Title Page

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072763/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe who lived twenty- eight years in an uninhabited island ; with an account of his deliverance, and his after surprising adventures
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 235 p., 5 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Rickerby, Joseph ( Printer )
Darton & Harvey (London, England) ( Publisher )
Publisher: Printed for Harvey and Darton
Place of Publication: London (Gracechurch Street)
Manufacturer: Joseph Rickerby
Publication Date: 1831
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1831   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: All ill. enclosed in a decorative border; all but the front. are two scenes to a page.
General Note: A variant(?) of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 299, which lists 6 leaves of plates, describes p. ii as the copyright page, and the text as containing pt. I only. The copy in hand may be lacking a plate, p. ii has printing information, and the text is an abridgement of parts I (p. 1-194) and II (p. 194-235).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072763
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25393676

Table of Contents
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    Title Page
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Full Text

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d? Th. Z 7 II 3







taniufnabite~ folann:






IF ever the story of any private man's ad-
ventures in the world were worth making
public, and were acceptable when published,
the Editor of this account thinks this will
be so.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all
that (he thinks) is to be found extant; the
life of one man being scarcely capable of a
greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with seri-
ousness, and with a religious application of
events to the uses to which wise men always


apply them; viz. to the instruction of others
by this example, and to justify and honour
the wisdom of Providence in all the variety
of our circumstances, let them happen how
they will.
The Editor believes this narrative to be a
just history of fact; neither is there any ap-
pearance of fiction in it: and though he is
well aware there are many, who, on account
of the very singular reservations the Author
met with, will give it the name of romance,
yet in whichever of these lights it shall be
viewed, he imagines that the improvement of
it, as well as the diversion, as to the instruc-
tion of the reader, will be the same, and as
such, he thinks, without further compliment
to the world, he does them great service in
the publication.





I WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of a
reputable family, My father was a native
of Bremen, who by merchandising at Hull
for some time, gained a very plentiful fortune.
He married my mother at York, and as her
maiden name was Robinson, I was called
Robinson Xreutznaer; which not being ea-
sily pronounced in the English tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. No
charge or pains were wanting in my educa-


tion. My father designed me for the law, yet
nothing would serve me but I must go to sea,
both against the will of my father, the tears
of my mother, and the entreaties of friends.
One morning my father expostulated very
warmly with me. What reason," says he,
" have you to leave your native country, and
enter into a wandering condition of uneasiness
and uncertainty?" He recommended to me
Agar's wish, Neither to desire poverty nor
riches:" told me that a middle state of life
was the most happy, and that high towering
thoughts of raising our condition by wander-
ing abroad, often ended in confusion and dis-
appointment. I entreat you, nay, I com-
mand you," says he, to desist from these
intentions. If you will go," added he, my
prayers shall be offered for your preservation;
but a time may come, when desolate, op-
pressed, or forsaken, you may wish you had
taken your poor father's counsel." He pro-
nounced these words with such a moving and


paternal eloquence, while floods of tears ran
down his aged cheeks, that it seemed to
shake my resolutions. But this soon wore
off, and a little after I informed my mother,
that I could not settle to any business; and
begged she would gain my father's consent
only to go one voyage; which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a
second. My mother warmly expressed her
dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old,
when one time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow going with his father, who was master
of a ship, to London; and acquainting him
'with my wandering desires, he assured me of
a free passage, and a plentiful share of what
was necessary. Thus, without imploring a
blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, I
took shipping on the 1st of September, 1651.
We set sail soon after, and our ship had
scarce left the Humber, when there arose a
violent storm, and being extremely sea-sick,


I concluded the judgment of God deserved-
ly followed me for my disobedience to my
dear parents. It was then I called to mind
the good advice of my father; and I firmly
resolved, if it pleased God to set me on dry
land once more, to return to my parents, im-
plore their forgiveness, and bid a final adieu
to my wandering inclinations.
Such were my thoughts while the storm
continued; but these good resolutions de-
creased with the danger; and I soon forgot
the vows and promises I made in my distress.
Upon the sixth day we came to anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcastle ships; here the seamen for-
got their late toil and danger, and spent their
time as merrily as if they had been on shore.
But on the eighth day there arose a brisk
gale of wind, which prevented our tiding it
up the river; and still increasing, our vessel
rode forecastle in, and shipped several large


It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard the master
exclaim, Lord have mercy upon us, we
shall be all lost and undone!" For my part,
sick unto death, I kept my cabin, till the
universal and terribly dreadful apprehensions
of our speedy fate made me get upon deck;
and there I was affrighted indeed. The sea
ran mountains high; I could see nothing but
distress around us; two ships had cut their
masts on board, and another was foundered;
two more that had lost their anchors, were
forced out to the mercy of the ocean; and to
save our lives we were forced to cut our fore-
mast and mainmast quite away.
I was just ready to expire with fear, when
immediately all hands were called to the
pump; and the men forced me also to share
with them in their labour. While thus em-
ployed, the master, espying some light col-
liers, fired a gun as a signal of distress; and
I, not understanding what it meant, and


thinking that either the ship broke, or some
dreadful thing happened, fainted away. How-
ever, nobody minded me, excepting to thrust
me aside with their feet, thinking me dead,
and it was a great while before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when upon the sig-
nal given, they ventured out their boats to
save our lives. All our pumping had been
in vain, had they not come to our ship's side:
with great difficulty we got into their boat,
and we perceived our ship sink within less
than a quarter of an hour.
Strange, after all this, like the prodigal son,
I did not return to my father; who hearing of
the ship's calamity, for a long time thought
me entombed in the deep.
I thought at first I would return home;
but shame opposed that good motion, think-
ing I should be laughed at by my neighbours
and acquaintance. So strange is the nature
of youth, who are not ashamed to sin, but yet
are ashamed to repent, and return to their


duty, which is the principal mark of wisdom.
In short, I travelled up to London, resolving
upon a voyage; and a voyage I soon heard
of, to go to the coast of Guinea. Having
some money, and appearing like a gentleman,
I went on board not as a common sailor or
foremast man; nay, the commander agreed I
should go the voyage with him without any
expense; that I should be his messmate and
companion, and I was very welcome to carry
any thing with me, and make the best mer-
chandise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for this offer; and ac-
quainting my friends in Yorkshire, forty
pounds were sent me, the greatest part by my
dear father and mother, with which I bought
toys and trifles, as the captain directed me.
My captain also taught me navigation, how
to keep an account of the ship's course, take
an observation, and led me into the knowledge
of several useful branches of the mathematics.


And indeed this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my ad-
venture, which produced, at my return to
London, almost three hundred pounds.
But alas! my dear friend, the captain, soon
departed this life. This was a sensible grief
to me; yet I resolved to go another voyage
with his mate, who had now the command of
the ship. My misfortunes in this unhappy
voyage were very great; for our ship sailing
towards the Canary islands, we were chased
by a Salee rover; and in spite of all the haste
we could make, the pirate gained upon us, so
that we prepared ourselves to fight. They
had eighteen guns, and we had but twelve.
About three in the afternoon there was a des-
perate engagement, wherein many were killed
and wounded on both sides; but finding our-
selves overpowered by numbers, we were
forced to surrender; and were all carried pri-
soners into the port of Salee. Our men were


sent to the emperor's court to be sold there;
but the pirate captain kept me to be his own
In this condition, I thought myself the
most miserable creature upon earth, and the
prophecy of my father came afresh into my
thoughts. Some hopes indeed I had that my
new patron would go to sea again, where he
might be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man-of-war, and then I should be set at liber-
ty. But in this I was mistaken; for he never
took me with him, but left me to look after his
little garden, and do the drudgery of his house.
After some length of time my patron, as I
found, grew so poor that he could not fit out
his ship as usual; and then he used constant-
ly, once or twice a week, if the weather was
fair, to go out a fishing, taking me and a
young Moresco boy to row the boat; and so
much pleased was he with me for my dex-
terity in catching the fish, that he would often
send me with a Moor, who was one of his


kinsmen, and the Moresco youth, to catch a
dish of fish for him.
One morning, as we were at the sport, there
arose such a thick fog that we lost sight of
the shore; and rowing we knew not which
way, we laboured all the night, and in the
morning found ourselves in the ocean, two
leagues from land; which however we at
length reached, extremely exhausted by long
fasting; and in order to prevent such disasters
for the future, my patron ordered a carpenter
to build a little state room or cabin in the
middle of the long-boat, with lockers for pro-
In this he frequently took us out a fishing;
and one time inviting two or three persons of
distinction to go with him, made provision
extraordinary, providing also three fusees,
with powder and shot, that they might have
some sport at fowling along the sea-coast.
The next morning, the boat was made clean,
and every thing ready, but their minds alter-


