; but
could not say whether it was an island or a conti-
nent, Neither could I tell what this place might be;
only thought it was part of America, and where I
might have been in a miserable condition had I
landed. Again I considered, that if this was the
Spanish coast, certainly, one time or the other, I
should see some ships pass by; and if it was not, then
it must be the savage coast, between the Spanial
country and Brazil, which abounds with cannib4ls.r
man eaters.


As I proceeded forward, I found this side of the
island much more pleasant than mine; the fields-fra-
grant, adorned with sweet flowers and verdant grass,
together with several very fine woods. There were
parrots in plenty, which made me long for oneto be
- my companion; but it was with great difficulty I
could knock one down with my stick; and I kept
him at home some years, before I could get him to
call me by name.
-In the low grounds I found various sorts of harea~
and foxes, as I took them to be, but much different,
from those in England. Several of these 1 killed,
but never ate them; neither indeed had'I any occa-
sion: for abounding with goats, pigeons, turtle, and
grapes, I could defy any market to furnish me a bet-
ter table. In this journey I did not travel above two
miles a day, because I took several turns and wind-
ings, to see what discoveries I could make, returning
weary enough to the place were I designed to rest
all night, which was either in a tree, or to a place
which I surrounded with stakes, that no wild crea-
ture might suddenly surprise me. When I came to
the sea-shore, I was amazed to see the splendour of
it. Its strand was covered with shells of the most
beautiful fish, and constantly abounding with innu-
merable turtles, and fowls of many kinds, which I
was ignorant of, except those called penguins. I
might have shot as many as I pleased, but was spar-
ing of my ammunition, rather choosing to kill a she-
goat, which I did with much difficulty, on account of
the flatness of the country.
SNow, though this journey produced the mostpleas-
ing satisfaction, yet my habitation was so much to
.my liking, that I did not repine at my being seated
oi the worst part of the island. I continued my
journey, travelling about twelve miles further towards

x **-*


the east, where I set a great pile on the shore for a
mark, concluding that my next journey should bring
me to the other side of the island, east from my cas-
tle, and so round till I came to my post again. As I
had a constant view of the country, I thought I could
not miss my way; but scarce had I travelled three
miles, when I descended into a very large valley, so
surrounded with hills covered with wood, that having
no guide but the sun, and to add to my misfortune,
the weather proving very hazy, I was obliged to re-
turn to my post by the sea-side, and so backwards the
same way I came. In this journey my dog surprised
a kid, and would have killed it had I not prevented
him. As I had often been thinking of getting a kid
or two, and so raising a breed of tame goats to supply
me after my ammunition was spent, I tieo this op-
portunity of begriiing : ~ii, haiW i i made a collar
for this little creature, with a string made of rope-
yarn, I brought it to my bower, and there inclosed
and left him; and having spent a month in this jour-
ney, at length I returned to my old habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when I re-
turned to my little castle, and reposed myself in my
hammock. After my journey I rested myself a week,
which time I employed in making a cage for my
pretty poll. 1 now began to recollect the poor kid
I had left in the bower, and immediately went to
fetch it home. When I came there, I found the young
creature almost starved; I gave it some food, and
tied it as before; but there was no occasion, for it
followed me like a dog; and as I constantly fed it,
became so loving, gentle, and fond, that it com-
menced to be one of my domestics, and would never
leave me.
The /rainy season of the autumnal equinox being
now come, I kept the 39th of September in the most


solemn manner, as usual, it being the third year of
my abode in the island. I spent the whole day in
acknowledging God's mercies, in giving thanks for
making this solitary life as agreeable, and less sinful,
than that of human society; and for the communica-
tion of his grace to my soul, in supporting, comfort-
ing, and encouraging me to depend upon his Provi-
dence, and hope for his eternal presence in the world
to come.
Indeed, I often did consider how much more hap-
py I was, in this state of life, than in that accursed
manner of living I formerly used; sometimes, how-
ever, when hunting, or viewing the country, the an-
guish of my soul would break out upon me, and my
very heart would sink within me, to think of the
woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in; and how
I was a prisoner locked up within the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness,
without hopes, and without redemption. In this con-
dition, I would often wring my hands, and weep like
a child: and even sometimes in the middle of my
work, this fit would often take me; and then I would
sit down and sigh, looking on the ground for an hour
or two together, till such time as my grief got vent
in a flood of tears.
One morning, as I was fully employed in this man-
ner I opened my Bible, when immediately I fixed my
eyes on these words. "I will never leave thee, nor
forsake thee !" Surely, if God does not forsake me,
what matters it, since he can make me more happy
in this state of life, than if I enjoyed the greatest
splendour in the world ? And whenever I opened 4r
shut the Bible, I blessed kind Providence, that direct-
ed my good friend in England to send it among my
goods without my order, and for assisting me to save
it from the power of the raging ocean.

44 .*.


Arid now beginning my third year, my several
daily employment were- these: First, My duty to
Heaven, and diligently reading the Holy Scriptures,
which I did twice or thrice everyday; Secondly,
Seeking provisions with my gun, which commonly
took me up, when it did not rain, three hours every
morning; Thirdly, The ordering, curing, preserving,
and cooking what I had killed or catched 'for my
supply, which took me up a great part of the day;
for in the middle of the day, the sun being in its
height, it was so hot, that I could not stir out; so
that I had but four hours in the evening to work in;
and then the want of tools, of assistance, and skill,
wasted a great deal of time to little purpose, I was
no less than two and forty days making a board, fit
for a long shelf, which two sawyers, with their tools
and saw-pit, would have cut out of the same tree in
half a day. It was of a large tree, as my board.was
to be broad. I was three days in cutting it down,
and two more in lopping off the boughs, and reducing
it to a piece of timber. Thus I hacked and hewed
off each side, till it became light to move; then I
turned it, made one side of it smooth and flat as a
board from end to end, then turned it downward, cut-
ting the other side, till I brought the plank to be
about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.
Any body may judge my great labour and fatigue. in
such a piece of work; but this I went through with
patience, as also many other things that my circum-
stances made necessary for me to do.
The harvest months, November and December,
were now at hand, in which I had the pleasing pros-
pect of a very good crop. But here I met with a
new misfortune, for the goats and hares, having tast-.'
ed of the sweetness of the blade, kept it so short that,
it had no strength to shoot up into stalk. To prevent'


this, I enclosed it with' a hedge, and by day shot
some of its devourers; and my dog, which I had
tied to the field-gate, keeping barking all night, so
frightened these creatures that I got entirely rid of
But, no sooner did I get rid of these, than other
enemies appeared; to wit, whole flocks of several
sorts of birds, who only waited till my back was
turned to ruin me. So much did this provoke me,
that I let fly, and killed three of the malefactors; and
afterward served them as they do notorious thieves
in England, hung them up in chains as a terror to
others. And, indeed, so good an effect had this, that
they not only forsook the corn, but all that part of
the island, so long as these criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end of
December, which was my second harvest, I reaped it
with a scythe, made of one of my broad swords. I
had no fatigue in cutting down my first crop it was
so slender. The ears I carried home in a basket, rub-
bing the grain out with my hands, instead of thresh-
ing it; and, when my harvest was over, found my
half peck of seed had produced nearly two bushels of
rice, and two bushels and a half of barley. And now
I plainly foresaw, that, by God's goodness, I should
be furnished with bread: but yet I was concerned,
because I knew not how to grind or make meal of my
corn, neither knew I how to bake it into bread. I
would not, however, taste any of the crop, but re
solved to preserve it against next season, and, in the
mean while, use my best endeavours to provide my-
self with other food.
But where were my labours to end ? the want of a '
plough to turn up the earth, or shovel to dig it, I con-
quered by making me a wooden spade. The want
of a harrow I supplied, by dragging over the corn a,


