Title Page
 Sonnet Stanzas
 Robinson Crusoe
 The farther adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072767/00001
 Material Information
Title: The surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: v, 1, 5- 502 p. : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Stebbing, Henry, 1799-1883
Dove, John Fowler ( Publisher, Printer )
Corbould, H ( Henry ), 1787-1844 ( Illustrator )
Rolls, Charles, b. 1800 ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: Printed for J.F. Dove
Place of Publication: London (Piccadilly opposite Burlington House)
Manufacturer: J.F. Dove
Publication Date: 1832
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1832   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: with twenty-two engravings & a life of the author /|by the Revd. H. Stebbing.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe : 22 plates; running title: Robinson Crusoe, complete edition; caption title, p. 263: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Appears to be an earlier edition of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 329. Based upon similarity, plates probably designed by H. Corbould and engraved by C. Rolls.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Cloth boards with morocco spine; marbled edges.
General Note: Library's copy imperfect: wanting frontispiece.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072767
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12646068

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Sonnet Stanzas
        Page vi
    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text


ir-I 1 'P ii'r 1 j I .I I I 1 < r

,IU l thr : "





THE Life of DAr~L DE FOE affords one of the many instances
on record, to vindicate men of letters from the charge of
being only fit for the retirement of the study. Nearly the whole
of his existence was spent in a busy contest with the most vio-
lent politicians of the day, and though unsuccessful in his pri-
vate speculations, his commercial skill and habits of business
were admired and rewarded by persons of the highest authority
in the government of the state. Nor was his literary character
uninfluenced by this his activity in the world. His most cele-
brated productions owe to that circumstance many of the fea-
tures which have rendered them so universally popular-the
rich lessons of experience in which they abound, and the deep,
moral pathos so much more generally at the command of a mind
chastened by the realities of life, than at that of one softened
only by its own fancies or meditations.
This celebrated man was born in the year 1661, in the parish
of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and was the son of a respectable
butcher, who had sufficient success in business to retire on a
comfortable competency, and educate his son for the ministry.
As devoted partizans of the Nonconformists, his parents em-
ployed every means to impress his youthful mind with an ardent
attachment to the principles of that then persecuted people.
His disposition naturally inclining him to a love of freedom, he
eagerly embraced the views with which he was brought up ; and
the earliest indications of his genius bore evidence of the powers
with which he would, in subsequent years, enter the arena of
theological controversy.
Owing, however, either to some circumstance with which we
are not acquainted, or to his own disinclination to the profes-
sion, he did not enter the ministry; and we find him, when set-
tled in life, named as a citizen of London, and a hosier. His
first publication is said to have been an essay on the war be-
tween the emperor of Austria and Turkey, which appeared when
he was about twenty-one, and was followed by some other
political pamphlets which abound in that species of satire and
caustic argument, which pervade, more or less, the whole of his
polemical writings.
With his usual enthusiasm of feeling, he joined, when four-
and-twenty, in the perilous enterprise of the unfortunate duke

of Monmouth; but, after having fought valiantly on his side,
and witnessed his discomfiture, he had the good fortune to escape
the sufferings which fell so heavily on the greater part of his
followers. The dangers, however, which he thus narrowly
eluded, had not the effect of cooling his ardour, or rendering
him less courageous in the manifestation of his principles. The
reign of James II., which gave employment to such a multitude
of controversialists, was a golden age to a man like De Foe; and
he poured forth pamphlet after pamphlet with inexhaustible
vigour of wit and argument. He had a residence at this time
at Tooting in Surrey, where he was regarded by the Dissenters
as their chief and representative in the hard conflict they had
to wage in support of their rights with the bigoted monarch.
He is supposed, however, to have been still in business, and to
have had an agency house in Cornhill.
On the accession of William and Mary, and the passing of
the Toleration Act, his occupation, as a polemic, was in some
degree superseded, and about the year 169', while chiefly en-
gaged in commercial speculations, he made a journey to Spain,
in the hope, it appears, of improving his fortune by some pro-
fitable speculation: but his expectations failed, and he returned
home to suffer the mortification and distress attending on bank-
ruptcy. The narrative he has left respecting this melancholy
state of his circumstances is highly interesting, and gives us a
clear and indisputable proof of the virtue and elevation of his
mind. By unwearied industry, he in a few years reduced his
debts from seventeen to five thousand pounds; and, in the dark-
est period of his distress, his magnanimity and religious feeling
subdued every murmur of discontent.
When, under the protection of the bankrupt law, he might
have defrauded his creditors, he still laboured assiduously to
satisfy their claims; and in allusion to the duty of bankrupts in
this respect, he observed, Never think yourselves discharged
in conscience, though you be discharged in law. The obliga-
tion of an honest mind can never die. No title of honour, no
recorded merit, no mark of distinction, can exceed that lasting
appellation, an honest man.' He that lies buried under such
an epitaph has more said of him than volumes of history can
contain. The payment of debts after fair discharges, is the
clearest title to such a character that I know: and how any man
can begin again, and hope for a blessing from heaven, or favour
from men, without such a resolution, I know not." That this
was not a mere profession of honest sentiments is clearly proved
by the fact above-mentioned, of the care he took in the actual
discharge of his debts. But if any other testimony be neces-
sary to the excellence of his character, we have that even of one

of his most determined political enemies. I must do one
piece of justice to the man," says the author of a pamphlet en-
titled Dissenter and Observator,' though I love him no bet-
ter than you do. It is this: that meeting a gentleman in a coffee-
house, when I and every body else were railing at him, the
gentleman took us up with this short speech: 'Gentlemen,'
said he, I know this De Foe as well as any of you, for I was
one of his creditors, and compounded with him, and discharged
him fully. Several years afterwards he sent for me, and though
he was clearly discharged, he paid me all the remainder of his debt
voluntarily and of his own accord; and he told me, that as far
as God should enable him, he intended to do so with every body.
When he had done, he desired me to set my hand to a paper to
acknowledge it, which I readily did, and found a great many
names to the paper; .and I think myself bound to own it, though
I am no friend to the book he wrote, no more than you.' "
As soon as his affairs were put in a train for being settled,
he removed to Tilbury, and was made superintendent of the
extensive Pantile Works established at that place ; but the spe-
culation failed, and he owed to the admiration excited by his
celebrated poem The True-born Englishman," the only means
he then possessed for supporting his family. A pension granted
him by the king, and the immense sale of the work, greatly
raised his spirits in the untoward circumstances in which he
saw himself repeatedly placed; and the esteem he enjoyed at
court, .promised to be productive of advantages that would
permanently relieve him from the caprices of fortune.
But the death of William put a period to these hopes, and
the accession of Anne again involved him in the turmoil of reli-
gious and political controversy. His Shortest Way with the
Dissenters," created the most violent excitement in both parties,
and he was for some time rendered safe by the doubts which
prevailed as to the true purport of the Satire: no sooner, how-
ever, was it known, thax a prosecution was commenced against
him, which ended in his being condemned to stand three times
in the pillory, pay a fine of two hundred marks, and suffer im-
prisonment during the queen's pleasure.
While under confinement in Newgate, he collected and pub-
lished his Miscellaneous Works. in a more substantial form than
that under which they had originally appeared, and commenced
his famous periodical, entitled "The Review," which, for a
considerable time, served him as a vehicle for the expression
of his sentiments on all the points which engaged his attention,
and that of his party.
Happily for him, he possessed in Harley, the Speaker of the
House of Commons, a powerful friend at court; and he ob-

