Title Page
 Indroductory verses, or a poet's...
 The life and adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072765/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Major, John, 1782-1849 ( Publisher )
Barton, Bernard, 1784-1849
Cruikshank, George, 1792-1878 ( Illustrator )
Nicol, William ( Printer )
Fox, A ( Engraver )
Raddon, William, fl. 1817-1862 ( Engraver )
Gorway, W ( Engraver )
Jackson, John, 1801-1848 ( Engraver )
Slader, S. V ( Engraver )
Williams, Thomas ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Shakespeare Press (London, England) ( Printer )
Publisher: Printed at the Shakespeare Press, by W. Nicol, for John Major
Place of Publication: London (Fleet St.)
Publication Date: 1831
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1831   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Citation/Reference: Osborne Coll.,
Statement of Responsibility: with introductory verses by Bernard Barton ; and illustrated with numerous engravings from drawings by George Cruikshank expressly designed for this edition.
General Note: "The text ... is restored in this edition by a careful collation with the early copies of both parts of the work." -- Pref. signed J.M. i.e. John Major
General Note: Caption title, v. 2: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Frontispiece engraved by Augs. Fox (v.1) and W. Raddon (v.2); other engravers include Gorway, J. Jackson, Slader, and Thos. Williams.
General Note: Part I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under the title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072765
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001801246
oclc - 29632426
notis - AJM5007

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
        Preface 3
        Preface 4
    Indroductory verses, or a poet's memorial of Robinson Crusoe
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
Full Text

~~-' ;ly~:1-NJF~aWz ~ i.

2 /i- ii~






.. -


'Twere well with most, if books that could engage
Their childhood, pleas'd them at a riper age;
The man, approving what had charm'd the boy,
Would die at last in comfort, peace, and joy;
And not with curses on his art, who stole
The gem of truth from his unguarded soul.


A PREFACE has been pronounced to be, for the most
part, an impertinence; since a good Book does not
require, and a bad Book does not deserve, one. Every
rule, however, has its exceptions ; and, it is necessary
to explain the manner in which the following verses
became a part of the present work.
Several years ago the writer of them prefixed, to a
Volume of his own, some Verses inscribed to a Friend*
and Relative, whose works for the rising generation are
extensively known, and deservedly esteemed, in which
he made a passing allusion to DEFOE, with other writers
for Children, whose volumes, in his early life, were
Standards in the Juvenile Library. An Extract from
this Poem, forming stanzas 3, 4, and 5, of the Verses

Maria Hack, Author of" Grecian," and English Stories,"
Harry Beaufoy," &c.


now printed, havinIg ibeen givn' by Wilson in his Lift'
of De)fie. fe I'l blisher Tf ii, thes Volumes being much'
striucl will their beaIuVy, requested of his kind friend
lit' autlihor to amplify thine so as to firm filll Ian
approi-ia-tc lritroithd iiion The result lilts only proved
that nilther th flowingi" iaise oftl tihe writer nior !hi-
willning'nes1 to obligc were unijusly ;nliipt(ed.
For lth Edillion now solillted ilo the Public little
need ibe aid. No ailology ciiain l reqbiitie for aibn
aittte'lli to pre'enl to H iaders of M'ry i agei and railk ai
Book oi-i 'vedd ;lt Illle \ ry hl'ad of its class, in a olllre
iiiit' nli lll ilr :itei form hlibll I il, s ever bet'tire been
otiiorle. lThe iu\\ ct ilt Iliu'tirationls by whlichl it is im-
Iellihedt, leing laboliib< (.In. third molr in nimblell r Itlhan
tllr (ilebrllatd NSoric iy tluhe idlirablei Sttlthard, bconis-
(Ill'ntl l iulluIdt's(lithout oliliif il lny tilma ti l poin l lt SNioi-) sc' iral Subliitls piinliirly suited lto ior present
Artist's sin-ilar (poiWers; at thesanl e t li ll' e has tlbirown
into ohbler' it '(i I"bW' of sitnliiilal for which his Illms
airdenti ilnhit'r i irr, irpe' rlihaps, littll prepared. Those
lwho re ipersniilly iacbullainted bbith himit will be not i
little pleased lit recogniii. his i,; O Pbirtrai in the car
her scnil' oif their old ftvoritc ohlinbsonl Cniso,.
Where a Piorrait of the Author harmonizes with.
;ind i, chlravuteristic of the Work publishlid, it forms