great bough of a tree. When it was growing, I was
forced to fence it: when ripe, to mow it, carry it
home, thresh it it, part it from the chaff, and save it.
And, after all, I wanted a mill to grind it, a sieve to
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it. This set my brains to work, to
find some expedient for every one of these necessa-
ries, against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was to pre-
pare me more land. I pitched upon two large flat pieces
of ground, near my castle, for that purpose, in which
I sowed my seed, and fenced it with a good hedge.
This took me up three months: by which time, the
wet season coming on, and the rain keeping me within
doors. I found several occasions to employ myself,
and, while at work, used to divert myself with talking
to my parrot, teaching him to know and speak his
own name Poll, the first welcome word I ever heard
spoken in the island. I had been a long time contriv-
ing how to make earthen vessels, which I wanted ex-
tremely; and when I considered the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but ifl could find any such clay, I might
botch up a pot, strong enough, when dried in the sun,
to bear handling, and to hold any thing that was dry,
as corn, meal, and other things.
To be short, the clay I found; but it would occa-
sion the most serious person to smile, to see what
awkward ways I took, and what ugly misshapen things
I made; how many either fell out or cracked by the
violent heat of the sun, and fell in pieces when they
were removed, so that I think it was two months be-
fore I could perfect any thing; and even then
but two clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars.
These, however, I very gently placed in wicker bas-
kets, made on purpose for them, and between the pot
and the baskets, stuffed it full of rice and barley straw;


and these I presumed would hold my dried corn, and
perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised. As
for the smaller things, I made them with better suc-
cess; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, the sun baking them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely necessary,
and that was an earthen pot, not only to hold r
liquid, but also to bear the fire, which none of these
could do. It once happened that as I was put ing
out my fire, I found therein a broken piece of one of
my vessels, burnt hard as a rock, and red red as a tile.
This made me think of burning some pots; and hav-
ing no notion of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead,
I fixed three large pipkins, and two or three pots in
a pile one upon another. The fire I piled round the
the outside, and dry wood on the top, till I saw the
pots in the inside red hot, and found that they did
not crack at all: and when I perceived them perfect
ly red, I let them stand in the fire about five or six
hours, till the clay melted by the extremity of the
heat, and would have run to glass had I suffered it;
upon which, I slacked my fire by degrees, till the
redness abated; and watching them till the morning,
I found I had three very good pipkins, and two
earthen pots, as well burnt and fit for my turn as I
could desire.
The first use to which I turned my pipkins, was to
make some salt, which I had long wanted. For this
purpose, I filled them with sea-wAter, and kept it
slowly boiling over the fire, till the whole of the wa-
ter had boiled away in steam, leaving, at the bottom
of the vessel, a thin crust of salt, which I found very
good for giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a stone-
mortar to beat some corn in, instead of a mill to grind
it. Here, indeed, I was at a great loss, as not being

fit for a stone-cutter; and many days I spent to fin&
out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and make
fit for a mortar, and strong enough to bear the weight
of a pestle, that would break the corn without filling
it with sand. But all the stones of the island being of
a mouldering nature, rendered my search fruitless;
and then I resolved to look out a great block of hard
wood; which having found, I formed it by my axe
and hammer, and then, with infinite labour, made a
hollow in it, just as the Indians of Brazil make their
canoes. When I had finished this I made a great
pestle of iron-wood, and then laid them up against
my succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve, to sift
my meal and part it from the bran and husk. Having
no fine thin canvass to search the meal through, I
could not tell what to do. What linen I had was re-
duced to rags; I had goat's hair enough, but neither
tools to work it, nor did I know how to spin it. At
length, I remembered I had some neck-cloths of ca-
lico or muslin of the sailors, which I had brought out
of the ship, and with these, I made three small sieves
proper enough for the work.
I come now to consider the baking part. The want
of an oven I supplied, by making some earthen pans
very broad, but not deep. When I had a mind to
bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, the tiles of
which I had made myself, and when the wood was
burnt into live coals, I spread them over it, till it be-
came very hot; then sweeping them away, I set down
my loaves, and whelming down the earthen pots upon
them, drew the ashes and coals all around the outside
of the pots to continue the heat; :ind in this manner
I baked my barley loaves, as well as if I had been a
complete pastry cook, and also made of the rice. se-
veral cakes and puddings.

It is no wonder that all these things took me up the
best part of a year, since what intermediate time I had,
was bestowed in managing my new harvest and hus-
bandry; for in the proper season I reaped my corn,
carried it home and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub, instead of thrashing it.
And now indeed, my corn increased so much, that it
produced me twenty bushels of barley, and as much
of rice, that I not only began to use it freely, but was
thinking how to enlarge my barns, and resolved to
sow as much at a time as would be sufficient for a
whole year
All this while, the prospect of land, which I had
seen from the other side of the island, ran in my
mind. I still meditated a deliverance from this place,
though the fear of greater misfortunes might have
deterred me from it. For allowing that I had attain-
ed that place, I ran the hazard of being killed and
eaten by the devouring cannibals; and if theywere not
so, yet I might be slain, as other Europeans had been,
who fell into their hands. Notwithstanding all this,
my thoughts ran continually upon that shore. I now
wished for the long boat with the shoulder of mutton
sail. I went to th, chip's boat, that had been cast a
great way on the shore in the late storm. She was
removed but a little; and her bottom being turned
up by the impetuosity and surge of the waves and
wind, I fell to work with all the strength I had, and
with levers and rollers I had cut from the wood, to
turn her, and repair the damages she had sustained.
This work took me up three or four weeks, when
finding my little strength all in vain, I fell to under-
mining it by digging away the sand, and so to make
it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and
guide it in the fall. But after this was done, I was
still unable to stir it up, or to get under it, much less

to move it forward towards the water, and so I was
forced to give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not frighten me.
I began to think, whether it was not possible for me
to make a canoe or Perigua, such as the Indians make
of the trunk of a tree. But here I lay under particu-
lar inconveniences; want of tools to make it, and
want of hands to move it into the water when it was
made. However, to work I went upon it, stopping
all the inquiries I could make with this very simple
answer I made to myself, let's first make it, I'll war-
rant I'll find some way or other to get it along when
it is done.
I first cut down a cedar tree, which was five feet
ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump,
and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for a space,
and then parted into branches. Twenty days was I
hacking and hewing it at the bottom, fourteen more in
cutting off the branches and limbs, and a whole month
in shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As for the inside,
I was three weeks with a mallet and chisel, clearing
it in such a manner, as that it was big enough to carry
26 men, much bigger than any canoe.I ever saw in
my life, and consequently sufficient to transport me
and all my effects to that wished for shore I so ar-
dently desired.
Nothing remained now, but indeed the greatest
difficulty, to get it into the water, it lying about 100
yards from it. To remedy the first inconvenience,
which was a rising hill between the boat and the
creek, with wonderful pains and labour I dug into
the surface of the earth, and made a declivity. But
when this was done, all the strength I had was as
insufficient to move it, as it was when I first made tLe
attempt. I then proceeded to measure the distance