trained, through his interference, release from prison long before
he would otherwise have done. He then removed to Bury, in
Suffolk, and was soon after appointed to assist the Commis-
sioners, whose duty it was to inquire into the eligibility of the
Scottish Union. But the flames of controversy were some time
after again lighted, and the temptation being too strong for him
to resist, he was again thrown into Newgate. He was, however,
soon released, and after another hot skirmish with the enemy,
ceased in 1715, from these pursuits, to become a moralist.
He had already experienced sufficient trouble in the field of
politics, to make him weary of its turmoils: but it was chiefly
owing to an apoplectic stroke which he suffered at this period,
that he felt the expediency of turning his mind to other subjects.
The Family Instructor" was the first of his productions in
his new line of composition ; but, in 1719, appeared Robin-
son Crusoe,"-a work, the celebrity of which has extended
through every portion of the civilized world, and which has
exercised an influence over the imaginations of men equal to
that obtained by the productions of the loftiest intellects.
This admirable book, however, had to win its way through
crowds of enemies, and every attempt was made by the political
opponents of the Author to stop its circulation. But nothing
could resist the torrent of popular admiration which bore it for-
ward, and ages to come will echo the eulogies, both of the past
and the present, which have been uttered in its praise.
The success of Robinson Crusoe was a considerable relief to
De Foe, in respect to his pecuniary circumstances; but, in 1730,
he was again in embarrassment, owing, it seems, to the former
state of his affairs. His imprisonment was brief; but neither
the strength of his constitution nor the buoyancy of his spirits
was what it had been, and the untoward disposition of his son,
adding to his distress in other respects, his health rapidly de-
clined. The precise period of his death is not determined, but it
is usually supposed to have occurred on the 24th of April, 1731.
The above sketch of De Foe's life is confined within limits
far too narrow to allow of many details, which would otherwise
have been entered into, and which would have farther shewn
how richly his name merits the respect of posterity. As an
author, his reputation chiefly rests on the singular excellence of
Robinson Crusoe, but his satires and his polemical tracts must
be studied before a correct judgment can be formed of the
strength and vigour of his mind, and the powers of his imagi-
nation can scarcely be fairly estimated by any one who has not
read his History of the Plague.
Of his moral character, one important trait has been men-
tioned in the Memoir, and there is the strongest testimony to

prove, that he was equally virtuous in all the other duties and
relations of life. In respect to his political opinions, his ene-
mies pretended that the shield of irony which he was so fond of
using in his writings, was but a cloak of treachery and deceit.
The accusation in regard to his honesty, it may be asserted, had
no foundation in truth ; it must, however, be allowed, that De
Foe's satire was often a blunted arrow, and not unfrequently
a two-edged sword, wielded in the dark, and as destructive to
friends as foes. The appeal which he made to the public in
repelling the charge against his integrity, is an affecting proof
of the strong manner in which he felt the injustice of the accu-
sation. 1 have gone," says he, through a life of wonders,
and am the subject of a vast variety of providence. I have
been fed more by miracle than Elijah, when the ravens were his
purveyors. I have some time ago summed up the scenes of my
life in this distich:
No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.
In the school of affliction I have learnt more philosophy than
at the academy, and more divinity than from the pulpit: in
prison I have learnt to know, that liberty does not consist in
open doors, and the free egress and regress of locomotion. I
have seen the rough side of the world as well as the smooth;
and have in less than half a year tasted the difference between
the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate. I have suf-
fered deeply for cleaving to principles, of which integrity I have
lived to say, none but those I suffered for ever reproached me
with it. The immediate causes of my suffering have been the
being betrayed by those I have trusted, and scorning to betray
those who trusted me."

There are few men of past generations of whom we have bet-
ter means of judging than of De Foe, and whatever we know of
him leads us to the conclusion, that while he occupies one of
the highest stations among English writers, few have a better
claim to be placed on the list of English worthies.


On the recollection of reading Robinson Crusoe,"
when six years of age.


CRUsoE how oft in fancy have I been-
With thee, lone dweller of a lonely clime!
Where human footsteps, ne'er, till thine were seen,
Where friend ne'er cheer'd, for years, the march of time:
Yes, o'er thy simple, sweet, beguiling tome,
By Winter's fire, I've linger'd, when a child;
And blam'd thy wayward will for leaving home,
And parents kind, to seek far shores and wild:
At night when storms the darkling clouds have rent,
And my firm lattice brav'd each threatening shock,
Then have I imag'd thy rude tenement,
Securely fene'd within the delved rock;
Thy bough-thatch'd roof the pattering rain defying,
Picturing thee snugly in warm hammock lying.
I've mark'd thee leave the isle, and deftly guide
Thy rude raft o'er the tranquil wave, once more
To search the ship, and wish'd the same smooth tide
Might bear thee back unto the lonely shore:
Back trac'd thee safely from the founder'd wreck,
Reach thy abode on that secluded spot,
And joy'd when cheerly, thou did'st trimly deck
With divers spoils, thy wild, romantic grot:
But, more, I've joy'd, when thou didst bend the knee.
With contrite spirit, offering humble pray'r
To HIM, who free'd thee from captivity,
And in dark peril stretch'd HIS arm to spare;
Whose mercy taught thee, in lone solitude,
That seeming evils wisely work our good.


I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settd first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and, leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York;
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutztaer ; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers ; one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my se-
cond brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother
did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education and a country free-
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called
me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this sub-
ject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering
inclination, I had for leaving my father's house, and my native

country ; where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes on one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the com-
mon road; that these things were all either too far above me,
or too far below me ; that mine was the middle state, or what
might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found,
by long experience, was the best state in the world ; the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hard-
ships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of man-
kind; and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing; viz. that
this was the state of life which all other people envied ; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequences of
being born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the Wise Man gave his testimony to this, as the just stan-
dard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the ca-
lamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part of
mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those
were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insuf-
ficient diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves
by the natural consequences of their way of living ; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and
all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of life;
that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world,
and comfortably out of it; not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands, or of the head ; not sold to a life of slavery for daily
bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the

soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the pas-
sion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things: but in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they arehappy, and learning by every day's
experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries, which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had been just recommending to me; that if I was not very
easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault,
that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer
for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against mea-
sures which he knew would be to my hurt. In a word, that as
he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle
at home as he directed; so he would not have so much hand in
my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away:
and to close all, he told me, I had my elder brother for an ex-
ample, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country wars; but could
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed: and though he said he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if
I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me; and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed: and that when he spoke of myhaving leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the
discourse, and told me, his heart was so full, he could say no
more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise And I resolved not to think of going.
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father's
desire. But, alas a few days wore it all off; and, in short,

to prevent any of my father's farther importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However,
I did not act so hastily neither, as the first heat of my resolu-
tion prompted; but I took my mother at a time when I thought
her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to any thing with resolution enough to go
through with it; and my father had better give me his consent,
than force me to go without it: that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to
an attorney, that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out
my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before
my time was out, and go to sea: and if she would speak to my
father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again,
and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise
by a double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest, to
give his consent to any thing so much for my hurt; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions, af she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it:
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction ; and I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing, when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet 1
heard afterward that she reported all the discourse to him; and
that my father, after shewing a great concern at it, said to her,
with a sigh, That the boy might be happy, if he would stay at
home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born : I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all pro-
posals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating with
my father and mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclination prompted me to. But
being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without
any purpose of making an elopement that time; but, 1 say,