an appropriate embellishment of it. This was strik-
ingly exemplified in the Portrait of Bunyan, prefixed by
Ihe Publisher of the present Work to a recent edition
of The Pilgrim's Irogress. It was obviously, that of
a grave and devout Divine ; hold enough to offer battle
to Apollyon ; sullcieintly solher and serious to resist all
tle illburements of Vanity-Fair shrewd and acute
enough to silence in argument a thousand Talkatives;
)it with a latent expression of benevolence and gentle-
ness belitting one who might Ie supposed to have held
converse with those unearthly Shepherds who tended
tinir Ileecy clirge on t(lie summit its of the Delectable
Mountains. lut tle Portrait of Defoe, unfortunately,
io much more indicative of the Historian, or the Poli-
lician, llan of the Author of that celebrated Fiction to
which lih is chilly indebted for his Fame ; and to the
scenes of which the embellishments have, therefore,
heen ronlined.
For similar reasons even a Sketch of his Life has
not been included. WVilson's elaborate and circum-
slaitial I'.-.-. ri-i, added to others more brief and
fugitive, leave little or nothing new to be said of the
Man, nor could the most minute details of his own life
afolrd any apposite illustration of The Life and Adven-
ture., of his lHero.-


It only remains, to wish the Reader a good appetite
for, and a healthy digestion of, the Banquet here pro-
vided : it is a truly English one ; for Robinson Crusoe
is to the Boy's Library,* what Roast Beef is to John
Bull's table, a National dish; its motto is cut and
come again;' and it is happily said of it,

There are few Books one can read through and through so,
With new delight, either on wet or dry day,
As that which chronicles the acts of Causos,
And the good faith and deeds of his man FRIDAY I
J. M.

Peculiarly interesting as this most extraordinary book has
ever been found to young persons, It has also been pronounced
to deserve a place in the library of every scholar and man of
taste the reader will, therefore,be happy to learn that the TEXT,
which had been much corrupted by arbitrary alterations, or cul-
pable negligence, is restored in this edition by a careful colla-
tion with the early copies of both parts of the work.





CLAssIC of Boy-hood's bright and balmy hour,
Be thine the tribute I have ow'd thee long;--
Though round life's later years some clouds may lower,
And thoughts of worldly cares at seasons throng,
I would not so its happier morning wrong,
Or those who woke its earlier tear, or smile,
As find no meed for Man-hood's grateful song
In legends wont my Child-hood to beguile
Of Crusoe's lonely life upon his desert Isle.
VOL. i. b



I still remember the intense delight,
The thrilling interest, wonder, strange and dread,
Which in those blissful moments brief and bright
On that familiar fiction fondly fed;
When o'er the Volume with me borne to bed
1 hung enraptured at morn's earliest beam,
Until the eventful chronicle I read
Appeared no longer Fancy's vivid dream,
But wore the form of Truth, and Hist'ry's sober theme.


It is no unsubstantial good to dwell
In Child-hood's heart, on Child-hood's guileless tongue,
To be the chosen, favorite Oracle
Consulted by the innocent and young;
To be remembered as the light that flung
Its first fresh lustre on the unwrinkl'd brow;
And some who now may cleave as I have clung
To pleasure known, unheeding why, or how,
Hereafter to thy worth may loftier praise allow.



"Due to an Author honour'd for the sake
Of past enjoyment ;-ay, and still possessing,
When thoughts of happy infancy awake,
A charm beyond the power of words expressing.
Yes, I am not asham'd of thus confessing
The debt my early Child-hood seems to owe,
And might I claim the power to invoke a blessing
On them who first excited rapture's glow,
'T would fall on Barbauld, Berquin, Bunyan, Day, Defoe!


"Their works were dear to me before I knew,
Or cared to know if they were own'd by Fame;
And after all that Life has led me through
Of pain or pleasure they are still the same;
Whenever I meet them they appear to claim
Familiar greeting, not to be denied,
Nor should it, for so complex is the frame
On which our minds' whole store is edified,
Were hard for me to tell what they have not supplied.



And of the Tonm(.s which thus, in early youth,
Were most especial favorites of mine,
Perns'd with willing credence of their truth,
None might surpass, and few might equal thin(,
1).\N iL 1).FOE !--IIn Alemory's cherish'd Shrine
The Adventures it relates are graven still;
Nor 'till remembrance shall her power resign,
Or worldly cares each gllow of fancy chill,
Can scenes recorded there rmy bosom fail to thrill.


They rise before iiue now! with fancy's eye
I mark the wilful Truant's vagrant flight;
The storm comes on, the sea runs mountains high,
And penitence succeeds to brief delight,
Itself, alas! as brief. The skies are bright
Again, and He a Wanderer as before;
'Till chastisement recalls a sense of right,
Compelling himi his folly to deplore,
An exile far from home, a Captive to the Moor.