ing, my patron ordered us to go a fishing, as
his guests would certainly sup with him that
And now I began seriously to think of my
deliverance. In order to this, I persuaded
the Moor to get some provisions on board,
not daring to meddle with our patron's; and
we stored ourselves with rusk biscuit, and
three jars of water. Besides, I privately con-
veyed into the boat a bottle of brandy, some
twine, thread, a hammer, hatchet, and a saw;
and, in particular, some bees' wax, which was
a great comfort to me, and served to make
candles. I then persuaded Muley (for so was
the Moor called) to procure some powder and
shot, pretending to kill sea curlews, which he
innocently and readily agreed to. In short,
being provided with all things necessary, we
sailed out, I resolving to make my escape,
though it should cost me my life.
When we had run from shore I gave the
boy the lielm, and pretending to stoop for


something, seized Muley by surprise and
threw him overboard. As he was an excel-
lent swimmer, he soon arose, and made to-
wards the boat; upon which I took out a
fusee, and presented at him. Muley," said
I, "I never yet designed to do you any harm,
and seek nothing now but my redemption.
I know you are able enough to swim to shore,
and save your life; but if you are resolved to
follow me, to the endangering of mine, the
very moment you proceed, I will shoot you
through the head." The harmless creature
at these words turned himself from me, and
I make no doubt got safe to land. Then
turning to the boy Xury, I perceived he trem-
bled at the action; but I put him out of all
fear, telling him, that if he would be true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him. So
innocent did the child then look, and with
such an obliging smile consented, that I rea-
dily believed him, and from that day forward
began to love him entirely.


We then pursued our voyage; and having
a fresh gale of wind, with a pleasant smooth
sea, by three o'clock next day, I was one hun-
dred and fifty miles beyond the emperor of
Morocco's dominions. Yet still having the
dreadful apprehension of being retaken, I con-
tinued sailing for five days successively, till
the wind shifting to the southward, made me
conclude, that if any vessel was in chase of
me, they would proceed no further. After so
much fatigue, I anchored at the mouth of a
little river. What I principally wanted was
fresh water; and I was resolved about dusk to
swim ashore. But no sooner did the gloomy
clouds of night begin to succeed the declining
day, than we heard such barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, that one might
have thought the very strongest monsters of
nature or infernal spirits had their residence
The next morning I was resolved to go on
shore to get fresh water, and venturezinylife
'-J '


among the beasts or savages, should either
attack me. Xury said, he would take one of
the jars and bring me some. I asked him
why he would go, and not I? The poor boy
answered: If wild mans come, they eat me,
you go away." This nobleness of mind in-
creased my affection to the child. "Well,
dear Xury," said I, we will both go ashore,
both kill wild mans, and they shall eat nei-
ther of us." So giving Xury a piece of rusk
bread to eat, and a dram, we waded ashore,
carrying nothing with us but our arms, and
two jars of water. I did not go out of sight
of the boat, as dreading the savages coming
down the river in their canoes; but the boy
seeing a low descent or vale about a mile in
the country, he wandered to it; and running
back to me with great precipitation, I thought
he was pursued by some savage or wild beast;
upon which I approached, resolving to perish
or protect him from danger. As he came
nearer to me, I saw something hanging over


his shoulders, which was a creature he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were glad of it, for
it proved wholesome and nourishing meat:
but what added to our joy was, my boy assured
me there was plenty of water, and that he see
no wild masts. In this place I began to con-
sider that the Canary and Cape de Verde
islands lay not far off. The place I was in
was no doubt that wild country that lies be-
tween the emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the Negroes. It is filled with wild beasts,
and the Moors chiefly use it for hunting.
From this place I thought I saw the top of
the mountain Teneriff in the Canaries; and
twice in vain I tried to attain it.
Early one morning we anchored under a
little point of land; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay ready to go further in. But
Xury, whose youthful and penetrating eyes
were sharper than mine, in a soft tone, de-
sired me to keep far from land, lest we should-


be devoured: For look yonder, master,"
said he, and see de dreadful monster fast
asleep on de side of de hill." Accordingly,
looking where he pointed, I espied a fearful
monster indeed. It was a terrible great lion
that lay on shore covered as it were by a shade
of a piece of the hill. Xury," said I, you
shall go on shore and kill him." But the boy
looking amazed: "Me kill him!" says he,
" he eat me at one mouth;" meaning one
mouthful. Upon which I bid him lie still,
and charging my biggest gun with two slugs,
and a good charge of powder, I took the best
aim I could to shoot him through the head, but
his leg lying over his nose, the slug broke
his knee bone. The lion awaking with the
pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving the
most hideous groan I ever heard; but taking
my second piece, I shot him through the
head, and then he lay struggling for life. Upon
this Xury took heart, and desired my leave
to go on shore. "Go then," said I. Upon


which, taking a little gun in one hand, he
swam to shore with the other, and coming
close to the lion, put a period to his life by
shooting him again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not being good to eat. Xury
was like a champion, and came on board for a
hatchet, to cut off the head of his enemy; but
not having strength to perform it, he cut off
and brought me a foot. I bethought me,
however, that his skin would be of use. This
work cost Xury and me a whole day; when
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the hot
beams of the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me for a
bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living sparing-
ly on our provisions, and went no oftener on
shore than we were obliged for fresh water.
My design was to make the river Gambia or
Senegal, or any where about the Cape de
Verde, in hopes to meet some European ship.


If providence did not so favour me, my next
course was to seek for the islands, or lose my
life amongst the Negroes.
One day, as we were sailing along, we saw
people stand on the shore looking at us; we
could also perceive they were black and stark
naked. I was inclined to go on shore, but
Xury cried, No, no;" however, I approach-
ed nearer, and I found they ran along the
shore by me a good way. They had no wea-
pons in their hands, except one, who held a
long stick, which Xury told me was a lance,
with which they could kill at a great distance.
I talked to them by signs, and made them
sensible I wanted something to eat. They
beckoned me to stop my boat, while two of
them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn,
which we gladly accepted; and to prevent
any fears on either side, they brought the
food to the shore, laid it down, then went and


stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
The Negroes having kindly furnished me
with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave, and
after eleven days' sail, came in sight of the
Cape de Verde, and those islands called by
its name; when on a sudden Xury cried out,
" Master! master! a ship with a sail!" and
looked as affrighted as if it was his master's
ship sent in search of us. But I soon dis-
covered she was a Portuguese ship; upon
which I strove for life to come up to them.
But vain had it been, if through their per-
spective glasses they had not perceived me
and shortened their sail to let me come up.
Encouraged at this, I fired a gun, as a signal
of distress; upon which they very kindly lay
to, so that in three hours' time I came up with
them. They spoke to me in Portuguese,
Spanish, and French, but none of these did
I understand; till at length a Scots sailor


called, and then I told him I was an Eng-
lishman, who had escaped from the Moors at
Salee; upon which they took me kindly on
board, with all my effects.
Surely none can express the inconceivable
joy I felt at this happy deliverance, who, from
being a late miserable and forlorn creature,
was not only relieved, but in favour with the
master of the ship, to whom, in return for my
deliverance, I offered all I had. But he nobly
refused any recompence, and insisted upon
paying for my boat its full value. He gave
me sixty pieces for my boy Xury. It was
with great reluctance I was prevailed upon to
sell the child's liberty, who had served me so
faithfully; but he was willing himself; and it
was agreed, that after ten years he should be
madefree, upon his renouncing Mahometanism,
and embracing Christianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or All Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after.


I cannot forget the generous treatment of the
captain. He would take nothing for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and thirty for the lion's. ,In short, I
made about two hundred and twenty pieces of
my cargo; and with this stock I entered once
more into the scene of life.
Being recommended to an honest planter,
I lived with him till I was informed of the
manner of their planting and making sugar;
and seeing how well they lived, and how sud-
denly they grew rich, I resolved to get the
money I had left in England remitted to me,
and to purchase a plantation.
I bought a settlement next to an honest and
kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of English
parents, whose plantation joining mine, we
improved it very amicably together. Both
our stocks were low, and for two years we
planted only for food; but the third we plant-
ed some tobacco, and each of us dressed a
large piece of ground the ensuing year for


canes. I now found how much I wanted
assistance, and repented the loss of my dear
boy Xury.
I was in some measure settled, before the
captain departed from the Brazils. One day
I.went to him, and told him what stock I had
in London, desiring his assistance in getting
it remitted; to which he readily consented,
but would only have me send for half my
money, lest it should miscarry. His kindness
towards me was great, for he not only pro-
cured the money I had drawn for, but sent
me over a servant with a cargo proportionable
to my condition; together with tools of all
sorts, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my
Uncommon success crowning my prosperous
labours, I might have rested happy in that
middle state of life my father had so often re-
commended; but again I left this happy sta-
tion, from a foolish ambition of rising; and,
once more, cast myself into the greatest gulf