I 'Il(M MY MOI IH1 F AfT A I IME WHi)N i)f 1101i"llI

lllF II I I 1I iFsINl .S lI TH1A0N ORINiAR Y,

being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to
London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common allurement of a seafaring man, that it should
cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it: but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the
first of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for Lon-
don. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was
no sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow,
and the sea to rise, in a most frightful manner; and, as I had
never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven, for my wicked leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my parents, my
father's tears, and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since;
no, nor what I saw a few days after. But it was enough to af-
fect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
any thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more. In this agony of mind, I made many vows
and resolutions, that if it pleased God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived: that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle sta-
tion of life, how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or trou-
bles on shore : and, in short, I resolved that I would like a true
repenting prodigal go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still: but towards night, the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed: the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful: looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me: Well, Bob," says he, clap-
ping me upon the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you were frighted, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a
capfull of wind?" A capfull, d'you call it," said I, "'twas a
terrible storm." A storm, you fool you !" replies he, do you
call that a storm? Why it was nothing at all; give us but a
good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that: but, you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'you
see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the way of all sailors: the punch
was made, and I was made half drunk with it, and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my re-
flections upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface, and settled calmness, by the abatement of that
storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and ap-
prehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten,
and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot
the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found in-
deed some intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts did,
as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them, as it were from a dis-
temper; and, applying myself to drinking and company, soon
mastered the return of those fits (for so I called them) ; and I
had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over con-

science, as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled
with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse: for, if I would not take this
for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one, as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yarmouth
Roads: the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were ob-
liged to come to an anchor: and here we lay, the wind conti-
nuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days:
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However,
the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were uncon-
cerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea : but the
eighth day in the morning the wind increased, and we had all
hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make every thing
snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon, the sea went very high indeed, our ship rid forecastle
in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our an-
chor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him, softly to himself, say several times, Lord,
be merciful to us! We shall be all lost: we shall be all un-
done !" and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid,
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot
describe my temper. I could ill resume the first penitence,
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against. I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and

that this would be nothing too, like the first. But when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of
my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes. When I could look about, I could see nothing
but distress round us. Two ships that rid near us, we found
had cut their masts by the board, being deep loaden; and our
men cried out, that a ship, which rid about a mile ahead of us,
was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their an-
chors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best,
as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away, with only their
sprit-sail out, before the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged the mas-
ter of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, that
if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented: and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But, if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-fold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet: the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves ac-
knowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship,
but she was deep loaden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out, she would founder. It
was my advantage in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the

rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said,
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought,
died within me ; and I fell backwards upon the side of the bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the
master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a
word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when every body had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me : but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into any port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible
for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship-side,
till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with
a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after much labour and hazard, took hold of; and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching to their own ship : so all agreed to let her drive,
and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could;
and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon
shore, he would make it good to their master. So partly rowing,
and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore, almost as far as Wintertonness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of

our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I understood, for the
first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up, when the sea-
men told me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in;
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand to assist us when
we should come near. But we made but slow way towards the
shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past the
light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer; and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in ; and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore; and walked afterward on foot
to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London, or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me ; for, hearing the ship I went away in was cast away
in Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before he had any as-
surances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I knew not what to call this;
nor will I urge, that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries
us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning and per-
suasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shak-
ing his head, asked me how I did: and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order
to go farther abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, Young man," says he, you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring man." Why,
sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ?" "That is another
case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but,
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven
has given you of what you are to expect if you persist : perhaps
all this has befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what are you? and on
what account did you go to sea ?" Upon that I told him some
of my story ; at the end of which he burst out with a strange
kind of passion. What had I done," says he, that such an
unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds !"
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which,
were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than
he could have authority to go. However, he afterward talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me: "And, young man," said he,
" depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you
will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till*
your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more : which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land: and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be

ashamed to see not my father and mother only, but even every
body else. From whence I have since often observed how in-
congruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason that ought to guide them in
such cases; viz. that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action, for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off:
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return
wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it,
and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, which hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties, and even the commands, of my father: I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view ; and I went on board
a vessel bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these adventures, 1
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might, in-
deed, have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I had learned the duty and office of a fore-mast man; and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if
not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the
worse, so I did here ; for, having money in my pocket, and good
clothes on my back, I would always go on board in the habit of
a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and un-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil, generally, not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early: but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to Lo again. This captain, tak-

ing a fancy to my conversation, which was not disagreeable at
that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no ex-
pense; I should be his messmate, and his companion; and if I
could carry any thing with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest plain dealing man, went
the voyage with him; and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend, the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about 401. in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 401.
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my rela-
tions whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my
father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to
my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and ho-
nesty of my friend the captain; under whom I also got a com-
petent knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of naviga-
tion; learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he took de-
light to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 3001.; and
this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too; parti-
cularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate, our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees N.
even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again: and I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage

that ever man made : for though I did not carry quite 1001. of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had 2001. left, and which I
lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet 1
fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this: viz. our ship. making her course towards the Canary
islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of
Sallee. who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread,
or our masts carry, to have got clear; but. finding the pirate
gained upon us. and would certainly come up with us in a few
hours, we prepared to fight : our ship having twelve guns, and
the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us. and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight
of our suns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and
we to defend ourselves; but, laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered ninety men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rig-
ging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests,
and such like, and cleared our decks of them twice. However,
to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield ; and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended: nor was I carried up the country, to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change
of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I
was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me, which I thought was nowso effec-
tually brought to pass, that I could not be worse ; that now the
hand of heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas' this was but a taste of the misery

I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would be some time or other his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left mne on shore to
look after lis little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it; but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational, for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotsman there, but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of makingsome attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship, which as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and
go out into the road a fishing; and as he always took me and
a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inasmuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a
dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing with him in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and, rowing we knew
not whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were
at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger: for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning: but parti-
cularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and, having lying by him the
long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a fishing any more without a compass, and
some provision: so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who was
also an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She
sailed with what we called a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the
boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and
a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a fishing; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened one day, that he had appointed to go out in
this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction, and for whom he had provided extraordi-
narily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over night a
larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusils with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as well
as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pen-
dants out, and every thing to accommodate his guests; when,
by and by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house. He commanded me too, that as soon as I had got
some fish, I should bring it home to his house. All which I
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage: though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I would
steer; for any where to get out of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said,
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit,
of their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I
knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which, it was
evident by the make, were taken out of some English prize, and
I conveyed them into the boat, while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also
a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about
half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
ward: especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I
tried upon him, which he innocently came into also. His name
was Ismael, whom they called Muley, or Moley ; so I called to
him : Moley," said I, our patron's guns are all on board the
boat: can you not get a little powder and shot ? it may be we
may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves;
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." Yes,"
says he, "I'll bring some." Accordingly he brought a great
leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder,
or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time I had found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another:
and thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us ; and we were not
above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our sail, and
sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the N. N. E. which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing (for when
I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them), I said to the Moor, This will not do: our master
will not be thus served. We must stand farther off." He,

thinking no harm, agreed; and, being in the head of the boat,
set the sails, and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a
league farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish ; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him
clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam
like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after
the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there
being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I
would do him none : But," said I, "you swim well enough to
reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come
near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty." So he turned himself about and swam for
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me, (that is, swear by Mahomet, and his father's beard,)
I must throwyou into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do) ; for who would have supposed we were sailed on
to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes,
and destroy us ; where we could never once go on shore, but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my

course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and, having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that, I believe, by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite beyond
the emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also, that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over ; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people : the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the
evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may be
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then we may give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing,
"make them run way." Such English Xury spoke, by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy
so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of
bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it: we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures, we knew not what to call them, of
many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water,
wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves : and they made such hideous howlings and yelling,
that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfally frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both worse frighted when we heard one of the mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could not see

him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and that it
might be for aught I know. Poor Xury cried out to me to
weigh the anchor, and row away. No," says I, Xury, we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot
follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which some-
thing surprised me : however, I immediately stepped to the cabin
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he imme-
diately turned about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of a gun; a thing, I have some reason to believe, those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that
there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day, was another question
too ; for, to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint in the boat:
when or where to get to it, was the point. Xury said, if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go, why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection that made me love him ever
after. Says he," If wild mans come, they eat me ; you go way."
" Well, Xury," said I, we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them: they shall eat neither of us." So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles, which Imentioned before, and we haul-
ed the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and
waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars
for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the com-
ing of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy seeing a
low place, about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by
and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
ran forward towards him to help him ; but when I came nearer