Once more at Liberty: and Fortune smiles,
As oft she will the brighter for her frown,
Upon the Planter in Brazilian Isles:
lie has a Home which lie might call his own,
But restless still, and soon as weary grown
Of sober life, and patient industry,
Again the ventrous Mariner is gone,
Like one who had not known Captivity,
Poor Blacks to till his ground on Guinea's Coast to buy.


Again the tempest rises in its ire;
Ill may his Bark such hurricane withstand
Two hands are drown'd, and in the panic dire
A third proclaims the joyful news of Land !
Delusive hope;-the ship strikes on the sand ,
They man the boat, and strive to reach the shore;-
One, only one-hath gain'd that lonely strand,
To dwell in solitude unknown before,
'han Anchorite's more strict, or Hermit's stern and hols



A less inventive Genius than thine own
Had left our shipwreck'd Hlero to his lot,
But thou, Defoe, o'er that lone isle hast thrown
A spell so potent, who ihath felt it not?-
Unto my boyhood 'twas a fairy spot;
Yet to my funey so familiar made
I seemed as well to know Creek, Cave, and Grot,
Its open beach, its tangled greenwood shade,
As if I there had dwelt, and Crusoe's part had played,


Pain would I dwell, did not my limits check
The fond desire, and chide the loved delay,
Upon thy daily visits to the Wreck,
And all the varied stores thou brought'st away,
Needful resource of many an after day :
Fain would 1 paint the IHome thy hands uprear'd;
Thy house-hold goods and chattels too portray,
Whose rude contrivance many a sad hour cheer'd,
Which if to idlesse given more wretched had appeared.



Nor is thy story useless, if it serve
To point this moral to the Stripling's heart,
That nothing like Necessity can nerve
The Man to play a truly manly part:
The mother of invention, nurse of art,
What is there, needful, which we do not owe
To her compulsion? Steersman's guiding Chart,
His trembling needle, pointing where to go,
The Anchor which lie casts, the Lead he drops below:-


The Beacon's warning light, whose star-like beam
Flings out its friendly lustre o'er the wave;
The Philanthropic Chemist's lamp, whose gleam
In safety lights the Miner in his cave,
Which noxious damps might render else his grave;
All Medicine's triumphs, and Mechanics' power,
Philosophy's research, when Franklin gave
The electric rod to guard the loftiest tower,-
These are thy trophies all, and glorious is thy dower.



But, not to moralize too long, I turn,
Crusoe, to thy delightful page once more;
And from thy homely Journal gladly learn
A less ambitions, more attractive lore.
With Thee I now thy loneliness deplore,
And share thy griefs, a mournful Cast-away,
Anon, with humble hopes, from Scripture's store
Cull'd in adversity's instructive day,
With thee in thy lone isle I meditate and pray.


I may not pause o'er each attractive scene,
Or object in thy varied record traced,
Which, like a brighter spot of livelier green,
Shines an Oasis in the desert waste
Of thy existence; yet some such are graced
With so much simple beauty they must dwell
In vivid hues and forms yet un-effaced
On Memory's tablet while her magic spell
Can render records there lv Titme indelible.



Witness thy clusters of ripe Grapes, up-hung,
With prudent fore-thought in the Sun to dry;
For them my mouth has water'd oft, when young,
As fruit with which no Grocer's stores could vie.
The grains of Barley, thrown unthinking by,
Awakening in thy heart such glad surprise
When hearing cars of Corn! a mystery
That well might fill with thankful tears thine eyes,
Tears with which Childhood's heart could freely sympathize.


Next came thy live-stock ;-what a group was thine !
Thy Cats,-I scarcely thought them like our own:
'Thy Goats,-how often have I wish'd them mine:-
But most of all was Child-hood's fancy prone
To envy thee thy Parrot! how its tone,
When thou hadst taught it speech, must strike thine ear,
In that unspeaking Solitude alone!
Tho' but an echo of thy voice, 'twas dear
tRecalling thoughts ofsounds thou never more might'st hear.



And then thy cumbrous, over-sized Cuaner
Would all Projectors learn that tale by role
Many, I ween, would make far less ado
With schemes which, like thine own can never float:
Let those who now thy want of foresight quote
Learn to correct their error, too, like thee;
For thou didst build tllyself smaller boat,
Nor could thy hopes. surpass my boyish glee
Whiat time that hark was launhi'd, thyself once more at sea!


