Title Page
 The life and adventures of Robinson...
 Family maxims

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072764/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner Embellished with elegant engravings
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 174 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Lomax, John ( Publisher )
Cowper, William, 1731-1800
Publisher: John Lomax, publisher
Place of Publication: New-York
Publication Date: 1831
Subject: Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1831   ( rbgenr )
Poems -- 1831   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
Poems   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: Checklist Amer. imprints
General Note: By Daniel Defoe. An abridgment.
General Note: In printed boards.
General Note: Metal-engraved plates.
General Note: "Verses, supposed to be written by Alex. Selkirk"--P. 168-170, by William Cowper; "Family maxims."--p. 171-174.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072764
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22875011

Table of Contents
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    Title Page
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    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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    Family maxims
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Full Text


LomlF ao'Ecai B 'Bi e IcU'-ISws











.. ... ;




I WAS born in York, in the year 1632fof a
reputable family. My father was a native of
Bremen; who by merchandizing at Hull for
some time, gained a very plentiful fortune.
He married my mother at York, who received
her first breath in that country: and as her
maiden name was Robinson, I was called Ro-
binson Kreutznaer, which not being easily pro-
nounced in the English tongue, we are com-
monly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. The
eldest was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's
regiment, but slain by the Spaniards; what
became of the other I could never learn.

No charge nor pains were wanting in my
education. My father designed me for the
law, yet nothing could serve me but I must go
to sea, both against the will of my father, the
tears of my mother, and the entreaties of friends.
One morning, my father expostulated very
warmly with me. What reason, says he, have
you to leave your native country, where there
must be a more certain prospect of content and
happiness, to enter into a wandering condition
of uneasiness and uncertainty ? He recom-
mended to me Agar's wish, Neither to desire
poverty nor riches; that a middle state of life
was the most happy; and that the high tower-
ing thoughts of raising our condition by wan-
dering abroad, were surrounded with misery
and danger, and often ended with confusion
and disappointment. I entreat you, nay, I
command you (says he) to desist from these
intentions. If you will go, (added he,) my
prayers shall, however, be offered for your pre-
servation; but a time may come, when deso-
late, oppressed, or forsaken, you may wish
you had taken your poor despised father's
counsel.-He pronounced these words with
such a moving and paternal eloquence, while
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that
it seemed to stem the tirrent of my resolutions.
But this soon wore off; and a little after, I in-
formed my mother that I could not settle at
any business, my resolutions were so strong to
see the world, and begged she would gain my
father'; consent only to go one voyage; which

if it did not prove prosperous, I would never
attempt a second. But my desire was as vain
as my folly in asking. My mother passionately
expressed her dislike to this proposal, telling
me, That as she saw that I was bent on my oi n
destruction, contrary to their will and my duty,
she would say no more, but leave me to myself
to do whatever I pleased.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when
one time being at Hull, I met a schoolfellow
of mine going along with his father, who was
master of a ship, to London; and acquainting
him with my wandering desires, he assured me
of a free passage, and a plentiful share of what
was necessary. Thus, without imploring a
blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, I
took shipping on the 1st of September, 1651.
Upon the 6th day, we came to an anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcastle ships; and there being a good
anchorage, and our cables sound, the seamen
forgot their latw toil and danger, and spent
the time as merrily as if they had been on
shore. But on the eighth day, there arose a
brisk gale of wind, which prevented our tiding
it up the river; and it still increasing, our ship
rode forecastle in, and shipped several large
it was not long before horror: seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard 'he ma-ler ex-
press this melancholy ejaculation, Lord have
mercy upuZ "is, we shall all be lost and undone:
for my part, sick unto death, I kept my cabin.

till the universal and terribly dreadful appre-
hensions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck, and there I was affrighted indeed. The
sea went mountains high : I could see nothing
but distress around us: two ships had cut away
their masts, and another had foundered: two
more that had lost their anchors, were forced
out to the mercy of the ocean; and, to save
our lives, we were forced to cut our foremast
and mainmast quite away.
Who is there so ignorant as not to judge o.
my dreadful condition? I was but a fresh
water sailor, and therefore seemed more terri.
fied. Our ship was very good, but over-
loaded ; which made the sailors often cry out,
She will founder : words I then was ignorant
of. All this while, the storm continuing, and
rather increasing, the master and the more
sober part of the men went to prayers, ex-
pecting death every moment. In the -middle
of the night one cried out, We had sprung a
leak: another, That there was four feet water
in the hold. I was just ready to expire with
fear, when immediately all hands were called
to the pump; and the men forced me also in
that extremity to share with them in their la-
bour. While thus employed, the master espy-
ing some colliers, fired a gun as a signal of dis-
tress ; and I not understanding what it meant,
and thinking that either the ship broke, or
some dreadful thing happened, fell into a
swoon. Even in that condition of woe, no-
oodv minded me, excepting to thrust me aside

with their feet, thinking me dead; and it was
a great while before it recovered.
Happy it was for us, when, upon the signal
given, they ventured out their boat to save our
lives. All our pumping had been in vain, and
vain had all our attempts been, had they not
come to our ship's side, and our men cast them
a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, which
after great difficulty they got hold of, and we
hauling them to us, got into their boat, and
left our ship, which we perceived sink within
less than a quarter of an hour; and thus I
learned what was meant by foundering at sea.
And now the mn incessantly labored to re.
cover their own ship; but the sea ran so high,
and the wind blew so hard, that they thought
it convenient to haul in shore, which with
great difficulty and danger at last we happily
effected, landing at a place called Cromer, not
far from Winterton light-house; from whenct
we all walked to Yarmouth, where, as objects
of pity, many good people furnished us with
the necessaries to carry us either to Hull or
Strange! that after all this, I did not, like
the prodigal son, return to my father; who,
hearing of the ship's calamity, for a long tima
thought me entombed in'the deep. No doubt
but I should have shared in his fatteq calf, as
the Scripture expresseth it; but my wayward
disposition still pushed me on, in spite of the
powerful convictions of reason and conscienA

When we had been at Yarmouth three days
I met my old companion, who had given me
the invitation to go on board along with his
father. His behaviour and speech was altered,
and, in a melancholy manner he asked me how
I did? telling his father who I was, and how I
had made this voyage for a trial only to pro-
ceed farther abroad. Upon which the old gen.
tleman turning to me, said, Young man, you
ought never to go to sea any more, but to take
this for a certain sign, that you will never pros.
per in a sea-faring condition. Sir, answered I,
will you take the same resolution? It is a dif-
ferent case, said he, it is my calling, and con-
sequently my duty; but as you have made this
voyage for a trial, you see what ill luck heaven
has set before your eyes; and perhaps our mi-
series have been on your account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarshish. But pray what are you,
and on what account did you go to sea? Upon
which, I very freely declared my whole story;
at the end of which he made this exclamation,
Ye sacred powers! what had I committed, that
such a wretch should enter into my ship, to
heap upon me such a deluge of miseries! But
soon recollecting himself, Young man, said he,
if you do not go back, depend upon it, wherever
you go, you will meet with disasters and disap-
pointments, till your father's words are fulfilled
upon you. And so we parted.
I thought at first to return home; but shame
opposed that good notion, as thinking I should

be laughed at by my neighbours and acquaint-
ances. So strange is the nature of youth! They
are not ashamed to sin, but yet ashamed to re-
pent; and so far from being sorry for thost
actions for which they may be accounted bfols,
they think it folly to return to their duty, which
is the principal mark of wisdom. In short, 1
travelled up to London, resolving upon a voy.
age, and a voyage I soon heard of, by my ac-
quaintance with a captain who took a fancy to
me, to go to the coast of Guinea. Having
some money, and appearing line a gentleman,
I went on board, not as a common sailor or
foremast-man ; nay, the commander agreed I
should go that voyage with him without any
expense ; that I should be his messmate and
companion, and that I was welcome to carry
any thing with the, and make the best merchan-.
dise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for his offer, and acquaint-
ing my friends in Yorkshire, forty pounds were
sent me; the greatest part of which my dear
father and mother contributed, with which I
bought toys and trifles, as the captain directed
me. My captain also taught me navigation,
how to keep an account of the ship's course,
take an observation, and led me into the know.
ledge of several useful branches of the mathe.
ma;ics. And indeed this voyage made me
both. a sailor and a merchant; for I brought.
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust,
for nim adventure, which produced, at my re

turn to London, almost three hundred pounds
but in this voyage I was extremely sick, be.
ing thrown into a violent fever, through excess
sive heat, trading upon the coast from the lati-
tude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line
But, alas my dear friend the captain soon
departed this life after his arrival. This was a
sensible grief to me ; yet I resolved to go ano-
ther voyage with his mate, who had now got
command of the ship. This proved a very un-
successful one ; for though I did not carry a
hundred pounds of my late acquired wealth, (so
that I had two hundred pounds left; which 1
reposed with the captain's widow, who was
an honest gentlewoman,) yet my misfortunes
in this unhappy voyage were very great. For
our ship sailing towards the Canary Islands,
we were chased by a Salee rover; and in spite
of all the haste we could make, by crowding as
much canvass as our yards could spread, or
our masts carry, the pirate gained upon us, so
that we prepared ourselves to fight. They
had eighteen guns, and we had but twelve.
About three in the afternoon, there was a des-
perate engagement, wherein many %\ ere killed
and wounded on both sides : but finding our
selves overpowered with numbers, our ship dih.
abled, and ourselves too impotent to have the
least hopes of success, we were forced to sur-
render; and accordingly we were all carried
prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men
were sent to the Emperor's court to be sold

there; but the pirate captain taking notice of
me, kept me to be his own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most
miserable creature on earth, and the prophecy
of my father came afresh into my thoughts.
However, my condition, was better than I
thought it to be, as will soon appear. Some
hopes, indeed, I had that my new patron would
go to sea again, where he might be taken by a
Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and then
I should be set at liberty. But in this I was
mistaken ; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and do
the drudgery of his house, and when he re-
turned from sea, would make me lie in the
cabin, and look after the ship. I had no one
that I could communicate my thoughts to,
which were continually meditating my escape.
No Englishman, Irishman or Scotchman here
but myself; and for two years I could see no.
thing practicable, but only pleased myself with
the imagination.
After some length of time, my patron, as I
found, grew so poor, that he could not fit out
his ship as usual; and then he used constantly,
once or twice a week, if the weather was fair,
to go out a fishing, taking me and a young
Moorish boy to row the boat; and so much
pleased was he with me for my dexterity in
catching the fish, that he would often send me
with a Moor, who was one of his kinsmen, and
the youth betore-mentioned, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

One morning, as we were at sport, there
arose such a thick fog, that we lost sight of the
shore ; and rowing, we knew not which way,
we laboured all the night, and in the morning
we found ourselves in the ocean, two leagues
from land. However, we attained there at
length, and made the greatest haste, because
our stomachs were exceedingly sharp and hun-
gry. In order to prevent such disasters for
the future, my patron ordered a carpenter to
build a little state-room or cabin in the middle
of the long-boat; with a place !-ehind it to
steer and haul home the main she i wi h other
conveniences to keep hinm from th- ..ath-r
as also lockers to put in all manner ,- ;...
sions ; with a handsome should r- ,-mutton sail
gibing over the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fAin :
and one time, inviting two or three persons of
distinction to go with him, laid in provisions ex.
traordinar ; providing also three fusees, Nith
ponder and shot, that they might have some
sport fowling along the sea-coast. The next
morning, the boat was made clean, hel: : ients
and pendants out, and every thing rea ':. hut
their minds J1 ..-... my patron ordered us to
go a fishing, ,'.i iI his gui-sts would certainly
sup with him that night.
And now 1 began to think of my deliverance
indeed. In order to this. I persuaded the Moor
to aet some provisions on board, and to procure
some powder and shot, pretending to kill sea.
curlicws, which lhe inn'iicently nd rea'il agreed

to. In short, being provided with all things
necessary, we sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to
fishing; but though I knew there was a bite, I
concealed the matter, in order to put farther
out to sea. Accordingly we ran a league far-
ther, when, giving the boy the helm, and pre-
tending to stoop for something, I seized Muley
by surprise, and threw him overbord. As he
was an excellent swimmer, he soon arose, and
made towards the boat; upon which I took
out a fusee, and presented it at him: Aluley,"
said I, "I never yet designed to do you any
harm, and seek nothing now but my freedom.
I know you are able enough to swim to shore,
and save your life; but if you are resolved to
follow me to the endangering of mine, the
very moment you proceed, I will shoot you
through the head." The harmless creature,
at these words, turned himself from me, and.
I make no doubt, got safe to land. Then
turning to the boy Xury, I perceived he trem-
bled at the action; but I put him out of all
fear telling him, that if he would be true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him and not
hurt him.
We then pursued our voyage: I kept to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast; but
in the dark of the evening, I changed my
course, that I might keep near the shore; and
having a fresh gale of wind, with a very plea-
sant smooth sea, by three o'clock next day, I
was one hundred and fifty miles beyond the

Emperors of Morocco's dominions. I con-
tinued sailing for five days successively, till
such time as the wind shifting to the southward,
made me conclude, that if any vessel was in
chase of me, they would proceed no farther.
After so much fatigue and thought, I an-
chored at the mouth ofa little river, I knew
not what, or where, neither did I then see any
people. What I principally wanted was fresh
water; and I was resolved about the dusk of
the evening to swim ashore: but no sooner
the gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed
the declining day than we heard such barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that
one might have thought the very strongest
monsters of nature had their residence there.
Poor Xury, who was almost dead with fear,
entreated me not to go on shore that night.
"Suppose I don't Xury," said I. "and in the
morning we should see men who are worse
than those we fear, what then ? 0 den
we may give them the shoot gun," said he,
laughing, "and the gun make then all run
away." The wit, and broken Elilish which
the boy had learned among the captives of our
nation pleased me entirely, and made me ;till
tender of him than before, W'e could get but
little sleep all the night for the terrible howiings
thev made; and indeed w rere verie much
ilie e:x;, morninir ,I was re.'! Il to '- n1
shore to get in fresh waiter. aHd xntu-re nrtsl,
amonp the beasts or savages. hottid eithi: at-

tack me. Xury said he would take one of the
jars and bring me some. I asked him why he
would go and not I ? The poor boy answered,
"If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
away." This, indeed, increased my affection
for the child. Well, dear Xury," said I,
"we will both go ashore, both kill wild mans,
and they shall eat neither of us." So giving
Xury a piece of bread to eat, we waded ashore,
carrying nothing with us but our arms, and two
jars for water. I did not go out of sight of the
boat, as dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes: but the boy seeing a low
descent or vale about a mile in the country, he
wandered to it; and then running back to me
with great precipitation, I thought he was pur-
sued by some savages or wild beasts; upon
which I approached, resolving to perish, or
protect him from danger. As he came nearer
to me, I saw something hanging over his should.
ders, which was a creature he had shot, like
a hare, but different in colour, and with longer
legs ; however, we were glad of it for it proved
wholesome and nourishing meat; but what ad.
ded to our joy was, my boy assured me there
was plenty of water, and that he "saw no
wild mans." And greater still was our com-
fort when we found fresh water in the creek
where we were when the tide was out, without
going so far up into the country.
In this place, I began to hope that I should
meet some of the English trading vessels, who
would relieve and take is in.