WI, ]11..ll[ jm it JARS, AND FElASTED 1fl


to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with,
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterward that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found
the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a little
way up: so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps
of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no in-
struments to take an observation to know what latitude we were
in, and did not exactly know, or at least not remember what la-
titude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when
to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now easily
have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I
stood along this coast till I came to that part, where the Eng-
lish traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the emperor of Mo-
rocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited,
exceptby wild beasts, the Negroes having abandoned it, and
gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness, and
indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which har-
bour there, so thatthe Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and
indeed for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard
nothing but howlings androarings of wild beasts by night.
One or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw thePico of Te-
neriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Ca-
naries, and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of reaching
thither ; but, having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so
I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times we were obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore, For," says he, look, yonder
lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep."
I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed;
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung as it were a
little over him. "Xury," said I, you shall go on shore, and
kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! Ie eat
me at one mouth !" one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good
charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I
loaded another gun with two bullets, and the third (for we had
three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best
aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him into the head;
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the
slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again,
and then got upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit
him on the head: however, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately: and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and
making but little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would let me have him go on shore. Well,
go," said I. So the boy jumped into the water, and taking a
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him into the head again, which despatched him
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food ; and Iwas
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot, upon a crea-
ture that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him: so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury said I. Ile
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off

his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and
it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the
whole day: but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spread-
ing it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterward served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually, for
ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener in to the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape or thoseislands, and, in a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that 1 must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and
in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us : we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them, but Xury was my better counsellor, and said
to me, "No go, No go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore,
that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way
with good aim: so I kept at a distance, but talked with them
by signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for
something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and
they would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top
of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country,
and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them
two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of

their country; but we neither knew what the one or the other
was: however we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us ; but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and
laid it down, and went and stood great way off, till we fetched
it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that instant to oblige
them wonderfully; for i while e we were lying by the shore, came
two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury, from the mountains towards the sea: whether
it was tile male pursuing the female, or whether they were in
sport or in rage, we could not tell any more than we could tell
whether it was usual or strange ; but I believe itwas the latter,
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom ap-
pear but in the night ; and, in the second place, we found the
people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that
had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did.
However, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not seem to offer to fall upon the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about as if they had come
for their diversion : at last one of them began to come nearer
our boat than at first 1 expected; but I lay ready for him, for
I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head. Imme-
diately lie sunk down into the water, but he rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life ; and so
indeed lie was. He immediately made to the shore; but,
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the stran-
gling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun : some of them were
ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. Buit when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that 1 made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water, and by
the help of a rope, which I flung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it

was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their lands with admiration,
to think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire, and the
noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that distance
know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eat-
ing the flesh of this creature, so 1 was willing to have them
take it as a favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful for. Im-
mediately they fell to work with him, and though they had no
knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin
as readily, nay, much more readily, than we would have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I de-
clined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provision, which though I did not un-
derstand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom
upward, to shew that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun : this they set down for
me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me, and, the
sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point;
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side to seaward; then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape
de Verd, and those the islands, called from thence Cape de
Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I
could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh wind, I might neither reach one nor other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when on a sud-
den the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship was a sail !"

and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not only the ship,
but what she was ; viz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes. But
when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any
nearer to the shore, upon which I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that was
lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was en-
couraged with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board,
I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun, both which they saw ; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and in about three hours
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them: but at last a
Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him, I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a misera-
ble and almost hopeless condition as I was in. I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brasils. For," says he, I have saved your
life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved my-
self ; and it may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides," says he, when I carry you to
the Brasils, so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what little you have, you will be starved there,

and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,"
says he, Signor Inglese [Mr. Englishman], I will carry you
thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy subsis-
tence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch any thing I had: then he took every thing
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them again, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat it was a very good one, and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it. I told him he had been so generous
to me in every thing, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight
for it at Brasil, and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces
of eight more for my boy, Xury, which I was loath to take; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was
very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me
so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and arrived in
the Bay deTodos losSantos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me 20 ducats for the leopard's skin, and 40 for
the lion's skin, which I had in the boat, and caused every thing
I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I
was willing to sell, he bought, such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax, for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about 220 pieces
of eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in
the Brasils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with
the manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the mean time, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturaliza-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settle-
ment, and such a one as might be suitable to the stock which
I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably to-
gether: my stock was but low as well as his, and we rather
planted for food than any thing else for about two years. How-
ever, we began to increase, and our land began to come into
order, so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy, Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I was gotten
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never fatigued myself in the world, as I have done : and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in
England among my friends, as have gone 5000 miles off to do
it among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such a
distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had
the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the

utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour: no work to be done but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that,
when they compare their present condition with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity, by their experience I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceed-
ingly prosperous and rich !
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained here
in providing her loading, and preparing for her voyage, near
three months; when, telling him what little stock I had left
behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere ad-
vice: Signor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me),
" if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to
me, with orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders for 1001. sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it
come safe, you may order the rest the same way, and if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Por-
tuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary direc-
tions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came to

Lisbon he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full account of my
story, to a merchant at London, who presented it effectually to
her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of
her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome pre-
sent for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 1001. in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils ;
among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts
of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the 5t. which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which 1 would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as cloth, stuff, baize, and things particularly va-
luable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them
to a very great advantage; so that I may say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave,
and a European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation : I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed
of for necessaries among my neighbours, and these fifty rolls
being each of above 10Olb. weight, were well cured and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of pro-
jects and undertakings beyond my reach, such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my fa-

their so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and which
he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full
of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wil-
ful agent of all my own miseries: and particularly to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make; all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to
my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that
inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself
good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those
measures of life, which Nature and Providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now; but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life,
and a state of health in the world.
To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part
of my story: You may suppose that having now lived almost
four years in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Sal-
vadore, which was our port, and that, in my discourse among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voy-
ages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast,
for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits
of glass, and the like, not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phant's teeth, &c. but Negroes for the service of the Brasils, in
great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the buy-
ing Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far
entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock, so that few Negroes were bought,
and those excessive dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things
very earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had dis-
coursed of with them the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told
me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for
nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Ne-
groes when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea: and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing
any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to
be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me that was thus established, and had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other 1001. from England, and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth 3 or
40001. sterling, and that increasing too ; for me to think of such
a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word,
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dis-
pose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so ; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him
to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will: one half
of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,I
had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy, rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the Negroes; such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast, when they came into about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came to
the height of Cape St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the Isle of Fernand de Norouba, holding our course N. E.
by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in 7 degrees, 22 minutes, northern latitude,
when a violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our
knowledge : it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled into the north-east, from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive; and scudding away before it, let it
carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed: and