But what were these. or all the produce rich
Of thy Tobacco, Lelmons, Grapes, and Ctmes,
Compared with Him whose Name hath found a Niche
In Childhood's heart? whose Memory still retains
Its greenaess there, 'mlid losses, cares or gainll
Of later life : I scarce need write his Name,
Partner of all thy pleasures, and thy pains ;
His was a Servant's, Friend's, and Brother's claim;
And peerless in all three shines faithful Friday's fame.



How much in him to love, and to admire,
Erst charn'd my boyhood, cheers my manhood still;
His touching meeting with his aged Sire,
Whom cruel cannibals brought there to kill,
Both then and now my eyes with tears could fill;
His simple awe, and wonder ever new;
His broken English:-when did Author's skill
Hold up a lovelier Portraiture to view?
(r King i subject boast more loyal, warm, and true ?


Nor less of sympathy, and interest deep
Thy fears and peril waken'd in my breast;
When watchful vigils thou wert wont to keep,
And barbarous Indians threatened to molest,
Or owheii dire sickness robb'd thy couch of rest:-
But most of all I iheld my breath with awe
At that strange foot-mark on tie shore, imprest,
More fearful than if traced by Lion's paw;
Thy panic at that sight let Cruikshank's pencil draw


What need to dwell on all of dark or bright
With which thy varied pages richly teem;
Now faint and dim, like visions of the night
To Memory's glance ; now fair as morning's dream;
Or glowing like the west in sun-set's gleam,
When gorgeous clouds are edg'd with burnish'd gold ;
Enough is said to prove how much my theme
Possesses of attractions manifold
The love it early won in after life to hold.


What marvel, then, that 1 should greet once more
My former favorite as a welcome guest ?
Nor less so when I find his antique Lore
With novel decorations richly drest,
Where AnT has done her worthiest, and her best,
Guided by TASTE and GENIus, to portray
The Author's beauties; giving added zest
To scenes and objects whose delightful sway
Thus triumphs over Time, and needs not dread decay.



But I must bid my pleasant theme adieu
Though lingering thought upon it fain would dwell;
Grateful I feel for what can thus renew
A sense of Youth's once bright and joyous spell;
And call back from the dim and shadowy cell
Of Memory, visions of departed days;
Yet, ere I take a long, a last farewell,
Forgive me READER if my Muse essays
To take her leave of thee in fitting Minstrel phrase.


Art thou a Stripling,-in the bloom of youth
Feasting on Fiction in a garb so fair ?
Yet may these pages teach thee useful Truth
If they inculcate Wisdom, Forethought, Care,
And show thee how to suffer, and to bear
With patient hope and fortitude the ill,
Which all who live, or more, or less must share;
So shalt thou best the Author's aim fulfil
Avoid his Hero's harm, partake his pleasures still.



Art thou a Worldling,-in Life's thoughtful Noon
Toiling in Tnrflic's ceaseless strife and din ?
Or seeking, as thy Being's proudest boon,
Ambition's heights, or Fashion's fame to win?
Turn from each glittering bait, and specious gin!
Let a mere School-boy's tale this lesson teach
All that eaobles Man is found within !
And no bad moral doth our Hero preach
Making the best he can of good within his reach.


Art thou a Vetercn,-in the vale of years,
Yet looking back, at times, with wistful gaze,
Upon the pains and pleasures, hopes and fears,
Shadow and sunshine of thy by-gone days -
Here, if no guilt upon thy conscience weighs,
And generous feelings in thy heart still glow,
Some of the brightness whihe so fondly plays
Around the past, the present shall bestow,
And Tihou in hoary age a Child's enjoyment know.



But now Farewell to Crusoe, and his Isle!
Farewell to his Man Friday! best of Men!
His toils, his cares, his sorrows to beguile:-
We ne'er shall look upon their like again !"
Unless another with as deep a ken
As thine DEFoE into these hearts of our's,
Should come once more on earth,.and wield his pen
To call up mental sunshine, mixt with showers,
For Childhood, Youth, and Age by its creative powers

6th Mo. 20th, 1831.





I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York ; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson


Kreutznaer 3 but, by the usual corruption of words
in England, we are now called, nay we call our-
selves, and write our name Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieute-
nant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far
as house-education and a country free-school gene-
rally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was
my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons more than a mere wander-


ing inclination I had for leaving my father's house
and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by
application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes
on the other, and who went abroad upon adven-
tures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the com-
mon road ; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the mise-
ries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.
that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequences of being born to great things,
and wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that
the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the


upper and lower part of mankind; but that the mid-
dle station had the fewest disasters, and was not ex-
posed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower
part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or
mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury,
and extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet,
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves
by the natural consequences of their way of living;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that
peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all de-
sirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the
hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circum-
stances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of
rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the
secret burning lust of ambition for great things ; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day's experience to know it more
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the


most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against ; that I was under no neces-
sity of seeking my bread that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mpere fate or fault that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be
to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encou-
ragement to go away : and to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could.
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he
said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did.