of misery that ever a poor creature fell into.
Having lived four years in Brazil, I had not
only learned the language, but contracted ac-
quaintance with the most eminent planters;
to whom, once having given an account of
my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, and
the manner of trading there for mere trifles,
by which our plantations were furnished with
Negroes, they gave such attention to what I
said, that three of them came one morning,
and proposed to me a voyage to Guinea, in
order to stock the plantation with Negroes,
which, as they could not be publicly sold,
they would divide among them; and if I would
go their super-cargo to manage the trading
part, I should have an equal share of the
Negroes, without providing any stock. I
could not resist the proposal, but accepted the
offer upon condition of their looking after my
The ship being fitted out, and all things
ready, we set sail the 1st of September, 1659,


being the same day eight years I left my fa-
ther and mother in Yorkshire. We sailed
northward upon the coast, in order to gain
Africa, till we made Cape Augustine: from
whence going further into the ocean out of
sight of land, we steered as though we were
bound for the isle Fernand de Norenba, leav-
ing the islands on the east; and then it was
that we met with a terrible tempest, which
continued twelve days, the winds carrying us
wherever they pleased. In this perplexity
one of our men died, and another and a boy
were washed overboard. When the weather
cleared up a little, we found ourselves in eleven
degrees north latitude, upon the coast of
Guinea. Upon this the captain gave reasons
for returning; which I opposed, counselling
him to stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I
supposed, might be attained in fifteen days.
So altering our course, we sailed north-west
and by west, in order to reach the Leeward
Islands; but a second storm succeeding, drove


us to the westward; so that we were afraid of
falling into the hands of cruel savages, or the
paws of devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress one of our men, early
in the morning, cried out, Land! land!"
which he had no sooner said, but our ship
struck upon a sand-bank, and in a moment the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we
expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately. We knew not where we were, or upon
what land we were driven; and we could not
so much as hope that the ship would hold out
many minutes, without breaking in pieces, ex-
cept the wind, by a miracle, should change
immediately. While we stood looking at one
another, expecting death every moment, the
mate laid hold of the boat, and with the help
of the rest flung her over the ship's side, and
getting all into her, being eleven of us, com-
mitted ourselves to God's mercy and the wild
sea. When we had rowed, or rather were
driven about a league and a half, a raging


wave, like a lofty mountain, came rolling astern
of us, and took us with such fury, that at
once it overset the boat.
Men are generally counted insensible when
struggling in the pangs of death; but while I
was overwhelmed with water, I had the most
dreadful apprehensions imaginable. For the
joys of heaven and the torments of hell
seemed to present themselves before me in
these dying agonies. I was going I thought
I knew not whither, into a dismal gulf un-
known, never to behold my friends, nor the
light of this world any more! 1 strove, how-
ever, to the last extremity, while all my com-
panions were overpowered and entombed in
the deep; and it was with great difficulty I
kept my breath till the wave spent itself, and
retiring back, left me on the shore half dead.
As soon as I got on my feet, I ran as fast as
I could, lest another wave should pursue me,
and carry me back again. The sea came after
me like a high mountain, or furious enemy.


The next dreadful wave buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet, but at the same time
carried me with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore; when raising myself, I
held out till the water having spent itself,
began to return, at which I struck forward,
and feeling ground with my feet, I took to
my heels again. I was at length dashed
against a piece of rock, in such a manner as
left me senseless; but recovering a little be-
fore the return of the wave, which, no doubt,
would have overwhelmed me, I pushed hastily
forward and reached the main land, when
clambering up the clifts of the shore, tired
and almost spent, I sat down on the grass,
free from the dangers of the foaming ocean.
No tongue can express the ecstacies and
transports that my soul felt at the happy de-
liverance. I was wrapped in contemplation,
and often lifted up my hands, with the pro-
foundest humility, to the Divine Powers, for
saving my life, when the rest of my compa-


nions were all drowned. I cast my eyes
around, to behold what place I was in, and
what I had next to do. I could see no house
nor people; I was wet, yet had no clothes;
hungry and thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or
drink; no weapon to destroy any creatures
for my sustenance, nor defend myself against
devouring beasts; in short, I had nothing but
a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a box half filled
with tobacco. The darksome night coming
upon me, increased my fears of being devour-
ed by wild creatures; my mind was plunged
in despair, and having no prospect, as I
thought, of life before me, I prepared for an-
other kind of death than what I had lately
escaped. 1 walked about a furlong to see if
I could find any fresh water, which I did to
my great joy; and taking a quid of tobacco
to prevent hunger, I got up into a thick bushy
tree, and seating myself so that I could not
fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and for that
uight buried my sorrows in quiet repose.


It was broad day the next morning before
I awaked; when I not only perceived the
tempest had ceased, but saw the ship driven
almost as far as the rock which the waves had
dashed me against, and which was about a
mile from the place where I was. When I
came down from my apartment in the tree,
I perceived the ship's boat two miles distant
on my right hand, lying on shore, as the
waves had cast her. I thought to have got
to her; but there being an inlet of water of
about half a mile's breadth between it and
me, I returned again towards the ship, as
hoping to find something for my immediate
subsistence. About noon, when the sea was
calm, resolving to get to the ship, I stripped
and leaped into the water: it was my good
fortune to espy a small piece of rope hanging
so low, that by the help of it, though with
great difficulty, I got into the ship. The
provisions I found in good order, with which
I crammed my pockets, and losing no time,


ate while I was doing other things; I also
found some rum, of which I took a hearty
dram; and now I wanted for nothing except
a boat to carry away what was needful for
Necessity quickens invention. We had
several spare yards, a spare topmast or two,
and two or three large spars of wood. With
these I fell to work, and flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage, tying
every one of them with a rope, that they
might not drive away. This done, I went
down to the ship's side, and tied four of them
fast together at both ends, in form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them crossways, I found it would bear
me, but not any considerable weight. Upon
which I went to work again, cutting a spare
topmast into three lengths, adding them to
my raft with a great deal of labour and pains.
I then considered what I should load it with,
it being not able to bear a ponderous burden.


And this I soon thought of; first laying upon
it all the planks and boards I could get, next
I lowered down three of the seamen's chests,
after I had filled them with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's
flesh, and some European corn; and for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
S longing to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters, and four or five gallons of
rack, which I stowed by themselves. By this
time the tide beginning to flow, I perceived
my coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim away,
which I left on the shore; as for my linen,
breeches and stockings, I swam with them to
the ship; but I soon found clothes enough,
though I took no more than I wanted for the
present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to
work with; and, after a long search, I found
out the carpenter's chest, which I got safe
down on my raft. I then looked for arms
and ammunition, and in the great cabin found
two good fowling-pieces, two pistols, several


powder horns filled, a small bag of shot, and
two old rusty swords. I likewise found three
barrels of powder, two of which were good;
also two or three broken oars, two saws, an
axe, and a hammer. I then put to sea, and
in getting to shore had three encouragements.
1. A smooth calm sea. 2. The tide rising
and setting in to shore. 3. The little wind
there was blew towards the land. After I
had sailed about a mile, I found the raft drive
a little distance from the place where I first
landed; and then I perceived a little opening
of the land, with a strong current of the tide
running into it; upon which I kept the mid-
dle of the stream. But great was my con-
cern, when on a sudden the fore part of my
raft ran aground, so that had I not, with great
difficulty, for near half an hour, kept my
back straining against the chests to keep my
effects in their places, all I had would have
gone into the sea. But after some time, the
rising of the water caused the raft to float





again, and coming up a little river with land
on both sides, I landed in a cave, as near
the mouth as possible, the better to discover
a sail, if any providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with lesser hills, and thi-
ther I was resolved to go and view the coun-
try, that I might see what part was best to
fix my habitation. Accordingly, arming my-
self with a pistol, a fowling-piece, powder and
ball, I ascended the mountain. There I per-
ceived I was in an island, encompassed by the
sea, no distant lands to be seen but scattering
rocks that lay to the west: it seemed to be a
barren place, inhabited only by wild beasts.
I perceived abundance of fowls, but ignorant
of what kind, or whether good for nourish-
ment: I shot one of them at my return, which
occasioned a confused screaming among the
other birds, and I found it, by its colour and
beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its flesh was
perfect carrion.
c 5