during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every
day to be swallowed up; nor did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about 11 degrees of north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Au-
gustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brasil, beyond the river Amazones,
towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River: and now he began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled,
and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraught of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily per.
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail: whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa, without
some assistance both to our ship, and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter,
mined; for, being in the latitude of 12 degrees, 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages,
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men, early one morning, cried out, Land!" and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a
sand,and, in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were even driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like con-
dition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one
upon another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world, for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this: that which was
our present comfort, and all the comfortwe had, was, that, con-
trary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives
as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern, just before
the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk
or was driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her. We
had another boat on board ; but how to get her off into the sea,
was a doubtful thing. However, there was no room to debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute; and
some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over
the ship's side, and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might well be
called, Den wild zee," as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could not es-
cape, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew,
that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed in

a thousand pieces, by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling, as well as we could, towards land
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep of
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where, by great
chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was no-
thing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace." In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once, and separating us as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath,
till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and
left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath
left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the
land, as fast as I could, before another wave should return, and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid
it, for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with; my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could, and so by swimming to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if pos-
sible ; my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might
not carry me back again with it, when it gave back towards
the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself car-




ried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out, and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the
water went from me, and then I took to my heels, and ran with
what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pour-
ing in after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves, and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body, and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and, see-
ing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated,
and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not
so swallow me up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it
is impossible to express to the life, what the ecstasies and trans-
ports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the very grave: and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz.

that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him ; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions which I
cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self: for, as for them, I never saw them afterward, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either
to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me,
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature,
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other crea-
ture that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little to-
bacco in a box: this was all my provision, and this thiew me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like
a madman. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot, if there were any ra-
venous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was,
to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and con-

sider the next day what death I should die; for, as yet, I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to
see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth, to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up
into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should sleep,
I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a trun-
cheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition; and found
myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before :
but that which surprised me most, was, that the ship was lifted
off, in the night, from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock, which I
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished my-
self on board, that, at least, I might save some necessary things
for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again; and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore, to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting
at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm; and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been
all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if
possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took the water i but, when I

came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on board ; for as she lay aground, and high out of the water,
there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I espied a small piece of
rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the
forechains, so low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and, by the help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the
ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great
deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water; by this
means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry : for you may be sure my first work was to search and to
see what was spoiled, and what was free : and first I found that
all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water;
and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I
had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish forwhat was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage
for their weight: tying every one with a rope, that they might
not drive away. When this was done, 1 went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as well as I could in the form of a raft; and lay-
ing two or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I
found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to
work, and, with a carpenter's saw, I cut a spare top-mast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains; but the hope of furnishing myself with ne-
cessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve

what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea : but I was not long
considering this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted,
I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first
of these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh, which we lived much
upon, and a little remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us: but
the fowls were killed: there had been some barley and wheat
together, but to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and in all about five or six gallons of ar.
rack: these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was do-
ing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and
I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-knee'd, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this put me upon
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon: as first tools to work with on shore,
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, with-
out losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols;
these I secured first, with some powder-horns, a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three bar-
rels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had
stowed them, but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water: those two I got to my
raft with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with
them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least capful
of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements. First, A smooth and calm sea.
Secondly, The tide rising and setting in to the shore. Thirdly,
What little wind there was, blew me towards the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before, by which I perceived there was some indraught of the
water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was ; there appeared before me a little
opening of the land. I found a strong current of the tide set
into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft run
aground, at one end of it, upon a shoal, not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the wa-
ter: I did my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with
all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in,
but, holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that man-
ner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with
the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I
at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land
on both sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked
on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not
willing to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped all
my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that
is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where one

end of the float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I
expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as
I found water enough (for my raft drew about a foot of water),
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to se-
cure them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet
knew not; whither on the continent, or on an island; whether
inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder, and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and diffi-
culty got up, I immediately saw my fate, to my great affliction:
viz. that I was in an island, environed every way with the sea,
no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way off,
and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds, neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a large wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
extraordinary number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for that crea-
ture I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and

beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than
common: its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of the day. What to do with myself at night, I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though I afterward found there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night's lodging : as for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to hand, and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
solved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing out of
the ship that I could get: then I called a council, that is to say,
in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before
I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me ; as first in the carpenter's
store I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that
most useful thing called a grindstone: all these I secured, to-
gether with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly
two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of
powder more ; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll
of sheet lead : but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it
up to get it over the ship's side.

Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them also
all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only
there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away to a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned,
and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her ; but as she did not un-
derstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though by the way I was not very free of it, for my store was
not great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to
it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked (as pleased) for more ;
but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks) I went to work to make a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that pur-
pose; and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without,
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, being
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little,
and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get every thing out of her that I could: so every day, at low
water, I went on board, and brought away something or other.
But particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much
of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-

twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only that
I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time
as I could ; for they were no more useful to me for sails, but as
mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with, I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead
of that bread, and wrapt it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on
shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage ; and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable, and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces, such
as I could move, I got two cables and a haulser on shore, with
all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the sprit-
sail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing I could to make
a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away. But my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the little
cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able
to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo it was
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when the tide was out,
I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour, for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring,
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But pre-

paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began
to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and though
I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that no-
thing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker, with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen good knives and
forks; in another, I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces-of-eight,
some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0 drug !"
said I, aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground. One of those knives is
worth all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee : even
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose
life is not worth saving !" However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began
to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore : it pre-
sently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft, with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all: accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel, which lay between
the ship and the sand, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure : it blew very hard all that
night; and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection; viz. that I had lost no time,
nor abated any diligence, to get every thing out of her that
could be useful to me; and that indeed there was little left in
her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time. I
now gave over any more thought of the ship, or of any thing out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as in-
deed divers pieces of her afterward did but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-

self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts,
if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make;
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which it may not be improper to give an ac-
count of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me; first, Health, and fresh water, as I
just now mentioned; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun;
thirdly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast; fourthly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, for
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was as steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave, but there was not really any cave or way into the rock
at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green be-
fore my door, and at the end of it descended irregularly every
way down to the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the
N. N.W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat
every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts,
which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hol-
low place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter,
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its begin-
ning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driv-
ing them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the

biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top; the two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows upon one another, within the circle between
these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in
the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and ahalf high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither
man nor beast could get into it, or over it. This cost me a great
deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods,
bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder, to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in,
and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent also,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year
are very violent there, I made double, viz, one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock;
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down, out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back
to some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At

the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning,
as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift
as the lightning itself: O my powder! My very heart sunk
within me, when I thought, that at one blast all my powder
might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended: I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger; though, had
the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate my
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes,
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once, and
to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and
I think my powder, which in all was about 1401b. weight, was
divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that,
so I placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I called my
kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see
if I could kill any thing fit for food, and, as near as I could to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out, I presently discovered, that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the difficultest thing
in the world to come at them ; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait
in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys,
and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from

whence I concluded, that by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see
objects that were above them. So afterward I took this method:
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she-goat which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred
it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while;
for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially)
as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely ne-
cessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn;
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its
place: but I must first give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the or-
dinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face, when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
Why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help, abandoned,
and so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life 1
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive
upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, put in, expostulating with me the other way, thus: Well,

you are in a desolate condition, it is true, but pray remember,
where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into
the boat? where are the ten? why were not they saved, and
you lost? why were you singled out? is it better to be here or
there? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with what worse at-
tended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case, if it had
not happened, which was a hundred thousand to one, that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven
so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these things out of
her 1 What would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them ?
Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what would I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to
make any thing, or to work with ? without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings ? And that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when my
ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable view of sub-
sisting without any want as long as I lived; for I considered
from the beginning how I would provide for the accidents th at
might happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only
after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
or strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my ammu-
nition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so sur-
prising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed
just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when in
the manner as abovesaid, I first set foot upon this horrid island,
when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into

my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days: but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and, making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed ;
viz. I came on shore here the 30th of Sept. 1659. Upon the sides
of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
dayof the month as long again as that long one ; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought off the ship in the several voyages, which,
as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no ; also I found
three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from
England, and which I had packed up among my things: some
Portuguese books also, and among them two or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully se-
cured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up
to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and
I husbanded to the utmost; and I shall shew, that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I
could not; for I could not make any ink, by any means that I
could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, this of
ink was one, as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or re-
move the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon
learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation: the piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so
that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at
last bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which however,
though I found it, yet made driving those posts or piles very la-
borious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
any thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ?
Nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for
food, which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my af-
fairs in writing; not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my
mind; and as my reason began now to master my despondency,
I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distin-
guish my case from worse ; and I stated it very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries

I suffered, thus:
I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out, and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind,
a solitary, one banished from
human society.