of ground, resolving to make a canal, in order to
bring the water to the canoe, since I could not bring
the canoe to the water. But as this seemed to be
impracticable to myself alone under the space of
eleven or twelve years, it brought me into some sort
of consideration; so that I concluded this also to be
impossible, and the attempt vain. I now saw, and
not before, what stupidity it is to begin work before
we reckon its costs, or judge rightly our own abilities
to go through with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year expired
from the time I was cast on this island.. At this time
I did not forget my anniversary; but kept it with ra-
ther greater devotion than before. For now my
hopes being frustrated, I looked upon this world as a
thing I had nothing to do with; and very well might
I say, as father Abraham said unto Dives, Between
me and thee, there is a gulf fixed." And indeed I
was separated from its wickedness too, having neither
the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride
of life; I had nothing to covet, being lord, king, and
emperor over the whole country I had in possession,
without dispute and without control: I had load-
ings of corn, plenty of turtles, timber in abundance,
and grapes above measure. What was all the rest
to me? The money I had lay by me as despicable
dross, which I would freely have given for a gross of
tobacco pipes or a hand-mill to grind my corn: in a
word, the nature and experience of these things dic-
tated to me this just reflection. That the good things
of this world are no further good to us than as they
are for our use; and that whatever we may heap
up, we can but enjoy as much as we use and no
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy than
usual. Every time I sat down to meat, I did eat with

thankfulness, admiring the providential hand of Godo
who, in this wilderness had spread a table to me.
And now I considered what I enjoyed, rather than
what I wanted, compared my present condition with
what I at first expected it should be; how I should
have done, if I had got nothing out of the ship; thai
I must have perished before I had caught fish or tur-
tles; or lived, had I found them, like a mere savage,
by eating them raw, and pulling them to pieces with
my claws, like a beast. I next compared my station
to that which I deserved; how undutiful I had been
to my parents; how destitute of the fear of God;
how void of every thing that was good; and how
ungrateful for those abundant mercies I had received
from heaven, being fed, as it were by a miracle, even
as great as Elijah's being fed by ravens; and cast on
a place where there are no venomous creatures to
poison or devour me; in short, making God's tender
mercies matter of great consolation, I relinquished
all sadness, and gave way to contentment.
As long as my ink continued, which with water 1
made last as long as I could, I used to minute down
the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
The next thing that wasted after my ink, was the
biscuit, which I had brought out of the ship; and
though I allowed myself but one cake a day for about
a twelvemonth, yet I was quite out of bread for
nearly a year, before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and
my linen had been gone long before. However, I
had preserved about three dozen of the sailor's che-
quered shirts which proved a great refreshment to
me, when the violent beams of the sun would not
suffer me to bear any of the seamen's heavy watch-
eoats; which made me turn tailor, and, after a miser-

able botching manner, convert them to jackets. To
preserve my head, I made a cap of goatskins, with
the hair outwards to keep out the rain ; which indeed
served me so well, that afterward I made a waist-
coat and open-kneed breeches of the same: and then
I contrived a sort of umbrella, covering it with skins,
which not only kept out the heat of the sun, but the
rain also. Thus being easy and settled-in my mind,
my chief happiness was to converse with God, in
most heavenly and comfortable ejaculations.
For five years after this, I cannot say any extraordi-
nary thing occurred to me. My chief employment was
to cure my raisins, and plant my barley and rice, of
both which I had a year's provision before-hand. But
though I was disappointed in my first canoe, I made
it, at intermediate times, my business to make a se-
cond of much inferior size: and it was two years be-
fore I had finished it. But as I perceived it wold
in no wise answer my design of sailing to the other
shore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour
round the island, to see what further discoveries I
could make. To this intent, after having moved her
to the water, and tried how she would sail, I fitted
up a little mast to my boat, and made a sail of the
ship's sails that lay by me. I then made lockers or
boxes at the end of it to put in necessaries, provision,
and ammunition, which would preserve them dry
either from the rain, or the spray of the sea; and, in
the inside of the boat, I cut me a long hollow place
to lay my gun, and to keep it dry, made a cover for
it. My umbrella, I fixed in a step in the stern, like
a mast, to keep the heat of the sun off me. And now
resolving to see the circumference of my little king-
dom, I victualled my ship for the voyage, puttingin
two dozen of my barley bread loaves, and an earthen
pot full of parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half a

L k

* 7


goat, powder and shot, and two watch-coats. It was
the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign,
or captivity, that I set out on this voyage; which
was much longer than I expected, being obliged to
put farther out, by reason of the rocks that lay a
great way in the sea.
And indeed so much did these rocks surprise me,
that I was for putting back, fearing that if I ventured
farther, it would be out of my power to return: in
this uncertainty I came to anchor just off the shore,
to which I waded with my gun on my shoulder, and
then climbing up a hill, which overlooked that point,
I saw the full extent of it, and so resolved to run all
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a violent
current running to the east, coming very close to the
point; which I the more carefully observed, thinking
it dangerous, and that when I came to it, I might be
driven into the sea by its force, and not able to re-
turn to the island : and certainly it must have been
so, had I not made this observation; for on the other
side was a like current, with this difference, that it
set off at a greater distance; and I perceived there
was a strong eddy under the land; so that my chief
business was to work out of the first current, and
conveniently get into the eddy. Two days I staid
here, the wind blowing very briskly east south-east,
which being contrary to the current, leaves a great
breach of the sea upon the point; so it was neither
fit for me to keep too near the shore, on account of
the breach ; nor stand at too great a distance for fear
of the streams. That night the wind abating, it grew
so calm, that I ventured out: and here I may be a
monument to all rash and ignorant pilots; for I was
no sooner come to the point, and not above the boat's
length from shore, but I was got into deep water.

with a current like a mill-race, which drove my boat
along so violently, that it was impossible for me to
keep near the edge of it, for it forced me more and
more out from the eddy to the left of me; and all I
could do with my paddles was useless, there being
no wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite lost,
since, as the current ran on both sides of the island,
I was very certain they must join again, and then I
bad no hopes but of perishing for want, in the sea,
after what provision I had was spent, or before, if a
storm should happen to arise.
Who can conceive the present anguish of my
mind at this calamity? with longing eye did I look
upon my little kingdom, and thought the island the
pleasantest place in the universe. Happy, thrice
happy desert, said I, shall I never see thee more?
Wretched creature! whither am I going? Why did I
murmur at my lonesome condition, when ow I would
give the whole wide world to be thither again? While
I was thus complaining, I found myself to be driven
about two leagues into the sea; however, I laboured
till my strength was far spent, to keep my boat as
far north as I possibly could, to that side of the cur-
rent where the eddy lay. About noon I perceived
a little breeze of wind, spring up from the south
south-east, which overjoyed my heart; and I was
still more elated, when in about half an hour, it blew
a gentle fine gale., Had any thick weather sprung
up, I had been lost another way: for having no com-
pass on board, I should never have found the way to
steer towards the island, if once it had disappeared;
but it proving the contrary, I set up my mast again,
spread my sail and stood away northward, as much
as I could, to get rid of the current. And no sooner
did the boat begin to stretch away, but I perceived