The place I was in, was no doubt, that wikl
country inhabited only by a few, that lies be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the negroes. It is filled with wild beasts,
and the Moors use it for hunting chiefly. From
this place, I thought I saw the top of the moun.
tain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, which made
me try twice to attain it, but as often was I
driven back, and so forced to pursue my for-
tune along shore.
Early one morning we came to an anchor
under a little point of land, but pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay ready
to go further in ; but Xury, whose youthful and
penetrating eyes were sharper than mine, in a
soft tone, desired me to keep fir from land,
lest we should be devoured; For look yon-
der, master, and see de dreadful monster
fast asleep on de side of de hill." Accord-
ingly, looking where he pointed, I espied a
fearful monster indeed. It was a terrible great
lion that lay on shore, covered as it were by a
shade of a piece of the hill. Xury," said I,
"you shall go on shore and kill him." But
the boy looked amazed. Me kill him!" says
he, he eat me at one mouth," meaning one
mouthful. Upon which I bid him lie still, and
charging my .;;_': i ;,ii with two slugs, and a
good charge ..i' i.....i.., I took the best aim I
could to shoot him through the head ; but his
leg lying over his nose, the slug broke his
knee-bone. The lion awaking with the pain,
got up, but soon fell down, giving the most

hideous groan I ever heard; liut taking my
second piece, I shot him through the head,
and then he lay struggling for life. Upon this
Xury took heart, and desired my leave to go on
shore. Go then," said I. Upon which, tak
ing a little gun in one hand, he swam to shore
with the other, and coming close to the lion
put a period to his life, by shooting him again
through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not being good to eat. Xury
was l.ne a champion, and comes on board for
a hatchet to cut off the head of his enemy;
but wanting strength to perform it, he cut off
and brought me a foot. I bethought me, how-
ever, that this skin would be of use. This cost
Xury and me a whole day : when spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the hot beams of the
sun effectually dried it in two days time, and it
afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living spar-
ingly on our provisions, and went no oftener
on shore than we were obliged for fresh water,
in hopes to meet some European ship. If Pro-
vidence did not favour me, my next course was
to seek for the islands, or lose my life among
the negroes; in a word, either I must meet with
some ship, or certainly perish.
One day as we were sailing along, we saw
people stand on the shore looking at us ; we
could also perceive they were black, and stark
naked. 1 was inclined to go on shore; but
Xury cried, No, no; however, I approached

nearer, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a long way. They had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who held a long stick,
which Xury told me was a lance, with which
they could kill at a great distance. I talked to
them by signs, and made them sensible I wan-
Sted something to eat; they beckoned to me to
stop my boat, while two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came
back and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh, and some corn, which we kindly ac-
cepted; and to prevent any fears on either
side, they brought the food to the shore, laid
it down, then went and stood a great way off,
till we fetched it on board, and then came close
to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to them,
being all we could afford, two mighty creatures
came from the mountains, one as it were pur-
suing the other with great fury, which we
were the rather inclined to believe, as they
seldom appear but in the night, and both these
swiftly passing by the negroes, jumped into
the sea, wantonly swimming about, as though
the diversion of the waters had put a stop to
their fierceness. At last one of them coming
nearer to my boat than I expected, or desired,
I shot him directly through the head, upon
which he stnk immediately, yet rising again,
he would have willingly made to the shore, but
between the wound and the struggling of the
water, he died before he could reach it.
It is impossible to express the consternation

the poor negroes were in at the firing of my
gun; much less can I mention their surprise,
when they perceived the creature to be slain by
it. I made signs to them to draw near it with
a rope, and then gave it to them to haul on
shore. It was a beautiful leopard, which made
me desire its skin; and the negroes seeming
to covet the carcase, I freely gave it to them.
As for the other leapord, it made to shore,
and ran with a prodigious swiftness out of
sight. The negroes having kindly furnished
me with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave, and,
after eleven days sail came in sight of the
tape de Verd. But the great distance I was
from it, and fearing contrary winds would pre-
vent me reaching them, I began to grow me-
lancholy and dejected, when upon a sudden
Xnry cried out, "Master, master," looking as
affrighted as if it was his master's ship sent in
search of us. But I soon discovered she was
a Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for
life to come up to them. But in vain had it
been, if through their perspective glasses, they
had not perceived us, and shortened their sail
to let us come in. Encouraged at this, I set
up my patron's ancient, and fired a gun, both,
as signals of distress; upon which they very
kindly lay to, so that in three hours time I came
up with them. They spoke to me in Portu-
guese, Spanish, and French, but none of these
did I understand, till at length a Scots sailor

called, and then I told him I was an English.
man, who had escaped from the Moors E'I ,i -:,
upon which they took me kindly on board
with all my effects.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or, All
Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after. And here
I cannot forget the generous treatment of the
captain. He would take nothing for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and thirty for the lion's. Every thing
he caused to be delivered, and what I would
sell, he bought. In short, I made 220 pieces
of my cargo, and with this stock I entered
once more, as I may say, into the scene of life.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next dooi
to an honest and kind neighbour, born at Lis.
bon, of English parents, whose plantation join-
ing to mine, we improved very amicably toge.
their. Both our stocks were low; and for two
years we planted only for food ; but the id.,,i
year we planted some tobacco, and each .1
dressed a large piece of ground the ensuing
year for planting sugar-canes.
I was in some.-measure settled, before the
captain who took me up departed from the Bra-
zils. One day I went to him, and told him what
stock I had in London, desiring his assistance
on getting it sent out to me ; to which the good
gentleman readily consented hut would only
have me send for ihti 'm money, lest if should
miscarry- whincp if:;. id, I ...' i have the

remainder to support me; and so taking letters
of procuration from me, bid me trouble myself
no further about it.
And indeed, he not only procured the money
I had drawn for upon my captain's widow, but
sent me over a servant, with a cargo propor-
tionable to my condition. He also sent me
tools of all sorts, iron work and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncom-
mon success crowning my prosperous labours,
I might have rested happy in that middle state
of life my father so often recommended; yet
nothing would content me. Having lived four
years in Brazil, I had not only learned the
language, but contracted acquaintance with the
most eminent planters, and even with the
merchants of St. Salvadore, three of whom
came one morning to me, saying they had
a secret proposal to make. After enjoining
me to secrecy, they told me they had a mind
to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, in order te
stock the plantation with negroes, which, as
they could not be publicly sold, they would di
vide among them; and if I would go their su.
percargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part, I should have an equal share of the ne-
goes, without providing any stock. The thing
indeed was fair enough, had I been in another
condition : however, I could not resist the pro-
posal, but accepted the offer, upon condition
af their looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things

ready, we set sail the first of September 1659.
We sailed northward upon the coast, from
whence going farther into the ocean out of the
sight of land, we steered as though we were
bound for the island Fernand de Noremba, leave.
ing the islands on the east, and then it was we
met with a terrible tempest, which continued
for twelve days successively, so that the winds
carried us wheresover they pleased. In this
perplexity one of our men died, and a man
and a boy were washed overboard. When the
weather cleared up a little, we found ourselves
upon the coast of Guinea. Upon this the cap-
tain gave reasons for returning; which I op-
posed, counselling him to stand away for Bar-
badoes, which, as I supposed, might be at-
tained in fifteen days. So altering our course,
we sailed north-west and by west in order to
reach the Leeward Islands; but a second storm
suceeding, drove us to the westward, so that
we were justly afraid of falling into the hands
of cruel savages, or the paws of the devouring
beasts of prey.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in
the morning, cried out, Land! Land! which
he had no sooner said, than our ship struck
upon a sand bank, and, in a moment, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we ex-
pected we should perish immediately. We
knew not where we were, or upon what land
we were driven, whether it was an island or
the main, inhabited or not inhabited, and we
could not so much as hope that the ship

would hold out many minutes, without break.
ing in pieces, unless the wind by a miracle
should turn about immediately. While we
stood looking at one another, expecting death
every moment, the mate lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest got her flung over
the ship's side; into this we all got, being
eleven in number, and committed ourselves to
God's mercy, and the wild sea. And now we
saw that this last effort would not be a suffi-
cient protection from death; so high did the
sea rise, that it was impossible the boat should
live. As to making a sail, we had none, nei-
ther if we had, could we make use of any. So
that when we had rowed, or rather were driven
about a league and a half, a raging wave, like
a lofty mountain came rolling astern of us,
and took us with such fury, that at once it
overset the boat. Thus being swallowed up
in a moment, we had only time to call upon
the awful name of God, and to implore, in
dying ejaculations, his infinite mercy to receive
our departing souls.
Men are generally counted insensible, when
struggling in the pangs of death; but while I
was overwhelmed with water, I had the most
dreadful apprehensions imaginable, for the joys
of heaven, and the torments of hell, seemed
to present themselves before me in these dying-
ar:iies, a.d e'.1:a small space of time, as it
w-r, rb. veen li f an"d death. I was going I
it i it J, !- -, e 7ii wlhi'hier, in a dismal gulph

unknown, and as yet unperceived, never to
behold my friends, nor the light of this world
any more I strove however to the last extre-
mity, while all my companions were over-
powered and entombed in the deep; and it was
with great difficulty I kept my breath till the
wave spent itself, and, retiring back, left me
on the shore, half dead with the water I had
taken in. As soon as I got on my feet, I ran
as fast as I could, lest another wave should pur-
sue me, and carry me back again. But for all
the haste I made, I could not avoid it, for the
sea came after me like a high mountain, or a
furious enemy; so that my business was to
hold my breath, and by raising myself on the
water, to save myself by swimming. The next
dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep, but, at the same time, carried
me with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore, when raising myself, I held out as
well as possible, till, at length, the water, hav-
ing spent itself, began to return, at which I
struck forward, and feeling ground again with
my feet, I took to my heels. Thus being
served twice more, I was at last dashed against
a piece of rock, in such a manner as left me
senseless, but recovering a little before the re-
turn of the wave, which no doubt would then
overwhelm me, I held fast by the rock till those
succeeding waves abated; and then fetching
another run, was overtaken by a small wave,
vhieh was soon conquered. But before tiny

,,:,Yi /0- e5oc7c7.


more could overtake me, I reached tile main
land, where clambering up the cliffs of the
shore, tired and almost spent, I sat down on
the grass, free from the danger of the foaming
No tongue can express the transports that
my soul felt at this happy deliverance. I was
wrapt up in contemplation, and often lifted up
my hands with the profoundest humility, to the
Divine Power for saving my life; when the
rest of my companions were all drowned. And
now I began to cast my eyes around, and to
behold what place I was in, and what I had
next to do. I could see no house nor people;
I was wet, yet had no clothes to shift me;
hungry and thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or
drink, no weapon to destroy any creature for
my sustenance, nor defend myself against de-
vouring beasts; in short, I had nothing but a
knife, a tobacco pipe, and a box half filled with
tobacco. The darksome night coming upon
me, increased my fears of being devoured by
wild creatures, my mind was plunged in despair,
and having no prospect, as I thought, of 'lif
before me, I prepared for another kind of death
than what I had lately escaped. I walkdr
about a furlong, to see if I could find any fresh
water, which I did, to my great joy; and taking
a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger, I got
up into a thick bushy tree, and seating myself
so that I could not fall, a deep sleep overtook
:ne. and for that night. buried my sorrows in a
quiet rep'.se