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany was.
But I am singled out too,
from all the ship's crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

I have no clothes to cover But I am in a hot climate,
me. where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, But I am cast on an island
or means to resist any vio- where I see no wild beasts to
lence of man or beast, hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa: and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have gotten out so
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live.
Upon the whole, there was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be thank-
ful for in it: and let this stand as a direction from the expe-
rience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that
we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit-side
of the accompt.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to ac-
commodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me
as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables, but I might rather call it a wall; for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the out-
side; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or co-
vered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to
keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me ; but
I must observe too, that, at first, this was a confused heap of
goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my

place: I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge
my cave, and worked farther into the earth; for it was a loose
sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it:
and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey,
I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock; and, then
turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door
to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back
way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or several
things, with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring every thing by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in
my life, and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contri-
vance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had tools: however, I made abundance
of things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example ; if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on
an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe,
till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for,
but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of
time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board:
but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of
boards that I brought on my raft from the ship; but when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a

word, to separate every thing at large in their places, that I
might easily come at them: also, I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing so
ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all
my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for indeed at first I was in too much hurry, and
not only a hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind, and my journalwould have been full of many dull things.
For example, I must have said thus: September the 30th, After
I got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited with
the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my sto-
mach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore,
wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, I was undone 1 undone! till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose,
but durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and had got all I could out of her, yet I could not forbear get-
ting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship : then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied
a sail; please myself with the hopes of it; and then, after look-
ing steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my
But having gotten over these things, in some measure, and
having settled my household-stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began, I say, to keep my journal, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again), as long as it lasted; for at last having no more ink, I
was forced to leave it off.
SEPTEMBER 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the

Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship'stcompany being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dis-
mal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to, and indespair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be
devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island, which, as it was some comfort on
one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken in pieces,
I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or at least that they would not have been all drowned, as
they were ; and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried
us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this
day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also continued raining,
though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts.
MIuch rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
October 25. It rained all night, and all day, with some gusts
of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. 1 spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that
the rain might not spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to find

out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack, in the night, either from wild beasts or
men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I re-
solved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
ward killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out for
my fortification.
November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon, went
to work to make me a table.
November 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of di-
version; viz. every morning I walked out with my gun, for two
or three hours, if it did not rain ; then employed myself to work
till about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live on: and
from twelve to two, I lay down to sleep, the weather being ex-
cessive hot, and then in the evening to work again. The work-
ing part of this day and the next were wholly employed in mak-
ing my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe it would do any one else.
November 5. This day I went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back, by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but was
surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which,
F 3

while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
November 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking ; nor
was it long before 1 learned to mend it.
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th(for the 11th was Sun-
day, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me ; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces
several times. Note, I soon neglected keeping my Sundays ;
for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for
fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to sepa-
rate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible,
that it might not be in danger.
November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder; and so putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird
that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. Note, Three
things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz. a pick-axe, a
shovel, and a wheel-barrow or basket: so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for the pick-axe, I made use of the iron
crows, which were proper enough, though heavy : but the next
thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary,
that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make I knew not.
November 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brasils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness : of this, with great la-
bour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it
home too with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way,

i'li IIAY I iti(iAN TO I ,) 11 rIjtj,tl Mb
" I' l VN I N(F RI l'"

made me along while upon this machine; for I worked it effec-
tually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long: however, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to : but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for want of a basket, or a wheel-barrow:
a basket I could not make by any means, having no such thing
as twigs that would bend to make wickerware, or at least none yet
found out; and, as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of, neither did I
know how to go about it:* besides I had no possible way to
make iron gudgeons, for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run
in, so I gave it over: and so for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
labourers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days : I
mean, always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which
I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home
something fit to eat.
November 32. My other work having stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and, working every day as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note, During all this time, I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar; as for a lodg-
ing, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet season
of the year it rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry ;
which caused me afterward to cover all my place within my
pale, with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags, and large leaves of trees, like a
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when, on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large),
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
somuch that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason

too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work to do
over again : for I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.
December 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the
next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
December 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that
could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within
December 20. Now I carried every thing into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards,
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to
be very scarce with me. Also I made me another table.
December 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than be-
fore, and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I catched it, and led it home in a string; when I had it
home I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame,
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away.
This was the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding
up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.
December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for food.
This time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late,
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This even-
ing, going farther into the valleys, which lay to the centre of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding
shy, and hard to come at: however, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.

January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.
January S. I began my fence or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.
[N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half circle, from one place in the rock, to another place about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.]
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes, weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished : and
it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour every thing was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself, that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive any thing like a habitation: and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain admitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the
holes of the rocks: and taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older,
they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feed-
ing them, for I had nothing to give them: however, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very
good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as indeed as to some of them it was :

for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join
the staves so true to one another, as to make them hold water;
so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that
as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock,
I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-
wax, with which I made candles in my African adventure; but
I had none of that now: the only remedy I had, was, that when
I had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp: and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light, like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened, that rummaging my
things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon:
what little remainder of corn had been in the bag, was all de-
voured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and
dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of
it, on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of any thing, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown any thing there;
when about a month after or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting up on the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any thing
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God without so much as inquiring

into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in go-
verning events in the world: but, after I saw barley grow there,
in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and espe-
cially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused this
grain to grow, without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance in that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself, that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support; but, not doubting but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that part of the island where I had
been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
see for more of it; but I could not find any. as last it occurred
to my thoughts, that I had shaken the bag of chicken's meat
out in that place; and then the wonder began to cease; and I
must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence be-
gan to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common, though I ought to have been as thank-
ful for so strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the
rest), as if it had been dropped from heaven: as also that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it any where else, at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread: but it
was not till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterward in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time, for I sowed just be-

fore the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done : of which, in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose
use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose; viz. to make
me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up with-
out baking, though I did that also, after some time. But to
return to my journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and, the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriv-
ing to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder: so I went up with the lad-
der to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
on the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within
I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: as I was busy in the inside of it, behind my
tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on a sud-
den, I found the earth came tumbling down from the roof of
my cave, and from the edge of the hill, over my head, and two
of the posts I had set up in the cave, cracked in a frightful man-
ner. I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what really
was the cause; only thinking that the top of my cave was fall-
ing in, as some of it had done before, and, for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder; and, not thinking
myself safe there neither, I got over my wall, for fear of the
pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me.
I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood
on shook three times, at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest build-
ing that could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; and
a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile
from me next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise, as
I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was
put into a violent motion by it; and, I believe, the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupified ; and the motion of the earth made my stomach
sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the fall-
ing of the rock awakened me, as it were, and, rousing me from
the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I
thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent, and
all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to get over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive: but
still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought, nothing but the common Lord, have
mercy upon me !" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy,
as if it would rain; -and, in less than half an hour, it blew a
most dreadful hurricane of wind. The sea was all on a sudden
covered with foam and froth, the shore was covered with the
breach of the water, the trees were torn up by the roots, and a
terrible storm it was ; and this held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and then in two hours more it was calm, and
began to rain very hard.
All this while, I sat upon the ground, very much terrified
and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts,
that these winds and rain, being the consequence of the earth-
quake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought my spirits be.
gan to revive, and the rain helping also to persuade me, I went
in, and sat me down in my tent; but the rain was so violent,
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it, and I was
forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy,
for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After 1 had been
in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed: and now, to
support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
to my little store, and took a small sup of rum, which, however,