not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed : and
that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he
broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise ? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But, alas !
a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mo-
ther, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts were
so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to any thing with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it ; that
I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my
time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise,


by a double diligence, to recover the time that I
had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such subject that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his con-
sent to any thing so much for my hurt and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after the discourse I had had with my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me j and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me ; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it:
that for her part, she would not have so much hand
in my destruction and I should never have it to
say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, I heard afterwards, that she reported
all the discourse to him, and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, "That boy might be happy if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born; I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though, in the mean time, I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined


against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement that time; but, I say, being there, and
one of my companions being going by sea to London,
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with
them,*with the common allurement of a sea-faring
man; that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father or mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of Septem-
ber, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The
ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to
reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All the good counsel of my parents, my father's
tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh
into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
been since, reproached me with the contempt of


advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my
All this while the storm increased, and the sea
went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a
few days after: but it was enough to affect me
then, who was but a young sailor, and had never
known any thing of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise
more: in this agony of mind I made many vows
and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare
my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my
foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his ob-
servations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days,
and never had been exposed to tempests at sea,
or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that
I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day, the wind was abated, and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured
to it: however, I was very grave for all that day,


being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night
the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over,
and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little
a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me, Well, Bob," says
he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do you
do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, weren't
you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?"
-" A cap-full d'you call it ?" said I; "'twas a ter-
rible storm."-"A storm, you fool you," replies he,
do you call that a storm ? why it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but
you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye
see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make
short this sad part of my story, we went the way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made
half drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness
I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections
upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the


future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its
smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the
current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endea-
vour to return again sometimes; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from
a distemper, and applying myself to drinking and
company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for
so I called them j and I had in five or six days got as
complete a victory over my conscience, as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it, could
desire: but I was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse : for if
I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such an one, as the worst and most hardened.
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into,
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary,.
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to-
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from New-


castle came into the same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we
should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and,afterwe had lain four orfive days,
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned
as good as an harbour, the anchorage good, and our
ground tackle very strong, our men were uncon-
cerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the man-
ner of the sea 3 but the eighth day in the morning
the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our top-masts, and make every thing snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor;
so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the
ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say several times,
" Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we
shall be all undone !" and the like. During these first
hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which


was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper:
I could ill resume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against: I thought the bitterness of death had been
past; and that this would be nothing too like the
first: but when the master himself came by me, as
I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frighted: I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes: when I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us:
two ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their
masts by the board, being deep laden; and our
men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so
much labouring in the sea; but two or three of
them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which he was very unwilling to do: but the
boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the
ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were
obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear deck


Any one must judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convic-
tions, and the having returned from them to the
resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of
the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come
yet the storm continued with such fury, that the
seamen themselves acknowledged they had never
seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was
deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of
the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to
see, cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said,
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word
my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell
backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat,


into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship
had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a Ewoon.
As this was a time when every body had his own
life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stept up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder i
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and alight ship, who had rid it out just a-head
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy


to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and
we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or
us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching
to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master : so partly rowing and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and then
I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead within
me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people
running along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till,
being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore


falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's pa-
rable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship-I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I had
several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no
power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that
we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
VOL. I. c


thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling
his father who I was, and how I had come this voy-
age only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad:
his father turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, Young man," says he, you
ought never to go to sea any more you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are
not to be a seafaring man."-" Why, Sir," said I,
" will you go to sea no more ?" That is another
case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my
duty but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, what are you;
and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon that
I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion; What
had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship ? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou-


sand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back
to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin
told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. And young man," said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more; which way he went,
I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,
what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my father and mother only, but even every body
else; from whence I have since often observed, how
incongruous and irrational the common temper of
mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz. that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the


returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed a while,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I
quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out
for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, which hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties and even the commands of my father:
I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel hound to the coast of
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adven-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the
duty and office of a foremast-man ; and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not
for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money in


my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would
always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to
go again; this captain taking a fancy to my con-
versation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest,
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 40 1 had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-


responded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,
as he took delight to introduce me, I took delight
to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both
a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London at my return almost
300, and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees north
even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest


voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into ter-
rible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz. our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and
the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear but
finding the pirate gained upon us, ahd would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight; our ship having twelve guns and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stem, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side,
and poured in a broadside upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small-shot from near 200 men
which he had on board. However, we had not a
man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails
and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-
pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our