It was broad day the next morning before I
awoke, when I not only perceived the tempest
was ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as
far as the rock before-mentioned, which was
about a mile from the place where I was.-
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles dis-
tant on my right hand, lying on shore as the
waves had cast her. I thought to have got to
her; but there being an inlet of water about'
half a mile's breadth between it and me, I re-
turned again towards the ship, as hoping to
find something for my more immediate subsist-
ence. About noon, when the sea was so call
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
her, it was to my grief I perceived, that if we
had kept on board, all our lives would have
been saved. These thoughts and mv solitude
drew tears from my eyes, though all in vain.
So resolving to get to the ship, I stripped and
leaped into the water; when swiniming round
her, I was afraid I could not get any thing to
lay hold of; but it was my good fortune to espy
a small piece of rope hanging down so low, that,
by the help of it though witl great difficulty,
I got into the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bilged, and had a great deal of water in
her, her stern was lifted up against a bank, and
her head almost in the water. All her quar-
ter, and iihat was there, were free and dry.
The provisions I found in good order, and,
losing no time, ate while I was doing other
things. I aloU fbu'.u s!ome rmn, of w which I

took a little; and now I wanted for nothing
except a boat, which indeed was all, to carry
away what was needful for me.
Necessity occasions a quickness of thought.
We had several spare yards, a spare topmast
or two, and two or three large spars of wood.
With these I fell to work, and slung as many
of them overboard as I could manage, tying
every one of them with a rope that they might
not drive away. This done, I went down the
ship's side and tied four of them fast together
at both ends, in form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found it would bear me, but not any
considerable weight. Upon which I went to
work again, cutting a spare topmast into three
lengths, adding them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. I then, first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could get,
next lowered down three of the seamen's chests
after I had filled them with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheese, five pieces of dried goat's flesh,
and some European corn, what little the rats
had spared; and for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles, in which were some cordial
waters, and four or five gallons of arrack. By
this time, the tide beginning to flow, I per-
ceived my coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim
away which I had left on shore; as for my
linen breeches and stockings, I swamwith them
to the ship; but I soon found clothes enough,
though I took no more than I wanted for the
present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to

work with, and after a long search, I found out
the carpenter's chest, which I got safe down
on my raft. I then looked for arms and ammu.
nition, and in the, great cabin, found two good
fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two rusty
swords. I likewise found three barrels otfpow-
der, two of which were good, but the third
had taken water, also two or three broken oars,
two saws, an axe, and a hammer. I then put
to sea, and in getting to shore had three en-
couragements. 1 A smooth calm sea : 2 The
tide rising and setting in to the shore : 3. The
little wind there was, blowing towards land.
After I had sailed about a mile, I found the raft
driving a little distance from the place where I
t:rst landed, and then I perceived an opening
,o ihe land, with a strong current of the tide
running into it, upon which I kept the middle
of the stream. But great was my concern,
when on a sudden the forepart of my raft ran
Aground. But after some time, the rising of
.the water caused the raft to float again, and
coming up a little river, with land on both
sides, I landed in a little cave, as near the
mouth as possible, the better to discover a sail,
if any such providentially passed that way.
Not fir off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with smaller hills about it,
nna thither I as resolved to go and view the
c.,intrv, that I might see what part was best
t, fix inm habi;ation in. Accordingly, arming
inyseV v i:!b : pistol, a fowling piece, powder,

f j- '


MO1~~1~ cV~A SO
6~'z 7i~ 27af

and ball, I ascended the mountain. There I
perceived I was in an island, encompassed by
the sea, no distant lands to be seen, but scat.
tearing rocks that lay to the west; that it seemed
to be a barren place, and, as I thought only
inhabited by wild beasts. I perceived abund.
ance of fowls, but was ignorant of what kind,
or whether good for nourishment. I shot one
of them at my return, which occasioned a con.
fused screaming among the other birds, and I
found it, by its colour and beak, to be a kind
of hawk, but its flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, which work spent that day en-
tirely; and fearing that some cruel beasts might
devour me in the night time while I slept, I
made a kind of hut, or barricade, with the
chests and boards I had brought on shore.
That night I slept very comfortably; and the
next morning my thoughts were employed to
make a further attempt to the ship, and bring
away what necessaries I could find, before ano.
their storm should break her in pieces. Accord.
ingly, I got on board as before, and prepared
a second raft far better-than the first; upon
which, I brought away the carpenter's stores,
two or three bags full of nails, a great jack
screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a grind.
stone. I also took two or three iron crows,
two barrels of musket.bullets, another fowling.
piece, a small quantity of powder, and a large
bag full of small shot. Besides these, I took
all the men's clothes I could find, a spare fore.

top-sail, a hammock, and. some bedding; and
thus completing my second cargo, I made all
the haste on shore I could, fearing some wild
beast might destroy what I had there already.
But I only found a little wild cat sitting on one
of the chests, who not seeming to fear me, or
the gun that I presented at her, I threw her a
piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and
When I had got these effects on shore, I
went to work, in order to make me a little tent
with the sail and some poles, which I had cut
for that purpose, and having finished it, what
things might be damaged by the weather, I
brought in, piling all the empty chests and
casks in a circle, the better to fortify it against
any sudden attempt of man or beast. After
this I blocked up the doors with some boards,
and an empty chest turned the long way out.
I then charged my gun and pistol, and laying
my bed on the ground, slept as comfortably
till the next morning as though 1 had been in
a christian country.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me .
long time, yet despairing of a sudden d,: i. r.
ance, and fearing that both ammunition and pro-
vision might be spent before such a thing hap-
pened, I saved as much as I could, and so long
as the ship remained in that condition, I daily
brought away one necessary or other; particu.
larly, the rigging, sails and cordage, some twine
a barrel of wet powder, some sugar, a barre
of meal, three casks of rum, and indeed wh


was most welcome to me, a whole hogshead of
The next time I went, I cut the cables in
pieces, carried offa hawser whole, with a great
deal of iron work, and made another raft; but
this being so unwieldy, by the too heavy bur.
den upon it, and I not being able so dexter.
ously to guide it as the former, both my cargo
and myself were overturned. For my part, all
the damage I sustained was a wet skin; and at
low water, after muyh labour in diving, I got
up most of the cables, and s9me pieces of iron..
Thirteen days had I now been on the island,
and eleven days on board, bringing away all
that was possible. As I was going the twelfth
time, the wind began to rise; however, I ven-
tured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker, I found several razors, scissors and
some dozens of knives and forks, and in ano-
ther, thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight, silver
and gold. I wrapt the money up in a piece of
canvas, and began to think of making another
raft; but I soon perceived the wind beginning
to rise, a fresh gale blowing from the shore,
and the sky overcast with clouds and darkness.
So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let myself
into the water with what things I had about me;
and it was with great difficulty I got ashore,
when soon after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my
little tent, surrounded with all my effects; but
when I looked out in the morning, no mcie ship
was ;o be seen This much surpri) -. e fo

the present: yet, when I considered that I had
lost no time, abated no pains, and had got
every thing useful out of her, I comforted my.
self in the best manner, and entirely submitted
to divine Providence.
My next thoughts were, how I should defend
and secure myself from savages and wild
beasts, if any such were in the island.
When I considered the ground where I was,
that it was marshy, and had no fresh water
near it, my resolutions wer~ to search for a soil
healthy and well watered, where I might not
only be sheltered from the sun's scorching heat
but be more conveniently situated, as well to
be secured from wild men, and beasts of prey,
as more easily to discover any distant sail,
should it ever so happen.
And indeed it was not long before I had my
desire. I found a little plain near a rising hill,
the front towards which, being as steep as a
house-side, nothing could descend on me from
the top.
On the side of this rock was a little hollow
place, resembling the entrance or door of a
cave. Just before this place, on the circle of
the green, I resolved my tent should stand.
This plain did not much exceed a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, like a
delightful green before my door, with a pleas-
ing, though irregular descent every way to the
low grounds by the sea side, sheltered from the
excessive heat of sun. After this, I drew a
semicircle, twenty yards in diameter, driving

down two rows of strong stakes not six inches
from each other. Then with the pieces ofcable
which I had cut on board, Iregularly laid them
in a circle between the piles, up to their tops,
which were more than five feet out of the earth,
and then drove another row of piles, looking
within side against them, between two or three
feet high, which made me conclude it a lit-
tle castle impregnable by men and beasts.
And for my better security I would have no
door, but entered in and came out by the help
of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which
I carried all my riches, ammunition, and stores.
After which, working on the rock, what with
the dirt and stones I dugout, I not only raised
my ground two feet, but made a little cellar to
mymansion-house; and this cost me many days'
labour and pains. One day in particular, a
shower of rain falling, thunder and lightning
ensued, which put me in terror lest my powder
should take fire, and not only hinder my neces.
sary subsistence, by killing my food, but even
blow up me and my habitation. To prevent
which, I fell to making boxes and bags, in or.
der to separate it, having by me near 1501b.
weight. And thus being established as king of
the island, every day I went out with my gun
to see what I could kill that was fit to eat. I
soon perceived numbers of goats, but very shy ;
yet having watched them narrowly, and seeing
I could better shoot off the rocks than when in

the low grounds, I happened to shoot a she-goat
suckling a young kid; which, not thinking its
dam slain, stood by her unconcerned; and
when I took the dead creature up, the young
one followed me even to the enclosure. I lifted
the kid over the pales, and would willingly
have kept it alive, but finding it could not be
brought to eat, I was forced to slay it also for
my subsistence.
Thus, entered into as strange a state as ever
any man was in, I had most melancholy appre-
hensions concerning my deplorable condition;
and many times the tears would plentifully run
down my face, when I considered how I was
debarred from all communication with human
kind. Yet while these desponding cogitations
would seem to make me accuse Providence,
other good "i ... -31- would interpose and re-
prove me after this manner : Well, supposing
you are desolate, is it not bettW to be so than
totally perish? Why should you complain,
when not only your life is preserved, blit the
ship driven into your reach, in order i.. I.1
what was necessary out of her for a .I.---.
tence?" But to proceed: It was, by the account
I kept, the thirtieth of September, when
I first landed on this island. About tIl, I"
days after, fearing lest I should lose my reck.
oning oftime, nay even forgetthe sabbath days
for want of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with
a knife upon a large post, in great letters, I
came on shore, Sep. 30, 1659, and set it up in

the similitude of a cross, on the sea shore where
I landed. Every day I cut a notch with my
knife on the sides of the square post, and that
on the sabbath was as long, again as the rest,
and every first day of the month, as long again
as that long one. In this manner, I kept my
calendar, weekly, monthly, or yearly reckoning
of time. But had I made a more strict search
(as I did afterwards,) I need not have set up
this mark. For among the parcels belonging
to the gunner, carpenter, and captain's mate,
I found those very things I wanted; particu.
larly pens, ink, and paper; also I found two or
three compasses, some mathematical instru.
ments, dials, perspective glasses, books of
navigation, three English Bibles, and several
other good books, which I carefully put up.
Here I cannot but call to mind our having a
dog and two cats on board, whom I made
inhabitants with me in my castle. Though
one might think I had all the necessaries that
were desirable, yet still I found several things
wanting. My ink was daily wasting: I want.
ed needles, pins, and thread to mend or keep
my clothes together: and particularly a spade,
pick-axe, or shovel, to remove the earth. It
was a year before I finished my little bul-
w*rk; and having some intervals of relaxation,
after my daily wandering abroad far provision,
I drew up this plan alternately, as creditor
and debtor, to remind me of the miseries and
the blessings of my life, under so many vari-
ous circumstances


I am cast upon a
desolate island, hav-
ing no prospect of a
welcome deliverance.
How miserable am I,
singled out from the
enjoyment or company
of all mankind.

Like a hermit (ra-
ther should I say a
lonely anchoret) am
I forced from human
My clothes, after
some time will be worn
out, and then I shall
nave none to cover

When my ammuni-
tion is wasted, then
shall I remain without
any defence against
wild men and beasts.

I have no creature,
no soul to speak to;
none to beg assistance


But yet I am pre-
served while my com-
panions have perished
in the raging sea.
Yet set apart to
be spared from death.
And He, who has so
preserved me, can de-
liver me from this con-
However, I have
food to eat, and even
a happy prospect of
subsistence whilst life
At present I enjoy
what is absolutely
needful; and the cli-
mate is so hot, that
had I never so many,
I should hardly wear
Yet even thus, I see
no danger of any to
hurt me, as in Africa;
and what if I had been
cast away upon that
Is there not God to
converse with, and is
not he able to deliver

from. Some comfort thee? already has he af.
would it be to resound forded thee sustenance
my woes where I am and put it in thy power
understood, and beg to provide for thyself,
assistance where I till he sends thee a de.
might hope for relief. liverance.

And now, easing my mind a little by these
reflections, I began to render my life as easy
as possible.
I must here add to the description I have
given of my habitation, that having raised a
turf wall against the outside of it, I thatched
it so close as might keep it from the inclemency
of the weather; I also improved it within, en-
larged my cave, and made a passage and a
door in the rock, which came out beyond the
pale of my fortification. I next proceeded to
make a chair and table, and so began to study
such mechanical arts as seemed to me practi-
cable. When I wanted a plank or a board, I
hewed down a tree with my hatchet, making it
as thin with my axe as possible, and then
smooth enough with an adze, to answer my de-
signs; yet though I could make no more this
way than one board out of a tree, in length of
time I got boards enough to shelter all my
stores, every thing being regularly placed, and
my guns securely hanging against the side of
a rock. This made it a very pleasant sight to
me being the result of vast labour and great
diligence; which leaving for a while, and me
to the enjoyment of, I shall give the reader an

account of some parts of my journal from the
day of my landing, till the settling of my habi
station, as heretofore shown.

SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659, 1 unhappy Robi..
son Crusoe, having suffered shipwreck, was
driven on this desolate island, which I named
the Desolate island of Despair, the rest of my
companions being swallowed up in the tempes-
tuous ocean. The next day I spent in consider-
ation of my unhappy circumstances, having nc
prospect but of death, either to be starved with
hunger, or devoured by wild beasts ormerciles-
Oct. 1. That morning, with great comfort 1,
beheld the ship drove ashore. Some hopes I
had, that when the storm was abated I migh,
be able to get some food and necessaries out ot
her; which I conceived were not damaged,
because the ship did stand upright. At this
time, I lamented the loss of my companions, and
our misfortune in leaving the vessel. When I
perceived the ship, as it were, to lie dry, I waded
through the sands, then swam aboard, the wea-
ther being very rainy, and with scarcely any
To the 14th of this month, my time was em-
ployed in making voyages every tide, getting
what I could out of the ship. The weather very
wet and uncertain.

Oct. 25. My raft, and all the goods thereon
were overset; yet I recovered most again at
low water.
Oct. 25. It blew hard, and rained night and
day, when the ship went in pieces, so that no-
thing was seen of her but the wreck at low
water. This day I secured my goods from the
inclemency of the weather.
Oct. 26. I wandered to see where I could
find a place convenient for my abode : I fixed
upon a rock in the evening, marked out a half
moon, intending to erect a wall fortified with
piles, lined within with pieces of cables, and
covered with turf.
Nov. 3. I shot two wild-fowl, resembling
ducks, which were good to eat, and in the af-
ternoon made me a table.
Nov. 4. I began to live regularly. In the
morning I allowed myself two or three hours
to walk out with my gun; I then worked till
near eleven o'clock; and afterwards refreshed
myself with what I had to eat. From twelve
to two, I would lie down to sleep. Extreme
sultry weather. In the evening go to work
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog,
shot a wild cat with a soft skin, but her flesh
was good for nothing. The skins of those
killed I preserved. In my return I pereieved
many wild birds, and was terrified by some
seals which made off to sea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Fair weather. I worked to the 12th


but omitted the llth, which according to my
calculation, I supposed to be Sunday.
Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rock, yet was
obliged to desist for want of a pick.axe, shovel
and wheelbarrow. Iron crows I used to sup-
ply the place of the first, but witl all my art I
could not make a wheel-barrow.
Nor. 19. It was my fortune to find a tree
resembling what the Brazilians call an iron
tree. I had like to spoil my axe with cutting
it, it being very hard, and exceedingly heavy;
yet with much labour and industry I made a
sort of spade out of it.
Nov. 23. These tools being made, I daily
carried on my business; eighteen days I allowed
for enlarging my cave, that it might serve me,
not only for a ware-house, but kitchen, parlour
and cellar. I commonly lay in the tent, unless
the weather was so rainy that I could not lie
dry. So wet would it be at certain seasons,
that I was obliged to cover all within the pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and
large leaves of trees resembling a thatch.
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habita-
tion finished, but suddenly a great deal of the
top broke in, so that it was a mercy I was not
buried in the ruins. This occasioned a great
deal of pains and trouble to me before I could
make it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. 1 nailed up some shelves, and drove
nails and staples in the wall and posts, to hang
e-ery thing ou of the way.

Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place,
then made a sort of dresser, and another table.
Dec. 27. I chanced to light on some goats,
shot one, wounded another; I led it home in a
string, bound up its leg, and cured it in a little
time; at length, it became so tame and familiar
as to feed before the door, and follow me where
I pleased. This put me in mind to bring up
tame creatures, in order to supply me with food
after my ammunition was spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. The weather being exces-
sively hot, with little air, obliged me for the
most part to keep within doors.
Jan. 3, to 14. My employment this time
was to finish the wall before described, and
search the island. I discovered a kind of pi-
geons, like our house-pigeons, in a nest among
the rocks. I brought them home, nursed them
till they could fly, and then they left me. Af
ter this, I shot some, which proved excellent
food. Some time I spent vainly contriving to
make a cask, I may well say it was in vain, be-
cause I could neither joint the staves, nor fix
the ho',ds, so as to make it tight: so leaving
that, I took some goats tallow I had by me,
and a little oakum for the wick, and provided
myself with a lamp, which served instead of
But now a very strange event happened. For
being in the height of my search, what should
come into my hand, but a bag which was used
Lo hold corn (as I supposed) for the fowls; so
Immediately resolving to put gunpowder into it.

[ shook all the husks and dirt upon one side oi,
a rock, little expecting what the consequence
would be. The rain had fallen plentifully a
few days before; and about a month after, to
my great amazement, something began to look
out very green and flourishing; and when I
came to view it more nicely, every day as it
grew, I found about ten or twelve ears of green
barley of the very same shape and make as that
in England.
I can scarcely express the agitation of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto, I had Jooked
upon the actions of this life no otherwise than
only as the events of blind chance and fortune.
But now, the appearance of this barley, flour-
ishing in a barren soil, and my ignorance in
not conceiving how it should come there, made
me conclude, "that miracles were not yet ceas-
ed;" nay, I even thought that God had appoint-
ed it to grow there without any seed, purely for
my sustenance in this miserable and desolate
island. And indeed such great effect had this
upon me, that it often made me melt into tears
through a grateful sense of God's mercies ; and
the greater still was my thankfulness, when I
perceived about this little field of barley, some
rice stalks, also wonderfully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be some more corn in the island;
and therefore made a diligent search narrowly
among the rocks; but not being able to find
any, on a sudden it came into my mind, how I
had shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,

and then my admiration ceased, with my grati.
tude to the Divine Being, as thinking it was but
natural, and not to be conceived a miracle;
though even the manner of its preservation
might have made me own it -as a wonderful
event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of the corn ripened, which I laid up very
carefully, together with 20 or 30 stalks of rice ;
expecting one day I should reap the fruit of
my labour; yet four years were expired before
I could allow myself to eat any barley bread,
and much longer time before I had any rice.
After this, with indefatigable pains and indus.
try for three or four months, at last I finished
my house on the 14th of April, having no way
to go into it, but by a ladder against the wall.
April 16, I finished my ladder, and ascended
it; afterwards pulled it up, then let it down on
the other side, and descended into my new ha.
bitation, where I had space enough, and so for-
tified, that nothing could attack me without
scaling the walls.
But what does all human art and industry
avail, if the blessing of God does not crown
our labours ? Or who can stand before the Al-
mighty, when he stretcheth forth his arm? For
one time as I was at the entrance of my cave,
there happened such a dreadful earthquake,
that not only the roof of the cave came tumbling
about my ears, but the posts seemed to crack
terribly at the same time. This put me in a
great amazement; and running to the ladder

and getting over the wall, I then plainly knew
it was an earthquake, the place I stood on sus-
taining three terrible shocks in less than three
minutes. But judge of my terror when I saw
the top of a great rock roll into the sea; I then
expected the island would be swallowed up
every moment : and what made the scene still
more dreadful, was to see the sea thrown into
the most violent agitations and disorders by this
tremendous acciu, .
For my part, I expected every moment to be
swallowed up. At the moving of the earth, I
was, as it were, sea-sick; and very much afraid
lest the rock, under which was my fence and
habitation, should overwhelm me and it in a
lasting tomb.
It was not long after, when a horrible tem-
pest arose, at the same time attended with a
hurricane of wind. Three hours did this storm
continue, and in so violent a manner as to tear
the very trees up by the roots, which was suc-
ceeded by abundance of rain. When the tem-
pest was over, I went to my tent; but the rain
coming on in a furious manner, I was obliged
to take shelter in the cave, where I was forced
to cut a channel through my fortification, to
let the water out. It continued raining all that
night, and some time the next day. These ac-
cidents made me resolve, as soon as the wea-
ther cleared up, to build me a little hut in some
open place, walled round, to defend me from
wild creatures and savages; not doubting, but,
at the next earthquake, the mountain would

fall on my habitation and me, and swallow up
all in its bowels.
April 16-20. These days I spent in con-
triving how and in what manner I should fix
my place of abode. All this while, I was ur
der the most dreadful apprehensions. When
I looked round my habitation, every thing I
found in its proper place. I had several de-
bates whether I should move or not; but at
length resolved to stay where I was, till I
found out a convenient place where I might
pitch my tent.
April 22. When I began to put my resolu.
tions in practice, I was stopped for want of
tools and instruments to work with. Most of
my axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me up a full week to make my
grindstone of use to me; and at last I found
out a way to turn it about with my foot, by help
of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allow-
ed myself but one biscuit a day.
*May 1. As I walked along the sea-shore,
I found a barrel of gunpowder, and several
pieces of the wreck which the sea had flung up.
Having secured these, I made to the ship, whose
stern was torn off, and washed a great distance
ashore; but the rest lay in the sands. This, I
suppose, was occasioned by the earthquake. I
now resolved to keep my old place of abode :
and also to get to the ship that day, but found
it impossible.

May 3. This day I went on board, and with
my saw sawed off one of the beams, which kept
her quarter-deck. I then cleared the sand till
May 4. I caught some fish, but they were
not wholesome. The same day, I also caught
a young dolphin.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the
wreck, and sawed another piece of timber;
and when the flood came, I made a float of
three great planks, which were driven ashore
by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brought off the
iron bolts, opened the deck with the iron crow,
and carried two planks to land, having made a
way into the very middle of the wreck.
May 10-13. All this time I spent in bring.
ing off great quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets on
purpose to cut off some lead from the roll, but
all in vain, for it lay too low under water.
May 24. To this day, I worked on the
wreck, and with great difficulty loosened some
things so much with the crow, that at the first
blowing tide, several casks floated out, and se-
veral of the seamen's chests ; yet that day no-
thing came to land but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead which had some pork in it. I con-
tinued working to the 15th of June; (except
necessary times for food and rest,) and had I
known how to build a boat, I had timber and
planks enough; I had also near 100 weight of
sheet lead.

June 16. As I was wandering towards the
sea-side, I found a large tortoise or turtle, bf
nmg the first I had seen on the island, though
as I afterwards found, there were many on the
other side of it.
June 17. This day I spent in cooking it,
found in her threescore eggs, and her flesh the
most savory and pleasant I ever tasted in my
June 18. I staid within this day, there be-
ing a continual rain; and it was somewhat
more chilly and cold than usual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a
trembling and shivering.
June 20. Awake all night, my head racked
with pain, and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified
with dismal apprehensions of my condition.
Prayed to God more frequently, hut very con-
June 22. Something better, but still un-
easy in my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a second time.
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours,
cold and hot fits, succeeded with faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak; yet I
scrambled out, shot a she goat, brought it
home, and broiled some of it: I would wil-
lingly have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with
an ague; thirsty, yet could not help myself to

water: prayed to God in these words: "Lord,
in pity look upon me: Lord, have mercy upon
me, have mercy upon me !" After this I fell
asleep, which, when I awaked, I found had
much refreshed me.
I rose up, in a pensive manner, being so
thoughtful that I could not go to sleep; and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper, it
caused me to remember, that the Brazilians
use tobacco for almost all diseases. I then
went to my chest, in order to find some, where
heaven, no doubt, directed me to find a cure,
both for soul and body; for there I found one
of the bibles, which, till this time, I had neither
leisure nor inclination to look into; I took
both the tobacco and that out of my chest, and
laid them on the table. Several experiments did
I trv with the tobacco. First, I ook apiece of
leaf, and chewed it; but it being very green
and strong, almost stupifed nme: next, I steep-
ed it in some rum an hour or two, resolving
when I went to bed, to take a dose of it : and,
in the third place, I burnt some over a pan of
fire, ..1,._ ... ... over it so long as Icould
endure it without suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though my
head was giddy and disturbed by the tobacco,
I took up the Bible to read. No sooner did I
open, but there appeared to me these words,
" Call on me in the day of trouble, and 1 wilt
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
At first, this sentence made a very deep im-
pression on my heart : but it soon wore off

again when I con.sidtrthe word "deliver' wias
foreign to me. And as the children of I-rael
said, when they were promised flesh to eat,
"Can God spread a table in the wilderness?" In
the like manner I began to say, Can God him-
self deliver me from this desolate Island ? How.
ever, the words would still return to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression upon
me. As it now was very late, and the tobacco
had dozed my head, I was inclined to sleep;
but before I would lie down, I fell on my
knees, and implored the promise that God had
made to me in the holy Scriptures, that "if I
called on him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me." With much difficulty I afterwards
drank the rum, wherein I had steeped the to-
bacco,' ', .. ..'.. my head, threw me into
such a profound sleep, that it was three o'clock
the next day before I awoke ; or, rather, I be-
lieve, I slept two days, having certainly lost a
day in my account, and I could never tell any
other way. When I got up, my spirits were
lively and cheerful; my stomach much better,
being very hungry; and, in short, no fit return-
ed tile next day, which was the 29th, but I
found myself much altered for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but very
weak. In this condition, I often thought of
these words, "I will deliver thee :" and while
at sometimes I would think of the impossibility
of it, other thoughts would reprehend me, for
disregarding the deliverances I had received
even from the most forlorn and distressed con'-

edition. I asked myself, what regard have I
had to God for his abundant mercies 1 Have I
done my part ? He has delivered me, but I
have not glorified him;" as if I had said, I had
not owned and been thankful for these as de-
liverances, and how could I expect greater?
So much did this sensibly touch my heart, that
I gave God thanks for my recovery from sick-
ness in the most humble posture.
July 4. This morning I began seriously to
ponder on what is written in the New Testa-
ment, resolving to read a chapter every morn-
ing and night, as long as my thoughts would
engage me. As soon as I set about this work
seriously, I found my heart deeply affected
with the impiety of my past life. After this, I
begged of God to assist me with his holy Spirit
in returning to my duty. One day, in pe-
rusing the Scriptures, I came to these words,
"He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to
give repentance, and to give remission :" Im-
mediately I laid down the book, and, with up.
lifted hands to heaven, loudly cried, "0 bless-
ed Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalt-
ed Prince and Saviour, give me repentance :"
And, now indeed, I prayed with a true sense
of my condition, and a more certain hope,
founded on the word of God. Now I had a
different sense of these words, Call on me,
and I will deliver thee," that is, from the dread-
ful load of guilt, which oppressed my sinful
soul, and not fi-om a solitary lif : in a word, I
came to this conclusion, that a deliveranerom
"^^Ji t