I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more, when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but, my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do; concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building
me some little hut, in an open place, which I might surround
with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men; but concluded, if I staid where I was, I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging preci-
pice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent, And I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me that I never
slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad, with-
out any fence, was almost equal to it: but still, when I looked
about, and saw how every thing was put in order, how plea-
santly concealed I was, and how safe from danger it made me
very loath to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me, that it would require a
vast deal of time to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for my-
self, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So, with this
resolution, I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work, with all speed, to build me a wall, with piles
and cables, &c. in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it,
when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I
was, till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve in execution ; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but,
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were
all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I
could not turn it, and grind my tools too. This cost me as
much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man.

At length, I contrived a wheel, with a string, to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty. Note, I had
not seen any such thing in England, or at least not to take
notice how it was done, though since I have observed, it is very
common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large and
heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work, to bring it
to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools; my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore, bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and, looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder, but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as
hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed;
the forecastle, which lay before buried in the sand, was heaved
up at least six feet; and the stern, which was broken to pieces,
and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had
left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on
one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
the stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before,
so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck
without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon con-
cluded it must be done by the earthquake ; and as by this vio-
lence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so many
things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day

especially, in searching whether I could make any way into the
ship ; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for
that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learnt not to despair of any thing, I resolved to
pull every thing to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that every thing I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part, or quar-
ter-deck, together: and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could, from the side which lay
highest: but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat: all which I dried in the
sun, and eat them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood
came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work ; but found the weight of the wreck had broken itself
down, the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open, that
I could see into it: but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and, with the crow, made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow ; but could not break them up. I felt also
the roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy
to move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the wreck, and
got a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and
two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented
me going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, two miles off me; but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head; but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck, and,
with hard labour, I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that, the first flowing tide, several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen's chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore, no-
thing came to land that day, but pieces of timber, and a hogs-
head which had some Brasil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except
the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that
I might be ready when it was ebbed out: and, by this time, I
had gotten timber and plank, and iron work enough to have built
a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise
or turtle ; this was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only
my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had
I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterward; but,
perhaps, had paid dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs: and her flesh was to me at that time the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had
no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible

June 18. Rained all the day, and I staid within. I thought
at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help. Prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce
knew what I said, or why: my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a
violent head-ach.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours,
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak : however, I killed a she-goat, and,
with much difficulty, got it home, and broiled some of it, and
eat: I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but
had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither eat nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst ; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get
myself any water to drink : prayed to God again, but was light-
headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say; only I lay, and cried, 'Lord, look upon me !
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me !' I suppose I
did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit wearing off,
I fell asleep, and did not awake till far in the night. When I
awaked, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ingly thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habi-
tation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream:
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look

towards him: his countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe : when he stepped upon
the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake; and all the air looked,
to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved for-
ward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is impos-
sible to express the terror of it; all that I can say I understood
was this: Seeing all these things have not brought thee to
repentance, now thou shalt die." At which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this ter-
rible vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors : nor is it any more possible to de-
scribe the impression that remained on my mind, when I awaked,
and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas no Divine knowledge: what I had received
by the good instruction of my father, was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a constant conversation with none but such as
were like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or in-
wards towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sail-
ors can be supposed to be, not having the least sense either of
the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God in deli-
In relating what is already past in my story, this will be the
more easily believed, when I shall add, that, through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin, my rebellious behaviour
against my father, or my present sins, which were great; or
so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked
life. When I was on the desperate expedition, on the desert

shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what
would become of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither
I should go, or to keep me from danger which apparently sur-
rounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages ;
but I was merely thoughtless of God, or a providence: I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the
dictates of common sense only ; and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal
captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as
well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts : when again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in dan-
ger of drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse on
looking on it as a judgment; I only said to myself often, that
I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness;
but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or,
as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved, when all the rest
were destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful to me ; even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they have got safe ashore from a
shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch,
and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my
life was like it.
Even when I was afterward, on due consideration, made sen-
sible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw a probability of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal,
had at first some little influence on me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something mira-

culous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it, wore off
also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible
in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or his judgments, much less of
the present affliction of my circumstances being from his hand,
than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of
the miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my
spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever; con-
science, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to
reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently,
by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay
me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindic-
tive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me from the second or third day
of my distemper, and in the violence, as well of the fever as of
the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me, like praying to God, though I cannot say they were
either a prayer attended with desires, or with hopes; it
was rather the voice of mere fright and distress: my thoughts
were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the
horror of dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapours
into my head, with the mere apprehensions; and in these hur-
ries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express:
but it was rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a mise-
rable creature am I! If I should be sick I shall certainly die
for want of help: and what will become of me !" Then the
tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good
In this interval, the good advice of my father came to my
mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story ; viz. that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist me in my recovery. Now," said I, aloud, my
dear father's words are come to pass: God's justice has over-

taken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the
voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture
or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the bless-
ing of it from my parents: I left them to mourn over my folly,
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I re-
fused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made every thing easy to me : and
now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort,
no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress !"
This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had
made for many years. But I return to my journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I consi-
dered, that the fit of the ague would return again the next day;
and now was my time to get something to refresh and support
myself when I should be ill: and the first thing I did, I filled
a large square case bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or agueish dispo-
sition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together; then I got me a piece of the
goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little;
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal, very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading
the return of my distemper the next day : at night I made my
supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes,
and eat, as we call it, in the shell; and this was the first bit of
meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even, as I could re-
member, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk ; but found myself so weak,
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without
that) ; so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me.
What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced ? And what am I, and all the other crea-
tures, wild and tame, human and brutal, whence are we ?

Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky: and who is that?
Then it followed most naturally: it is God that has made it
alL Well, but then it came on strongly: If God has made all
these things, he guides and governs them all, and all things that
concern them; for the Being that could make all things, must
certainly have power to guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works,
either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that
I am here, and am in this dreadful condition ; and if nothing
happens without his appointment, he has appointed all this to
befal me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of these
conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me with the greater
force, that it must needs be, that God has appointed all this to
befal me; that I was brought to this miserable circumstance by
his direction, he having the sole power, not of me only, but of
every thing that happened in the world. Immediately it fol-
Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be
thus used ?
My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I
had blasphemed; and, methought, it spoke to me like a voice,
Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back upon
a dreadful mispent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done ?
Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why
wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth roads ? killed in the fight,
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war ? devoured
by wild beasts on the coast of Africa? or, drowned here, when
all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have
I done ?
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say, no, not to answer to myself; but rose
up, pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, went up over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were
sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat
down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark
Now, as the apprehensions of the return of my distemper ter-
rified me very much, it occurred to my thoughts that the Bra-
silians take no physic but their tobacco, for almost all distem-

pers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not
quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz. the tobacco ; and as the few books
I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
had mentioned before, and which, to this time, I had not found
leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into: I say I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for me or no ; but I tried seve-
ral experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one
way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
mouth, which indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain; the
tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not been much
used to it : then I took some, and steeped it an hour or two in
rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down ; and
lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, as well for
the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and be-
gan to read ; but my head was too much disturbed with the to-
bacco to bear reading, at least at that time : only, having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these,
Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and thou
shalt glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case, and made some impres-
sion upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not
so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the
word had no sound, as I may say to me; the thing was so re-
mote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say as the children of Israel did, when they were promised
flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?" So I
began to say, Can God himself deliver me from this place ? And
as it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts. But, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very
often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much, that I inclined to sleep ; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want any thing in the night,

and went to bed: but before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in all my life, I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil
the promise to me, that, if I called upon him in the day of
trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that in-
deed I could scarce get it down. Immediately upon this I went
to bed, and I found presently it flew up into my head violently;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till by the sun,
it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon, the
next day: nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion that I
slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after ; for otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day out of
my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years
after I had done ; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing
the line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainly,
I lost a day in my account, and I never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheer-
ful. When I got up I was stronger than I was the day before,
and my stomach better; for I was hungry, and in short, I had
no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better.
This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-
fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and brought them
home, but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat some
more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke. However, I was not so well the next day,
which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have been; for
I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not re-
cover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus
gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scrip-
ture, I will deliver thee ;" and the impossibility of my deliver-
ance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it.

But as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred
to my mind, that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received;
and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as
these: viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too,
from sickness ; from the most distressed condition that could be,
and that was so frightful to me ? And what notice had I taken
of it? Had I done my part ? God had delivered me : but I had
not glorified him; that is to say, I had not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance : and how could I expect
greater deliverance.
This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my recovery
from sickness.
July 4. In the morning, I took the Bible; and, beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed
upon myself to read a while every morning and every night, not
tying myself to a number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this
work, but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected
with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, All these things have not
brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I
was earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it
happened providentially, the very day, that, reading the Scrip-
ture, I came to these words, He is exalted a Prince, and a Sa-
viour, to give repentance, and to give remission." I threw down
the book, and, with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to
Heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus,
thou Son of David, Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour,
give me repentance !"
This was the first time that I could say, in the true sense or
the word, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the word of God; and from
this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call
on me, and I will deliver you," in a different sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any thing
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the cap-

WM' E, ; A.11, 11 N

tivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world; but now I learned to take it in another
sense. Now, I looked back upon my past life with such horror,
and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing
of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down
all my comfort. As for my solitary life it was nothing; I did
not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it: it
was all of no consideration in comparison of this ; and I add
this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance
from sin a much greater blessing, than deliverance from af-
But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture,
and praying to God, to things of higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of. Also,
as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to fur-
nish myself with every thing that I wanted, and make my way
of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at
a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit
of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and
to what weakness I was reduced. The application which I
made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practise, by this experiment ; and though it did carry off the
fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me: for I had frequent
convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.
I learned from it also this in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in
a dry season, was always most accompanied with such storms,
so I found this rain was much more dangerous than the rain
which fell in September and October.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months;
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be

entirely taKen from me: and I firmly believe that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew no-
thing of.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as
I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came
about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and
that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and
very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was
hardly any water in some parts of it, at least not enough to run
in any stream, so as it could be perceived.
On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a
great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very
strong stalk. There were divers other plants, which I had no
notion of, or understanding about; and might, perhaps, have
virtues of their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the Cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of; but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, im-
perfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this
time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might
take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or
plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no conclu-
sion; for, in short, I made so little observation while I was in
the Brasi's, that I knew little of the plants of the field, at
least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again: and,
after going somewhat farther than I had gone the day before, I
found the brook and the savannas began to cease, and the coun-
try became more woody than before. In this part I found dif-
ferent fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the vines had
spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were


just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a sur-
prising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience, to eat sparingly of them remember-
ing that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by
throwing them into fluxes and fevers: but I found an excellent
use for these grapes: and that was to cure or dry them in the
sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I
thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome, and as
agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my ha-
bitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say,
I had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance,
and got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the next morn-
ing proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march, I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is, due east: and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, every thing being in a constant
verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley, sur-
veying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and
had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and
lemon and citron-trees ; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit,
at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I
mixed their juice afterward with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing.
I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one
II 3

place, and a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and, taking a few of each
with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the
rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but, before
I got thither, the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised
them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised,
when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad,
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this;
but what they were, I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps,
and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they
would be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed
with their own weight, I took another course ; for I gathered a
large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out-
branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in sun; and
as for the limes, and lemons, I carried as many back as I could
well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated, with
great pleasure, the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation, the security from storms on that side of
the water, and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode, which was, by far, the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally
safe as where I now was situate, if possible, in that pleasant
fruitful part of the island.
This thought run long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that I
was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage, and that the same ill

fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place ; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself
among the hills and woods, in the centre of the island, was to
anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by
any means, to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place, that I spent
much of my time there, for the whole remaining part of the
month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved
as above, not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it, at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, some-
times two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder, as before, so that I fancied now I had my country house,
and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the
beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into, when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins of the sun ; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred
large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down,
and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to
rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained
more or less every day, till the.middle of October; and some-
times so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats,
who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead; and I
heard no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonishment,

she came home about the end of August, with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed
a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a
quite different kind from our European cats ; yet the young cats
were the same kind of house-bred, like the old one ; and both
my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But from
these three cats, I afterward came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and
to drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that
I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet.
In this confinement I began to be straitened for food; but
venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a
treat to me; and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the
turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I
had no vessel to boil or stew any thing); and two or three of
the turtle's eggs for supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave ; and, by degrees,
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall, and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now I thought I
lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen
upon the island being a goat.
September the 30th. I was now come to the unhappy an-
niversary of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post,
and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apartto religious
exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his
righteous judgments upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me, through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the
least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down of
the sun, I then eat a biscuit cake, and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as at first I

had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had after some time
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch
than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now having cast up the days
as above, I found I had been there a year, so I divided it into
weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though
I found at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in
my reckoning.
A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I contented
myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.
The rainy season, and the dry season, began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly, But I bought all my experience before I
had it: and this I am going to relate, was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned,
that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I had
so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves,
and believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it
after the rains, the sun being in its southern position going
from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground, as well as I could,
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts, that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterward that I did so; for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to any thing; for the
dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the
seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never
came up at all, till the wet season had come again, and then it
grew as if it had been but newly sown.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months
of March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and

yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had yet, I had but a small
quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a
peck of each kind.
But, by this experiment, I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow; and
that I might expect two seed-times, and two harvests, every
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterward. As soon as the rains were over,
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge, that I had made,
was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off
of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out, and
grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what
tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised,
and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I
pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into
in three years, so that though the hedge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it; and it was a complete shade,
sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me
a hedge, like this, in a semicircle, round my wall, I mean that
of my first dwelling, which I did; and, placing the trees or
stakes in a double row, at about eight yards' distance from my
first fence, they grew presently, and were, at first, a fine cover
to my habitation, and afterward served for a defence also, as I
shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe; but into
the rainy season, and the dry season, which were generally

Half February, Rainy, the sun being then on or near the
March, equinox.
Half April,h equinox.

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