deck of them twice. However, to cut short this me-
lancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended 3 nor was I carried up the coun-
try to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as
his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this sur-
prising change of my circumstances, from a mer-
chant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be mise-
rable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had
overtaken me, and I was undone without redemp-
ti6n : but, alas this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would sometime or other be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little gar-


den, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found no
way that had the least probability in it: nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself; so that
for two years, though I often pleased myself with
the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fit-
ting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
the ship's pinnace, and go out into the rbad a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Maresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inso-
much that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though


we were not half a league from the shore we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the
shore: however, we got well in again, though with
a great deal of labour and some danger for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a
fishing any more without a compass and some pro-
vision j so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-
room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to
steer and haul home the main-sheet; and room be-
fore for a hand or two to stand and work the sails :
she sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton
sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin;
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to
eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink;
and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,


he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat over-night a larger store of provisions than or-
dinary; and had ordered me to get ready three
fuzees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship ; for that they designed some sport of fowl-
ing as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ancient and pendants out, and every thing to
accommodate his guests ; when by and by my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go
out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home
to his house ; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for
fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for any where, to get out of that
place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to


speak to this Moor, to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread he said, that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed theminto
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master: I conveyed also
a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel
of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, espe-
cially the wax to make candles. Another trick I
tried upon him, which he innocently came into also ;
his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or
Moely; so I called to him, "Moely," said I, our
patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot ? it may be we may kill
some alcamies (afowllike our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
-" Yes," says he, I'll bring some j" and accord-
ingly he brought a great leather pouch which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rathermore
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds,
with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the
same time I had found some powder of my master's
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
.large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,


pouring what was in it into another; and thus fur-
nished with every thing needful, we sailed out ofthe
port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us : and we were not above a mile out of the port
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N.N.E. which was contrary
to my desire for had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off." He,
thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of
the boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought
her to as if I would fish; when giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as If'T stooped for something behind
him, I took tii;by surprise with my arm under his
twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would have reached


me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of
the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be


quiet I would do him none: "But," said I, "you
swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea
is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I
will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty :" so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and 1 make no doubt but


he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When he was gone I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Maho-
met and his father's beard, I must throw you into
,the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits' mouth; (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do) for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to sur-
round us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we
could never once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the east,
that I might keep in with the shore: and having a


fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I
made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sailee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore,
or come to an anchor j the wind continuing fair till
I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over j so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river: I
neither saw, or desired to see any people ; the prin-
cipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but,
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said
I, then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury,


laughing, "make them run wey." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night I say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was
I too but we were both more frighted when we
heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
" No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable with
the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I imme-
diately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up
my gun, fired at him j upon which he immediately
turned about, and swam towards the shore again.


But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises,
and hideous cries and cowlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun, thing
I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before: this convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to
have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had not
a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it, was
the point: Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go ? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat ? The boy answered with so much affection, that
made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well,
Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles
which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat
in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and
so waded on shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.


I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river: but the boy seeing a low place about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and by and by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him,
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found
good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we
filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and
not exactly knowing, or at least remembering what
latitude they were in, and knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them;


otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where
I now was, must be that country, which, lying be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts ; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors ; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbour there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousandmen at
a time ; and indeed for near an hundred miles toge-
ther upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
cowlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the Moun-
tain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but
having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary
winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel so I resolved to pursue my first design, and
keep along the shore.


Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore;
" for," says he, "look yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster
indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
" Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill !
he eat me at one mouth ;" one mouthful he meant:
however, I said no more to the boy, but bad him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then
I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the
third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with
the first piece to have shot him in the head, but
he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got
up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar


that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I
had not hit him on the head; however, I took up
the second piece immediately, and, though he began
to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head,
and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would have me let him go on shore ;
" Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and
shot him in the head again, which dispatched him
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I, "Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not
cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I
could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both up
the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the


sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water: my design in this was,
to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I
did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but
to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brasil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or
those islands; and in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us; we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore.to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way: I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long slender


stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim; so
I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as I could; and particularly made signs for
something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less
than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such
as is the produce of their country; but we neither
knew what the one or the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was
our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us :
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood
a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends j but an opportunity
offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully :
for while we were lying by the shore came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the
sea whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was
usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter ; be-
cause, in the first place, those ravenous creatures


seldom appear but in the night; and in the second
place, we found the people terribly frighted, espe-
cially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; how-
ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any
of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion: at last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,
I fired, and shot him directly in the head: imme-
diately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he imme-
diately made to the.shore; but between the wound,
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures, at the noise and fire of my
gun ; some of them were even ready to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror; but
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by
his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes


to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to
an admirable degree ; and the Negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of
fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and
ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me j which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose in the sun ; this they set down to me, as before,


and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three., The women were as stark naked
as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea
being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two
leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the
other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de
Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
" Master, master, a ship with a sail !" and the foolish
boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw, not only the ship, but what she was,
viz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes.