When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, and fearing that some cruel
beasts might devour me in the night time, I
made a kind of hut or barricade with the chests
and boards. I slept very comfortably; and
the next morning got on board as before, and
prepared a second raft far nicer than the first,
upon which I brought away the carpenter's
stores, two or three bags full of nails, a great
jack-screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a
grind-stone. Two or three iron crows, two
barrels of musket-bullets, another fowling-
piece, a small quantity of powder, and a large
bag full of small shot. Besides these, I took
all the men's clothes I could find, a spare
fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and thus completing my second cargo, I made
all the haste to shore I could, fearing some
wild beast might destroy what I had there
already. But I only found a little wild cat
sitting on one of the chests, which seeming
not to fear me or the gun that I presented at


her, I threw her a piece of biscuit, which she
instantly eat and departed.
When I had got these effects on shore, I
went to work, in order to make me a little
tent with the sail and some poles which I had
cut for that purpose; and having finished it,
what things might be damaged by the wea-
ther I brought in, piling all the empty chests
and casks in a circle, the better to fortify it
against any sudden attempt of man or beast.
After this I blocked up the doors with some
boards, charged my gun and pistol, and laying
my bed on the ground, slept comfortably till
the next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me
a long time, yet despairing of a sudden de-
liverance, I coveted as much as I could; and
so long as the ship remained in that condi-
tion, I daily brought away one necessary or
other; particularly the rigging, sails, and
cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet powder.
some sugar, a barrel of meal, three casks of


rum, and, what indeed was most welcome to
me, a whole hogshead of bread.
Thirteen days I had now been in the island,
and eleven times on board, bringing away all
that was possible. As I was going the twelfth
time, the wind began to rise: however, I ven-
tured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker I found several razors, scissors,
and some dozens of knives and forks; and in
another thirty-six pounds of pieces of eight,
silver and gold. "Ah! simple vanity," said
I, whom this world so much dotes on, where
is now thy virtue, thy excellency to me?
You cannot procure me one thing needful,
nor remove me from this desolate island to a
place of plenty. One of these knives, so
meanly esteemed, is to me preferable to all
this heap. E'en, therefore, remain where
thou art, to sink in the deep as unregarded,
even as a creature whose life is not worth pre-
serving." Yet, after all, I wrapt it up in a
piece of canvass, and began to think of mak-


ing another raft; but I soon perceived the
wind began to rise, a fresh gale blowing from
the shore, and the sky overcast with clouds
and darkness; so thinking a raft to be in vain,
I let myself into the water, with what things
I had about me, and it was with much diffi-
culty I got ashore, when soon after it blew a
fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my
little tent, surrounded with all my effects; but
when I looked out in the morning, no more
ship was to be seen. My next thoughts were,
how I should secure myself from savages and
wild beasts, if any such were in the island.
At one time I thought of digging a cave; at
another I was for erecting a tent; and, at
length, I resolved to do both.
I found a little plain near a rising hill, the
front towards which being as steep as a house-
side, nothing could descend on me from the
top. On the side of this rock was a little hol-
low place, resembling the entrance or door of


a cave. Just before this place, on the circle
of the green, I resolved my tent should stand.
This plain did not much exceed a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, like a
delightful green before my door, with a pleas-
ing though an irregular descent every way to
the low grounds by the sea-side, lying on the
north-west side of the hill; so that it was shel-
tered from the excessive heat of the sun.
After this, I drew a semicircle, containing
ten yards in a semi-diameter, and twenty yards
in the whole, driving down two rows of strong
stakes, not six inches from each other. Then
with a piece of cable which I had cut on
board, I regularly laid them in a circle be-
tween the piles up to their tops, which were
more than five feet out of the earth, and after
drove another row of piles looking within side
against them, between two or three feet high,
which made me conclude it a little impregnable
castle against men and beasts. And for my
better security I would have no door, but en-


tered in and came out by the help of a ladder,
which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which
I carried all my riches, ammunition, and stores.
After which, working on the rock, what with
dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised
my ground two feet, but made a little cellar
to my mansion-house; and this cost me many
a day's labour and pains. One day, in par-
ticular, a shower of rain falling, thunder and
lightning ensued, which put me in terror lest
my powder should take fire. To prevent
which, I fell to making boxes and bags, in
order to separate it, having by me near one
hundred and fifty pounds weight. And thus
being established as king of the island, every
day I went out with my gun to see what I
could kill that was fit to eat. I soon perceived
numbers of goats, and shot one that was suck-
ling a young kid, which not thinking its dam
slain, stood by her unconcerned; and when I
took the dead creature up, the young one fol-


lowed me even to the enclosure. I lifted the
kid over the pales, and would willingly have
kept it alive; but finding it would not eat, I
killed that also.
It was, by the account I kept, the 30th of
September when I first landed on this island.
About twelve days after, fearing lest I should
lose my reckoning of time, nay, even forget
the sabbath days, for want of pen, ink, and
paper, I carved with a knife upon a large
post, in great letters, these words, I came (o
shore, September 30, 1659. Every day I
cut a notch with my knife on the sides of this
square post, and that on the sabbath was as
long again as the rest; and every first day of
the month as long again as that long one.
Had I made a more strict search I need not
have set up this mark; for among my parcels
I found the very things I wanted; particular-
ly pens, ink, and paper; also two or three
compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspective glasses, books of navigation,


three English bibles, and several other good
books, which I carefully put up.-A dog and
two cats on board, I made inhabitants with
me in my castle. Though one might think I
had all the necessaries that were desirable, yet
still I found several things wanting. My ink
was daily wasting; I wanted needles, pins,
and thread, to mend my clothes; and particu-
larly a spade, pickaxe, or shovel, to remove
the earth. It was year before I finished my
little bulwark.
Having raised a turf wall against the out-
side of my habitation, I thatched it so close as
might keep it from the inclemency of the
weather; I also improved it within, enlarged
my cave, and made a passage and door in the
rock, which came out beyond the pale of
my fortification. I next proceeded to make a
chair and a table. When I wanted a plank
or board, I hewed down a tree with my hatchet,
making it as thin with my axe as possible, and
then smooth enough with an adze to answer


my designs: thus in time I got boards enough
to shelter all my stores.
But now a very strange event happened.
For one day finding a bag, which used to hold
corn for the fowls, I resolved to put gunpow-
der in it, and shook all the husks and dirt
upon one side of the rock, little expecting
what the consequence would be. The rain
had fallen plentifully a few days before; and
about a month after, to my great amazement,
something began to look very green and flou-
rishing; and when I came to view it more
nicely every day as it grew, I found about
ten or twelve ears of green barley, appearing
in the very same shape and make as that in
I can scarcely express the agitations of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had looked
upon the actions of this life only as the events
of blind chance. But now the appearance of
this barley, flourishing in a barren soil, and
my ignorance in not conceiving how it should


come there, made me conclude, that miracles
were not yet ceased: nay, I even thought
that God had appointed it to grow there with-
out any seed, purely for my sustenance in
this miserable and desolate island. And in-
deed such great effect this had upon me, that
it often made me melt into tears, through
a grateful sense of God's mercies; and the
greater still was my thankfulness, when I
perceived about this little field of barley
some rice stalks also, wonderfully flourish-
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be more corn in the island, and
therefore made a diligent search among the
rocks; but not being able to find any, on a
sudden it came into my mind how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag, and
then my admiration ceased, with my gratitude
to the Divine Being, as thinking it was but
natural, and not to be conceived a miracle;
though even the manner of its preservation


might have made me own it was a wonderful
event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when
the ears of this corn ripened, which I laid up
very carefully, together with twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, expecting one day I should
reap the fruit of my labour; yet four years
were expired before I could allow myself to
eat any barley bread, and much longer time
before I had any rice. After this, with inde-
fatigable pains and industry, for three or four
months, at last I finished my wall on the 14th
of April, having no way to go into it but by a
ladder, against the wall. April the 17th I
finished my ladder and ascended it, afterwards
pulled it up, then let it down on the other
side, and descended into my new habitation.
where I had space enough, and so fortified,
that nothing could attack me without scaling
the walls.
But what does all human pains and indus-
try avail, if the blessing of God does not


crown our labours? Or who can stand before
the Amighty, when he stretcheth forth his
arm? For one time, as I was at the entrance
of my cave, there happened such a dreadful
earthquake, that not only the roof of the
cave came tumbling about my ears, but the
posts seemed to crack terribly at the same
time. This put me in great amazement; and
running to the ladder, and getting over the
wall, I then plainly knew it was an earth-
quake: the place I stood on sustained three
terrible shocks in less than three minutes.
But judge of my terror when I saw the top
of a great rock roll into the sea! I then ex-
pected the island would be swallowed up
every moment; and what made the scene still
more dreadful, was to see the sea thrown in
the most violent agitation and disorder by
this tremendous accident.
For my part, I stood like a criminal at the
place of execution, ready to expire. At the
moving of the earth, I was, as it were, sea-


sick, and very much afraid lest the rock,
under which was my defence and habitation,
should overwhelm it and myself in a lasting
When the third dreadful shock had spent
itself, my spirits began to revive; yet still I
would not venture to ascend the ladder, but
continued sitting, not knowing what I should
do. So little grace had I then, as only to
say, Lord have mercy upon me! and no sooner
was the earthquake over, but that pathetic
prayer left me.
It was not long after, when a horrible tem-
pest arose, at the same time attended with a,
hurricane of wind. The sea seemed moun-
tains high, and the waves rolled so impetu-
ously, that nothing could be perceived but
froth and foam. Three hours did this storm
continue, and in so violent a manner, as to
tear the very trees up by the roots, which was
succeeded by abundance of rain. When the
tempest was over I went to my tent; but the


rain coming on in a furious manner, I was
obliged to take shelter in the cave, where I
was forced to cut a channel through my forti-
fication to let the water out. It continued
raining all that night, and some time the next
day. These accidents made me resolve, as
soon as the weather cleared up, to build me
a little hut in some open place, walled round
to defend me from wild creatures and sa-
vages; not doubting but at the next earth-
quake, the mountain would fall upon my W
habitation and me, and swallow up all in its
- When I began to put my resolutions in
practice, I was stopped for want of tools and
instruments to work with. Most of my axes
and hatchets were useless, occasioned by cut-
ting the hard timber that grew on the island.
It took me up a full week to make my grind-
stone of use.
As I walked along the sea-shore, I found a
barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces of the


wreck the sea had flung up. Having secured
these, I made to the ship, whose stern was
torn off, and washed a great distance ashore;
but the rest lay in the sands.
At this time I was afflicted with an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myself to water;
and I prayed o God in these words: Lord,
in pity look upon me; Lord have mercy upon
me; have mercy upon me!" After this I
fell asleep, and dreamt.
Something refreshed with sleep, I arose;
and, after eating some turtle's eggs, I at-
tempted to walk again out of doors with my
gun; but was so weak, that I sat down, and
looked at the sea, which was smooth and calm.
While I continued here, these thoughts came
into my mind.
In what manner is the production of the
earth and sea, of which I have seen so much
From whence came myself, and all other crea-
tures living, and of what are they made?
Our being were assuredly created by some


almighty invisible Power, who framed the
earth, the sea, the air, and all therein. But
what is that Power?
Certainly it must follow, that God has
created all. Yet, said I, if God has made
all this, he must be the Ruler of all, for cer-
tainly the Power that makes must indisputa-
bly be able to guide and direct them. And
if so, nothing can happen without his know-
ledge and appointment. Then certainly God
has appointed these my sufferings. I then
proceeded to enquire, why should God deal
with me in this manner? Or what had I done
to deserve his indignation?
Here conscience cried with a loud and
piercing voice: Unworthy wretch! how
darest thou ask what thou hast done? Look
on thy past life, and see what thou hast left
undone! Ask thyself, why thou wert not
long ago in the merciless hands of death?
Why not drowned in Yarmouth roads, or
killed in the fight, when the ship' was taken


by the Salee man of war? Why not en-
tombed in the bowels of the wild beasts on
the African coast, or drowned here when all
thy companions suffered shipwreck in the
Struck dumb with these reflections, I arose,
being so thoughtful that I could not sleep;
and fearing the dreadful return of my dis-
temper, I recollected that the Brazilians use
tobacco for almost all diseases, and going to
my chest in order to find some, Heaven, no
doubt, directed me to a cure for both soul and
body; for there I found one of the bibles,
which, till this time, I had neither leisure nor
inclination to look into. And no sooner did
I open it, but there appeared to me these
words, Call on me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
At first, this sentence made a very deep
impression on my heart, but it soon wore off
again, when I considered the word deliver


was foreign to me. And as the children of
Israel said, when they were promised flesh to
eat, Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness?" In like manner I began to say, "Can
God himself deliver me from this desolate
island?" However, the words still returned
to my mind, and afterwards made a greater
impression upon me.
As it was now very late, I felt inclined to
sleep; but before I would lie down I fell on
my knees, and implored the promise that God
had made me in the Holy Scripture, that if
I called upon him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me." With much difficulty, I
afterwards drank the rum, wherein I had
steeped the tobacco, which flying into my
head, threw me into such a profound sleep,
that it was three o'clock the next day before
I awoke; indeed, I believe I slept two days,
having lost a day in my account. When I
got up, my spirits were lively and cheerful;
I was very hungry; and, in short, no fit re-


turned the next day, but I found myself much
altered for the better.
I had now been about ten months in the
island; and as I had never seen any of the
human kind, I accounted myself as sole mo-
narch; and as I grew better, having secured
my habitation to my mind, I resolved to make
a tour round my kingdom, in order to make
new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey.
I first went to the creek, where I had brought
my rafts on shore; and travelling further,
fund that the tide went no higher than two
miles up, where there was a little brook of
running water, on the banks of which were
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass. On the
rising parts, where I supposed the water did
not reach, I perceived a great deal of tobacco
growing to a very strong stalk. Several other
plants I likewise found, the virtues of which
I did not understand. I searched a long time


for the Cavassa root, which I knew the In-
dians in that climate made their bread of, but
all in vain. There were several plants of
aloes, though at that time I knew not what
they were; I saw also several sugar-canes, but
imperfect for want of cultivation. With these
few discoveries, I came back that night and
slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, going the same way, but
further than the day before, I found the coun-
try more adorned with woods and trees. Here
I perceived different fruits in great abun-
dance. Melons in plenty lay on the ground,
and clusters of grapes, ripe and very rich,
spread over the trees. You may imagine I
was glad of the discovery, yet eat very spar-
ingly. The grapes I found of excellent use;
for when I had dried them in the sun, which
preserved them as dried raisins are kept, they
proved very wholesome and nourishing, and
served me in those seasons when no grapes
were to be had. The night drawing on apace,


I ascended a tree, and slept very comfortably,
though it was the first time I had lain out of
my habitation. And when the morning came,
I proceeded with great pleasure on my way,
travelling about four miles, as I imagined, by
the length of the valley, directing my course
northward. At the end of the valley, I came
to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west: there I found a little
spring of fresh water, proceeding out of the
side of the hill, with its crystal streams run-
ning directly east. And indeed, here my
senses were charmed with the most beautiful
landscape nature could afford; for the country
appeared flourishing, green and delightful.
I then descended on the side of that deli-
cious vale, when I found abundance of cocoa,
orange, lemon, and citron trees, but very wild
and barren at that time. The limes were de-
lightful and wholesome, and the juice, mixed
in water, was very cooling and refreshing. I
resolved to carry home a store of grapes, limes,


and lemons, against the approaching wet sea-
son; and returned to my little castle, after
having spent three days in this journey.
And now, contemplating the fruitfulness of
this valley, its security from storms, and the
delightfulness of the adjacent woods, I re-
solved to make a little kind of bower, sur-
rounding it with a double hedge, as high as
I could reach, well staked and filled with bul-
rushes; and having spent a great part of the
month of July, I think it was the first of
August before I began to enjoy my labour.
On the 30th of September, casting up the
notches on my post, which amounted to three
hundred and sixty-five, I concluded this to
be the anniversary of my landing; and there-
fore, humbly prostrating myself on the ground,
confessing my sins, acknowledging God's righ-
teous judgments upon me, and praying to
Jesus Christ to have mercy upon me, I fasted
for twelve hours till the going down of the
sun; and then eating a biscuit and a bunch


of grapes, laid me on the bed, and with great
comfort took my night's repose. You may
call to mind what I have mentioned of some
barley and rice which I had saved, about
thirty stalks of the former, and twenty of the
latter; and, at that time, the sun being in its
southern position, going from me, together
with the rains, made me conclude it a very
proper season to sow it. Accordingly, I dug
up a piece of ground with my wooden spade,
and dividing it into two parts, sowed about
two-thirds of my seed, preserving by me about
a handful of each. And happy it was I did
so; for no rains falling, it was choked up, and
never appeared above the earth till the wet
season came again; and then part of it grew
as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground near
my bower, I sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox;
which having the rainy months of March and


April to water it, yielded a noble crop. I
had still saved part of the seed, not daring to
venture all; and by the time I found out the
proper seasons to sow it, and that I might
expect every year two seed-times and two
harvests, my stock amounted to above half a
peck of each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the
stakes which I had cut from the trees, shot
out like willows, the first year after lop-
ping their heads. I was ignorant of the tree
I cut them from; but they grew so regu-
larly beautiful, that they made a most lively
appearance, and so flourished in three years'
time, that I resolved to cut more of them;
and these soon growing, made a glorious
And now I perceived that the seasons of
the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
wet and dry seasons.
The wet season continued longer or shorter


as the winds happened to blow. But having
found the ill consequences of being abroad
in the rain, I took care beforehand to fur-
nish myself with provisions; and during the
wet months, sat within doors as much as
possible. At this time I contrived to make
many things I wanted. The first I tried
was a basket; but all the twigs proved so
brittle, that I could not perform it. When
a boy, I took great delight in standing at a
basket-maker's in the same town where my
father lived, to view them work; and like
other boys, curious and very officious to
assist, I perfectly learned the method, and
wanted nothing but tools. And recollecting
that the twigs of the tree of which I made
my stakes, might be as tough as osiers,
growing in England, I resolved to make an
experiment, went the next day to my country
seat, and after cutting down a quantity, I
dried them, and when fit to work, carried
them to my cave, where I employed myself


in making several sorts of baskets. It is
true, they were not cleverly made, yet they
served my turn upon all occasions.
Still I had no cask to hold my liquor:
neither had I a pot to boil any thing in. I
wanted likewise, at the beginning of this dry
season, a tobacco-pipe.
I now resumed my intention of exploring
the island; and taking my dog, gun, hatchet,
two biscuit-cakes, a great bunch of raisins,
with a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, I began my journey. Having
passed the vale where my bower stood, I
came within view of the sea, lying to the
west; when, it being a clear day, I described
land, extending from the W. to the S. W.
about ten or fifteen leagues, but could not
say whether it was an island or a continent.
As I proceeded forward, I found this side
of the island much more pleasant than mine;
the fields fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers
and verdant grass, together with several very


fine woods. There were parrots in plenty,
which made me long for one to be my com-
panion; but it was with great difficulty I
could knock one down; and I kept him
some years before I could get him to call me
by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts
of hares and foxes, but different from those
in England. Several of these I killed, but
never eat them; neither, indeed, had I any
occasion, for abounding with goats, pigeons,
turtle, and grapes, I could defy Leadenhall
Market to furnish me a better table. When
I came to the sea-shore, I was amazed at the
splendour. The strand was covered with
shells of the most beautiful fish, and abound-
ing with innumerable turtles, and fowls of
many kinds. I might have shot as many as
I pleased, but was sparing of my ammuni-
tion, rather choosing to kill a she-goat, which
I did with much difficulty on account of the
flatness of the country.


I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east, where
I set a great pile on the shore for a mark. In
this journey my dog surprised a kid, and
would have killed it, had I not prevented
him. As I had often been thinking of get-
ting a kid or two, and so raising a breed of
tame goats to supply me after my ammuni-
tion was spent, I took this opportunity of
beginning; and having made a collar for this
little creature, with a string of rope-yam, I
brought it to my bower, and there enclosed
and left him; and having spent a month in
this journey, at length I returned to my own
habitation, and rested myself a week, which
time I employed in making a cage for my
pretty Poll. I now recollected my poor kid
I had left in the bower, and immediately
went to fetch it home. When I came there,
I found it almost starved. I gave it some
food, and it followed me like a dog; and
as I constantly fed it, it became so loving,


gentle, and fond, that it would never leave
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of Septem-
ber in the most solemn manner, as usual: it
being the third year of my abode in the
island. I spent the whole day in acknow-
ledging God's mercies, in giving him thanks
for making this solitary life as agreeable and
less sinful, than that of human society; and
for the communications of his grace to my
soul, in supporting, comforting, and encou-
raging me to depend upon his providence,
and hope for his eternal presence in the world
to come.
One morning, opening my bible, I imme-
diately fixed my eyes upon these words, I
will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, thought I, these words are directed
to me; and if God does not forsake, what
matter is it, since he can make me more
happy in this state of life, than if I enjoyed


the greatest splendour in the world ? I shut
the bible, and blessed kind Providence that
directed my good friend in England to send
it without any order, and for assisting me to
save it from the power of the raging ocean.
And now, beginning my third year, my se-
veral daily employment were these:-First,
My duty to'Heaven, and diligently reading
the Holy Scriptures, which I did twice or
thrice every day: Secondly, Seeking provi-
sions with my gun, which commonly em-
ployed me, when it did not rain, three hours
every morning: Thirdly, The ordering, cur-
ing, preserving, and cooking what I killed,
for my supply, which took me great part of
the day. I was no less than two-and-forty
days making a board fit for a long shelf,
which two sawyers, with their tools and saw-
pit, would have cut off the same tree in half
a day. It was a large tree, as my board was
to be broad. I was three days in cutting
it down, and two more in lopping off the


boughs and reducing it to a piece of timber.
This I hacked and hewed off each side, till it
became light to move; and then I turned it,
made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end, then turned it downwards,
cutting the other side, till I brought the plank
to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides.
The harvest months, November and De-
cember, were now at hand, in which I had
the pleasing prospect of a very good crop.
But here I met with a new misfortune; for
the goats and hares having tasted the sweet-
ness of the blade, kept it so short, that it had
not strength to shoot up into a stalk. To
prevent this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and
by day shot some of its devourers; and my
dog, which I tied to the field-gate, barking
all night, so frightened those creatures, that
I got entirely rid of them.
But no sooner did I get rid of these, than
other enemies appeared: whole flocks of se-


veral sorts of birds only waited till my back
was turned to ruin me. So much did this
provoke me, that I let fly, and killed three
of the malefactors; and afterwards served
them as they do notorious thieves in Eng-
land-hung them up in chains, as a terror to
others. And so good an effect had this, that
they not only forsook the corn, but all that
part of the island, so long as these criminals
hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter
end of December, which was my second har-
vest, I reaped it with a scythe, made of one
of my broad-swords. I had no fatigue in
cutting down my first crop, it was so slender.
The ears I carried home in a basket, rubbing
it with my hands, instead of threshing it;
and when the harvest was over, found my
half peck of seed produced nearly two bushels
of rice, and two bushels and a half of barley.
I knew not how to grind my corn, neither
how to bake the bread.


The want of a plough to turn up the earth,
or shovel to dig it, I conquered by making a
wooden spade. The want of a harrow I
supplied by dragging over the corn a great
bough of a tree. When it was growing I
was forced to fence it: when ripe to mow it,
carry it home, thresh it, and part it from the
chaff. And, after all, I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieve to dress it, yeast and salt to
make it into bread, and an oven to bake it.
This set my brains to work to find some ex-
pedient for every one of these necessaries
against the next harvest.
And now, having more seed, my first care
was to prepare more land. I pitched upon
two large flat pieces of ground near my
castle, for that purpose, in which I sowed
my seed, and fenced it with a good hedge.
This took me up three months, by which
time the wet season coming on, and the rain
keeping me within doors, I found several
occasions to employ myself; and, while at


work, used to divert myself in talking to my
parrot, learning him to know and speak his
own name, Poll, the first welcome word I
ever heard spoke in the island. I had been
a long time contriving how to make earthen
vessels, which I wanted extremely; and when
I considered the heat of the climate, I did
not doubt but if I could find any such clay,
I might make a pot strong enough, when
dried in the sun, to bear handling, and to
hold any thing that was dry; as corn, meal,
and other things.
The clay I found; but it would make the
most serious person smile to see what awkward,
ugly, mishapen things I made; how many
cracked by the violent heat of the sun, and
fell in pieces when they were removed: so
that I think it was two months before I could
perfect any thing; and even then but two
clumsy things in imigtion of earthen jars.
As for the smaller things, I made them with
better success; such as little round pots, flat


dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, the sun baking
them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely
necessary, and that was an earthen pot, not
only to hold my liquid, but also to bear the
fire, which none of these could do. It once
happened, that as I was putting out my fire,
I found therein a broken piece of one of my
vessels burnt as hard as a rock, and red as a
tile. This made me think of burning some
pots; and having no notion of a kiln, or of
glazing them with lead, 1 fixed three large
pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile one
above another. The fire I piled round the
outside, and dry wood upon the top, till I
saw the pots in the inside red hot, and found
that they were not cracked at all; and when I
perceived them perfectly red, I let one of them
stand in the fire about five or six hours, till
the clay melted by the extremity of the heat,
and would have run to glass had I suffered
it: upon which I slackened my fire by de-


grees, till the redness abated; and watching
them till morning, I found I had three very
good pipkins, and two earthen pots, as well
burnt as I could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at this
discovery. I filled one of my pipkins with
water to boil me some meat.
The next concern I had was to get me a
stone mortar to beat some corn in, instead of
a mill to grind it. But all the stones of the
island being of a mouldering nature, I re-
solved to look out for a great block of hard
wood, which having found, I formed it with
my axe and hammer, and then, with infinite
labour, made a hollow in it, just as the
Indians of Brazil make their canoes. When
I had finished this, I made a great pestle of
iron wood, and then laid them up against my
succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make a sieve to
sift my meal, and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no fine thin canvass, I ccu!d


not tell what to do. What linen I had was
reduced to rags. At length I remembered I
had some neckcloths of calico or muslin of
the sailors, which I had brought out of the
ship, and with these I made three small sieves,
proper enough for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by making
some earthen pans, very broad but not deep.
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great
fire upon the hearth, the tiles of which I had
made myself; and when the wood was burnt
into live coals, I spread them over it till it
became very hot; then sweeping them away,
I set down my loaves, and turning down the
earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all round the outsides of the pots to
continue the heat; and in this manner I
baked my barley-loaves, as well as if I had
been a complete pastry-cook; and also made
of the rice several cakes and puddings.
These things took me up the best part of
the year, and what intermediate time I had


was bestowed in managing my new harvest
and husbandry; for in the proper season
I reaped my corn, carried it home, and
laid it up in the ear in my large baskets,
till I had time to rub instead of thresh-
ing it.
All this while the prospect of land, which
I had seen from the other side of the island,
ran in my mind. I still meditated a deli-
verance from this place, though the fear of
greater misfortunes might have deterred me
from it. For allowing that I had attained
that place, I ran the hazard of being killed
and eaten by the devouring cannibals; and if
they were not so, yet I might be slain, as
other Europeans had been who fell into their
hands. Notwithstanding all this, my thoughts
ran continually upon that shore. I wished
for my boy Xury, and the long-boat: the
ship's boat had been cast a great way on the
shore in the late storm. Her bottom being
turned up by the impetuosity and fury of


the waves and wind, I fell to work with all
the strength I had, with levers and rollers I
had cut from the wood, to turn her, and re-
pair the damages she had sustained. This
work took me up three or four weeks, when
finding my little strength in vain, I fell to
undermining it by digging away the sand,
and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of
wood to thrust and guide it in the fall. But
after this was done, I was still unable to move
it towards the water, and so was forced to
give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not
frighten me. I began to think whether it
was not possible for me to make a canoe,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a
tree. But here I lay under particular in-
conveniences; want of tools to make it, and
want of hands to move it in the water when
it was made. However, to work I went. I
first cut down a cedar-tree, which was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part


next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet; after
which it lessened for a space, and then parted
into branches. Twenty days was I a hacking
and hewing this tree at the bottom fourteen
more in cutting off the branches and limbs,
and a whole month in shaping it like the
bottom of a boat. As for the inside, I was
three weeks with a mallet and chisel clearing
it, till it was big enough to carry twenty-six
men ; much bigger than any canoe I ever
saw in my life, and consequently sufficient to
transport me and all my effects to that wished-
for shore.
Nothing remained now but to get it into
the water, it lying about one hundred yards
from it. I proceeded to measure the dis-
tance of ground, resolving to make a canal
in order to bring the water to the canoe, since
I could not bring the canoe to the water.
But as this seemed to be impracticable, under
the space of eleven or twelve years, I con-


eluded the attempt altogether vain. I now
saw what stupidity it is to begin work before
we reckon its cost, or judge rightly our own
abilities to go through with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year
expired, from the time I was cast on this
island. At this time I did not forget my
anniversary, but kept it with rather greater
devotion than before. For now my hopes
being frustrated, I looked upon this world
as a thing I had nothing to do with; and
well might I say, as father Abraham said
unto Dives, "Between thee and me there is
a gulf fixed." I was separated from its wick-
edness too, having neither the lust of the
flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of
life. I had nothing to covet, being lord,
king, and emperor over the whole country,
without dispute and without control: corn,
plenty of turtles, timber in abundance, and
grapes above measure. What was all the
rest to me ? The money I had, lay by me


as despicable dross, which I would freely
have given for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or a
hand-mill to grind my corn. In a word, the
nature and experience of these things dic-
tated to me this just reflection: that the
good things of this world are no further good
to us, than they are for our use; and that
whatsoever we may heap up to give to others,
we can but enjoy as much as we use.
These thoughts rendered my mind more
easy than usual. Every time I sat down to
meat, I did it with thankfulness, admiring
the providential hand of God, who, in this
wilderness, had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with
water, I made last as long as I could, I used
to minute down the days of the month on
which any remarkable eyent happened.-
First, I observed that the same day I for-
sook my parents and friends, and ran away
to Hull, in order to go to sea; the same day


in the next year, I was taken and made a slave
by the Salee rovers.
That the very day I escaped out of the
wreck of the ship in Yarmouth roads, a year
after, on the same day, I made my escape
from Salce in my patron's fishing boat.
And, on the 30th of September, being my
birth-day, was I miraculously saved, and cast
ashore on this island.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,
was the biscuits which I had brought out of
the ship; and though I allowed myself but
one cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet
I was quite out of bread for nearly a year,
before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long
before. However, I had preserved about
three dozen of the sailor's chequered shirts,
which proved a great refreshment to me,
when the violent beams of the sun would not
suffer me to bear any of the seamen's heavy


watch-coats; which made me turn tailor, and
after a miserable botching manner, convert
them into jackets. To preserve my head, I
made a cap of goat's skin, with the hair out-
wards, to keep out the rain; and afterwards
a waistcoat and open-kneed breeches of the
same. I contrived a sort of umbrella, co-
vering it with skins, which not only kept o-it
the heat of the sun, but rain also. Thus,
being easy and settled in my mind, my chief
happiness was to converse with God in
For five years after this, nothing extra-
ordinary occurred to me. My chief employ-
ment was to cure my raisins and plant my
barley and rice, of both which I had a year's
provision beforehand. Though I was dis-
appointed in my first canoe, 1 made, at in-
termediate times, a second, of much inferior
size; and it was two years before I had
finished it. But as I perceived it would no-
wise answer my design of sailing to the other


shore, my thoughts were confined to take a
tour round the island, to see what further
discoveries I could make. To this intent.
after having moved her to the water, and
tried how she would sail, I fitted up a little
mast to my boat, and made a sail of the ship's
sail that lay by me. I then made lockers or
boxes at the end of it to put in necessaries,
provision, and ammunition, which would pre-
serve them dry, either from rain or the spray
of the sea; and in the inside of the boat I
cut a long, hollow place to lay my gun in,
and to keep it dry, made a flag to hang over
it. My umbrella I fixed in a step in the
stern, like a mast, to keep the heat of the sun
off me. And now, resolving to see the cir-
cumference of my little kingdom, I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen
of my barley-bread loaves, an earthen pot
full of parched rice, a little bottle of rum.
half a goat, powder and shot, and two watch-
coats. It was the 6th of November, in the


sixth year of my captivity, that I set out on
this voyage, which was much longer than I
expected, being obliged to put further out,
on account of the rocks. And, indeed, so
much did these rocks surprise me, that I was
for putting back, fearing that if I ventured
further it would be out of my power to return.
In this uncertainty I came to anchor just
on shore, to which I waded with my gun on
my shoulder; and then, climbing a hill which
overlooked that point, I saw the full extent
of it, and resolved to run all hazards. That
night it grew so calm that I ventured out;
and here I may be a monument to all rash
and ignorant pilots; for I was no sooner
come to the point, and not above the boat's
length from shore, but I was got into deep
water, with a current like a mill, which drove
my boat along so violently, that it was im-
possible for me to keep near the edge of it,
but forced me more and more out from the
eddy to the left of me; and all I could do with


my paddles was useless, there being no wind
to help me.
Who can conceive the present anguish of
my mind at this calamity? With longing
eyes did I look upon my little kingdom, and
thought the island the pleasantest place in
the universe. Happy, thrice happy desert!
said I, shall I never see thee more? Wretch-
ed creature! whither am I going? Why did
I murmur at my lonesome condition, when
now I would give the whole world to be thi-
ther again? While I was thus complaining,
I found myself driven about two leagues into
the sea; however, I laboured till my strength
was far spent, to keep my boat as far north
as possible. About noon I perceived a little
breeze of wind spring up from the SSE, which
overjoyed my heart; and was still more elated,
when, in about half an hour, it blew a gentle,
fine gale. I set up my mast again, spread
my sail, and stood away northward as much
as I could, to get rid of the current. And no


sooner did the boat begin to stretch away,
but I perceived, by the clearness of the water,
a change of the current was near. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within
a league of the island, and in an hour came
within a mile of the shore, where I soon land-
ed, to my unspeakable comfort; and after a
humble prostration, thanking God for my de-
liverance, with resolution to lay all thoughts
of escaping aside, I brought my boat safe to
a little cove, and laid down to take a welcome
repose. When I awoke, I considered how I
might get my boat home; and coasting along
the shore, I came to a good bay which ran
up to a rivulet or brook, where finding a
good harbour, I stowed her as safe as if she
had been in a dry dock made on purpose for
I now perceived myself not far from the
place where before I had travelled on foot;
so taking nothing with me, except my gun
and umbrella, I began my journey; and in


the evening came to my bower, where I again
laid me down to rest. I had not slept long
before I was awakened in great surprise, by a
strange voice that called me several times,
" Robin, Robin, Robinson Crusoe, poor
Robin! Where are you, Robinson Crusoe?
Where are you? Where have you been?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did not
awake thoroughly; but half asleep and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice repeated Robin-
son Crusoe several times, being terribly af-
frighted, I started up, and no sooner were my
eyes fully open, but I beheld my pretty Poll
sitting on the top of the hedge, and soon
knew that it was he that called me; for just
in such bewailing language I used to talk and
teach him; which he so exactly learned, that
he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, Poor Robinson
Crusoe, where are you? where have you been?
how came you here?" and such like prattle I


had constantly taught him. But even though
I knew it to be the parrot, it was a great while
before I could adjust myself, being amazed
how the creature got thither. But now, being
assured it could be no other than my honest
Poll, my wonder ceased, and reaching out my
hand, and calling familiarly, Poll, the crea-
ture came to me, and perched upon my thumb
as he was wont, constantly prating to me with
" Poor Robinson Crusoe! and how did I come
here, and where had I been?" as if the bird
was overjoyed to see me; so I took him home
with me.
I was now pretty well cured of my ram-
bling to sea, and began to lead a very retired
life, living near a twelvemonth in a very con-
tented manner, wanting for nothing except
conversation. As to mechanic labours, which
my necessities obliged me to, I fancied I
could, upon occasion, make a tolerable car-
penter, were the poor tools I had to work with
but good. Besides, as I improved in my


earthenware, I contrived to make them with
a wheel, which I found much easier and bet-
ter, making my work shapely, which before
was rude and ugly. But I think I never was
so elated with my own performance, as for
being able to make a tobacco-pipe, which,
though it was an awkward, clumsy thing,
yet it was very sound, and carried the smoke
perfectly well. I also improved my wicker
ware, making abundance of baskets, which
were very handy and convenient.
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived
many ways to ensnare the goats, and see if I
could catch them alive, particularly a she-
goat with young. At last I had my desire;
for, making pitfalls and traps baited with bar-
ley and rice, I found one morning, in one of
them, an old he-goat, and in the other, three
kids, one male, the other two females. It
was some time before they would feed; but
throwing them sweet corn, it so much tempted
them that they began to be tamer. I con-


eluded, that if I designed to furnish myself
with goat's flesh, when my ammunition was
spent, the tamely breeding them up, like a
flock of sheep, about my settlement, was the
only method I could take. I resolved to
separate the wild from the tame; and the best
way for this, was to have some inclosed piece
of ground well fenced, that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.
Such an undertaking was very great for one
pair of hands; but as there was an absolute
necessity for it, my first care was to find a
convenient piece of ground where there was
likely to be herbage for them to eat, water to
drink, and shelter to keep them from the sun.
I resolved to inclose a piece of ground about
one hundred and fifty yards in length, and
one hundred in breadth, sufficient for as many
as would maintain me till my flock increased,
and then I could add more ground. I now
vigorously prosecuted my work, and it took
me about three months to hedge in the first


piece. I tethered the three kids in the best
part of it, feeding them as near me as possi-
ble, to make them familiar; and indeed I very
often carried some ears of barley, or a handful
of rice, and fed them out of my hand; by
which they grew so tame, that when my en-
closure was finished, and I let them loose,
they would run after me for a handful of
In a year and a half's time, I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two
years after, they amounted to forty-three, be-
sides what I had taken and killed for my sus-
tenance. After which I enclosed five pieces
of ground to feed them in, with pens to drive
them into, that I might take them as I had
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which at first I did not
think of. And indeed, though I had never
milked, or seen butter or cheese made, yet


after some essays and miscarriages, I made
both, and never afterwards wanted.
How mercifully can the omnipotent Power
comfort his creatures, even in the midst of
their greatest calamities? He can sweeten
the bitterest providence, and give us reason
to magnify him in dungeons and prisons!
What a bounteous table was here spread in a
wilderness for me, where I expected nothing
at first but to perish with hunger! When I
dined, I seemed a king, eating alone, none
daring to presume to do so till I had done.
Poll, as if he had been my principal court
favourite, was the only person permitted to
talk with r..i. My old, but faithful dog, con-
tinually sat on my right hand; while my two
cats sat on each side of the table, expecting a
bit from my hand, as a mark of my royal
favour. In this manner did I live, wanting
for nothing but conversation. One thing
indeed concerned me, the want of my boat;
I knew not which way to get her round the


island. One time I resolved to go along the
shore by land to her; but had any one in
England met with such a figure, it would
either have affrighted them, or made them
burst into laughter.
The cap I wore on my head was great,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin,
with a flap or pent-house hanging down be-
hind, not only to keep the sun from me, but
to shoot the rain off, nothing being more per-
nicious than the rain falling upon the flesh in
these climates. I had a short jacket of goat's
skin, whose hair hung down such a length on
each side, that it reached to the calves of my
legs. As for my shoes and stockings, they
were made like buskins, and laced on the sides
like spatterdashes, barbarously shaped like
the rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of
goat's skin dried, girt round me with a couple
of thongs, instead of buckles; on each of
which, to supply the deficiency of sword and
dagger, hung my hatchet and saw. Another


belt, not so broad, yet fastened in the same
manner, hung over my shoulder, and at the
end of it, under my left arm, two pouches,
made of goat's skin, to hold my powder and
shot. My basket I carried on my back, and
my gun on my shoulder; and over my head
a great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella,
which however, next to my gun, was the most
necessary thing about me. As for my face,
the colour was not so swarthy as the Mulat-
toes, as might have been expected from one
who took so little care of it, in a climate with-
in nine or ten degrees of the equator. At
one time my beard grew so long that it hung
down about a quarter of a yard; but as I had
both razors and scissors in store, I cut it all
off, and suffered none to grow, except a large
pair of Mahometan whiskers, like what I had
seen worn by some Turks at Salee, not long
enough indeed to hang a hat upon, but of
such a monstrous size, as would have amazed
any Englishman.


I had now two plantations in the island;
the first my little fortification, with many
large and spacious improvements. The piles
with which I made my wall were grown so
lofty and great, as secured my habitation.
And near this commodious and pleasant set-
tlement, lay my well-cultivated and improved
corn-fields, which yielded me their fruit in
proper season. My second plantation was
that near my country seat, or little bower,
where my grapes flourished, and where, hav-
ing planted many stakes, I made enclosures
for my goats, so strongly fortified by labour
and time, that it was much stronger than a
wall, and consequently impossible for them to
break through. As for my bower itself, I
kept it constantly in repair, and cut the trees
in such a manner, as made them grow thick
and wild, and form a most delightful shade.
In the centre of this stood my tent: I had
driven four piles in the ground, spreading
over it a piece of the ship's sail; beneath


which I made a sort of a couch with the skins
of the creatures I had slain, and other things,
and having laid thereon one of the sailor's
blankets, which I had saved from the wreck
of the ship, and covering myself with a great
watch coat, I took up this place for my coun-
try retreat. Very frequently from this settle-
ment did I visit my boat, and keep her in
good order.
You may easily suppose, that after having
been here so long, nothing could be more
amazing than to see a human creature. One
day it happened, that going to my boat, I
saw the print of a man's naked foot on the
shore, very evident on the sand, as the toes,
heels, and every part of it. Had I seen an
apparition of the most frightful shape, I could
not have been more confounded. My willing
ears gave the strictest attention. I cast my
eyes around, but could satisfy neither the one
nor the other. I proceeded alternately to
every part of the shore, but with equal effect;


neither could I see any other mark, though
the sand about it was as susceptible to take
impression as that which was so plainly stamp-
ed. Thus, struck with confusion and horror,
I returned to my habitation, frightened at
every bush and tree, taking every thing for
men; and, possessed with the wildest ideas,
that night my eyes never closed. I formed
nothing but the most dismal imaginations: all
my religious hopes vanished, as though I
thought God would not now protect me by
his power, who had wonderfully preserved me
so long.
What various changes of providence are
there in the life of man! How changeable
are our affections, according to different cir-
cumstances! We love to-day what we hate
to-morrow; we shun one hour what we seek
the next. This was evident in me in the most
conspicuous manner; for I, who before had
so much lamented my condition, in being
banished from all human kind, was now even


ready to expire, when I considered that a man
had set his foot on this desolate island. But
when I considered my station of life, decreed
by the infinitely wise and good providence of
God, I found it my duty to trust sincerely
in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly
resign myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words
of the sacred writings came into my mind:
" Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
Upon this sentence, rising more cheerfully
from my bed, I offered up my prayers in the
most heavenly manner; and when I had done,
taking up my bible to read, these words ap-
peared first in my sight: Wait on the Lord,
and be of good cheer, and he shall strengthen
thy heart: wait I say on the Lord." Such
divine comfort did this give me, as to remove
all causes of sadness upon that occasion.
I ventured out of my castle and milked my
goats, one of which was almost spoiled for

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