sin was a much greater blessing than a deliver-
ance from affliction.
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my
gun, little and little at a time, having been re-
duced to the greatest extremity of weakness.
The applications and experiments I used were
perfectly new : neither could I recommend
them to any one's practice. For though it
carried off the fit, it very much weakened me;
and I had frequently convulsions in my nerves
and limbs for some time. From hence I learn-
ed, that going abroad in rainy weather, espe-
cially when it was attended with storms and
hurricanes'of wind was most pernicious to
health. I had now been above ten months in
the island ; and as I never had seen any of the
human kind, I therefore accounted myself as
sole monarch; and as I grew better, having
secured my habitation to my mind, I resolved
to make a tour round my kingdom, in order to
make new discoveries.
The 15th ofJuly, I began my journey. I
first went to the creek, where I had brought my
rafts on shore; and travelling farther found
the tide went no higher than two miles up,
where there ps a little brook of running water,
on the bank of which were many pleasant sa.
vannahs or medows, smooth, plain and cover-
ed with gra2U qi the rising parts, where I
supposed thli .ridtq' not reach, I perceived
a great deal to a very strong
stalk.' 'Sevrei ott lti'uttsJ lklwise found,
the virtue of which I d.i not a'terstand. I

searched a long time for the cassava root, which
I knew the Indians in that climate made their
bread of; but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not
what they were: likewise I saw several sugar-
canes, but imperfect for want of cultivation.
With these few discoveries, I came back that
night, and slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the
same way, but farther than the day before, I
found the country more adorned with woods
and trees. Here I perceived different fruits in
great abundance. Melons in plenty lay on the
ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe and very
rich, spread over the trees. You may imagine
I was glad of this discovery, yet ate very spar-
ingly, lest I should throw myself into aflux or
fever. The grapes I found.f-cx.cellein('use;
for when I dried them in the sun, whici pre.
served them as dried raisins are kept, they
proved very wholesome arot nourishing, and
served me in those seasons, when no-riapes
were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended
up a tree, and slept very comfo bly, though
it was the first time I had slept ot'bof my ha-
bitation. And when the morning cafne, I pro-
ceeded with great pleasure on swav, travel-
ling about four miles, as I i ened, by the
length of the valley. At the eni this valley
I came to an opening, where the country
.seemed to descend to the west; there I found
a spring of fresh water, proceeding out of the,

side of the hill, with its crystal streams running
directly east. And indeed here my senses
were charmed with the most beautiful land-
scape nature could afford ; for the country ap-
peared so flourishing, green and delightful,
that to me it seemed like a planted garden. I
then descended on the side of that delicious
vale, when I found abundance of cocoa, orange,
lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and
barren at that time. As for the limes, they
were ( i; i,," and wholesome, the juice of
which I afterwards used to mix in water, which
made it very cool and refreshing. And now I
was resolved, to carry home and lay up a store
of grapes, limes and lemons, against the ap.
proaching wet season. So laying them up in
separate parcels, and then taking a few of each
with me, I returned to my little castle, after
having spent three days in this journey. Be-
fore I got home, the grapes were so bruised
that they were utterly spoiled; the limes in.
deed were good, but of those, I could bring
only a few.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I re.
turned thither again, but to my great surpise,
found all the grapes spread about, trbd to
pieces, and abundance eaten, which made me
conclude there were wild beasts thereabouts.
To prevent this happening again, I gathered
a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the tree, both to
keep them unhurt, and that they might cure
and dry in the sun: and having well loader

myself with limes and lemons, I returned once
more to my old place of residence.
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of
this valley, the pleasantness of its situation, its
security from storms, and the delightfulness of
the adjacent woods, I concluded I was settled in
the worst part of the country,.and therefore
was thinking to remove my habitation.
But when I considered again, that though
it was pleasant, it was off from the seaside,
where there was a possibility, some time or
other, a ship might either be driven or sail by;
and that to inclose myself among hills and
woods must certainly put an end to my hopes
of deliverance ; I resolved to let my castle re-
main where Providence had first placed it.
Yet, so delighted was I with this place, that I
made me a little kind of bower, surrounding it
with a double hedge, as high as I could reach,
well staked and filled with bulrushes: and
having spent a great part of the month of July,
I think it was the first of August before I be.
gan to enjoy my labour.
SAugust 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry,
I took them from the trees, and they proved
excellent good raisins of the sun ? the most of
which I carried to my cave; and happy for me
I did so, by which I saved the best part of my
winter food.
August 14. This day it began to rain; and
though I had made me a tent like the other,
vet having no shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat to, I

was obliged to return to my old castle, the
rain continued more or less every day, till the
middle of October; and sometimes so violently,
that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days. This season I found my family to in,
crease; for one of my cats that had run away
from me, and which I thought had been dead,
returned about August, with three kittens at
her heels, like herself; from these cats pro--
ceeded such numbers, that I was forced to kill
and destroy them as I would do wild beasts or
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir
out, it raining incessantly; when beginning to
want food, I was compelled to venture twice,
the first of which times I shot a goat, and
afterwards found a very large tortoise. Th'I
manner of regulating my food was thus: a
bunch of raisins served me for my breakfast; a
piece of goat's flesh or turtle boiled for my
dinner, and two or three turtle eggs for my
supper. While the rain lasted, daily worked
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and,
by degrees worked it on towards one side of
the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall, and so I came
in and out this way. But after I had done this,
I was troubled to see myself thus exposed;
though I could not perceive any thing to fear,
a goat being the biggest creature I had seen
upon this island.
September 30. Casting up the notches on my
post, they amounted to 365, I concluded this

to be the anniversary of my landing; and there-
fore, humbly prostrating myself on the ground,
confessing my sins, acknowledging God's righ-
teous judgments upon me, and praying to Jesus
Christ to have mercy upon me, I fasted for
twelve hours till the going down of the sun ;
and then eating a biscuit and a bunch of grapes,
laid me on a bed, and with great comfort took
my night's repose. Till this time, I seldom had
distinguished the Sabbath-day; but now I
made a longer notch than ordinary for the days
of rest, and divided the weeks as well as I
could, though I found I had lost a day or two
in my account. My ink failing soon after, I
omitted in my daily memorandum, things of an
indifferent nature, and contented myself to
write down only the most remarkable events of
Jny life. The rainy and dry seasons appeared
now regular to me, and experience taught me
how to provide for them ; yet in one thing I
am going to relate, my experience very much
failed me. You may call to mind, what I
have mentioned of some barley and rice which
I had saved; about thirty stalks of the former,
and twenty of the latter; and, at that time, the
sun's being in its southern position, going from
me, together with the rains, made me con-
clude it a very proper season to sow it. Ac-
cordingly I dug up a piece of ground, with my
wooden spade, and dividing it in two parts,
sowed about two-thirds of my seed, preserving
by me a handful of each. And happy it was
I did so; for no rains falling, it was choked

up, and never appeared above tne earth till the
wet season came again, and then part of it
grew, as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved fill to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground near
my bower, I there sowed the rest of my seed
in February, which, by having the rainy months
of March and April to water it, yielded a no-
ble crop, and sprung up very pleasantly. I
had still saved part of the seed, not daring to
venture all; and by the time I found out the
proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might
expect every year two seed-times and two har-
vests, my stock amounted to above half a pack
of each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes
which I had cut from the trees, shot out like
willows, the first year after lopping their heads.
I was ignorant of the tree I cut them from; but
they grew so regularly beautiful, that they made
a most lively appearance, and so flourished in
three years time, that I resolved to cut more
of them; and these soon growing made a
glorious fence, as afterwards I shall observe.
And now I perceived that the seasons of the
year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter, as in Europe, but into wet,
and dry seasons, as in this manner.

From $ February 15, Rainy, sun coming near
To e April 15, the Equinox, 2 months.
From April 15, Dry, sun getting north
To t Augtst 15, from the line, 4 months.

From S August 15, Wet, the sun being then
To October 15, come back, 2 months.
From October 15, Dry, sun running south
To February 15, of the line 4 months.

The wet seasons would continue longer or
shorter, as the wind continued or ceased to
blow. But having found the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care before
hand to furnish myself with provisions : and,
during the wet months, sat within doors as
much as possible. At this time I contrived to
make many handy things that I wanted, though
it cost me much labour and pains, before I could
accomplish them. The first I tried was to
make a basket; but all the twigs I could get,
proved so brittle, that I could not then per-
fbrm it. It now proved of great use to me,
that when a boy, I took great delight in stand-
ing at a basket maker's, in the same town
where my father lived, to view his men at work:
like other boys, being curious to see the manner
of their working these things, and very officious
to assist, I perfectly learned the method of it,
and wanted nothing but the tools. And it
coming into my mind, that the twigs of that
tree of which I made my stakes, might be as
tough as a sallow willow, or osiers growing in
England, I resolved to make an experiment,
and went the next day to my country seat,
and found some fit for my turn; and after cut-
ting down a quantity with my hatchet, I dried
them in my pale, and, when fit to work with

carried them to my cave, where I employed
myself in making several sorts of baskets, in-
somuch thatI could put in whatsoever I pleased.
It is true, they were not cleverly made, ye,
they served my turn upon all occasion,.
But still I wanted two necessary thi. .
had no cask to hold my liquor, excko[ .
almost full of rum, a few bottles of an (.
size, and some square case bottles; neither had
I a pot to boil any thing in, only a large kettle,
unfit to make broth, or stew a bit of meat: I
wanted likewise at the beginning of this dry
season a tobacco-pipe; but for this I afterwards
found an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my
second row of stakes. But remembering that
when I travelled up to the brook I had a mind
to see the whole island, I now resumed my in-
tention, and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two
biscuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
I began my journey. Having passed the vale
where my bower stood, I came within view of
the sea lying to the west; when, it being a
clear day, I fairly described land, extending
from the west to the south-west about 10 or 15
leagues, as I concluded; but could not say
whether it was an island or a continent. Neither
could I tell what this place might be; only
thought it was part of America, and where I
might have been in a miserable condition had
I landed. Again I considered, that if this was

the Spani-h coast, certainly, one time or the
other, I should see some ships pass by; and if
it was not, then it must be the savage coast,
between the Spanish country and Brazil, which
abounds withcannibalsor man-eaters.
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of
the island much more pleasant than mine ; the
fieldfragrant, adorned with sweet flowers and
verdant :r-- together with several very fine
woods. I were parrots in plenty which
made me long for one to be my companion;
but it was with great difficulty I could knock
one down with my stick; and I kept him at
home some years, before I could get him to call
mie by n!mle.
In the low rounds I found various sorts of
hares and foxes as I took them to be, but much
different from those in England. Several of
these I killed, but never ate them; neither in-
deed had I any occasion ; for abounding with
goats, pigeons, turtle, and grapes I could defy
any market to furnish me a better table. In
this journey I did not travel above two miles a
day, because I took several turns and wind-
ings, to see what discoveries I could make, re-
turnina weary enough to the place where I de-
signed to rest all night, which was either in a
tree, or to a place which I surrounded with
stakes, that no wild creature might suddenly
surprise me. When I came to the sea-shore,
I was amazed to see the splendour of it. Its
strand was covered with shells of the most

beautiful fish, and constantly abounding with
innumerable turtles, and fowls of many kinds,
which I was ignorant of, except those called
penguins. I might have shot as many as I
pleased, but was sparing of my ammunition,
rather choosing to kill a she-goat, which I did
with much difficulty, on account of the flatness
of the country.
Now, though this journey produced the most
pleasing satisfaction, yet my habitation was so
much to my liking, that I did not repine at my
being seated on the worst part of the island.
I continued my journey, travelling about twelve
miles further towards the east, where I set a
great pile on the shore for a mark, concluding
that my next journey should bring me to the
other side of the island, east from my castle,
and so round till I came to my post again.
As I had a constant view of the country, I
thought I could not miss my way : but scarce
had I travelled three miles, when I descended
into a very large valley, so surrounded with
hills covered with wood, that having no guide
but the sun, and to add to my misfortune, the
weather proving very hazy, I was obliged to
return to my post by the seaside, and so back-
wards the same way I came. In this journey
my dog surprised a kid, and would have killed
it, had I not prevented him. As I had often
been thinking of getting a kid or two, arid so
raising a breed of tame goats to supply me
after my ammunition was spent, I took this
opportunity of beginning: and, having made

a collar for this little creature, with a string
made of rope-yarn, I brought it to my bower,
and there inclosed and left him; and having
spent a month in this journey, at length I
returned to my old habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when
I returned to my little castle, and reposed my
self in my hammock. After my journey I
rested mysie.f a week, which time I employed
in making a cage for my pretty poll. 1 now
began to recollect the poor kid I had left in
the bower, and immediately went to fetch it
home. Whenu I came there, I found the young
creature almost starved ; gave it some food,
and tied it as before ; but there was no occa.
sion, for it followed me like a dog; and as I
constantly fed it, it became so loving, gentle,
and fond, that it commenced one of my do-
mestics, and would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of September
in the most solemn manner, as usual, it being
the third year of my abode in the island. I spent
the whole day in acknowledging God's mercies,
in giving thanks for making this solitary life as
agreeable, and less sinful, than that of human
society; and for the communication of his
grace to my soul, in supporting, ( ..C" .,
and encouraging me to depend upon his Provi.
dence, and hope for his eternal presence in the
world to come.
Indeed, I often did consider how much more
happy I was, in this state of life, than in that

accursed manner of living I formerly used;
sometimes, however, when hunting, or viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul would
break out upon me, and my very heart would
sink within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I
was a prisoner locked up within the eternal
bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited
wilderness, without hopes, and without redemp-
tion. In this condition, I would often wring
my hands, and weep like a child : and even
sometimes in the middle of my work, this fit
would often take me; and then I would sit
down and sigh, looking on the ground for an
hour or two together, till such time as my grief
got vent in a flood of tears.
One morning, as I was fully employed in this
manner I opened my bible, when immediately
I fixed my eyes upon these words "I will
never leave thee, nor forsake thee !" r-,1. ,
if God does not forsake me, what matters it,
since he can make me more happy in this state
of life, that if I enjoyed the greatest splendour
in the world ? And whenever I opened or shut
the Bible, I blessed kind Providence, that
directed my good friend in England to send it
among my goods without my order, and for as.
sisting me to save it from the power of the
raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my se.
veral daily employment were these : First,
My duty to Heaven, and diligently reading the
Holy Scriptures which I did twice or thrice

everyday ; Secondly, Seeking provisions wifh
my gun, which commonly took me up, when
it did not rain, three hours every morning;
S The ordering, curing, preserving, and
cooking what I lad killed, or watched or nmy
supply, which took me up a great pait of the
day; for in the middle of the dav, the sun
being in it is height, it wias so hat, that I could
not stir out; so that I had but four hours in the
evening to work in: and then the wtii of tools,
,o assistance, and skill, wasted a great deal of
time to little purpose, I was no less than two
and forty days, m:aki ng a board fit for a long
shelf, which two sawyers, with their tools and
saw-pit, would have cut out of tie samne tree il
ha!f a day. It was of a large tree, as my
board was to be broad. I was three days in
clttii.g it down, and two more in lopping off
lihl boughs, and reducing it to a piece of tim-
ber. This Ihacked and hued ot' each side,
till it became light to move ; then I turned it,
made one side oftit smooth and flat as a board
tifrom end to end, then turned it down ard, cut.
ting the other side, till I brought the plank to
be about three inches thick, and smooth on both
oides. Any bodv may judge my great labour
and fatigue in such a piece of work; but this I
went through with patience, as also manv other
things, that my circumstances made necessary
for me to do.
The harvest months, November and Decem
her, were now at hand, in which I had the
pleasing prospect of a very good crop. ",u;

here I met with anew misfortune, for the goats
and hares, having tasted of the sweetness of
the blade, kept it so short that it had no
strength to shoot up into a stalk. To prevent
this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and by day
shot some of its devourers, and my dog, which
[ had tied to the field-gate, keeping barking all
night, so frightened these creatures that I got
entirely rid of them.
But, no sooner did I get rid of these, than
other enemies appeared; to wit, whole flocks
of several sorts of birds, who only waited ti.
my back was turned, to ruin me. So much did
this provoke me, that I let fly, and killed three
of the malefactors; and afterward served them
as they do notorious thieves in England, hung
them up in chains as a terror to others. And,
indeed, so good an effect had this, that they
not only forsook the corn, but all that part of
the island, so long as these criminals hung
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end
of December, which was my second harvest, I
reaped it with a scythe, made of one of my
broad swords. I had no fatigue in cutting
down my first crop, it was so slender. The ears
I carried home in a basket, rubbing the grain
out with my hands, instead of threshing it;
and, when my harvest was over, found my half-
peck of seed had produced nearly two bushels
of rice, and two bushels and a half of barley.
And now I plainly foresaw, that, by God's
goodness, I should be furnished with bread

but yet I was concerned, because I knew not
hoo- to grind or make meal of my corn, neither
knew I how to bake it into bread. I would
not, however, taste any of the crop, but resolv-
ed to preserve it against next season, and, in
the mean while, use my best endeavours to
provide myself with other food.
But where were my labours to end ? the want
of a plough to turn up the earth, or shovel to
dig it, I conquered by making me a wooden
spade. The want of a harrow I supplied, by
dr' n-o over the corn a great bough of a tree.
ii l ... ,r was growing, I was forced to fence
it; when ripe, to mow it, carry it home, thresh
it, part it from the chaff, and save it. And,
after all, I wanted a mill to grind it, a sieve
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into
bread, and an oven to bake it. This set my
brains to work, to find some expedient for
every one of these necessaries, against the next
And now having more seed, my first care was
to prepare me more land. I pitched upon two
large flat pieces of ground, near my castle, for
that purpose, in which I sowed my seed, and
fenced it with a good hedge. This took me up
three months: by which time, the wet season
coming on, and the rain keeping me within
doors. I found several occasions to employ
myself and, while at work, used to divert my-
self with talking to my parrot, teaching him to
know and speak his own name Poll, the first
welcome word I ever heard spoken in the island.

I had been a long time contriving, how to make
earthen vessels, which I wanted extremely;
and when I considered the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but, if I could find any such
clay, I might botch up a pot, strong enough,
when dried in the sun, to bear l i,.ii,., and to
hold any thing that was dry, as corn, meal,
and other things.
To be short, the clay I found; but it would
occasion the most serious person to smile, to
see what awkward ways I took, and what ugly
misshapen things I made; how many either fell
out or cracked by the violent heat of the sun,
and fell in pieces when they were removed, so
that I think it was two months before I could
perfect any thing; and even then but two
clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars.
These, however, I very gently placed in wicker
baskets, made on purpose for them, and be-
t een the pot and the baskets, stuffed it full of
rice and barley straw; and these I presumed
would hold my dried corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised. As for the
smaller things, I made them with better suc-
cess; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, the sun baking them very
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely neces-
sary, and that was an earthen pot, not only to
hold my liquid, but also to bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It once happened that
as I was putting out my fire, I found therein a
broken piece of one of my vessels, burnt hard

e a rock, and red as a tile. This made me
tnirk of burning some pots; and having no
notion of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead,
I fixed three large pipkins, and two or three
pots in a pile one upon another. The fire I
piled round the outside, and dry wood on the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside redhot, and
found that they did not crack at all: and when
I perceived them perfectly red, I let them stand
in the fire about five or six hours, till the clay
melted by the extremity of the heat, and would
have run to glass had I suffered it; upon which,
I slacked my fire by degrees, till the redness
abated; and watching them till the morning, I
found I had three very good pipkins, and two
earthen pots, as well burnt and fit for my turn
as I could desire.
The first use to which I turned my pipkins,
was to make some salt, which I had long want-
ed. For this purpose, I filled them with sea-
water, and kept it slowly boiling over the
fire, till the whole of the water had boiled
away in steam, leaving, at the bottom of the
vessel, a thin crust of salt, which I found very
good for giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a
stone-mortar to beat some corn in, instead of a
mill to grind it. Here, indeed, I was at a great
loss, as not being fit for a stone-cutter; and
many days I spent to find out a great stone big
enough to cut hollow and make fit for a mortar,
and strong enough to bear the weight of a
pestle, that would break the corn without filling

it with sand. But all the stones of the island
being of a mouldering nature, rendered my
search fruitless; and then I resolved to look
out a great block of hard wood; which having
fond, 1 formed it by my axe and hammer, and
then, with infinite labour, made a hollow in it,
just as the Indians of Brazil make their canoes.
When I had finished this, I made a great pestle
of iron-wood, and then laid them up against my
succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve,
to sift my meal and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no fine thin canvas to search
the meal through, I could not tell what to do.
What linen I had was reduced to rags; I had
goat's hair enough, but neither tools to work it,
nor did I know how to spin it. At length, I
remembered I had some neck-cloths of calic,
or muslin of the sailors, which-i-had-brought
out of the ship, and with these, I made three
small sieves proper enough for the work.
I come now to consider tioe baking part.
The want of an oven I supplied, by making
some earthen pans very broad, but not deep.
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great
are upon my hearth, the tiles of which I had
made myself, and when the wood was burnt
into live coals, I spread them over it, till it be-
came very hot; then sweeping them away, I
set down my loaves, and whelming down the
earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all around the outsides of the pots to con-
tinue the heat; and in this manner I baked my

barley loaves, as well as if I had beei a com.
plete pastry cook, and also made of the rice,
several cakes and nlddin-
It is no wonder ",I., ,I rl.ese things took me
up the best part of a year, since what inter-
mediate time I had, was bestowed in managing
my new harvest and husbandry; for in the
proper season, I reaped my corn, carried it
home, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub, instead of
-i,.... it. And now indeed, my corn in.
creased so much, that it produced me twenty
bushels of barley, and as much of rice, that I
not only began to use it freely, but was think-
ing how to enlarge my barns, and resolved to
sow as much at a time as would be sufficient
for a whole year.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I
had seen from the other side of the island, ran
in my mind. I still meditated a deliverance
from this place, though the fear of greater mis-
foritnes might have deterred me from it. For,
allowing that I had attained that place, I ran
the hazard of being killed and eaten by the
devouring cannibals; and if they were not so,
yet I might be slain, as other Europeans had
been, wlio fell into their hands. Notwith-
standing all this, my thoughts ran continually
apon that shore. I now wished for the long
boat with the shoulder of mutton sail. I went
to the ship's boat, that had been cast a great
way on the shore in the late storm. She was
ar- i -N i l but a little; ald her bottom being

turned up by the impetuosity and surge of the
waves and wind, I fell to work with all the
strength I had, and with levers and rollers I
had cut from the wood, to turn her, and repair
the damages she had sustained. This work
took me up three or four weeks. when finding
my little strength all in vain, I fell to under-
mining it by digging away the sand, and so to
make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to
thrust and guide it in the fall. But after this
was done, I was still unable to stir it up, or to
get under it, much less to move it forwards
towards the water, and so I was forced to give
it over.
This disappointment, however, did not fright.
en me. I began to think, whether it was not
possible for me to make a canoe or Pcrigna,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a tree.
But here I lay under particular inconveniences;
iwaut of tools to make it, and want of hands to
move it into the water when it w as made. How-
ever, to work I went upon it, stopping all the
enquiries I could make with this very simple
answer I made to myself, let's first make it,
I'll wararnt I'll find some way or other to get
it along when it is done.
I first cut down a cedar tree, which was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next
the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a space, and then parted into
branches. Twenty days was I hacking and
jh.. it at the bottom, fourteen more in

-f.f- off tle branches and limbs, and a
whole month in shaping it like the bottom of
a boa t. As for the inside, I was three weeks
with a mallet and chissel, clearing it in such a
manner, as that it was big enough to carry 26
men, much bigger than any canoe I ever saw
in my life, and consequently sufficient to trans-
port me and all my effects to that wished for
shore I so ardently desired.
Nothing remained now. but, indeed, the
greatest difficulty, to get it into the water, it
l ing about 100 yards from it. To remedy the
first inconvenience, which was a rising hill be.
twveen the boat and the creek, with wonderful
pains and labour I dug into the surface of the
earth, and made a declivity. But when this
was done, all the strength I had was as in-
sufficient to move it, as it was when I first
made the attempt. I then proceeded to mea-
sure the distance of ground, resolving to make
a canal, in order to bring the water to the ca-
noe, since I could not bring the canoe to the
water. But as this seemed to be impracticable
to myself alone under the space of eleven or
twelve years, it brought me into sonre sort of
consideration; so that I concluded this also to
be impossible, and the attempt vain. I now
saw, and not before, what stupidity it is to
begin work before we reckon its costs, or
judge rightly our own abilities to go through
with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year ex-
pired from tlie time I was cast on this island.

At this time I did not forget my anniversary;
but kept it with rather greater devotion than
before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had nothing
to do with; and very well might I say, as fa.
their Abraham said unto Dives, Between me,
and thee there is a gulph fixed." And indeed
I was separated from its wickedness too, hav.
ing neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, nor the pride of life ; I had nothing to
covet, being lord, king and emperor over the
whole country I had in possession, without
dispute and without control: I had loadings
of corn, plenty of turtles, timberin abundance,
and grapes above measure. What was all the
rest to me ? the money I had, lay by me as
despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a gross of tobacco pipes or a hand.
mill to grind my corn : in a word, the nature
and experience of these things dictated to me
this just reflection. That the good things of
this world are no further good to us, than as
they are for our use ; and that whatever we
may heap up, we can but enjoy as much as we
use, and no more.
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy
than usual. Every time I sat down to meat, I
did eat with thankfulness, admiring the provi.
dential hand of God, who, in this wilderness
had spread a table to me. And now I con-
sidered what I enjoyed, rather than what I
wanted, compared my present condition with
what I at first expected it should be; how I

should have done, if I had got nothing out of
the ship ; that 1 must have perished before I
had caught fish or turtles; or lived, had I
found them, like a mere savage, by eating them
raw, and pulling them to pieces with my claws,
like a beast. I next compared my station to
that which I deserved; how undutiful I had
been to my parents; how destitute of the fear
of God; how void of every thing that was
good; and how ungrateful for those abundant
mercies I had received from heaven, being fed,
as it were, by a miracle, even as great as
Elijah's being fed by ravens; and cast on a
place %where there are no venomous creatures
to poison or devour me; in short, making God's
tender mercies matter of great consolation, I
relinquished all sadness, and gave way to con-
As long as my ink continued, which with -wa-
:e; I made last as long as I could, I used to
;,ii:1c 'own the days of the month on which
an" r.v rkable thing happened.
'T'U hi,;,'_ ,) .1 wasted after my ink, was
the Doscuit, which I had brought out of the ship;
and though I allowed myself but one cake a
day for about a twelvemonth, yet I was quitii
out of bread for nearly a year, before I got any
corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to de-
cay, and my linen had been gone long before.
l-owever, I had preserved about three dozen
of the sailor's chequered s;ir:s which prom ed a
great refreshneiwt ,to me, vnhrn the violent

beams of the sun would not suffer -n.,
any of the seamen's heavy watch co:l, a
made me turn tailor, and, after a i "i er hle
botching manner, convert them to jackets. To
preserve my head, I made a cap of goatskins,
with the hair outwards to keep out the rain;
which indeed served me so well, that after-
ward I made a waistcoat and open-kneed
breeches of the same: and then I contrived
a sort of umbrella, covering it with skins,
which not only kept out the heat of the sun, but
the rain also. Thus being easy and settled in
my mind, my chief happiness was to converse
with God, in most heavenly and comfortable
For five years after this, I cannot say any
extraordinary thing occurred to me. My chief
employment was to cure my raisins, and plant
H barley ana rice, of both which I had a
vear's provision before-hand. But though I
was disappointed in my first canoe, I made it,
at intermediate times, my business to make a
second of much inferior size : and it was two
years before I had finished it. But as I per-
ceived it would in no wise answer my design
of sailing to the other shore, my thoughts were
confined to take a tour round the island, to see
what further discoveries I could make. To
this intent, after having moved her to the wa-
ter, and tried how she would sail, I fitted up a
little mast to my boat, and made a sail of the
ship's sails that lay by me. I then made lock-
ers or boxes at the end of it to put in neces-

series, provision and ammunition, which would
preserve them dry either from the rain, or the
spray of the sea; and, in the inside of the
boat, I cut me a long hollow place to lay my
gun, and to keep it dry, made a cover for
it. My umbrella, I fixed in a step in the
stern, like a mast, to keep the heat of the sun
off me. And now resolving to see the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I victualled my
ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of
my barley bread loaves, an earthen pot full of
parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half a
goat, powder and shot, and two watch-coats.
It was the sixth of November, in the sixth
year of my reign, or captivity, that I set out in
this voyage; which was much longer than I
expected, being obliged to put farther out, by
reason of the rocks that lay a great way in the
sea. 4r
And indeed, so much did these rocks sur-
prise me, that I was for putting back, fearing
that if I ventured farther, it would be out of my
power to return : in this uncertainty I came to
anchor just off the shore, to which I waded
with my gun on my shoulder, and then climb-
ing up a hill, which over-looked that point, I
saw the full extent of it, and so resolved tc run
all hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a
violent current running to the east, coming
very close to the point; which I the more
carefully observed, thinking it dangerous, and
that when I came to it, I might be driven into

the sea by its torce, and not able to return to the
island : and certa~,ly it must have been so,
had I not made tres observation; for on the
other side was like the current, with this dif-
ference, that it set off at a greater distance;
and I perceived there was a strong eddy under
the land; so that my chief business was to
work out of the first current, and conveniently
get into the eddy. Two days I staid here,
the wind blowing very briskly east south east,
which being contrary to the current, leaves a
great breach of the sea upon the point; so it
was neither fit for me to keep too near the
shore, on account of the breach; nor stand at
too great distance for fear of the streams.
That night the wind abating, it grew so calm,
that I ventured out: and here I may be a
nmument to all rash and ignorant pilots; for
I as no sooner come to the point, and not,
above the boat's length from shore, but I was
got into a deep water, with a current like a
mill-race, which drove my boat along so vio-
lently, that it was impossible for me to keep
near the edge of it, for it forced me more and
more out from the eddy to the left of me; and
all I could do with my paddles was useless,
there being no wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite
lost, since, as the current ran on both sides of
the island, I was very certain they must join
again, and their. I had no hopes but of perish-
ing for want, in the sea, after what provision

I had was spent, or before, if a storm should
happen to arise.
Who can conceive the present anguish of
my mind at this calamity ? with longing eyes
did I look upon my little kingdom, and thought
the island the pleasantest place in the uni-
verse. Happy, thrice happy desert, said I,
shall I never see thee more ? Wretched crea-
ture! wither am I going? Why did I mur-
mur at my lonesome condition, when now I
would give the whole world to be thither
again ? While I was thus complaining, 1
found myself to be driven about two leagues
into the sea: however, I laboured till my
strength was far spent, to keep my boat as far
north as possibly I could, to that side of the
current where the eddy lay. About noon
I perceived a little breeze of wind, spring~ p
from the south south east, which overjoyed my
heart: and I was still more elated, when, in
about half an hour, it blew a gentle fine gale.
Had any thick weather sprung up, I had been
lost another way : for having no compass on
board, I should never have found the way to
steer towards the island, if once it had disap-
peared ; but it proving the contrary, I set up
my mast again, spread my sail, and stood away
northward, as much as I could, to get rid of
the current. And no sooner did the boat be-
gin to stretch away, but I perceived, by the
clearness of the water, a change of the current
was near; for, where it was strong, the water

was foul; and where it was clear, the current
Those who have been in the like calamities
with my own, may guess my present excess of
joy, how heartily I ran my boat in the stream
of this eddy, and how joyfully I spread my sail
to the refreshing wind, standing cheerfully be
fore it, with a smart tide under foot. By the
assistance of this eddy, I was carried above a
league home again, when, being in the wake
of the island, betwixt the two currents, I
found the water to be in a sort of a stand.
About four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached
within a league of the island, and perceived
the points of the rock, which caused this dis.
aster, stretching out, as I observed before, to
the southward, which throwing off the cur-
rent more southerly, had occasioned another
ed4y to the north. But having a fair brisk
gale, I stretched across this eddy, and in an
hour, came within a mile of the shore, where I
soon landed to my unspeakable comfort; and
after an humble prostration, thanking God for
my deliverance, with a resolution to lay all
thoughts of escaping aside, I brought my boat
safe to a little cove, and laid me down to take
a welcome repose. When I awoke, I was con-
sidering how I might get my boat home; and
coasting along the shore I came to a good bay,
which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where,
finding a harbour, I stowed her as safe as
if she had been in a dry dock, made on pur.
pose for her.

I now perceived myself not far from the
pace, where before I had travelled on foot; so
makingg nothing with me, except my gun and
umbrella, I began my journey, and in the
evening came to my bower, where I again laid
me down to rest. I had not slept long before
I awakened in great surprise, by a strange
voice that called me several times, "Robin,
Itobin, Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin Where
are you, Robinson Cruso ? Where are you ?
Where have you been ?"
So fast was I asleep, that at first I did not
awake thoroughly; but half asleep, and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice repeated,
"Robinson Crusoe," several times, being txr-
ribly frightened, I started up in the utmost con-
fusion; and, no sooner were my eyes fully
open, but I beheld my pretty poll sitting onthe
op of the hedge, and soon knew that it
was he that called me; for just in such be-
wailing language, I used to talk and teach
him; which he so exactly learned, that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, poor Robinson
Crusoe, where are you? where have you been ?
how came you here ?" and such like prattle I
had constantly taught him. But even though
I knew it to be the parrot, it was a great time
before I could adjust myself: being amazed
how the creature got thither, and that he
should fix about that place, and no where else.
Pilt now, heing assured it could be no other

than my honest "Poll," my wonder ceased,
and reaching out my hand, and calling "Poll,"
the creature came to me familiarly, and perch.
ed upon my thumb, as he was wont, constantly
prating to me with poor Robinson Crusoe,
and how did I come here, and where had I
been ?" as if the bird was overjoyed to see me,
| and so I took him home along with me. I was
now pretty well cured of rambling to sea; yet
I could wish my boat, which had cost me so
much trouble and pains, on this side the island
once more, but this, indeed, was impracticable.
I therefore began to lead a very retired life,
living nearly a twelvemonth in a very content-
ed manner, wanting for nothing but conversa-
tion. As to mechanic labours, which my ne-
cessities obliged me to, I fancied I could, upon
occasion, make a tolerable carpenter, were the
poor tools I had to work withal, but good.
Besides, as I improved in my earthen ware, I
contrived to make them with a wheel, which I
fund much easier and better, making my work
shapely, which before was rude and ugly. But, I
think I was never so elevated with my own per.
formance or project as when able to make a to-
bacco-pipe, wihch, though it proved an awkward
clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and carried
the smoke perfectly well, to my great satisfaction.
I also improved my wicker ware, made me
abundance of necessary baskets, which, though
not very handsome, were very handy and con.
venient to fetch things home in, as also for hold.
ing my stores, barley, rice, and other provisions

"S2 "
My powder beginning to fail, made me ex-
amine after what manner I should kill the
goats or birds, to live on, after it was all gone.
Upon which, I contrived many ways to ensnare
the goats, and see if I could catch them alive,
particularly a she-goat with young.
At last I had my desire; for, making pit-
falls and traps, baited with barley and rice, I
found, one morning, in one of them, an old lie
goat, and in the other, three kids, one male
and two females.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could
not bring him away. But I forgot the old pro-
verb, That hunger will tame a lion :" for,
had I kept him three or four days without
provisions, and then given him some water,
with a little corn, he would have been as tame
as a young kid. The other creatures I bound
with strings together: but I had great diffi-
culty before I could bring them to my habi.
station. It was some time before they would
feed; but, throwing them sweet corn, it so
much tempted them, that they began to be
tamer. From hence I concluded, that if I
designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh,
when my ammunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up, like a flock of sheep, about
my settlement, was the only method I could
take. I concluded also I must separate the
wild from the tame, or else they would always
run wild as they grew up ; and the best way
for this, was to have some inclosed piece of
ground, well fenced, either with a hedge or

pale, to keep them so effectually, that those with.
in might not break out, nor those without break
in. Such an undertaking was very great for
one pair of hands; but as there was an absolute
necessity for doing it, my first care was to find
a convenient piece of ground, where there was
likely to be herbage for them to eat, water to
drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
Here again, I gave another instance of my
ignorance and inexperience, pitching upon a
piece of meadow land so large, that had I
enclosed it, the hedge or pale must have been
at least two miles about. This thought came
into my head, after I had carried it on, I be.
lieve, about fifty yards: I therefore altered
my scheme, and resolved to enclose a piece of
ground about 150 yards in length, and 100 in
breadth, large enough for as many as would
maintain me, till such time as my flock in-
creased, and then I could add more ground.
I now vigorously prosecuted my work, and it
took me about three months in hedging the
first piece ; in which time I tethered the three
kids in the best part of it; feeding them as
near me as possible, to make them familiar:
and, indeed, I very often would carry some
ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed
them out of my hand; by which they grew so
tame, that when my enclosure was finished,
and I had let them loose, they would run after
nme for a handful of corn. This indeed an.
swered my end: and in a year and a half's
time, I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids

and all; and in two years after, they amounted
to forty.three, besides what I had taken and
killed for my sustenance.
After which, I inclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to drive them
into, that I might take them as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which in the beginning, I
did not so much as think of. And, indeed,
though I had never milked a cow, much less a
goat, or seen butter or cheese made, yet, afier
some essays and miscarriages, I made me both,
and never afterward wanted.
How mercifully can the Almighty comfort
his creatures, even in the midst of their greatest
calamities 1 How can he sweeten the bitterest
evils, and give us reason to magnify him in
dungeons and prisons; what a bounteous table
was here spread in a wilderness for me, where I
expected nothing at first, but to perish for hunger.
Certainly any one would have smiled to see
me at dinner. There sat my royal majesty, an
absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom, at-
tended by my dutiful subjects, whom if I pleas-
ed, I could either hang, draw, quarter, give
them liberty, or take it away. When I dined,
I seemed a king, eating alone, none daring to
presume to do so till I had done. Poll, as if
he had been my principal court favourite, was
the only person permitted to talk with me. My
old but faithful dog, now grown exceedingly
crazy, continually sat on my right hand; while

my two cats sat on each side of the table, ex-
pecting a bit from my hand, as a principal mark
of my royal favour. These were not the cats
I had brought from the ship ; they had been
dead long before, and interred near my habitat.
tion by mine own hand. But a couple of their
young I had made tame; the rest ran wild into
the woods, and in time grew so impudent, as to
return and plunder me of my stores, till such
time as I shot a great many, and the rest left
me without troubling me any more. In this
plentiful manner did I live, wanting for nothing
but conversation. One thing indeed concern-
ed me, the want of my boat; I knew not which
way to get her round the island. One time I
resolved to go along the shore by land to her;
but had any one at home met such a figure, it
would either have affrighted him, or made him
burst into laughter; nay, I could not but smile
myself at my habit, which I think in this place
will be very proper to describe.
The cap I wore upon my head, was great,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with
a flap or pent-house hanging down behind, not
only to keep the sun from me, but to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck, nothing be-
ing more pernicious than the rain falling upon
the flesh in these climates. I had a short jacket
of goat's skin, whose hair hung down such a
length on each side, that it reached down to
the calves of my legs. As for shoes and stock-
ings, I had none, but made a resemblance of
something, I knew not what to call them; they