by the clearness of the water, a change of the cur-
rent was near; for, where it was strong, the water
was foul; and where it was clear the current abated.
Those who have been in the like calamities with
my own, may guess my present excess of joy, how
heartily I ran my boat in the stream of this eddy,
and how joyfully I spread my sail to the refreshing
wind, standing cheerfully before it, with a smart tide
under foot. By the assistance of this eddy, I was
carried above a league home again, when, being in*
the wake of the island, betwixt the two currents, I
found the water to be in a sort of a stand. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within a
league of the island, and perceived the points of the
rock, which caused this disaster, stretching out, as I
observed before, to the southward, which throwing
off the current more southerly, had occasioned ano-
ther eddy to the north. But having a fair brisk gale,
I stretched across this eddy, and in an hour came
within a mile of the shore, where I soon landed to
my unspeakable comfort; and after an humble pros-
tration, thanking God for imy deliverance, with a re-
solution to lay all thoughts of escaping aside, I
brought my boat safe to a little cove, and laid me
down to take a welcome repose. When I awoke, I
was considering how I might get my boat home;
and coasting along the shore I came to a good bay,
which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where, finding a
harbour, I stowed her as safe as if she had been in a
dry dock, made on purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the place
where before I had travelled on foot: so taking no-
thing with me, except my gun and umbrella, I began
my journey, and in the evening came to my bower,
where I again laid me down to rest. I had not slept
long, before I awakened in great surprise, by a strange


voice that called me several times, Robin, Robin,
Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin! Where are you,
Robinson Crusoe? Where are you? Where have
you been?
So fast was I asleep, that at first I did not awake
thoroughly; but hall asleep, and half awake, I
thought I dreamed that some body spoke to me. But
as the voice repeated, Robinson Crusoe," several
times, being terribly frightened, I started up in the
jutmost confusion; and, no sooner were my eyes
fully open, but I beheld my pretty poll sitting on the
top of the hedge, and soon knew that it was he that
called me; for just in such bewailing language, I
used to talk and teach him; which he so exactly
learned, that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his
bill close to my face, and cry, poor Robinson Cru-
soe, where are you? where have you been? how
came you here ?" and such like prattle I had con-
stantly taught him. But even though I knew it to
be the parrot, it was a great time before I could ad-
just myself: being amazed how the creature got
thither, and that he should fix about that place, and
no where else. But now, being assured it could be
no other than my honest "Poll," my wonder ceased,
and reaching out my hand, and calling Poll," the
creature came to me familiarly, and perched upon
my thumb, as he was wont, constantly prating to
me with "poor Robinson Crusoe, and how did I
come here, and where had I been ?" as if the bird
was overjoyed to see me, and so I took him home
along with me. I was now pretty well cured of
rambling to sea; yet I could wish my boat, which
had cost me so much trouble and pains, on this side
the island once more, but this, indeed was impracti-
cable. I therefore began to lead a very retired life,
living nearly a twelvemonth in a very contented


manner, wanting for nothing but conversation. As to
mechanic labours, which my necessities obliged me
to, I fancied I could, upon occasion, make a tolerable
carpenter, were the poor tools I had to work withal,
but good. Besides, as I improved. in my earthen-
ware, I contrived to make them with a wheel, which
( found much easier and better, making my work
shapely, which before was rude and ugly. But, I
think, I never was so much elevated with my own
performance or project as when ab!e to make a to-
oacco-pipe, which, though it proved an awkward
clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and carried the
smoke perfectly well, to my great satisfaction.
I also improved my wicker ware, made me abun-
dance of necessary baskets, which, though not very
handsome, were very handy and convenient to fetch
things home in, as also for holding my stores, barley,
rice, and other provisions.
My powder beginning to fail, made me examine
after what mariner I should kill the goats or birds,
to live on, after it was all gone. Upon which I con-
trived many ways to ensnare the goats, and see if I
could catch them alive, particularly a she-goat with
At last I had my desire ; for, making pit-falls and
traps, baited with barley and rice, I found, one morn-
ing, in one of them, an old he goat, and in the other,
three kids, one male, and two females.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could not
bring him away. But I forgot the old proverb,
" That hunger will tame a lion :" for had I kept him
three or four days without provisions, and then given
him some water with a little corn, he would have
been as tame as a young kid. The other creatures
I bound with strings together; but I had great diffi-
culty, before I could bring them to my habitation.

It was some time before they would feed ; but, throw-
ing them sweet corn, it so much tempted them, that
they began to be tamer. From hence I concluded,
that if I designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh,
when my ammunition was spent, the tamely breed-
ing them up, like a flock of sheep, about my settle-
ment, was the only method I could take. I concluded
also that I must separate the wild from the tame, or
else they would-always run wild as they greW up;
and the best way for thii was, to have some enclosed
piece of ground, well fenced, either with a hedge or
pale, to keep them so effectually, that hose within
might not break out, nor those without break in.
Such an undertaking was very great for one pair of
hands; but as there was an absolute necessity for
doing it, my first care was to find a convenient piece
of ground, where there was likely to be herbage for
them to eat, water to drink, and cover to keep them
from the sun.
Here again, I gave another instance of my igno-.
rance and inexperience, pitching upon a piece of
meadow land so large, that had I enclosed it, the
hedge or pale must have been at least two mil's
about. This thought came into my head, after I had
carried it on, I believed, about fifty yards : I there- '
fore altered my scheme, and resolved to enclose a
piece of ground about 150 yards in length, and 100
in breadth, large enough for as many as would main-
tain me, till such time as my flock increased, and
then I could add more ground. I now vigorously
prosecuted my work, and it took me about three
months in hedging the first piece; in which time I
tethered the three kids in the best part of it;.feeding
them as near me as possible, to make them familiar;
and, indeed, I very often would carry some-earfi -r
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them outl T

*' ..i,' '^" ... :,

my hand: by which they grew so tame, that when
my enclosure was finished, and I had let them loose,
they would run after me for a handful of corn. This
indeed answered my end: and in a year and a hal's
time, I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all:
and in two years after, they amounted to forty-three,
besides what I had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which, I enclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to drive them into,
that I might take them as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional bless-
ings; for I not only had plenty of goat's flesh, but
milk too, which in the beginning, I did not so much
as think of. And, indeed, though I had never milked
a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese
ai-ide, yet, after some essays and miscarriages, I made
me both, and never afterwards wanted.
How mercifully can the Almighty comfort- his
creatures, even in the midst of their greatest calami-
ties! How can he sweeten the bitterest evils, and
give us reason to magnify him in dungeons and pris-
ons ; what a bounteous table was here spread in the
wilderness for me, where I expected nothing at first,
but to perish for hunger.
Certainly any one would have smiled to see me at
dinner. There sat my r9yal majesty, an absolute
prince and ruler of my kingdom, attended by my di-
tiful subjects, whom, if I pleased, I could either hang,
draw, quarter, give them liberty, or take it away.
When I dined, I seemed a king, eating alone, none
daring to presume to do so till I had done. Poll, as
if he had been my principal courtvourite, was the
only person permitted to talk with me, My old, but
faithful dog, now grown exceedingly crazy, continu-
ally sat on my right hand; while mrtwo cats sat on
each side of the table, expecting a bit from my hand,


as a principal mark of my royal favour. These were
not the cats I had brought from the ship, they had
been dead long before, and interred near my habita-
tion, by my own hand, but a couple of their young
I had made tame; the rest ran wild into the woods,
and in time grew so impudent, as to return and plun-
der me of my stores, till such time as I shot a great
many, and the rest left me without troubling me any
more. In this plentiful manner did I live, wanting
for nothing but conversation. One thing indeed con-
cerned me, the want of my boat; I knew not which
way to get her round the island. One time I resolved
to go along the shore by land to her; but had any
one at home met such a figure, it would either have
affrighted him, or made him burst into laughter; nay,
I could not but smile myself at my habit, which I
think, in this place, will be very proper to describe.
The cap I wore upon my head, was great, high,
and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with a flap, or
pent-house hanging down behind, not only to keep,
the sun from me, but to shoot the rain off from fun-
ning into my neck, nothing being more perniciQtis
than the rain falling upon the flesh, in these climate.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung
down ,uch a length on each side, that it reached
down to the calves of my legs. As for shoes and
stockings, I had none, but made a resemblance of
something, I know not what to call them; they were
made like buskins, and laced on the sides like spatter-
dashes, barbarously shaped, like the rest of my habit.
I had a broad belt of goat's skin dried, girt round me
with a couple of thongs, instead of buckles; on each
of which, to supply the deficiency of sword and dag-
ger, hung my hatchet and saw. I had another belt,
not do broad, yet fastened in the same manner, which
.hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under

my left arm, hung two pouches, made of goat's skin,
to hold my powder and shot. My basket I carried
on by back, and my gun on my shoulder; and over
my head a great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella,
which however, next to my gun, was the most neces-
sary thing about me. As for my face, the colour
was not so swarthy as the Mulattoes, or as might
have been expected, from one who took so little care
of it, in a climate within nine or ten degrees of the
line. At one time my beard grew so long that it
hung down above a quarter of a yard; but as I had
both razors and scissors in store, I cut it all off, and
suffered none to grow, except a large pair of Maho-
metan whiskers, the like of which I had seen worn
by some Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed to
hang a hat upon,but of such a monstrous size, as would
have amazed any in England to have seen.
But all this was of no consequence here, there be-
ing none to observe my behaviour or habit. And so,
without fear and without control, I proceeded on my
journey, the prosecution of which, took me up five or
six days. I travelled along the sea shore, directly
to the place where I first brought my boat to an an-
chor, to get upon the rocks; but now having no boat
to take care of, I went over land a nearer way to. the
same height that I was before upon; when looking
forward to the point of the rock which lay out, and
which I was forced to double with my boat, I was
amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet, there
being no rippling motion, nor current, any more
than in other places. And now I was convinced,
that by observing the ebb and flow of the tide, I
might easily bring my boat round the island again.
But when I began to think of putting it in practice,
the remembrance of the late danger struck me with
such horror, that I took another resolution, though

more laborious; and this was to make a second ca-
noe, and so have one for one side of the island, and
one for the other.
I had now two plantations in the island; the first
my little fortification, fort, or castle, with many large
and spacious improvements, for by this time, I had
enlarged the cave behind me with several little caves,
one within another, to bold my baskets, corn, and
straw. The piles with which I made my wall, were
grown so lofty and great, as obscured my habitation
And near this commodious and pleasant settlement,
lay my well-cultivated and improved corn fields,
which kindly fielded me their fruits in their proper
season. My second plantation was that near my
country seat, or little bower, where my grapes flour-
ished, and where,having planted my stakes, I made en-
closures for my goats, so strongly fortified by labour
and time, that it was much stronger than a wall, and,
consequently, impossible for them to break through.
As for my bower itself, I kept it constantly in repair,
and cut the trees in such a manner, as made themn
grow wild, and form a most delightful shade. In the cen-
tre of this, stood my tent, thus erected. I had driven
four piles in the ground, spreading over it a piece of
the ship's sail, beneath which, I made me a sort of
couch, with the skins of the creatures I had slain, and
other things; and having laid thereon one of the
sailor's blankets, which I had saved from the wreck
of the ship, and covering myself with a great watch.
coat, I took up this place for my country retreat.
Very frequently, from this settlement, did I use to
visit my boat, and keep her in very good order. And
sometimes would I venture in her a cast or two from
shore, but no farther. But now I entreat your at-
tention, whilst I proceed to inform you of a new,
but most surprising scene of life which here befe me.

You may easily suppose, that, after having been
here so long, nothing could be more amazing, than
to see a huinan creature. One day it happened, that
going to my boat, I saw the print of a man's naked
foot on the shore, very evident on the sand, as the
toes, heels, and ev, ry p;irt of it. Had I seen a
monster of the most frightful shape, I could not have
been more confounded. My willing ears gave the
strictest attention. I cast my eyes around, but could
satisfy neither the one nor the other, I proceeded
alternately to every part of the shore, but with equal
effect; neither could I see any other mark, though
the sand about it was as susceptable to take impres-
sion as that which was so plainly stamped. Thus
struck with confusion and horror, I returned to my
habitation, frightened at every bush and tree, taking
every thing for men ; and possessed with the wildest
idea That night my eyes never closed. I formed
nothing but the most dismal imaginations. In a
word, all my religious hopes vanished, as though
I thought God would not now protect me by his
power, who had wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various chains of events are there in the life
of man! How changeable are our affections, accord-
ing to different circumstances We love to-day,
what we hate to-morrow; we shun one hour, what
we seek the next. This was evident in me in the
most conspicuous manner; for I, who had so much
before lamented my condition, in being banished
from all human kind, was now ready to expire, when
I considered that a man had set Lis foot on this deso-
late island. But 'whl.n I considered my station of
life, decreed by the infniitely wise and good provi-
dence of God, that I ought not to dispute my Crea-
tor's sovereignty, who had an undoubted right to
govern and dispose of his creatures as he thinks con-


venient; and that his justice and mercy could either
punish or deliver me, I say, when I considered all
this, I comfortably found it my duty to trust sincerely
in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly resign
myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words of the
sacred writings, came into my mind, "Call upon me
in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou shalt glorify me." Upon this sentence, rising
more cheerfully from my bed, I offered up my pray-
ers in the most devout manner; and when I had
done, taking up my Bible to read, these words ap-
peared first in my sight, "Wait on the Lord, and be
of good cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart:
Wait, I say, on the Lord." Such'divine comfort did
this give me, as to remove all cause of sadness upon
that occasion.
Thus, after a world of apprehensions and fears for
three days and nights, I at last ventured out of my
castle, and milked my goats, one of which was almost
spoiled for want of it. I next (though in great fear,)
visited my bower, and milked my flocks there also;
when growing bolder, I went down to the shore
again, and measuring the print of the foot to mine, to
see perhaps whether I myself had not occasioned
that mark, I found it much superior in largeness;
and so returned home, absolutely convinced, that
either some men had been ashore, or that the island
must be inhabited; and therefore that I might be sur-
prised before I was aware.
I now began to think of providing for my security,
and resolved in my mind many different schemes for
that purpose. I first proposed to cut down my en-
closures, and turn my tame cattle wild into the woods,
that the enemy might not find them, and frequent the
island in hopes of killing the same. Secondly, I was

for digging up my corn-fields for the very same rea-
son. And, lastly, I concluded to demolish my bower,
lest, seeing a place of human contrivance, they might
come farther, and find out and attack me in my
Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that night,
yet nature, spent and tired, submitted to a silent re-
pose the next morning, and then joining reason with
fear, I considered, that this delightful and pleasant -
island might not be so entirely forsaken as I might
think ; but that the inhabitants from the other shore
might sail, either with design or from necessity, by
* cross winds; and, if the latter circumstance, I had
reason to believe they would depart the first oppor-
tunity. However, my fear made me think of a place
of retreat upon an attack. I now repented that Ihad
made my door to come out beyond my fortification;
to remedy which, I resolved to make me a second
one: I fell to 'ork, therefore, and drove betwixt that
double row of trees, which I planted above twelve
years before, several strong piles, thickeningit with
pieces of timber and old cables, and strengthening the
foot of it with earth which I dug out of my cave ; I
also made me seven holes, wherein I planted my mus-
kets like cannon, fitting them into frames resembling
carriages. Tiis being finished with indefatigable
industry, for a great way every where, I planted
sticks of osiers like a wood, abiut twenty thousand
of them, leaving a large space between them and my
wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and
that they might not be sheltered among the young
trees, if they offered t:) approach the outer wall.
And indeed, scarce two yea.s had passed over my
head, when there appeare.'l a lively shady grove,
and in six it became a thick wood perfectly impassa-
ble For my safety I left no avenue to go in or out;


instead of which, I set -two ladders, one to a part of
the rock which was low, and then broke in, leaving
room to place another ladder upon that, so that when
I took those down, it nas impossible for any man to
descend without hurting himself; and if they had,
they would still be at the outside of my outer wall.
But, while I took all these measures of human pru-
dence for my own preservation, I was not altogether
unmindful of other afihirs. To preserve my stock of
tame. goats, that the enemy should not take all at
once, I looked out for the most retired part of the
island, which was' the place where I had lost myself
before mentioned, and there finding a clear piece of
land, containing three acres, surrounded with thick
woods, I wrought so hard, that in less than a month's
time, I fenced it so well round, that my flocks were
very well secured in it, and I put therein two he
goats, and ten she ones.
All this labour was occasioned purely by fearful
apprehensions, on account bf seeing the print of a
man's foot. And not contented yet with what I had
done, I searched for another place towards the west
part of the island, where I might also retain another
flock. Then wandering on this errand more to the
west of the island than ever I had yet done, and
casting my eyes towards the sea, methought 1 per-
ceived a boat at a great distance; but could not pos-
sibly tell what it was for want of my spy-glass. I
considered then, it was no strange thing to see the
print of a man's foot; and concluding them canni-
bals, blessed God for being cast on the other side of
the island, where none of the savages, as I thought
ever came. But when I came down the hill to the
shore, which was the south-west point of the island,
I was soon confirmed in my opinion; nor can any
one describe my horror and amazement, when I saw

. L6* .4

the ground spread with sculls, hands, feet, and bones
of human bodies; and particularly, I perceived a
space like a circle, in the midst of which had been a
fire, about which I conjectured those wretches sat,
and unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their fellow
The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful
spectacle, both confounded my senses, and made me
discharge from my stomach in an excessive manner.
I then returned towards my habitation; and in my
way thither shedding floods of tears, and falling down
on my bended knees, gave God thanks for making my
nature contrary to those wretches, and delivering me
so long out of their hands.
Though reason and my long residence here had
assured me, that the savages never came up to the
thick woody part of the country, and that I had no
reason to be apprehensive of a discovery, yet such
an abhorrence did I still retain, that for two years
after, I confined myself only to my three plantations;
I mean my castle, country seat, and enclosure in the
woods, though in process of time my dreadful appre-
hensions began to wear away.
Thus my circumstances for some time remained
very calm and undisturbed; though indeed, the ter-
ror which the savages had put me in, spoiled some
inventions for my own conveniences. One of my
projects was to brew me some beer : a very whimsi'
cal one indeed, when it is considered; that I had nei-
ther casks sufficient, nor could I make any to preserve
it in; neither had I hops to make it keep, yeast to
make it work, nor a copper or kettle to make it boil,
Perhaps, indeed, after some years, I might bring this
to bear, as I had done other things. But now my
inventions were placed another way; and day and
night I could think of nothing but how I might de

stroy some of these cannibals, when proceeding
their bloody entertainments; and so saving a vi
from being sacrificed, that he might afterwards
come my servant. Many were my contrivances
this purpose, and many more objections occur
after I had hatched them. I once contrived to dig 9
hole under the place where they made their fire, and
put therein five or six pounds of gunpowder, which
would consequently blow up all those that were near
it; but then I was loth to spend so much upon them,
lest it should not do that certain execution I desired,
and only affright and not kill them. Having laid this
design aside, I again proposed to myself to lie pri-
vately in ambush in some convenient place, with my
three guns double loaded, and let fly at them in the
midst of their dreadful ceremony; and having killed
two or three of them at every shot, fall upon the rest
suddenly with my three pistols, and let not one mo-
ther's son escape. This imagination pleased my fancy
so much that I used to dream of it in the night time.
To put my design in execution I was not long seek-
ing for a place convenient for my purpose, where
unseen I might behold every action of the savages.
Here I placed my two muskets, each of which was
loaded with a brace of slugs, and four or five smaller
bullets about the size of pistol bullets; the fowling
piece was charged with nearly a handful of the largest
swan shot, and in every pistol about four bullets.
And thus all things being prepared, no sooner did
the welcome light spread over the element, but I
would issue forth from my castle, and from a lofty
hill, three miles distant, try if I could see any inva-
ders approach unlawfully to my kingdom. But hav-
ing waited in vain two or three months, it grew very
tires6ome to me.
I now argued with myself, it was better for mW

-~ -*.&"


Never to attack, but to remain undiscovered as long
as I possibly could; that an opposite conduct would
certainly prove destructive; for as it was scarcely
to be supposed I could kill them all, I might be
either overpowered by the remainder, or that some
escaping might bring thousands to my certain de-
struction. And, indeed, religion took their part so
much as to convince me how contrary it was to my
duty, to be guilty of shedding human blood, innocent
blood, innocent as to me in particular, whatever they
are to one another; that I had nothing to do with it,
but leave it to the God of all power and dominion,
as I said before, to do therein what seemed conve-
nient to his heavenly wisdom. And, therefore, on
my knees I thanked the Almighty for delivering me
from bloody guiltiness, and begged his protection
that I might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I had rashly
begun, I never ascended the hill on that occasion
afterward; I only removed my boat, which lay on
the other side of the island, and every thing that be-
longed to her, towards the east, into a little cove,
that there might not be the least shadow of any boat
near, or habitation upon the island. My castle then
became my cell, keeping always retired in it, except
when I went out to milk my she-goats, or my little
flock in the wood, which was quite out of danger:
for sure I was, that these savages never came here
with expectation to find any thing, and consequently
never wandered from the coast; however, as they
might have several times been on shore, as well be-
fore as after my dreadful apprehensions, I looked
back with horror to think in what state I might have
been, had I suddenly met them, slenderly armed,
with one gun only loaded with small shot; and how
great would have been my amazement, if, instead of

i , t -


seeing the print of one man's foot, I had received
fifteen or twenty savages, who, having once set their
eyes upon me, by the swiftness of their feet, would
have left rne no possibility of escaping ? These
thoughts would sink my very soul, so that I would
fall into a deep melancholy, till such time as the con-
sideration of my gratitude to the divine Being moved
it from my heart. I then fell into a contemplation
of the secret springs of' Providence ; and how won-
derfully we are delivered, when insensible of it; and
when in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or
hesitation, what secret hint directs us, in the right
way when we intended to go out of it; nay perhaps
contrary to our busineshi, sense, or inclination.
Anxieties of mind, and tlle care of my preservation,
put a period to all future inventions and contri-
vances, either for accommodation, or convenience,
I now cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a
gun, or make a fire, lest either the noise should be
heard, or the smoke discover me. And on this ac-
count I used to burn my earthenware privately in a
cave, which I found in the wood, and which I made
convenient for that pu pose ; the principal cause that
-.,ii-. 't me here was to mnne charcoal, so that I
might bake and dress my bread and meat without
any danger.
At that time a curious accident happened to me,
which I shall now relate.
While I was cutting down some wood for making
my charcoal, I perceived a cavity behind a very thick
branch of underwood. Curious to look into it, I
attained its month, and perceived it sufficient for me
to stand upright in.
But when I had entered, having crept upon my
hands and feet :1- .i. i this strait, I found the roof
higher up, I think about twenty feet. But surely ne-

ver mortal saw such a glorious sight before! the
roof and walls of this cave reflected a hundred thou-
..: sand lights to me from my two candle:, as th )ugh
they were indented with shining gold, precious stones,
or sparkling diamonds. And indeed it was the most
delightful cavity or grotto of its kind that could be
desired, though entirely dark. The floor was dry
and level, and had a kind of gravel upon it; no nau-
seous venomous creatures to be seen here, neither
any damp or wet about it. I could find no fault but
in the entrance, and I began to think, that even this
might be very necessary for my defence, and there-
fore resolved to make it my principal magazine. I
brought hither two fowling-pieces and three mus-
kets, leaving only five pieces at my castle, planted in
the nature of cannon. In a barrel of gunpowder,
which I took out of the sea, I brought away about
sixty pounds of good powder, which was not da-
maged; and this, with a great quantity of lead for
bullets, I removed from my castle to this retreat, now
fortified both by art and nature.
I fancied myself now like one of the giants of old,
who were said to live in caves and holes among the
rocks, inaccessible to any but themselves, or, at
least, most dangerous to attempt. And now I defied
both the cunning and strength of the savages, either
to find me out or to hurt me.
I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my
reign, and my thoughts much easier than formerly,
having contrived several pretty amusements, and di-
versions to pass away the time in a pleasant manner.
By this time my pretty Poll had learned to speak
English, and pronounce his words very articulately
and plain; so that for many hours we used to chat
together after a very familiar manner, and he lived
no le than twenty-six years. My dog which was

nineteen years old, sixteen of which he lived with
me, died some time ago, of mere old age. As fod
my cats, they multiplied so fast, that I was forced to
kill or drive them into the woods, except two oi
three which became my particular favourites. Be-
sides these, I continually kept two or three house-
holds kids about me, which I taught to feed out ol
my hand, and two more parrots which could talk in-
differently, and call Robinson Crusoe, but not so ex-
cellently as the first, by my not taking so much pains
with them. I had also several sea fowls which I had
wounded and cut their wings; and growing tame
they used to breed among the low trees about my
castle walls, all of which made my abode very agree-
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the
enjoyments of this uncertain state of life, when we
least expect them! It was now the month of De-
cember, and the particular time in my harvest, which
required my attendance in the fields; when going
out pretty early in the morning, before it was day-
light, there appeared to me from the sea-shore, a
flaming light, about two miles from me at the east
end of the island, where I had observed some savages
had been before, not on the other side, but to my
great affliction it was on my side of the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual ap-
prehensions, that the savages would perceive my im-
provements, I returned directly to my castle, pulled
the ladder after me, making all things look as wild
and natural as I possibly could. In the next place, I
put myself in a posture of defence, loaded myr4' ,
kets and pistols, and committing Ged'j
protection, I resolved to defend myself till my last
breath. Two hours after, impatient foatintelligenc,
I set my ladder up to the side of the hill, where thki

..... _Ab.


was a flat place, and then pulling the ladder after me,
ascending to the top, where laying myself on my
belly, with my perspective glass I perceived no less
than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire,
eating as I supposed, human flesh, with their two
canoes hauled on shore, waiting for the flood to car-
ry them off again. The consternation I was in at
this sight, especially seeing them near me, was very
great; but when I perceived their coming must be
always with the current of the ebb, I became more
easy in my thoughts, being fully convinced, that I
might go abroad with security all the time of blood, if
they were not before landed. And, indeed, this
proved just as I imagined ; for no sooner did they all
take boat and paddle away, but the tide made north
west. When I saw them gone, I took two guns upon
my shoulders, and placing a couple of pistols in my
belt, with my great sword hanging by my side, I
went to the hill, where at first I made a discovery of
these cannibals, and then saw there had been three
canoes more of the savages on shore at that place,
which with the rest, were making over to the main
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when
going to the place of sacrifice, the blood, the bones,
and other mangled parts of human bodies appeared
in my sight; and so fired was I with indignation, that
I was fully resolved to be revenged on the first that
came there, though I lost my life in the execution.
It then appeared to me, that the visits which they
make to this island are not very frequent, it being
fifteen months before they came again: but still I was
very uneasy, by reason of the dismal apprehensions
of their surprising me unawares ; nor dared I offer
to fire a gun on that side of the island where they
used to appear, lest. taking the alarm, they might


return with many hundred canoes, and then God only
knows in what manner I should have made my end.
Thus was I a year or more before I saw any of these
devouring cannibals again.
But to wave this, the following accident, which de-
mands attention, for a while, eluded the force of my
thoughts in revenging myself on those heathens.
On the 16th of May (according to my wooden
calendar,) the wind blew exceedingly hard, accom-
panied with abundance of thunder and lightning all
day, and succeeded by a very stormy night. The
seeming anger of the heavens made me have recourse
to my Bible. Whilst 1 was seriously pondering upon
it, I was suddenly alarmed with the noise of a gun,
which I conjectured was fired upon the ocean. Such
an unusual surprise made me start up in a minute;
"when, with my ladder, ascending the mountain as be-
fore, that very moment a flash of fire presaged the
report of another gun, which I presently heard, and
found it was from the part of the sea where the cur
rent drove me away, I could not but then think, that
this must be a ship in distress, and that these were
the melancholy signals for a speedy deliverance.
Great, indeed, was my sorrow upon this occasion;
but my labours to assist them must have proved alto-
gether vain and fruitless. However, I brought toge-
ther all the dry wood that was at hand, and making a
pretty large pile, set it on fire on the hill. I was cer-
tain they plainly perceived it, by their firing another
,gun as soon as it began to blaze, and after that seve-
ral more from the same quarter. All night long I
kept up my fire; and when the air cleared up, I per-
ceived something a great way at sea, directly east, but
could not distinguish what it was, even with my glass,
the weather being so very foggy out at sea. How-
ever, keeping my eyes directly fixed upon it, and


perceiving it did not stir, I presently concluded it
must be:a ship at anchor, and so very hasty was I to
be satisfied, that, taking my gun, I went to the south-
west part of the island, to the same rocks where I had
been formerly driven away by the current: in which
time, the weather being perfectly cleared up, to my
great sorrow, I perceived the wreck of a ship cast
away upon those hidden rocks I had found when I
was out with my boat; and which, by making a kind
of an eddy, were the occasion of my preservation.
When I considered seriously every thing concern-
ing this wreck, and could perceive no room to sup-
pose any of them saved, 1 cannot explain, by any
possible force of words, what longings my soul felt
on this occasion, often breaking out in this manner
Oh that there had been but two or three, nay, even
one person saved, that we might have lived together,
conversed with, and comforted one another! and so
much were my desires moved, that when I repeated
these words, oh! that there had been but one !" my
hands would so clench together, and my fingers press
the palms of my hands so close, that, had any soft
thing been between them, they would have crushed
it, while my teeth would strike together, and set
against each other so strong, that it required some
time for me to part them.
Till the last year of my being on this island, I
never knew whether or not any had been saved out
of this ship. I had the affliction, some time after, to
see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore, at
the end of the island which was next the shipwreck;
there was nothing on him but a seaman's waistcoat,
a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen
shirt, but no particular mark to guess what nation he
was of. In his pocket were two pieces of eight, and
a tobacco-pipe, the last of which I preferred mic.h

more than I did the first. And now the calmness of
the sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to this
wreck, not only to get something necessary out of
the ship, but perhaps, some living creature might be
on board, whose life I might preserve. This had
such an influence upon my mind, that imnr~iately I
went home, and prepared every thing necessary for
the voyage, carrying on board my boat, provisions
of all sorts, with a good quantity of rum, fresh water,
and a compass: so putting off, I paddled the canoe
along the shore, till I came to the north-east part of
.the island, from whence I was to launch into the
ocean: but here the current ran so violently, and ap-
peared so terrible, that my heart began to fail me;
foreseeing, that if I was driven into any of these cur-
rents, I might be carried not only out of the reach or
sight of the island, but even inevitably lost in the
boiling surges of the ocean.
So oppressed was I at these troubles, that I gave
over my enterprize, sailing to a little creek on the
shore, where, stepping out, I sat me down on a ris-
ing hill, very pensive and thoughtful. I then per-
ceived that the tide was turned, and the flood come
on, which made it impracticable for me to go out for
so many hours.
That night, I reposed myself in my canoe, covered
with my watch-coat instead of a blanket, the heavens
being my tester. I set out with the first of the tide
full north, till I felt the benefit of the current, which
carried me at a great rate eastward, yet not with such
impetuosity as before, as to take fi-om me all govern-
ment of my canoe: so that in two hours I came up
to the wreck, which appeared to me a most melan-
choly sight. It seemed to be a Spanish vessel by'its
building, stuck fast between two rocks; her stern
and quarters beaten to pieces by the sea; her main-

mast and foremast were brought off by the b&ard;
that is, broken short off. As I approached nearer, I
perceived a dog on board, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried : and no sooner did i call him, but
the poor creature jumped into the sea, out of which
I took him up almost famished with hunger and
thirst: so that when I gave him a cake of bread, no
ravenous wolf could devour it more greedily; and he
drank to that degree of fresh water, that he would
have burst himself had I suffered him.
The first sight I met with in the ship, were two
men drowned in the cock-room, or forecastle, en-
closed in one another's arms : hence I very probably
supposed, that when the vessel struck in the storm,
so high and incessantly did the waters break in and
over her, that the men not being able to bear it, were
strangled by the constant rushing of the waves. There
were several casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy
I could not be positive, which lay in the lower hold,
as were plainly perceptible by the ebbing out of the
water, yet were too large for me to pretend to med-
dle with i likewise I perceived several chests, which
I supposed belonged to the seamen, two of which I
got into my boat, without examining what was in
them. What became of the sailors I could not cer-
tainly tell; and all her riches signified nothing at that
time to any body.
Searching farther, I found a cask, containing about
twenty gallons full of liquor, which with some labour
I got into my boat; in the cabin were several mus-
kets, which I let remain there ; but took away with
me a great powder horn, with about four pounds of
powder in it. I took also a fire-shovel and tongs,
with two brass kettles, a copper pot to make choco-
late, and a grid-iron; all which were extremely ne-
cessary to me, especially the fire-shovel and tongs.


And so with this cargo, accompanied by my dog, I
came away, the tide serving for that purpose: and
the same evening, about an hour within night, I at-
tained the island, after the greatest toil and fatigue
That night I reposed my weary limbs in the boat,
resolving the next morning to harbour what I had
gotten, in my new-found under-ground grotto; and
not carry my cargo home to my ancient castle.
Having refreshed myself, and got all my effect on
shore, I next proceeded to examine the particulars;
and so tapping the cask, I found the liquor to be a
kind of rum, but not like what we had at the Brazils,
nor indeed near so good. At the opening of the
chest, several things appeared very useful to me; for
instance, I found in one, a very fine case of bottles,
containing the finest and best sort of cordial waters;
each bottle held about three pints, curiously tipt with
silver. I found also two pots- full of the choisest
sweetmeats, and two more which the water had ut-
terly spoiled. There were likewise several good
shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and about one
dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs, and
coloured neckcloths, the former of which were abso-
lutely necessary for wiping my face in a hot day; and
in the till, I found three bags of money, in one of
which, decently wrapt up in a piece of paper, were
six doubloons of gold, and some small bars and
wedges of the same metal, which I believe might
weigh near a pound. In the other chest, I only found
some clothes of very little value, and about two
pounds of fine glazed powder, in three flasks, kept
as I believe, for charging their fowling-pieces on any
occasion, so that on the whole, I made very little of
this voyage. The money was indeed as mere di*t
to me, useless and unprofitable, all which'I would

have freely parted with, for two or three pair of
English shoes and stockings, things that for many
years I had not worn, except those which I had
lately taken off the feet of the untfrtunate men I
found drowned in the wreck, yet not so good as
English shoes, either for ease or service. I found
no gold in the second chest; so concluded that what
I took from the first belonged to an officer, the latter
appearing to have a much inferior person for its
owner. However, as despicable as the money seemed,
I likewise lugged it to my cave, laying it up securely,
as I did the rest of my cargo, and intending to seek
out, and return it to the family of the unfortunate
owner, if ever I should return to Europe; and after
I had done all this, I returned back to my boat, row-
ing or paddling her along till I came to my old har-
bour, where I carefully laid her up, and so made the
best of my way to my castle. When I arrived there,
every thing seemed safe and quiet; ?o that now, my
only business was to repose myself after my wonted
manner, and take care of my domestic affairs. But
though I might have lived very easy, as wanting for
nothing absolutely needful; yet still I was more vigi-
lant than usual, upon account of the savages, never
going much abroad ; or if I did, it was to the east
part of the island, where I was well assured that the
savages never came, and where I might not be trou-
bled to carry such a heavy load of weapons for my
defence, as I was obliged to do if I went the other
Two years did I live in this anxious condition, in,
all which time, contrary to my former resolutions,
my head was filled with nothing but projects and de-
signs how I might escape from this island and so
much were my wandering thoughts bent upon a ram-
bling disposition, that had I had the same boat that

I went from Salee in, I should have ventured once
more to the uncertainty of the raging ocean.
Having retired to my castle, after my late voyage
to the ship, my frigate laid up and secured, as usual,
and my condition the same as before, except being
richer, though I had as little occasion for riches as
the Indians of Peru had for gold, before the cruel
Spaniards came among them; one night in March,
being the rainy season, in the four and twentieth
year of my solitude, I lay down to sleep, very well
in health, without distemper, pain, or uncommon un
easiness, either of body or mind; yet notwithstand
ing, I could not compose myself to sleep all the night
long. All this tedious while, it is impossible to ex-
press what innumerable thoughts came into my head.
I traced quite over, the whole history of my life in
miniature, from my utmost remembrance of things till
I came to this island ; and then proceeded to examine
every action and passage that had occurred since I
had taken possession of my kingdom. In my reflec-
tions upon the latter, I was comparing the happy
posture of my affairs in the beginning of my reign,
to this life of anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had
discovered the print of a foot in the sand; that while
I continued without apprehension, I was incapable
of feeling the dread and terror I now suffered. How
thankful rather ought I to have been for the know-
ledge of my danger, since the greatest happiness a
man can be possessed of is to have sufficient time to
provide against it. How stupendous is the goodness
of Providence, which sets such narrow bounds to the
sight and knowledge of human nature, that while
men walk in the midst of so many dangers, they are
kept serene and calm, by having the events of things
hid from their eyes, and knowing nothing of those