But, when I observed the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore :
upon which, I stretched out to sea as much as I
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it
was some European boat, which, they supposed,
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear
the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly


brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed
it, from such a miserable, and almost hopeless, con-
dition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brasils.
" For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he,
" when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no," says he;
" Seignor Inglese," (Mr. Englishman,) "I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home


As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered
the seamen, that none should offer to touch any
thing I had: then he took every thing into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use; and asked me what I would have for
it ? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
every thing, that I could not offer to make any
price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand
to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brasil;
and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also
sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which
I was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell
the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the cap-
tain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos or, All


Saint's Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember: he would take nothing
of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for
the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused every thing I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for I had made
candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo and with this stock, I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, before I was recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man, like
himself, who had an ingenio as they call it, (that is,
a plantation and a sugar house.) I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and making of sugar
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how
they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them: resolving, in the mean time, to find out some
way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land


that was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement;
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which
I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as 1 was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than any thing else, for
about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each
of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come: but we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on: I had got into an employment quite
remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good ad-
vice: nay, I was coming into the very middle sta-
tion, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go
on with, I might as well have staid at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had
done: and I used often to say to myself, I could


have done this as well in England, among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condi-
tion with the utmost regret. I had nobody to con-
verse with, but now and then this neighbour; no
work to be done, but by the labour of my hands:
and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there
but himself. But how just has it been and how
should all men reflect, that when they compare their
present conditions with others that are worse, Hea-
ven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience:
I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation,
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared
it with the life which I then led, in which, had I
continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend,
the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back for the ship remained there, in providing
his lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: Seignior Inglese," says he,


for so he always called me, if you will give me
letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in Lon-
don, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce of
them, God willing, at my return; but, since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I
would have you give orders but for one hundred
pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it
come safe, you may order the rest the same way;
and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to
have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how
I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at Lon-
don, who represented it effectually to her: where-


upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of
her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils: among
which, without my direction, (for I was too young
in my business to think of them,) he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils,
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great
use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and
my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would not ac-
cept of any consideration, except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own
Neither was this all: but my goods being all En-
glish manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and
things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, 1 mean in the
advancement of my plantation: for the first thing I
did, I bought me a Negro slave, and an European


servant also I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were
well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon: and now increasing in business and in
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed,
often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of: but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of
all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my
fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which
in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wander-
ing abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contra-
diction to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those
measures of life, which nature and providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.


As I had once done thus in my breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now, but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to
pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps
could be consistent with life, and a state of health
in the world.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the parti-
culars of this part of my story:-You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the Bra-
sils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and
that, in my discourses among them, I had frequently
given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Ne-
groes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon
the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissars, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.
but Negroes, for the service of the Brasils, in great
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes j which was a


trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so that
few Negroes were brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of, the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out
a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants that as it was a trade that could not
be carried on, because they could not publicly sell
the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations : and, in a word, the question was, whe-
ther I would go their supercargo in the ship, to
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of
the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not had a set-
tlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-


siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three
or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England; and who, in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too; for me to think
of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing
that ever man, in such circumstances, could be
guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and
would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered
into writings or covenants to do so: and I made a
formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death ; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life as before, my universal heir;
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and to keep up my plantation: bad I used
half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought


to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended
with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dic-
tates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and ac-
cordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the 1st of September, 165!, being the
same day eight year that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty ton
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides
the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the
The same day I went on board we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with
design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather,


only excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino;
from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by
N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation, in7 degrees 22 minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurri-
cane, took us quite out of our knowledge ; it began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west,
and then settled in the north-east; from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could do nothing but drive, and, scud-
ding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed and, during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every
day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the
ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part
of Brasil, beyond the river Amazons, toward that of
the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great


River; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was going directly back to
the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes ; which by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assis-
tance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N. W. byW. in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief: but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out
of the very way of all human commerce, that had
all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were ra-
ther in danger of being devoured by savages than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men early in the morning cried out, Land!
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we


were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a mo-
ment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were
immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter
us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in
the like condition, to describe or conceive the con-
sternation of men in such circumstances; we knew
nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we
were driven, whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes, without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this: that which was our present comfort, and all
the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our ex.
pectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had no-
thing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just.