were made like buskins, and laced on the sides
like spatterdashes, barbarously shaped, like the
rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of goat's
skin dried, girt round me with a couple of
thongs, instead of buckles; on each of which,
to supply the deficiency of sword and daggar,
hung my hatchet and saw. I had another belt,
not so broad, yet fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder, and at the end
of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches,
made of goat's skin, to hold my powder and
shot. My basket I carried on my back, and
my gun on my shoulder; and over my head a
great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella, which,
however, next to my gun, was the most neces.
sary thing about me. As for my face, the
colour was not so swarthy as the Mulattoes, or
as might have been expected from one who took
so little care of it, in a climate within nine or
ten degrees of the line. At one time, my beard
grew so long that it hung down above a quar-
ter of a yard; but as I had both razors and
scissors in store, I cut it all off, and suffered
none to grow, except a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, the like of which I had seen worn by
some Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed
to hang a hat upon, but of such a monstrous
size, as would have amazed any in England to
have seen.
But all this was of no consequence here,
there being none to observe my behaviour or
habit. And so, without fear and without con-
trol, proceeded on my journey, the ,rosecu-

tion of which took me up five or six days. I
travelled along the sea shore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to an an-
chor, to get upon the rocks; but now having
no boat to take care of, I went, over-land, a
nearer way to the same height that I was be.
fore upon; when looking forward to the point
of the rock, which lay out, and which I was
forced to double with my boat, I was amazed to
see the sea so smooth and quiet, there being no
rippling motion, nor current, any more than in
other places. And now I was convinced that
by observing the ebb and flow of the tide, I
might easily bring my boat round the island
again. But when I began to think of putting
it in practice, the remembrance of the late
danger struck me with such horror, that I took
another resolution, though more laborious; and
this was to make a second canoe, and so have
one for one side of the island, and one for the
I had now two plantations in the island; the
first my little fortification, fort, or castle, with
many large and spacious improvements. for
by this time, I had enlarged the cave behind ins
with several little caves, one within another, to
hold my baskets, corn, and straw. The piles
with which I made my wall were grown so
lofty and great as obscured my habitation
And near this commodious and pleasant settle
ment, lay my well cultivated and improved corn
fields, which kindly yielded me their fruit in the
proper season. My second plantation was that

near my country seat, or little bower, where
my grapes flourished, and where, having plant-
ed my stakes, I made inclosures for my goats,
so strongly fortified by labour and time, that it
was much stronger than a wall, and, conse-
quently, impossible for them to break through.
As for my bower itself, I kept it constantly in
repair, and cut the trees in such a manner, as
made them grow wild, and form a most delight-
ful shade. In the centre of this, stood my tent,
thus erected. I had driven four piles in the
ground, spreading over it a piece of the ship's
sail, beneath which, I made me a sort of couch
with the skins of the creatures I had slain, and
other things; and having laid thereon one of the
sailor's blankets, which I had saved from the
wreck of the ship, and covering myself with a
great watch coat, I took up this place for my
country retreat.
Very frequently, from this settlement did I
use to visit my boat, and keep herin very good
order. And sometimes would I venture in her
a cast or two from shore, but no farther. But
now, I entreat your attention, whilst I proceed
to inform you of a new, but most surprising
scene of life which here befel me.
You may easily suppose, that, after having
been here so long, nothing could be more
amazing than to see a human creature. One
day it happened, that going to my boat, I saw
the print of a man's naked foot on the shore,
very evident on the sand, as the toes, heels,
and every part of it. Had I seen a monster ol

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the most frightful shape, I could not have been
more confounded. My willing ears gave the
strictest attention. I cast my eyes around, but
could satistf neither the one nor the other, I
proceeded alternately to every part ofthe shore,
but with equal effect; neither could I see any
other mark though the sand about it was as
susceptible to take impression, as that which
was so plainly stamped. Thus struck with
confusion and horror, I returned to niy habita-
tion, :;'.i ...1 at every bush and tree, taking
every thing for men ; and possessed with the
wildest ideas! That night my eyes never
closed. I formed nothing but the most dismal
imaginations. In a word, all my religious
hopes vanished, as though I thought God would
not now protect me by his power, who had
wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various chains of events are there in
the life of man ? How changeable are our affec-
:ion?, according to different circumstances?
We love to-dav, what we hate to-morrow: we
shun one hour, what we seek the next. This
was evident in me in the most conspicuous
manner: for I, who before had so much la-
mented my condition, in being banished from
all human-kind, was now ready to expire,
when I considered that a man had set his foot
on this desolate island. But when I consider-
ed my station of life, decreed by the infinitely
wise and good providence of God, that I ought
not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty, who
had an undoubted right to govern and dispose

of his creatures as he thinks convenient; and
that his justice and mercy could either punish
or deliver me, I say, when I considered all
this, I comfortably found it my duty to trust
sincerely in him, pray ardently to him, and
humbly resign myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words
of the sacred writings came into my mind,
" Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." Upon
this sentence, rising more cheerfully from my
bed, I offered up my prayers in the most
devout manner : and when I had done, taking
up my Bible to read, these words appeared
first in my sight, "Wait on the Lord, and be
of good cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart:
Wait, 1 say, on the Lord.' Such divine com-
fort did this give me, as to remove all cause of
sadness upon that occasion.
Thus, after a world of apprehensions and
fears, for three days and nights, I at last ven-
tured out of my castle, and milked my goats, one
of which was almost spoiled for want of it. I
next, (though in great fear,) visited my bower,
and milked my flocks there also; when, growing
bolder, I went down to the shore again, and
measuring the print of the foot to mine, to see
perhaps whether I myself had not occasioned
that mark, I found it much superiorin largeness;
and so returned home, absolutely convinced,
that either some men had been ashore, or that
the island must be inhabited; and therefore that
I might be surprised before I was aware.

I now began to think of providing for my se.
curity, and resolved in my mind many different
schemes for that purpose. I first proposed to
cut down my inclosures, and turn my tame
cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy
might not find them, and frequent the island in
hopes of killing the same. Secondly, I was for
digging up my corn-fields for the very same
reason. And, lastly, I concluded to demolish
my bower, lest, seeing a place of human con-
trivance, they might come farther, and find out
and attack me in my castle.
Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that
night ; yet nature, spent and tired, submitted
to a silent repose the next morning, and then
joining reason with fear, I considered, that
this delightful and pleasant island might not be
so entirely forsaken as I might think; but that
the inhabitants from the other shore might sail,
either with design, or from necessity, by cross
winds ; and, if the latter circumstance, I had
reason to believe, they would depart the first
opportunity. However, my fear made me
think of a place of retreat upon an attack.
I now repented that I had made my door to
come out beyond my fortification ; to remedy
which, I resolved to make me a second one: I
fell to work, therefore, and drove betwixt that
double row of trees, which I planted above
twelve years before, several strong piles, thick-
ening it with pieces of timber and old cables,
and strengthening the foot of it with earth
which 1 dug out of my cave ; I also made me

seven holes, wherein I planted my muskets
like cannon, fitting them into frames j- .. ,i.i:ri .
carriages. This being finished with indefati-
gable industry, for a great way every where, I
planted sticks of osiers like a wood, about
twenty thousand of them, leaving a large space
between them and my wall, that I might have
room to see an enemy, and that they might not
be sheltered among the young trees, if they
offered to approach the outer wall. And in.
deed, scarce two years had passed over my
head, when there appeared a lovely shady
grove, and in six years it became a thick wood,'
perfectly impossible. For my safety, I left no
avenue to go in or out; instead of which, I set
two ladders, one to a part of the rock which
wasn low, and then broke in, leaving room to
place another ladder upon that; so that when
I took those down, it was impossible for any
man to descend without hurting himself; and'-
if they had, they would still be at the outside
of ,vy outer wxal. But while I took ail these
measures of human prudence for my own pre-
serxation. I was not altogether unmindfld of
other affairs. To preserve my stock of tame
goats, that the enemy should not take all at
once, I looked out for the most retired part of
the island, which w as the place where I had
lost myself before mentioned, and there finding
a clear piece of land, containing three acres,
surrounded with thick woods, I wrought so
hard, that in less than a month's time, I fenced
it so well round, that my flocks were very well

secured in it, and I put therein two he.goats,
and ten she ones.
All this labour was occasioned purely by
fearful apprehensions, on account of seeing the
print of a man's foot. And not contented yet
with what I had done, I searched for another
place towards the west part of the island, where
I might also retain another flock. Then wan-
dering on this errand more to the west of the
island than ever I had yet done, and casting my
eyes towards the sea, methought I perceived a
boat at a great distance; but could not possibly
tell what it was for want of my spy-glass. I
considered then, it was no strange thing to see
the print of a man's foot; and concluding them
cannibals, blessed God for being cast on the
other side of the island, where none of the
savages, as I thought, ever came. But when
I came down the hill to the shore, which was the
south-west point of the island, I was soon con-
firmed in my opinion ; nor can any one describe
my horror and amazement, when I saw the
ground spread with sculls, hands, feet, and
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I
perceived a space like a circle, in the midst of
which had been a fire, about which I conjec-
tured those wretches sat, and unnaturally sacri-
ficed and devoured their fellow creatures.
The horror and loathsomeness of this dread.
ful spectacle, both confounded my senses, and
made me discharge from my stomach in an ex-
cessive manner. I then returned towards my

habitation; and in my way thither shedding
floods of tears, and falling down on my bended
knees, gave God thanks for making my nature
contrary to those wretches, and delivering me
so long out of their hands.
Though reason and my long residence here
had assured me, that the savages never came
up to the thick woody part of the country,
and that I had no reason to be apprehensive of
a discovery, yet such an abhorrence did I still
retain, that for two years after, I confined
myself only to my three plantations ; I mean
my castle, country seat, and inclosure in the
woods, though in process of time, my dreadful
apprehensions began to wear away.
Thus my circumstances for some time re-
mained very calm and undisturbed: though in-
deed, the terror which the savages had put me
in, spoiled some inventions for my own conve-
niences. One of my projects was to brew me
some beer; a very whimsical one indeed, when
it is considered, that I had neither casks suf-
ficient, nor could I make any to preserve it in;
neither had I hops to make it keep, yeast to
make it work,xior a copper or kettle to make
it boil. Perhaps, indeed, after some years, I
might bring this to bear, as I had done other
things. But now my inventions were placed
another way : and day and night I could think
of nothing but how I might destroy some of
these cannibals, when, proceeding to their
bloody entertainments; and so saving a victim

from being sacrificed, that he might after be.
come my servant. Many were my contri-
vances for this purpose, and many more objec-
tions occurred, after I had hatched them. I
once contrived to dig a hole under the place
where they made their fire and put therein five
or six pounds of i- ..I... -r. which would con-
sequently blow -. 1 ii.... that were near it;
but then I was loth to spend so much upon
them, lest it should not do that certain execu-
tion I desired, and only affright and not kill
them. Having laid this design aside, I again
proposed to myself to lie privately in ambush
in some convenient place, with my three guns
double loaded, and let fly at them in the midst
of their dreadful ceremony; and having killed
two or three of them at every shot, fall upon
the rest suddenly with my three pistols, and let
not one mother's son escape. This imagina-
tion pleased my fancy so much that I used to
dream of it in the night time. To put my de-
sign in execution I was not long seeking for a
place convenient for my purpose, where unseen
I might behold every action of the savages.
Here I placed my two muskets, each of which
was loaded with a brace of slugs, and four or
five smaller bullets about the size of pistol bul.
lets; the fowling piece was charged with near.
ly a handful of the largest swan shot, and in
every pistol about four bullets. And thus all
things being prepared, no sooner did the wel-
come light spread over the element, but I would
issue forth from my castle, and from a lofty

hill, three miles distant, try if I could see any
invaders approach unlawfully to my kingdom.
But having waited in vain two or three months,
it grew very tiresome to me.
I now argued with myself, it was better for
me never to attack, but to remain undiscovered
as long as I possibly could; that an opposite
conduct would certainly prove destructive;
for as it was scarcely to be supposed I could
kill them all, I might be either overpowered by
the remainder, or that some escaping might
bring thousands to my certain destruction.
And, indeed, religion took their part so much as
to convince me how contrary it was to my duty,
to be guilty of shedding human blood, innocent
blood, innocent as to me in particular, whatever
they are to one another; that I had nothing to
do with it, but leave it to the God of all power
and dominion, as I said before, to do therein
what seemed convenient to his heavenly wis-
dom. And, therefore, on my knees I thanked
the Almighty for delivering me from bloody
guiltinesss, and begged his protection that I
might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I had
rashly begun, I never ascended the hill on that
occasion afterward ; I only removed my boat,
which lay on the other side of the island, and
every thing that belonged to her, towards the
east, into a little cove, that there might not
be the least shadow of any boat near, or habi.
station upon the island. My castle then be-
came my cell, keeping always retired in it, ex.

cept when I went out to milk my she-goats, or
my little flock in the wood, which was quite out
of danger : for sure I was, that these savages
never came here with expectation to find any
thing, and consequently never wandered from
the coast; however, as they might have seve-
ral times been on shore, as well before as
after my dreadful apprehensions, I looked
back with horror to think in what state I might
have been, had I suddenly met them, slenderly
armed, with one gun only loaded with small
shot; and how great would have been my
amazement, if, instead of seeing the print of
one man's foot, I had perceived fifteen or
twenty savages, who, having once set their
eyes upon me, by the swiftness of their feet,
-would have left me no possibility of escaping ?
These thoughts would sink my very soul, so
that I would fail into a deep melancholy, till
such time as the consideration of my gratitude
to the divine Being moved it from my heart.
I then fell into a contemplation of the secret
springs of Providence ; and how wonderfully
we are delivered, when insensible of it; and
when in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt
or hesitation, what secret hint directs us, in the
right way when we intended to go out of it,
nay perhaps contrary to our business, -ense, or
Anxieties of mind, and the care of my pre-
servation, put a period to all future inventions
and contrivances, either for accommodation, or
convenience, I now cared not to drive a nail,

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