before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she
broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to
sea: so there was no hope from her: we had ano-
ther boat on board, but how to get her off into the
sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her slung over the ship's side; and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea:
for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and might
be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that
the boat could not live, and that we should be inevit-
ably drowned. As to making sail, we had none;
nor, if we had, could we have done any thing with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for
we all knew that when the boat came nearer the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by
the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we.hastened our


destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as
we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whe-
ther steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope
that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great
chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water.
But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God !"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt, when I sunk into the water ; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half
dead with the water I took in. I had so much pre-
sence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got


upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again ; but I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it ; for I saw the
sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with : my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could ; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and
I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath, and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held
it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet.


I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and
till the waters went from me, and then took to my
heels, and ran, with what strength I had, farther to-
wards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been
fatal to me ; for the sea having hurried me along, as
before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece 6f a rock, and that with such force, as it


-.; ..


left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in the water : but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away
and the next run I took, I got to the main land;
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass,
free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder now
at the custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has
the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going
to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him;
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon


with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance; making a thou-
sand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe ;
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self ; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards,
or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance :
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any
thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither
did I see any prospect before me, but that of perish-
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts:
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself


against any other creature that might desire to kill
me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while,
I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what
would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like
a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next
day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to
drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to pre-
vent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I should
sleep, I might not fall and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up
my lodging and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I be-
lieve, few could have done in my condition; and
found myself the most refreshed with it that I think
I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did not


rage and swell as before; but that which surprised
me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so
bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This
being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing I
found was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief for I saw evidently, that
if we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that
is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute
of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears from my eyes again but as there was


little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship so I pulled off my clothes, for the wea-
ther was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for as she
lay aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at
first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so
on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search and to see what was spoiled and what was
free : and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water; and, being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a
large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted no-
thing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.


It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had; and this extremity roused my appli-
cation: we had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
I flung as many of them overboard as I could ma-
nage for their weight, tying every one with a rope,
that they might not drive away. When this .was
done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them
to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very: well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light : so I went to work, and with
the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal
of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go be-
yond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the plank or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled


with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats' flesh, (which we lived
much upon,) and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to.sea with us, but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters ;
and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While
I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm; and I had the mortification to
see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left
on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I
swam on board in them, and my stockings. How-
ever, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of
which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with
on shore : and it was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a
very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it
was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.


My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the
great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot,
and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third
had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset
all my navigation.
I had three encouragements : 1st, A smooth, calm
sea: 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the
shore: 3dly, What little wind there was blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides
the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of. the land, and I found a strong


current of the tide set into it ; so I guided my raft, as
well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

- a

But here I had like to have suffered a second
shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would
have broke my heart; for knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength;


~e~P*LP -- -i

-i--rc; ._
1 .Iri..~ -'-
------ -


neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level and a little after, the water still rising, my
raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I
at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty,
I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like
an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot


of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stick-
ing my two broken oars into the ground; one on
one side, near one end, and one on the other side,
near the other end : and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might hap-
pen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on
the continent, or an island ; whether inhabited, or
not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts, or
not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge
from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder;
and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill; where, after I had, with great la-
bour and difficulty, got to the top, I saw my fate,
to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island,
environed every way with the sea, no land to be
seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way off,
and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not


their kinds neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world: I had no sooner
fired, but from all the parts of the wood, there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many. sorts,
making a confused screaming, and crying, every one
according to his usual note; but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak
resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day : what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood were I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a


great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and
sails, and such other things as might come to land;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board
the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in
pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I
got every thing out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft ; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut; having nothing on but
a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair
of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first I
neither made this so unwieldly, nor loaded it so hard,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two
or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these
I secured together, with several things belonging to
the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musquet bullets, seven musquets,
and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bag-full of small shot, and
a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.


Besides these things, I took all the men's 'clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a ham-
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my ab.
sence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore : but when I came back,
I found no sign of any visitor; 'only there sat a crea-
ture like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and
unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to
stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my
store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and
looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and
could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks, I went to work to make me a little tent, with
the sail, and some poles, which I cut for that pur-
pose and into this tent I brought every thing that
I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I
piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle


round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt
either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty chest
set up an end without 3 and spreading one of the beds
upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my
head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for
the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy; for the night before I
had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to
get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was
not satisfied still: for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could: so every day, at low water, I
went on board, and brought away something or other;
but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the
small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece
of spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a
word, I brought away all the sails first and last;
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could; for they were no
more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs