Title Page
 Address to parents
 Chapter I: Childhood of Robinson...
 Chapter II: Reasons for writing...
 Chapter III: Change of prospects...
 Chapter IV: Miserable situation...
 Chapter V: Second excursion - A...
 Chapter VI: Preparations for a...
 Chapter VII: Catching a lama alive...
 Chapter VIII: Additional comforts...
 Chapter IX: Departure - Land's...
 Chapter X: Second day's journey...
 Chapter XI: Laying in stores -...
 Chapter XII: Bows and arrows -...
 Chapter XIII: Resources - Salt-making...
 Chapter XIV: A great catastrophe...
 Chapter XV: A bower - A parrot...
 Chapter XVI: A wreck - Visit to...
 Chapter XVII: Second visit to the...
 Chapter XVIII: Various acquisitions...
 Chapter XIX: Arrangements - Letters...
 Chapter XX: Difficulties as a writer...
 Chapter XXI: Building a pyramid...
 Chapter XXII: Various occupations...
 Chapter XXIII: A shed built - Value...
 Chapter XXIV: Family anecdotes...
 Chapter XXV: Third anniversary...
 Chapter XXVI: Measures of safety...
 Chapter XXVII: Banks of the Rhine...
 Chapter XXVIII: Hopes relinquished...
 Chapter XXIX: Stolen goods returned...
 Chapter XXX: Further particulars...
 Chapter XXXI: History of Friday...
 Chapter XXXII: Friday's wound -...
 Chapter XXXIII: Friday's religious...
 Chapter XXXIV: Reading lessons...
 Chapter XXXV: Return of fine weather...
 Chapter XXXVI: Changes in Gordon...
 Chapter XXXVII: Changes on the...
 Chapter XXXVIII: Fifth winter -...
 Chapter XXXIX: A new wonder - The...
 Chapter XL: New hopes - A boat...
 Chapter XLI: First day with the...
 Chapter XLII: Preparations for...
 Chapter XLIII: Clothing - Outfit...
 Chapter XLIV: Rough weather - Portuguese...

Group Title: The children's Robinson Crusoe; or, The remarkable adventures of an Englishman : who lived five years on an unknown and uninhabited island of the Pacific Ocean
Title: The children's Robinson Crusoe or, The remarkable adventures of an Englishman
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072762/00001
 Material Information
Title: The children's Robinson Crusoe or, The remarkable adventures of an Englishman who lived five years on an unknown and uninhabited island of the Pacific Ocean
Alternate Title: Remarkable adventures of an Englishman
Physical Description: viii, 367 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farrar, John, 1791-1870
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Hilliard, Gray, Little, and Wilkins
E.W. Metcalf & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Hilliard, Gray, Little, and Wilkins
Place of Publication: Boston
Manufacturer: E.W. Metcalf and Co.
Publication Date: 1830
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1830   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by a lady ; embellished with cuts.
General Note: Copyright statement for pub. on verso of t.p.
General Note: Based upon part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072762
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12258790

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Address to parents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Chapter I: Childhood of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chapter II: Reasons for writing - Letters home - Sea-sickness - A squall - A gale of wind - Loss of the Neptune
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
    Chapter III: Change of prospects - The Santa Maria - Tediousness of the voyage - New employments - Change of weather - Falkland Islands - Seals - Penguins - Passage of the sound - Staten Island - Behaviour of Manegro - Unknown land - Shipwreck - Escape from drowning
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Chapter IV: Miserable situation - Better feelings - First night on the island - First walk - Sad reflections - Agreeable surprise - The beach - Want of tools
        Page 33
        Page 33a
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Chapter V: Second excursion - A terrace and cave discovered - Enlarging the cave - A willow hedge - Rope ladder - Sunday - An almanac - A flag
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Chapter VI: Preparations for a third excursion - Lamas - Curious cookery - A thunder-storm
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Chapter VII: Catching a lama alive - The captive lama - Efforts to get a fire - New resources
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Chapter VIII: Additional comforts - Roast meat - The lama loaded - Talking - Fishing - State of mind - Anticipations - Preparations
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Chapter IX: Departure - Land's end - Gordon vale - Gordon bay - Nail cove - Mosquito river - A surprise
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Chapter X: Second day's journey - Bread-fruit - Change of mind - Parrots - Mountains - Strange noise - Grapes - Return - Supper
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Chapter XI: Laying in stores - Riding the lama - Rainy season - Inactivity - An alarm - A lamp
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Chapter XII: Bows and arrows - A fit of sickness - Unexpected relief - Recovery - New clothes
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Chapter XIII: Resources - Salt-making - Slide of earth - Anniversary - Lime - Salt-making - A hay stack - Pottery
        Page 99a
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Chapter XIV: A great catastrophe - An unexpected calamity - New plans - A discovery - Philosophizing - A strange phenomenon - Additional accommodations and contrivances
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Chapter XV: A bower - A parrot - Domestic manufacturers - Arrangements for winter - Second rainy season
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Chapter XVI: A wreck - Visit to the wreck - A raft - A narrow escape - Valuables secured - A nightly visitor
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Chapter XVII: Second visit to the wreck - Dog's behaviour - A testament - A second raft - An assorted cargo - A safe landing - A hungry guest
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Chapter XVIII: Various acquisitions - A valuable discovery - Carelessness - The last trip - Sunday reading - A faithful friend
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Chapter XIX: Arrangements - Letters - A watch - Contents of a chest - A new flag - Too much leisure - New projects - Second anniversary
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Chapter XX: Difficulties as a writer - A store-house - Making charcoal - Working at a forge - The store-house finished
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Chapter XXI: Building a pyramid - Neptune's services - The pyramid completed - A grindstone
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Chapter XXII: Various occupations - Neptune - New contrivances - Neptune's performance - A water-wheel
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Chapter XXIII: A shed built - Value of bread - How time goes - A bay discovered - A narrow escape - Neptune acting nurse
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Chapter XXIV: Family anecdotes - A new table - Chair-making - New use of a razor - A curious worm - End of third winter
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Chapter XXV: Third anniversary - Barleyfield and garden - Boat-building - Launch of the boat - Rowing and sailing - Shifting ballast - A head wind - An alarming situation - A favorable change
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Chapter XXVI: Measures of safety - Magnetism - A needle made magnetic - Boat new rigged - Want of knowledge - Preparations for a voyage
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Chapter XXVII: Banks of the Rhine - Rocky coast - A lake discovered - A great surprise - Agitating thoughts - Trust in God - A wakeful night - Voyage continued - Visit to the bay - Gordon vale - Reflections on returning
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Chapter XXVIII: Hopes relinquished - A hatchet lost - Bread lost - A man on the island - The store-house entered - The stranger watched for - Hide and seek - A man found - Obedience exacted - First meal with a guest - Friday lost and found - Friday and Neptune - Friday and poll - Friday dressed - Friday at dinner - Friday's hair cut - How we spent the afternoon - Friday's quarrel with Neptune - An eventful day ended - Remarks on Friday - Scarcity of ink
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Chapter XXIX: Stolen goods returned - Friday's place of concealment - Friday's canoe - Friday's cookery - Canoe - Friday's present - Friday in Masquerade - A lesson in fencing - Language
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Chapter XXX: Further particulars of Friday - A visit to the bay of terror - Friday's account of himself - Friday's fear of a gun - Friday's gardening - Companionship - Shark's teeth
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
    Chapter XXXI: History of Friday - A sail in sight - Measures of concealment - Spaniards' approach - Spaniards' on the terrace - Friday in a swoon - Friday revived - Friday in trouble - Fears for Neptune and Poll - Visit to the creek - Friday's account of himself
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    Chapter XXXII: Friday's wound - Visit to the bay of terror - Hymn - Neptune's sympathy - Friday learning to read - Friday learning to ride - Startled by a groan - Courage displayed - Exploring caves - Searching for Friday - Friday found
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Chapter XXXIII: Friday's religious notions - A second visit to the grotto - Value of a companion - Making butter
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
    Chapter XXXIV: Reading lessons - Musical instruments - Various occupations - Death of Judy - Making ink - Making paper
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    Chapter XXXV: Return of fine weather - Rural pleasures - Saddle-making - Study of birds - A feather cloak - Study of insects - A drought - Alarming appearances - Precautions - An awful pause - An earthquake
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Chapter XXXVI: Changes in Gordon vale - A day and night at anchor - Conversation on earthquakes - First and second causes - The Rhine and vineyard - Boat adrift - The creek
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Chapter XXXVII: Changes on the terrace - Neddy and Jenny - Losses and regrets - Feather pictures - Various changes - Wreck of the Thames seen - Building a cottage - Various resources
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    Chapter XXXVIII: Fifth winter - Friday's education - Domestic manufactures - Various disturbances - A thunder-storm - Conversation on electricity
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
    Chapter XXXIX: A new wonder - The waters let off - Painful changes - Sorrowful thoughts - Fifth anniversary
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
    Chapter XL: New hopes - A boat seen at sea - Distressed mariners - Returning with seven strangers - Seven strangers lodged and fed - Arrangements and reflections - Breakfast - Interview with Captain Smith - Devotional exercises - The captain's speech to his men - My address to them
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
    Chapter XLI: First day with the strangers - Domestic arrangements - Showing the island - Friday in trouble - Friday comforted
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
    Chapter XLII: Preparations for a long voyage - Conversations - Traits of character - Ship-building - Materials for an outfit - A launch - Difference in character
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    Chapter XLIII: Clothing - Outfit of the schooner - Bag of dollars - Embarkation - Voyage - Land seen - Wild pigeons - Albatross - Straits of Magellan - Patagonia
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Chapter XLIV: Rough weather - Portuguese man of war - Crossing the line - Cape Verde Islands - Voyage continued - Conclusion
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
Full Text














BE IT MaeaIRED, That on the eleventh day of December
A. D. 1830, in the fifty fifth year ot the Independence of the United
States of America, billiard, Gay, Little, and Wilkins, of the said
Distrie, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right
whereof they claim ah pfprietor, in the words following, to wit:
"The Children's Robinson Crusoe; or the Remarkable Adventures
of an Englishman, who lived Five Years on an Unknown and Uninhab-
ited Island in the Pacific Ocean. By a Lady.
I am monarch of all I survey,
My eight thee is none to dispute;
From the centroe all rrund to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
Embellished with Cuts."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States,
entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the author and propietors of
: ndalsoto anact
i .i l.,' An Actfor the
encouragement of leaning, by securing the copies of maps, charts,
and books to the authors and propretor of such copies, during the
times therein mentioned'; and extending the benef there eof to the
artof designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."
Clerk of the District ofMarachusetts.

Prwsro az I. w. ~ETcaLF An co.


IT will very naturally be asked, why another is added
to the numerous stories, already in circulation, founded
on De Foe's interesting fiction, and purporting to be
abridgments of it, for the use of children, or variation
of the story, intended to render it more instructive. To
this, it may be replied, that the abridgments lose muac
of the spirit and graphic manner of the original, while
they retain certain parts, that are ill adapted to the perusal
of children of the present day. The stories which ary
materially from the original tale, may bareameritof
their own; but they hbae not the distinguiahmg features of
De Foe's narrative, while they far exceed his in the
exhibition ofthe marvellous and improbable.;, To.ies
who love and respect the minds of children as they ought
to be loved and respected, the impropriety of so enaiting
them must be apparent.
These objections to the various new Robison Cra-
soes" in circulation, determine some parents to put the
original work into the hands of their children; and -
membering only the delight with which they pored eve
its pages .in their own childhood, they forget how
wasakippedever as unintelligible in thopa jlguoily
ings, and are not wa f its want of adaptaionarth
stateo(education at theapresent day. .
The great merit of De Foe's work, jaits namaal
ness; it seems to be exactly what it purports to be,


the narrative of a profane, ill-educated, run-away appren-
tice of the seventeenth century ; and with perfect con-
sistency of character even his better feelings have a
stamp of vulgarity and superstition. But can such a
tale, though perfect in itself, be suited to children who
have been carefully guarded from all profaneness, vulgar-
ity, and superstition ? It was written for grown persons,
particularly that class to which the hero is supposed to be-
long; and the very skilful manner in which it was adapted
to them, makes it unfit for the perusal of children. There
is necessarily much in it which they cannot comprehend,
and much that a judicious parent would hope they
might pass over without understanding ; yet the story is
so fascinating, that the book is constantly read by chil-
dren, with the most intense interest ; and Robinson Cru-
soe, with all his faults, his disobedience to his parents, and
his inordinate love of adventure, becomes their favorite and
admired hero.
The best modern writers for children have considered
it important, that characters which excite in them a
deep interest, should be represented as models of those
qualities which we wish them to admire and cultivate ;
and it occurred to the writer of the following story, that
the fascination of De Foe's hero might be enlisted on the
side of industry, perseverance, resignation to the will of
God, and numerous other good qualities of which he
might be supposed an example.
With this view, the Children's Robinson Crusoe is here
represented as an amiable and well educated youth, early
trained to habits of observation and reflection, and capa-
ble of pure and exalted feelings of religion ; a hero, in


short, whom children may safely love and admire, yet not
faultless, or they could not sympathize with him. In
consequence of the mismanagement of his own mind, he
grows up with a strong bias for a sailor's life, which is
the occasion of all his misfortunes, whilst his good quali-
ties alleviate his sufferings under them.
He goes to sea with the consent, though against the
wishes, of his parents; and meets, immediately, with disas-
ters, which occasion his being cast ashore on a desert
island. There his sufferings cure him of all his wandering
propensities; and he feels nothing but regret at having
left his comfortable home, and contrition for having acted
contrary to the inclination of his parents. All the pros-
perous voyages and bold enterprises, which in the original
tale precede Robinson Crosoe's life on the island, and
which are calculated to encourage a love of roaming over
the world, are here purposely omitted; and as this story
closes with the hero's return to England, after spending
five years in solitude, there is no danger of its fostering,
in the reader, any spirit of adventure, like that which De
Foe's narrative has been known to infuse.
As much information about domestic arts as could well
be interwoven with the story, has been introduced ; but
without attempting to make the book a child's Encyclopm-
dia, which would be apt to be occasionally consulted rath-
er than read. The hero is here left for a while destitute
of all those materials, which the original Robinson
Crusoe obtained from the vessel he was wrecked in, with
a view of making the young reader fully sensible of the
value of iron, of edgetools, and of all those means which
civilized life furnishes. This has been done in some of
the abridgments, already before the public; but the oc.


section to them is, that Robinson Crusoe is made to per-
form impossibilities, with only shells and stones for tools.
Some of the ingenious contrivances, however, which those
works contain, have been adopted in this ; though most
of the incidents are either borrowed from the old story,
or are entirely new.
The Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk,
lately published from authentic sources, has furnished
some anecdotes; and from that work the author has
taken ler description of the beautiful scenery and
abundant productions of her unknown island. As goats
were carried by the Spaniards, from South America to
the island of Juan Fernantdez, and there increased to a
large flock, it has been considered allowable to place la-
mas, in the same way, on this supposed island of the
Pacific ; and as a more interesting and important class of
animals, they were preferred. Robinson's fall from a preci-
pice, with a lama under him, is copied from the account
of a similar accident that happened to Alexander Selkirk
with a goat, which was thought to have saved his life by
breaking the fall.
The man Friday, of the Children's Robinson Crusoe
is supposed to be a native of the Sandwich Islands, which
were discovered about the tnre of the date of this story.
Their nluhabtalts beinr of a Ildd, affectionate, and tracta-
ble nature, it was thought they might garnish a very teacha-
ble and interesting Friday ; and for the representations
here given of the manners and customs of that people, the
writer has the authority of an enlightened traveller, who
has been much among them, and to whom she is indebt-
ed for many valuable hints, which she begs leave grate-
fully to acknowledge.


The religious sentiments here inculcated are not those
of any particular creed; nothing has been admitted
which is not common to all Christians; those simple
views of love to God and constant dependence upon him,
which were most likely to be suggested by the circum-
stances of Robinson Crusoe's situation, and which
children can best understand and sympathize with, are all
that the writer has attempted, leaving to parents the sa-
cred charge of directing the minds of their offspring to
particular doctrines.
Notwithstanding the reasons here given for this under-
taking, the author is very sensible that, in its execution, it
falls far short of what such a book might be. She thinks
with Rousseau,* that it might be made a great in-
strument in the education of children, leading their
minds to a philosophical investigation of man's social na-
ture, and introducing them to trains of thought, which
no other story could so well suggest ; and the only con-
siderations, which induce the writer of this volume to of-

SPuisqu'il nous i fut absolumcet des hvres, in e xist un qui
fournit, ,s non grs. le plus hiteisux traits ,d'ucaterlon natureite. Ce
livere e le prelller que li on I.o llil-: senU al comlposera du-ant
''ees ye s toue sa bibliothbque, et ly liendrad losjoure une place
II sea le texte auquel tols no1 entretl ens ur les sci-enes
SSevirot que de comcenaires. II ervil d4pteuve


fer her imperfect attempt to the public, are founded in
the belief, that it comes nearer what is wanted, than those
which have preceded it, that its influence will be favora-
ble to the cause of truth, social order, and region,
and that it contains nothing incompatible with that
love and respect for childhood, in which it was writ-
ten, and with which it is now commended to the careful
and anxious parent, who may be seeking among the load-
ed counters of the children's bookseller, a safe and use-
ful book.





RomsoN CRUOE was the youngest son of a respect-
able broker in the city of York. His parents took great
pains with his education, and not only sent him to the
best schools in York, but supplied him with entertain-
ing and instructive books to read at home; and as his
brothers were all much older than himself, and there
were no playmates for him in the family, he became
more studious than most boys of his age. He loved to
hear grown persons talk, and was the constant compan-
ion of his father when business called him from home.
Mr. Crusoe took pleasure in answering his little son's
numerous questions as to how things were made; he
often took him to see the different tradesmen at their
work and explain to him what they were doing; and
as Robinson was not one of those giddy children who
like to see every thing but never examine any thing at-
tentively, he learned to understand the common arts of
life pretty well.
His father gare him a set of carpenter's tools and a
little room for a workshop, and when he was nine years


old he could make boxes, and stools, and benches; and
though the boxes were not always very neatly dove-
tailed together, and sometimes one leg of a stool would
be shorter than the rest, his parents encouraged him to
persevele, and told him he would do better every time
he tried. In basket-making he was very successful; and
from an old blind man, who lived near his father's house
and maintained himself by weaving baskets and mats,
Robinson learned the art. He used to do many kind
things for the blind man, who in return taught him to
make basket-work almost as neat as his own ; and he not
only supplied his mother's house with baskets, but fre-
1 -le presents of them to his friends.
S. i was old enough to work in a garden, his
father gave him a small piece of ground to manage as
he pleased lie had a spade, rake, hoe, and wheel-
barrow of tile right size for him to work \ith conven-
ien' ,, t 1 ti 1' have a dish
of I 1 ** I were any fit
for use in his Fr---'- 1-..- one.
Robinson I I of studying natural history,
and whenever there was a show of wild beasts in the
city, his father allowed him to go and see them as
often as he pleased ; he would examine each animal
separately, and read the account of it in some book
of natural history ; and sometimes he would take the
book with him, and spend hours in reading and compar-
ing the description and the plates with the real animal.
In this way lie became acquainted with each specimen,
and never c rnrf,,nlo t;-^or~ panthers, and leopards
all together, I 1. do.
Robinson took great pleasure in reading about the
manners and customs of different countries ; and every
book of voyages and travels that he could get hold of,
he read through with delight. When he grew older, his
fondness for this kind of reading increased ; and as he
could not understand all the hardships and sufferings
which travellers and navigators are obliged to bear,
he thought their life must be the pleasantest in the world.


About this time, there was a great deal said of cir-
cumnavigating the globe; some very enterprising voy-
ages were made; the newspapers and journals were
full of accounts of newly found islands in the Pacific
ocean ; many false stories were circulated about coun-
tries recently discovered and their marvellous produc-
tions ; and Robinson's head was filled with these things.
Much was then believed which has since been contra-
dicted, and voyages of discovery were the fashion of the
When Robinson was fifteen years old, his father told
him he must now make choice of some business that he
would like to follow, and learn to provide for himself, as
his elder brothers had done. Robinson's parents had
often talked about this to their son, and urged him to
make up his mind as to what he would prefer; but
he had always objected to every enplionmnt tha
had proposed, not because he was II 1 i. i
, 1- .1.. but because his great desire to travel and
i countries made him wish above all things
to be a sailor and go to sea.
When he told his parents what his choice was, they
were very much astonished as well as grieved; and they
tried to convince him that he had chosen an occupa-
tion that he was not fit for. They explained to him
the great hardships and privations of a sailor's life,
told him he must work night and day, be exposed to
storms, often be in wet clothes for days together, and
sometimes not have enough to eat; they reminded
him too, that vessels were often wrecked, and that he
might be drowned, or obliged to go on shore among

k I I ** said, against a sailor's life, made no
impression upon Robinson's mind, because it was filled
with his own false notions about the pleasures of going
to sea. His father told him, le would teach him to be a
broker, an 1 II ... .I 1. would take
him into i..1 i .- .... i m him all the
advantages of such a business, and showed him so clearly


what an easy and pleasant life he might lead in the city
of York, that if Robinson had not, for a long time before,
set his heart on being a sailor, he would certainly have
made up his mind at once, to take his father's advice
and remain with him. But Robinson had read so many
accounts of voyages and different countries, that he
longed to make a voyage himself, and to see some
other country besides England ; and, though he would
not think of going to sea without the consent of his
parents, he did not feel willing to give it up and stay
quietly on shore.
After many long conversations on the subject, his
parents determined that, as they could not convince him,
he had better stay at home, they would not oblige him
to do so out of mere obedience to their will.
Wihen Mr. Crusoe told his son their determination, he
added, "Now, Robinson, if you go to sea, it must be
as a common sailor, and you must work your way up, as
well as you can ; for they only make good captains,
' who come in order ihe bows,' which is the sailor's phrase
I-r 5 I-- :--; -- -. -.----- I-- T- t-:- Robinson
S i i I. -artily for
II 11 .1. i i ... I felttobe
I i .. I i I think of
nothing else, but the new life he was going to lead.
Every evening after supper, he would get a map of the
world that he had won as a prize at school, and spread
it on tie table, and trace upon it the various voyages that
he wished to make; n/hilst his father would smile at his
extravagant wishes, and remind him that he made none
b .- .: ,I .: 1... paper, but his real voy-
a, 1 i I 11 I 1ii. i.. and dangers that he
never thought of now ; and then his mother would sigh
and wipe away the tears that stood in her eyes, and tell
him how much she wished lie could be contented to
remain on dry land, and give up his foolish fancy for
sailing all over the world. When she talked in this
way, it made Robinson, who loved his mother dearly,
feel very unhappy, and he would slip away to bed, as


soon as he could, to get rid of his unpleasant feelings;
and when he fell asleep, he was sure to dream of what
filled his thoughts all day. The voyages he made in
his sleep were all prosperous, and he would often sail
round the world, and see every curious thing that he
remembered to have read about, in the course of one
night; and then he would awake in the morning, more
eager than ever to begin that life which he expected to
find as agreeable in reality, as it was in his dreams.
Poor Robinson If he could have known what would
afterwards happen to him, how glad he would have been
to stay at home and follow any business, rather than go
to sea and suffer all that befell him.
His father told him he must remain at school one year
longer and learn navigation, and then if he continued of
the same mind, he would fit him out and send him to
sea, as a common hand, with the best captain, and in the
best ship, he could find in Hull.
As Robinson knew how very useful it would be to
him to learn to navigate a vessel, and that without it he
could never rise to be a mate or master of a ship, he ap-
plied himself very industriously to his new studies ; in his
leisure hours, he made a complete model of a ship, like
the one he had seen, and rigged it, by which he learnt
how a real ship is rigged ; and a boy of his acquaintance,
who had been at sea, helped him, and told him the name
of every part. Robinson's parents hoped that his fond-
ness for going to sea would be lessened, by being with
the boy who taught him to rig his model; for that youth
had been one voyage, and disliked it so much that he
preferred doing any thing on land, to going again on the
water. But Robinson, like many other foolish people,
did not like, when he had fixed his heart upon a thing,
to hear any body speak against it; and therefore, instead
of getting all the information he could from his young
friend, and so correcting some of his own wrong notions,
he begged him never to say a word against a sailor's life,
for a sailor he was determined to be, and he was sure
he should like it, if no one else did. Now if Robinson


had been a little more reasonable and less wilful, he
would have wished to hear all that could be said against
his favorite plan, as well asfor it, before he made up his
mind ; but like a silly boy, he made up his mind first,
and then would not listen to any thing that could be said
against it.
During the year that Robinson was studying naviga-
tion, a course of lectures was given in the city, on Nat-
ural Philosophy, which his father wished him to attend ;
but Robinson said, it would be of no use to a sailor to
know such things, and he would rather not. His
father, however, was kind enough to explain to him
how all sorts of knowledge might be useful to a sailor,
told him that tile more he knew, the more pleas-
ure and information he would get from seeing foreign
countries, and showed him that in all the common
things that we do every day, he would find it useful to
know just what those lectures would teach him ; so he
advised Robinson to try and fix his attention upon them
and learn all he could. Robinson promised he would,
and regularly attended the lectures; how much he
learned from them will be seen in the course of his
At length the time came for Robinson to go to sea,
and his kind parents fitted him out with all the comforts
and conveniences that a sailor could desire. He had a
very nice chest made to hold his clothes, with a little
box fixed inside of it, called a till, to hold his money
and any very small things that he might have; his
mother had plenty of checked and baize shirts made for
him, besides jackets and trowsers such as sailors wear;
and his father gave him a set of maps and charts, a
quadrant and compass, and a good silver watch. A
little girl of his acquaintance made a large thread-ease
for him, and filled it with such needles and thread as
would be most useful to him; and when she gave it to
him, she said, As you will go away from all the
friends who would be glad to mend your clothes for
you, here is something to help you to do it for yourself"


Robinson thanked her for her useful present, and told
her, he thought it would be fine fun to turn seamstress,
when he had nothing better to do. There I shall sit,"
said he, "on the clean, white deck of the vessel, and sew
up the holes in my stockings, whilst the ship is gliding
over the beautiful blue water, and the dolphins are sport-
ing round her bows, and the sea-birds are making circles
in the air, and the sailors are singing songs or telling
stories around me. O how happy I shall be Ah !"
said the little girl, "just so my poor brother Edward
thought, when he set his heart upon being a soldier; no-
body could make him believe what a hard life a sol-
dier's is; he used to talk just as you do, Robinson, about
thepleasures he expected to find in it; but he soon per-
ceived his mistake, poor fellow, when he was sick of a
fever, among strangers, and had no one to care any thing
about him ; and now that he has been shut up for years
in a dismal prison, I dare say he thinks what a fool he
was, to fancy a soldier's life must be a pleasant one.
So it will be with you, Robinson; you will find out
your mistake when it is too late." "I hope not, Mary,"
said Robinson, as he turned away from her, feeling
pretty serious at what she had said, but not wishing to
show it.
Many voyages were talked of for Robinson, and he
and his father made several visits to Kingston, upon the
river Hull, a port of great commerce, thirty-six miles
from York. The foreign trade of that place is chiefly
up the Baltic, and Robinson's father advised him to go
there for his first voyage. But he did not like so short a
one as that; his mind was full of Lord Anson's sail-
ing round the world, and nothing would satisfy him hut
crossing some great ocean. So at last his father found a
vessel that was going to the North American Colonies,
the captain of which he knew something of, and consid-
ered a fit person for his son to sail with; and Robinson
was delighted with the idea of being shipped as a sailor
on board the Neptune, a fine ship of three hundred tons'


Robinson had frequently been on board vessels; but
he generally staid on the deck, or went into the cabin,
and he had never thought much of the accommodations
he should have as a common sailor, till his father took
him into theforecastle* of the Neptune, and showed him
the damp, narrow, dark bertht that would be his bed,
telling him that one of them served for two sailors, as half
the crew were always on deck, and that when he took his
turn to watch on the deck, one of the men who had been
watching would take the berth he left. He told him
also, that his chest would be the only seat he would
have, that there never was any more light in the fore-
castle, than what came down the hatchway,, and that
he would have no table set for his meals, but must sit on
his chest, and eat out of a small wooden tub, called a
kid, with an iron spoon, or off a hard biscuit for a plate,
with his jack-knife, like all the rest of the sailors; and
then he desired Robinson to look at the rough set of
men he would be obliged to live with, and consider
whether he would be the happier for exchanging his
comfortable home for such a place as that. Robinson
looked very grave, and his father told him, it was not at
all too late to change his mind, that all his friends
would rejoice to have him stay on shore, and he
might now give up going to sea entirely. Robinson
colored and hesitated, and then asked his father, if he
could think well of a person who should give up a great
object, because of some bodily inconvenience, add-
ing, I thought you admired men who bore hardships
well." So I do," replied his father, "when hardships
cannot be avoided ; if 1 was very poor, and could not
provide for you in any other way, but by making a
sailor of you, I should like to see you undertake it cour-

An apartment under the most forward part of the deck,
where sailors eat and sleep.
SA boxed-up shelf at tie side of the vessel, in which bed-
ding is put, and people sleep.
SA hole in the deck by which sailors pass in and out of the


ageously, and make the best of every thing; but when
there is no need of your going to sea, when you can be
better provided for in many other ways, there is no merit
in running into difficulties to see how well you can bear
them. What object can you have in going to sea, that
can make you prefer this ship to your own comfortable
home ? "
O dear father pray don't say a word more against
it. I have an object; I want to see the world ; I have
set my heart upon it, ever since 1 was ten years old; and
now I cannot give it up, indeed I cannot, though I own,
I never thought of sleeping in such a dismal hole as
this." "I dare say not," said his father ; and you will
meet with many more dismal things in a sailor's life, that
you never thought of; but since nothing can convince yon
of your folly, you must go and find it out for yourself."
So saying, he turned away from Robinson, and went
up on deck to tell the captain that his son would go
with him, and ask what day he must join the vessel.
Mr. Crusoe and his son then returned to York, and as
Robinson appeared as cheerful as usual, and continued
his preparations for going, his father lost all hope of his
changing his mind, though he frequently observed to
him that it was not too late to give up his voyage, if he
thought better of it.
Robinson persevered in his resolution to see the world,
and his friends took a sorrowful leave of him on the
10th of June, 17-. He embarked at Hull, on board
the good ship Neptune, Captain Gordon, bound to
Virginia ; but as the vessel and crew were not heard of
after they left the Downs, they were all given up for
lost, and Robinson Crusoe was mourned as dead by his
affectionate family.
[The preceding account of Robinson Crusoe's child-
hood is furnished by a friend of his mother, as an intro-
duction to his own narrative written during his residence
on a desert island.]




I, RomNsoN CnRsoE, mariner, of the city of York,
. l-r -, ast away on this desert island, on the
il i *... ., 17-; and, having spent two years
here in perfect solitude, have resolved to write down all
I can remember of my past history, from the time I
quitted my native land to the present, and then continue
my narrative, as long as I remain in this uninhabited
It has pleased Providence to send me some allevia-
tion of my difficulties, in the stores and tools furnished
by a wreck, driven on the shoals; and being now pro-
vided with all that is necessary to my bodily comfort, and
having provisions enough by me to last many months, I
make use of the writing materials, found in the wreck, to
write my own history. I begin it on the second anoi-
versary of my being cast ashore here.
Having lived so long without a human being to speak
to, or a book to read, I have amused myself by contin-
ually thinking over all the circumstances of my life, and
particularly those which led to my shipwreck on this
island; every little detail of my voyage is as fresh in
my memory, as if it happened yesterday; and I shall
set the whole down exactly as I have been accustomed
to callit to mind when thinking it over.
I recollect too, perfectly, my first days of misery on
this island, and how I became gradually reconciled to
my solitude. My first attempts at making myself a hab-
itation, all the difficulties I met with, and my various
contrivances to supply the place of tools, are all fresh in
my recollection; and it will be a pleasure and satisfaction
for me to put all this in writing, though no eye but mine
may ever see it.


If ever I return to social life, I will take it with me,
to show my friends what shifts a man can make, when
driven to them by necessity, and to prove that, in the
most forlorn condition of life, he need not despair,
but that, by the proper regulation of his mind, and a firm
trust in God, he may enjoy a good deal of happiness
under the most adverse circumstances.
If I die here, I will put my manuscript in the safest
place I can make for it, and so mark the spot that any
one, landing on this side the island, shall be attracted to
it; with the hope that, through such means, it may be car-
ried to England, and give my friends there an account
of the life and adventures of poor Robinson Crusoe.

Narrative of the Life and adventuress of Robinson Cru-
soe, written by Himself, on a Desert Island.

FRno ten years of age, I was possessed with the idea
that a sailor's life was the best in the world, and I set
my heart so firmly on following the seas, that nothing my
good parents and friends could say, to dissuade me from
it, had the least effect; so I left a comfortable home and
good prospects on shore, to seek my fortune in sailing
over the world, and gratify my curiosity in seeing dif-
ferent countries, little thinking, to be sure, how soon all
my voyages would end, or that my knowledge of foreign
parts would be confined to an uninhabited island of a
few miles in extent.
I well remember though, how much my heart mis-
gave me, as the time drew near for me to sail, how
sorrowful all my friends were, what discouraging
speeches every body made about my going to sea, and
that I found it much harder than I expected, to leave my
happy home and part from my dear father and mother.
The last evening before I left home, I felt wretchedly;
again and again it came into my head that I had better
give it all up, and stay quietly ~bere I was; all that my
friends had said to me, without making the least impres-


sion, now rushed into my mind with great force; anc
saw bow reasonable it was, and, at the bottom of n
heart, I wished I was not going, but had not courage
say so. I was afraid of being laughed at, and asiamin
of acknowledging that I had changed my mind ; so, Il
a fool that I was, I hid what was passing within in
kept to my determination, and thus brouOlht on m
self all the misery I have since endured. nMay my fal
shame and foolish pride be a warning to others !
I piased a wretched night; and the next miorin
when I embraced my weeping mother for tile last tim
I could hardly help saying, I will not go "; but I sh
my lips tilht, and forced myself away, in an naony
mind that I cannot describe. But if I had then knoh n
that was to happen to mie, I could not have felt inors
and I now think that I had those painful feelings b
cause it was not right for me to go.
I reached Hull just in time tojoi. I a i | Nej
tune, as the crew were weighing .. i. II bust
and novelty of all around me, turned nmy thoughts fro
home and the dear friends I bad left; and as I had no
.1 ,' I i rtunities I liha I 1 I rr
it i i i i to bear its ... i as
could, and make the best of every thing; thinking th
if I did not like it, after one vovage, I could give it u
and spend the iest of my life with my friends in Englan
The weather was fine, the waters of the HIlo
ber were smooth, and I recovered my spirits, as thle sii
under full sa'l I 1- down that fine, broad river, whli
serves as a .1 i the Trent, the Ouse, tie De
went, and several othiler streams. I soon began talkir
with the sailors, and c. r ii my love
adventures, gave me ;...... .I I somethir
that 1 now believe never happened and I was taking
all for true, when I suddenly felt so giddy, I could n
stand, without holding fast of something; then I fi
very warm and miserably sick all over, and not knowir
what ailed me, I cried out, O dear what is the ma
ter with me ? This made the sailors burst out in

Page 12.


loud laugh; they told me I was sea-sick, and made such
sport of my suerings, that as soon as] had relieved my
stomach, I was glad to get away, and creep into my
berth, in the forecastle; and as I was too sick to be of
any use on deck, I was allowed to lie there all night.
I could not sleep much, on account of the various noises
all around me ; the dashing of the waves against the
sides and bows of the vessel sounded so loud, and seem-
ed so near my ear, that I could hardly believe the water
was not coming into my berth; t thethe rattling of
the ropes on the deck, the heavy tread of the sail-
ors, the singing noise they made in hoisting, with the
whistling i ... i .. i ihe wind through the sails and
rigging, .. I so new to me, that I could
i .I I. I : ..*..: I Il. .... instead of sleeping.
is i... I .-. I .k, in the morning, I was ex-
tremely surprised to find myself so far from land ; and I
made the sailors laugh, by asking where the river was
that we were sailing down the night before. I was told
that we were now on the North Sea or German Ocean,
many leagues from the Humber, and that we were off
Spurn Head; when I grew sick with the Ocean swell,
which we came into just there. was surprised to find
so much motion in the water, when there was so little
wind; but I soon found that the waves of the Ocean sel-
dom cease to roll, even in a dead calm. For three days-I
continued very sick, but after that I began to get bet-
ter. When I had any thing to do, that I could not
leave, it would keep off the sickness for a while; and
as I was inclined to be industrious, I learnt my duty as
a sailor very quickly, and often surprised the old hands
on board by imitating them so exactly. A person who
goes to sea, for the first time, is allays laughed at and
called a land-lubber; but I bore all the sailors' jokes
good-humoredly. and by being civil and obliging to
every body, I soon became a general favorite, and in-
stead of faring the worse for being a green-hand, every
one seemed disposed to make .
to me as possible, and to save .. I .. ... .. i.. l

14 A Q.UALL.

duty. The weather was remarkably fine, and the winds
favorable ; and we soon reached the Straits of Dover, and
passed thliough the British Channel. During this part
of our .1' .1. 11.1 .
tim e; I I I I i .1. 1. L
Cornwall, and the Scilly Isles, a brisk wind soon carried
us entirely out of sight of all land ; and then there iass
nothing to be seen but the wide waters all around, and
the sky and clouds above.
A few days afier we lost sight of land, I was surprised
to ear the ciapinin give orders to take in most of tile
sails ; for it appeared to me that we wee sailing along
very pleasantly, and I could see no reason wily we
should lsorten sani and go more slowly. I was surprised
too, to observe '" '; -- .- -ir to
their nork, andl I. II I I not
know, tllhen howr quickly seniors can see when it
is going to blow very hard. They are constantly looking
at the water and the clouds, and observing every little
change ini lieir appeal ranee, and can perceive that the

in most oi the sails, aul prepare for ii, as well s they
can. They hat' ; iing snug, on board the
Neptune, w hen ruck her, with such force,
that she was tlliaw on her bero ends, or laid down side-
ways, so that her lower yards almost touched the water.
I was thro a down by thie suddenness of the motion, and
slid to the lower side of the deck; but I bad presence of
mind enough to catch hold 0 o I or I
might have gone overbonard. I. i *. ves-
sel rigthtedf gain, and I was able to get npon my feet;
but she pieced and tossed about so violently, tlhat I was
obliged to bold i ili, time, or I should
have fallen aga; told me, that if
A sudden gust o violent wol l.
SPo] different distances, to
which r
IBecame upright.

A C.iL OF IwIND. 15

they had not seen the squall, before it came, and pre-
pared for it, it would most likely have upset the vessel,
and he added, So now you see the use of keeping a
good look-out at sea.
In half an hour, the wind abated, and they set* a
little more sjil. I asked why they did that, when the sea
was still so roulh, and the vessel tossed about as much as
ever; and I was told that she would be much steadier
under more sail, and, as tile wind hadgone down, there
was no risk in doing it. I was pleased to observe
what conn.and tlle capt ai's knowledge gave him over
the vessel ; and tlholeh I was becoming more acquainted
wit- t of the sea, I felt increased crnfideneo
in I coill proli t. ovThe sailors
watched the \aiollpr verve I 'I i .. afternoon, and
before nt]Iht closed in, there was every sign of a
heavy gale coinioi on; and we all prepared for it
*"'l' S'IIng me look very serious, one of the
i I i ne not to be fiightened, for that with r : -
ship under lthem, like the Neptune, and plenty i
room,t there was very little danger, even in a storm.
I was .1 I to hear this for though I was not fright-
ened, I I I to know how much danger they expected
to be in; I resolved to attend to every thlng that pass-
ed, and try to be as quiet and collected as the most
experienced sailors. I had always felt a great curiosity
to know what a storm at sea really was ; but though I
was now about to be gratified, I felt more serious
than I expected to do ; I could not ll tlip linking of my
pleasant aome and dea parents, and comparing their
situation with siy owni. -My attention was however
soon called awOa frm tilese thoughts, by the duty I had
to do ; I was afiterwads so occupied in watching the
vessel, and hstenli, to the wind ltd oht', 'tno t'he
enot i i
the i I I I i ,,, I i

Spread out,
i Sufficient distance from shore.


could not be persuaded to take my turn Meloi; for J
could not make up my mind to go to sleep, in the midst
of such a gale, as some of the sailors did. By day-
break, the next morning, the wind abated a little, and as
it became fair for us to steer our course, we scudded be-
fore it all day. and went very fasl, though we had only a
foresail and close-reefed -main top-sail set. At last I
was tin d out with I . el, and tie weather,
and I lept ost I en I came on
deck agaoi, I was surprised to find no alteration in the
weather. I had no idea of a gale lasting so long, and
asked the sailors, if it was not likely soon to be over; but
they shook their heads, and said dihe thought it would
blow harder before it blew less. Ar' t .. -1- 'bat
afternoon, the wind incicased, tie i i i i, it
suddenly became unusual dark, and thundered and
I.:1i .' I knew by the lashes of lightning
S i quickly by the thunder, that the clouds,
h. I .1 f electricity,nmtst be very near us, and
as I had never before heard I loud peals of
tltunder, or seen such very .1 i of lightning, I
thought there must be great i : i ,i. vessel being
struck by tie lightning and shivered to pieces ; it, as I
could not discover a;ln appearance of alarm in the
countenances of those about nie, I kept my fears to say-
self, and stood ready to do as others did, if any thing
should happen. I now suppose that all on board the
ship knew I Ii- it ." they were in from the lightning,
as eli as I i I they iad been in such storms be-
fore, and had escaped unhurt ; they also knew that
the best way to avoid ldanger, was not to be alarmed by
it; so they quietly awaited whatever might happen. They
had besides .. ;. tain, and lie
seemed as, i i I, as if it were
fine weather. Every flah of lightning showed me the
monstrous size of tile waves, which looked, each time
they bioke near tie vessel, as if they would overwhelm
under deci.
t Tied up in part. so as to be spread as little as possible.


her; and sometimes we actually slipped a sea,* that swept
the deck fore anid af,t and obliged every one to hold
fast, to I- ciaried over-board. When the vessel
rose on i'. I i ;--r wave, she seemed to be on a
pinnacle, sitl a i I i i i when
she sank down again in' ,i. i ,i a, she
appeared to be in a deep pit, and ready to be buried un-
der the waters that rose on every side of her, almost as
high as her masts ; but when I observed her to descend
safely from tile pinnacle, and rise as safely out of the
di"-f .t .--tr ;--y times, I became accustomed to
i. and was not alarmed by them.
The storm lasted several hours; at length a flash of
lightning, more vivid than any before, struck the main-
mast ; and mizen-mast, and shivered both. When the
lightning struck the masts, and the cracking of the wood
was heard with thie thunder, I thought the whole vessel
was split to pieces, and I expected to find myself in the
water the next minute ; I was therefore astonished to
hear Captain Gordon give his orders about cutting away
the rigging, and clearing the deck of the broken masts,
in the same calm voice he always used.
The behaviour of the captain gave me fresh courage,
and 1 helped to execute the commands, so coolly and
-i-tr-tl"- -- The first mate was sent to examine
,,h. >.i is the vessel had been injured by the
lighting; he returned with a face of alarm, and told the
captain that the vessel had sprung a leak, and there was
already considerable water in her hold. This made our
danger very great; but the captain preserved his pres-
ence of mind, and quietly said, Set the men at the
pumps, and fire signal guns; there may be some ves-
sel within hearing, though there ;s none in sight." Whilst
,* ,, 'l' i in tbhrow-
S I .II 11 1 order to
'h1' I. I"1 .. .1 i ..i I her from

Had a wave break over and deluge the deck.
I i i i The hindermost mast.


sinking as long as we could, in hopes some other vessel
would come to our assistance. Though we pumped as
fast as we could, the water in the hold became deeper
and deeper, and the captain was convinced the ship must
soon sink; he therefore consulted with the mates as to
what they had better do. The last flash of lightning
had been followed by a torrent of rain, which, though it
appeared to me to increase the difficulties of our situa-
tion, was, I found, of great use, in lessening the waves
and quieting the waters. The captain observed this, and
as the wind began to abate, he proposed that we
should all get into the boats, taking some bread and
water and a compass with us, and row away from the
vessel, before she sank under us. Whilst the rest were
lowering the boats and getting the provisions into them,
the captain and I continued to fire the signal guns as
long as we could. Ily courage was kept up by that of
Captain Gordon, who was the last to leave the vessel.
We rowed away from her as fast as we were able, and
when ire were far enough off, to escape being drawn in
by the vortex she would make in going down, we lay
upon our oars to see her sink. After settling down
lower and loner in the water, she suddenly made a
plunge and went down, bows foremost, with the water
spouting out of the cabin windows. There was some-
thing grand in ;'t; i- s-, which made me shiver all
over; some i ii. i. looked very solemn, and
spoke of the vessel as if it was a living creature. We
were all glad that we had left the ship in time to
avoid sinking with her; but what would become of us in
the midst of the ocean, in small boats, and with only
a few days' provision, was still very uncertain. We
-,,or" -,;:.1r.;r tIhe danger of our situation, when, to
S. Ird a gun fired, in answer to our
i i .. ;. when it stopped raining and the
clouds cleared away, we l 1 vessel corn-
ing directly towards us. i i i i off his shirt,
which was white, and tied it by the sleeves to one of the
oars, and stuck it up in the boat for a flag, knowing how

Page 18.


much more difficult it would be for the people on board
the ship to see so low an object as a boat, than for
those in the boats to see the ship; the mate in the other
boat did the same with his checked shirt; and we soon had
the pleasure of observing a flag hoisted on board the ship,
which was to let us know that we were seen, and should
be relieved. In half an hour more we were all on board
of a large Spanish ship, bound to South America. Being
extremely fatigued, as well as wet, and cold, and hun-
gry, we were very glad to accept the kindness of stran-
gers, and be where we could get shelter, food, and
dry clothes, all of which were freely offered us by the
Spaniards, who, though they could not speak or under-
stand English, made themselves intelligible by signs.



WHEN, after a sound and refreshing sleep, I went on
deck, I found my ship-mates looking very dejected, and
talking over the misfortune of losing the Neptune and
their own private losses, and regretting that the ship,
which had picked them up, was bound to South Amer-
ica. I had been so rejoiced, to get into a place of safety,
that I never once thought of the loss of my clothes and
every thing that I had on board the Neptune, till I heard
the sailors talking of what they had lost; and then I
remembered that I now had nothing in the world but one
suit of clothes, and no money to buy more. I wondered
what I should do; but recollecting that all my companions


were in a like situation, I thought I could do as they did,
and manage as well as they. As soon as South Amer-
ica was mentioned, I eagerly inquired to what part of it
the ship was bound; and hearing that it was to Callao,
in Penr, I asked what they knew about that country.
All they could tell me was, that the Spaniards had
possession of it, and would not suffer any other nation to
trade thither; and that they had plenty of gold and silver
there, but it would cost an Englishman his life to pick any
of it up. though he trod it under foot at every step. As I
could get no further information respecting the present
state of Peru, I called to mind all I had read about it
in the history of America; and recollecting how ex-
tremely interested I had been in the account of the
Peruvians, and of their conquest by the cruel Pizarro, I
felt a strong desire to see that people, and visit the
places where those events had happened. I considered
too, that as Peru lies on the western side of South Amer-
ica, I should cross the equator, sail over the South Atlan-
tic ocean, and go round Cape Horn, in order to get there;
I should thus see a great deal of the world, and be in a
tropical climate; by passing into the southern temperate
zone, I should see grand constellations, that I had never
seen before; I thought, too, we might touch at some
islands on our way, and put into some other ports be-
sides Callao. Thus, on the whole, I considered the
change in our prospects, occasioned by the loss of the
Neptune, as very favorable to my desire of seeing the
world; for though I felt for my ship-mates, who had no
such wish, and therefore regretted the accident very
much, I could not help rejoicing on my own account.
I had neither money nor clothes; but I knew many kinds
of work by v-1-h I stAl; ""- ~ ;1h:1- 1-- I 1-termined
that my hand. '1 i i of my
Pleased as I was with my new prospects, I found a
great many disagreeable things in my present situation.
The Spanish ship, called Santa Maria, and commanded
by Captain Manegro, was very different from the Nep-


tune ; being ill-shaped, she was a dull sailer, and
was besides extremely filthy and full of vermin; the
berths were the most odious, dirty holes that ever
any decent person was obliged to sleep in; the provis-
ions also were so bad, and cooked in a way so disgusting
to English stomachs, that I could hardly eat them ; but
whenever I complained to my ship-mates, they made
light of the badness of the food, and only hoped the
quantity on board would be found sufficient to last
us to the end of such a long voyage, as this was likely
to be.
The captain and crew, on board this ship, were very
much inferior to those of the Neptune. Though I could
not understand a word they said, I soon discovered that
the captain was a passionate man, neither respected nor
beloved by his crew ; and that the sailors were lazy and
disobedient, fond of playing cards, smoking, and swear-
ing. The Santa Maria had lost several of her hands
since she left Old Spain; two were washed overboard
in the late storm ; one had died of a fever soon after
they sailed ; and thus the captain was very glad of the
assistance of our ship-wrecked mariners, in working the
The voyage now became extremely tedious to me; I,
who had before been the most reconciled to our change
of situation, was now the first to complain; and my friends
would sometimes reproach me with my impatience, and re-
mind me how pleased I had been with the idea of a long
voyage; but I did not know then how little variety there
would be in it. And when we got into the trade winds,
which I longed for so much, the days were more tedious
than ever, for there was nothing at all to be done; the
sails remained in one position, from one week's end to
another. Even the variety of climate which I experi-
enced on approaching the equator, wasless agreeable to
me than I expected ; and I found the heat of the sun so
great, that I wished myself again in a temperate zone.
The want of necessary occupation very much increas-
ed my restless and uncomfortable feelings; and though I


gladly joined my countrymen, in doing all the work they
could find to do about tile ship, and helped to put the
Santa Maria in better order than she had been in for
years, yet there were many hours, each day, that
I was obliged to spend in idleness. 0, how I long-
ed for some book to read the most uninteresting
one, that ever was written, would have been a treasure
to me. But no book could I get; and having lost all
i. I. .. I no pens, ink, or paper, that I might
-.. I .i ith writing.
One day, however, I found a bit of chalk, and with
that I began making figures on the deck, and calculat-
ing suns ; two bours passed away, while I was thus
employed, without my perceiving how time went. Re-
joiced at the discovery, I resolved to employ part of
every day in that way ; and though my piece of chalk
was soon used up, and no more could be had, I con-
trived to make a little piece of charcoal answer as well.
Finding me so occupied with my figures, that I no lon-
ger complained, as I had before done, of the tediousness
of the voyage, the English sailors began to take an inter-
est in them too. As they had not been so well educat-
ed as 1 was, they asked me to teach them, which I
found great pleasure in doing; and my school of Arith-
metic beguiled me of some hours, each day, very
pleasantly. Two of the Spanish sailors, when they per-
ceived that we Englishmen were using the same figures
which they were accustomed to, took some interest in what
was going on, and began to learn also ; and in return,
they taught me the names of every thing on board the
vessel, as well as to count in the Spanish language.
When Captain Gordon found how I was employed, and
how much I disliked idleness, he kindly offered to go
over with me, by means of my charcoal pencil, the
problems and calculations that belong to the art of Navi-
gation ; which was of great use to me, in refreshing my
memory, and occupying my mind agreeably ; and when
the sailors had made some progress in Arithmetic, I
caught them the lessons I had learnt from the captain,


This continued as long as we were in fine weather
latitudes, and bad little to do in working the ship; but
when we approached Cape Horn, the weather became
tempestuous, and we were obliged to give up our stud-
ies, for more active employment. We became anx-
ious too, for our water and provisions ran very short;
and though it was the intention of the Spanish
captain to touch at the Falkland Islands to get wa-
ter and wild fowl, there were some apprehensions felt
by the English sailors, that we had missed of those
islands altogether. Westerly winds had prevailed for a
long time, and we feared that they had set us so far east,
that we should run by them, without being near enough
to see them. We had no confidence in the captain's
reckoning; there was no quadrant on board, and the
charts were very poor; the ship was badly worked, and
lh --- :- rd- i ... r than necessary, by the bad sea-
r-.. .. 1 i.... I and yethe was so obstinate and
passionate, that no one dared to advise him. Accord-
.- i .. ..... . ... .. .. id. islands
t. i. -. i. t.. \I L st, when
the only salt meat on board was cooking, and the last
cask of water was on tap, we were relieved from the
worst apprehensions, by the thrilling sound of "Land
O 0 what a welcome sight was that group of unin-
habited islands! after such a tedious voyage, and so
many fears of having passed them.
We entered a sound, between the two largest of them,
and found good anchorage, opposite a fine beach of hard
sand. I was all impatience to set foot on the land, and,
fortunately for me, the captain ordered me into the boat
that took him, the mate, and Captain Gordon ashore.
When we ran the boat aground, and jumped out on
dry land, I was almost wild with delight; every sense
was regaled. I threw off my shoes, and ran barefoot,
on the sand, for a mile. After being confined, so long,
An account, kept by tie captain, of the daily progress of
the vessel.
f Sea-phrase for seen.


to the narrow bounds of a vessel's deck, the sensation of
freedom was enchanting. When I returned I found
my comrades drinking largely, at a fine rivulet of
pure water, that was running and sparkling over the
beach, to the sea ; and 1 could not help throw-
ing myself down by it, at full length, and drinking of it
horsefaslhion, as sailors say. After the bad water we
had been using for weeks, the taste of this was delicious;
I could hardly drink enough of it. And so it was with ev-
ery one present; they drank as though they would never
be satisfied.
There were no trees to be seen any where ; but the
land was covered with tall, rank grass. The beach
was bordered witl numerous little hillocks, that seemed
to be formed by the decay of the coarse grass, resem-
bling sedge, that grew upon them, and hid the sand that
was interspersed among them. I was amusing myself
with stepping, or jumping, from one of these hillocks to
another, when my bare foot slipped off the little emi-
nence, and ... i... 1, and wet, and slip-
pery, and fun i ..1 .. -. u a sound between a
squeak and a grunt followed, and then a most hideous
roar, as loud as a lion's, completed my horror and alarm.
I lost my balance, as the creature moved under my feet,
and fell down upon him; and there I rolled about,
among the grass, between two hillocks that hindered my
rising, with this roaring monster creeping out from under
me. Every drop of blood seemed to curdle in my
veins, and I expected to be torn in pieces every instant.
At last I made out to rise, and run to my companions,
who looked almost as much alarmed as I was ; and turn-
ing round to face the enemy at a distance, I saw seven
great, shaggy animals, half beast, half fish, issuing from
the sedgy border of the beach, aT ."-.' :- towards us.
Captain Gordon exclaimed, i .ll 1 can; they
are very good eating." Being near our boat, we arm-
ed ourselves, some with muskets, others with oars,
and began our attack. The animals were endeav-
ouring to reach the water, but having only tails


and fins to push themselves along with, they advanced
but slowly. We beat them over the back, as hard as
we could, but without making any impression on them;
we fired at them, and several halls took effect; 'yet
the creatures proceeded toward the sea, upsetting every
one who came in their way. At last we discovered their
snouts to be the most vulnerable part; a few blows
there stopped their progress, and we made five of them
When we rested from our labors, I begged to know
what these terrible-looking creatures were, and was told
they were sea-lions. Captain Gordon called them shag-
gy seals, and said that their skins were very valuable; that
they contained a great deal of blubber, which made very
good oil; and thattheir flesh was palatable food. Delight-
ed with this addition to our sea-stores, we secured them in
the boat, and then proceeded to explore the island
We found large flocks of ducks and other sea-fowl, so
tame'that we could drive them before us, and fire into
them, before they attempted to fly. In this way,
great slaughter was made among them. On advancing
into the island, our attention was suddenly fixed upon a
ridge of land, just above us, on which were ranged, in
'ho mner r--Tl-r order, what appeared to me a number
1 hi11 i,' I .., of the same age and size, and dressed
alike, with their arms extended. I could think of noth-
ing but a charity school, with an uniform of brorvo frocks
and white aprons. After gazing a moment, in silent
amazement, I perceived the heads to be those of birds,
and recognized the shape and position of the penguin, as
described and drawn in books.
W e next had a fine ,,,1.. M: ,i... i ..::.. ..I .
not so successful as witl. ,- i I. ,i,. i .
we could not hold them, and we could manage to carry
only one on board the vessel ; that one we took alive, and
to keep him safe, during the night, the captain ordered
us to put him in the pen, with a pig that we had on
deck, the last of our live stock. We did so, and left


the two strangers, to make each other's acquaintance;
but in the morning, to our great surprise, we found
there had been a mortal combat between them, which
had ended in the death of the pig.
We spent two days at anchor in the sound, and, by
turns, all the ship's company were allowed to go on
shore, and rlefeshi themselves; but there were no more
adventures, like those I was engaged in. Tile hands,
that were left on board the vessel, were busied in skin-
-- --- I- '.:I the blubber, and salting the meat
i t toc' I of excellent
uater; and on the third * the land, we
proceeded -; --- ----
There .' ... ..i the cabin, as to the
course we had best take ; whheer we should leave the
should tile way we entered it, and sail round to tho
easmiard of the group of islands, or whether wee should
find a passage through the sound, and so keep nearer the
cape, and nearer tle west wind that was continually
blowing. Captain Gordon advised to the former course,
as he found that no one on board had ever passed
through the sound, and they bad no chart of it. This
determined the obstinate l3anegro to try the passage
through the isl-ieds. P. l- -pi-, a boat out ahead, to
sound the way, we g t *.i but there were,
in suioe places, such quanitites of sea-weed, that this of
itself threatened wholly to obstruct our p cl' .;'- we
I .., rf ;I.- ; p through it. '. I I up
I j. I tllhis weed, whih is like what
we call kelp, ad found that it grew with c
very deep in the water, and that it had a I
bead to it, which floated very near the surface. From
S. I its stalks, I could easily believe what a
S about its being used for fishing-lines and
i i ,

we lad taken that course, as it would make it easier to
get round the cape ; still I perceived that Captain Gor-
don was anxious, and the English sailors were very


watchful. The third night after we left the Falkland
Islands, we were all startled by the cry of Land 0 !
land close aboard, over the larboard* bow." Captain
Gordo. -. 1- .. ..-.- ..1 : .. .. ces-
sary or I .I 1 .. .. i ... I II. w as
not a tr ** ** i i i I l il. i was
below. Every one was astonished, at seeing land on
our left; if it had been on the right, we should have
thought all was well. In a few minutes, we were close
in wilt the land on tie starboard side. To me, who
was unaccustomed to tie appearance of land at sea in
. 1 .1 ..:.1. looked like a high wall that we were
..:- and well it was for us that it
was a bold shore, had only just time to tack and
keep clear of the steep rocks that rose on either side of us.
The Spaniards were very much alarmed, and I-
to call upon their saints. The captain allowed '. i.
not know where we were ; but after consulting the mis-
erable charts on board, Captain Gordon came to the
conclusion, that we were in the channel, between Staten
Island and the main land, and, as lie had heard of ves-
sels going through there before, he determined to keep
on. Daylight soon appeared, and we could then see
our way very well; but ihe current was so strong, and
the eddies so numerous, that we were strangely whirled
about. Although there was a good breeze from the
west, and we had several sails set, we were sometimes
turned completely round by an eddy, just as if we had
been a mere log on the water. By the good sense of
Captain Gordon, however, and the good conduct of the
English sailors, we did get safely through the strait, and
reach the open sea near the cape.
As soon as we were out of danger, Captain Gordon
gave up his command, and treated the master of the
ship as though .-l. had happened; but Captain
hlanegro had i little minds, that cannot bear
the superiority of others, and he was shy and jealous of
Captain Gordon on account of the services he had

* Left side.

t Right side.


Manegro was a very ignorant man. If he had never
had an opportunity of learning, he had no reason to be
ashamed of his ignorance; it was his misfortune, not his
fault; and if he hId i iL orln -ld I pd it, he might have
benefited by the ** Gordon ; but in-
stead of that, lie tried to conceal it, and affected to
despise every .1:- I-- did not understand.
He seemed ,' ..i he could hide his ignorance, by
being very authoritative in his manner, and severe in his
punishments, which, as he was a passionate man, were
olten very unjust. 3My heart would sometimes swell with
indignation, and my ii :th tears, at the injustice
which the Spanish i .. obliged to suffer; but
iy comrades cautioned me against showing what I felt,
as it would only make matters worse.
I was often provoked, to see how uncivilly Alanegro
treated Captain Gordon, whom I loved and admired,
more and more every day, for Iis mildness and for-
bearance toward our .:-;r-r -- mm- -1r
On one occasion, h .. ~- I n o1 we were in
great danger ; and th II t .. the two cap-
tains was most striking. Tihe man, whose business it wvas
to command the vessel c n frilhtonrd he could not
S .1-; ; b. I I... ., i all the saints
.. to come and save them ; and cried
and lamented over his situation, like a distracted crea-
ture. Whi t OU good n csar nt I .I
lost, for want only of a i, i r l, '
not take the command, seized the heln himself, and gave
a few clear directions to his own men, wlo were watch-
ing him, and hoping lie would do so; and, in a few min-
utes, all d'cger wias over.
The Spanish captain was so overjoyed at finding
himself in safety, that he knelt down before Captain
Gordon, and kissed his hands, and thanked him over
and over azain. But his gratitude was not of a kind to
last ong : it was soon changed into dislike of the person
that had done him a service ; and be became as jealous
SGo.oz round.


as ever of Captain Gordon's superior knowledge and
presence of mind. He would not hear any observation
from him on the management of the ship, and was
ready to quarrel with every one who knew more than
We had a great deal of tempestuous weather, in
doubling Cape Horn ; and as the currents were very
strong, and the sea rough, and the reckoning hut poorly
kept, we hardly knew when we really had doubled it.
We continued to have heavy gales of wind, after we
knew that we were several hundred miles from the
cape, and our voyage became every day more unpleas-
ant. Our provisions were scanty and poor; we were all
on short allowance, and heartily tired of our voyage,
counting the days and weeks that must still be endured
before we reached our destined port.
About three weeks after we left Cape Horn, we
were sailing along, under close-reefed topsails, with
as much wind as we could bear, when we were all
thrown into consternation, by the cry of Land right
ahead." That which is so cheering a sound, when
expected, is an equally -.1-.r-:r one, when not expect-
ed; for if tie seaman 1 I i where he only look-
ed for water, he knows that he cannot be where he
supposed himself; and this, on the ocean, is a fearful
Manegro now pretended to be very knowing ; he said
he knew very well what land it was, and he meant to
go ashore there, and get some fresh provisions. Cap-
tain Gordon advised keeping off till the wind abated, or
sailing round the island, and entering a port to the
But our obstinate commander insisted upon keeping on
just as we were. Tile wind was increasing every
moment, and we were anxiously expecting orders to
shorten sail, or alter our course, when a gust came that
nearly capsized us, and carried away several sails. All
was dismay and confusion; Captain Manegro refused
all aid from Captain Gordon, while he gave contradic-


tory orders to his men, and we suddenly perceived
breakers very near us. The wind was blowing us di-
rectly upon a reef of rocks, and the vessel was unman-

i. .. was too late, Captain Gordon's voice was
heard, amid the roar of the waves, the whistling of the
wind, and the cracking of spars. Anchors were let go,
and some judicious measures taken; but the breakers
were all around us, and nothing could save the vessel
from destruction. She was driven upon the rocks with
such force, that none of us could keep his feet;
and, after striking three times, she remained immovably
fixed upon the reef, and the sea broke all over her.
The force of the waves now filled me with fear and
amazement. While we were afloat, the vessel had
horne a great deal of tossing about, without injury, be-
cause she moved with the waves; but, as soon as she
was frmly fixed, and could not give way before the
dashing waters, their mighty power was apparent, and it
seemed to me, that the vessel must be destroyed in a
few minutes. I was convinced by all I saw, that we
were in the greatest possible danger ; the Spaniards
gave themselves up to useless cries and lamentations ;
the Englishmen gathered round their captain, to consult
on what they had better do.
He said Ile vessel must soon go to pieces, and there-
fore, though the sea was so rough that a boat could hard-
ly live in it, he thought they had better take to the boats,
and see what could be done in them; they might be
carried towards the land, without capsizing, and get into
some sheltered bay or creek. Just as they came to this
determination, a great wave broke away part of tihe
stern, and carried off a boat that was hanging there.
There was then but one boat left, and that was only
large enough to hold, with safety, a part of those on
board; so one of the English sailors proposed that they
should go offin her, and leave the Spaniards behind, as
they would not do any thing to help themselves, and
it was their obstinacy and ignorance that had brought


us into this situation. But our good captain would
not listen to such selfish advice; he said, They saved
our lives once, and we will try to save theirs now ; at
least we will give them a chance with ourselves." So,
w while .. i i. i i
he cl c I ,i,. .- ... \. t. i.,. .1 ii
from shipwreck, all, who were not too much alarmed to
listen to any tiing, came upon deck, when they heard
his voice. With his direction and assistance, the boat was
launched, and all on deck got into her ; though not
without great difficulty and danger. The boat was so
tossed about by the waves, that she was sometimes a
great way from the vessel; and then she was again dashed
up so near, that we feared she would be broken in
pieces against the side of the ship.
We rowed as well as we could towards the land,
and as the boat drew very little water compared with the
ship, we passed over the reef on which the vessel had
stuck fast, and proceeded in safety about half a league ;
but as we approached the land, we saw nothing like
any bay or inlet, and the breaking of the waves on the
beach made it impossible to land ; we could but just
keep the boat from filling with water, where we were;
and nearer the shore, it would be entirely out of our
In this situation there was nothing more to be done,
and those in the boat, who were good and wise, were
quietly making up their minds to be drowned in a few
minutes ; when a monstrous wave, larger than all the
rest, overturned the boat, and covered us all with its
mighty waters.
As I was a good swimmer, I did not lose my presence
of mind, when I found myself under water ; 1 tried to
rise to the surface, that I might take breath; this, how-
ever, I could not do; the motion of the waves was so
great, it baffled me; and 1 must soon have been suffocat-
ed, if that very force had not carried me so far toward the
beach, that when it was spent, and the wave went back
again, it left me upon the sand in shallow water.


Though much exhausted with the exertions I had made,
and the want of breath, I struggled successfully against
the under-toto,* and advanced towards the land ; but I
had not proceeded far, before I saw the sea coming af-
ter me, like a high wall. I knew it would carry me
towards the shore, so 1 gave myself up to its power, and
held my breath, and kept my strength, that I might
struggle against it, when it retired again. In this way I
approached nearer and nearer to the land with every
wave ; till at last I felt ground with my feet. The next
moment my head was out of water, and I could breathe
freely !
I stood still a moment, to recover my breath, and
then ran forward as hard as I could. Again I was cov-
ered, many feet deep, with water, and carried along with
the breaker; but I managed as before, and resisted the
under-tow, and was again on my feet with my head out
of water, and a good deal nearer land. Once, as the sea
was carrying me along very swiftly, I struck against a
rock, which hurt me very much, and disabled me from
struggling against the retreat of the waves ; but, happily
for me, I thought of holding on by the rock, and so re-
sisted the under-tow. There I remained, supporting
myself by the rock, till Irecovered from the blow ; while
several waves passed over me, and retired again. After
this, a few more runs, between the breakers, brought me
quite out of the water; I had just strength enough left
to walk up the beach, above the mark of high tide, when
my knees bent under me, and I sank down on the dry
sand. Here I had hardly realized my escape, and felt the
joy of present safety, when, exhausted by the great exer-
tions I had made, I fainted away.
The name given by sailors to the water which ruon back
from the beach after the waves spent.

Page 33.





How long my swoon lasted, it is impossible for me to
say, and it is almost as impossible for me to describe
how I felt on recovering from it. It was some time be-
fore 1 could recollect what had happened to me; but,
by degrees, the sight of the wreck at a distance, the
blowing of the wind, and dashing of the waves, helped
me to recall the disasters, which occasioned my being
where I now found myself. At last, the dreadful cer-
tainty, that I alone, of all that were on board, had reach-
ed the shore alive, burst upon me, and made me truly
miserable. Let whoever reads this, consider well the
circumstances of my wretched condition, or they can
form no idea of my feelings.
There I was, cold, wet, hungry, and thirsty ; without
any thing in the world, but the wet clothes I had on. I
was alone, in an unknown country; it might be full of
savages and wild beasts; I could see no traces of culti-
vation ; I bad no fishing-tackle, to get fish; no gun, to
shoot birds ; no means of lighting a fire. I was far, very
far, from my pleasant home and dear parents, and could
not hope ever to see them again. In this dismal situa-
tion, I could not rejoice in having saved myself from
drowning ; for I expected a worse death. I walked up
and down the beach, in a state of agitation not to be de-
scribed. I wrung my hands, and cried, and sobbed
aloud, and reproached myself, in the bitterest manner,
with the folly and obstinacy which had brought me to
this wretched condition ; till, quite exhausted, I sat
down on a large stone ; and, resting my head on my
knee, I fell into a silent agony of despair.
How long I sat there, I cannot tell; but I was rousd


from that fit of dejection, by a distressing sensation of
thirst. I bore this or some time ; at last it overcame
my reluctance to move, and I went in search of water.
I looked fearnflly oiound, to see if any savage man,
or wild beast, were near me; but seeing no living crea-
ture, I walked onlyy up the bench, and made my way
over long ;--- nd through shrubs, towards a place
where the I of the ground and the slope of the
woods made me think there might be a valley, with a
stream of itesh water in it. Alter I i
some lime, I came to a narrow vale :I .
of which were clothed with beaut I i i
and trees; and there I heard the pleasant sound of a
brook. : I: : cks, that sometimes broke it
into small I i .. I a I""or -porLin- oeream, of
which I drank plentifully. (. I. by my
r.- _-t I seated myself on the grass, at the foot of a
S. large tree, iwith leaves like a laurel; and there,
in that sheltered spot, I began to reflect more calmly on
my sad condition.
The anguish of my heart subsided. I remembered
there was One Friend, from whom no outward circum-
stances could separate me. ily Heavenly Father was
as near me there, as in my own happy home. By
thinking on the power and -- r
and strength revived, and I i .. i .
my soul was comforted. I resolved to trust in God en-
lireln, and do the best I could to continue the life that
had been so remarkably preserved amid the greatest
Just as I .1 1.: : I solution, I heard the
most melodic .i'. I i n the bushes near
me, and the sound cheered my heart; Those birds are
happy here," said I to myself, "and why may not I be
happy too ?" The 1 .I. .. tliey had companions,
and I had none, ngai, iI 1 eyes with tears, and my
heart with sorrow; but it was not of that d;lirrti;nS
kind, which I had felt before ; it was a i
that made me lift up my heart to God, and trust entirely
to his loving-kindness and tender mercy.


The birds were not at all afraid of me, but flew about
so near me, that I could observe them getting their food;
and I said to myself, Will not the same Power that di-
rects them to their proper nourishment, and supports
their life, also guide and sustain me ? I felt an assur-
ance, in my heart, that it would; and I .. .
I returned to the beach, and looked i ..
eatable. I had not walked far, wher 1 .
ters, and something like limpets, only much larger. As
I had been accustomed to eat such shell-fish raw, I sat-
isfied my appetite pretty well. I had great diffi-
culty in opening some of the oysters, as I had no knife,
and could not always succeed in catching them with
their hlleis open, long enough to put a stick or stone in,
to prlevet their closing.
When I had finished my meal, it was about sunset;
the wind had abated, I 1 to rain very fast, and
I returned to the little 11 i seek a shelter for ihe
.I I could have found a dry spot under the dense
i many trees, and lain very comfortably on the
grass, but I was afi',id of wild beasts. I knew that such
Pninals keep very quiet during tie day, and roam
about at night in search of their prey ; and therefore it
would not be safe to lie on the grass, without any thing
around me to keep them off. I had no means of mak-
ing any defence ; so at 1 i T .1 I my best plan
would be, to follow the .. birds, and sleep
in a free. I found one, those thick foliage would
screen me from rain, and whose numerous crooked
branches made it easy to climb ; and in it I fixed my-
self, as securely as I could, and being very much ex-
hausted, I soon feel asleep.
iMy slumbers rere disturbed i".i I dreams. I
fancied the boat upset, and Ii ,1 struggling
with the waves ; and, making a motion in my sleep, as
if to reach the shore, I fell down out of the tree. My
joy, on awaking, was great, to find that I had only been
dreaming, and liat I rellvy ras on dry land and not
struggling in the water ; and, as I had not climbed up


very high into the tree, and the tall grass was thick
around is, my fall did not hurt me much; and bodily pain
seemed very trifling, compared to the distress of my
mind in the dream.
I placed myself, once more, in the tree, and deter-
mined to lie awake the rest of the night, rather than run
the risk of dreaming again that I was shipwrecked; but
f.: this resolution, and I soon fell into a
1. '. i j which lasted till the day was far ad-
I awoke refreshed, and with a keen appetite for my
breakfast. s ... :. bed, I washed my hands
and face in '. '. .- I remembered that I had
no towel, or cloth of any kind, to wipe them with. They
dried however, as I walked to the shore, to look for
shell-fish for my breakfast.
To my great disappointment, the tide was high ; and
there were no oysters, or limpets, to be found. The
water was full of fishes, to be sure ; but I could not
make up my mind then, to eat such fish raw, even if I
had had the means of taking them.
The dread i : i to death, now rushed up-
on my mind, ', minutes, nearly overpow-
ered me ; but imy good mother lit d h ld t'.nnh ri me t
consider God as a kind Parent, .
and provides bountifilly for them. L now remembered,
and felt the comfort of her instructions ; I thought upon
the goodness of God, and my mind became tranquil.
It occurred to me, that though I had failed of getting
fish for my breakfast, there might be wild fruits inland,
that woutl satisfy my appetite as well; so I walked
away from the shore, and seeing a high hill, that appear-
ed about a mile from where I was, I determined to as-
cend it, and take a survey of the country, and look for
..-i .. i I1 I went along. I walked, for some
... soil, partially covered with tall,
rank grass, and then I came to rocks and bushes ; but 1
looked in vain for any berries. Every thing was grow-
ing ii;uriantly, and various beautiful flowers met my eye,


but no fruits were to be seen. All the productions of
the earth were like those of a fine spring; and when I re-
flected, that I must be between twenty and thirty degrees
from the equinoctial line, and in south latitude, I was
satisfied that it must be the spring-time of the year
in this region ; and that, in due season, these brilliant
and beautiful blossoms would give place to berries and
fruits, that might prove wholesome food.
With this consoling hope, I pursued my way, and be-
gan to ascend the bill I had seen at a distance. I
found it more difficult to climb, than I had anticipated;
and I was often obliged to go a great way round, in or-
der to avoid perpendicular cliffs, or thick, impassable
woods. But my desire of getting a good view of the
country, and ascertaining whether I was on an island or
on the main-land, and the hope of finding some plant
with ripe fruit, urged me on. After a long and toilsome
ascent, I found myself on the bare summit of a very
high hill; and discovered, that I was on a small island,
whence I could see nothing but the wide oceau all around
me. 1 looked for the wrecked vessel, but it had entire-
ly disappeared ; the loss of that last vestige of civiliza-
don made me feel more lonely than ever.
I looked very earnestly, in every direction, to see if
there were any traces of the island being inhabited, but
could discover none ; though I had feared to meet with
savages, 1 felt very melancholy when I was convinced I
was alone on an uninhabited island. Here then,"
said I to myself, 1 must pass the remainder of my life,
on this desert island, in the middle of the ocean, far
away from my friends, who will never know what has
become of me. I shall never see the face of any hu-
man being again. Here I must live and die alone."
As I thus realized my dismal situation, I could not
help shedding a flood of tears, and inwardly exclaiming,
my dear parents! if you could see your unhappy
son as lhe now is, you would pity and forgive him.
You will never know how severely he is punished for
not taking your advice ; here I must live and die,


unpitied and unknown !" As these thoughts passed
through my mind, I wept bitterly, and almost wished I
had been drowned with the rest of the ship's company;
but something within reproved me for that thought, and
I repressed the half-formed wish.
I have since seen the folly ofanticipating evil; for my
situation, had as it seemed then, has not proved so utter-
ly miserable as I feared; and if I had not given way
to the fear of starving, and other apprehensions, I
should have spared myself some very unhappy hours.
Almost exhausted by fasting and sorrow, I began to
descend the hill, intending to reach the shore by the
time the tide left it, and look for shell-fish to allay the
pains of hunger, which began to be very severe.
My feet had become very sore and tender, with so
much walking on rough ground, and in thin, old shoes;
to favor them I took the smoothest paths, and in doing
so I insensibly wandered away from that side of the hill,
by which I went up ; and when I arrived at the bottom
of it, I found myself still very far from the shore, where
I expected to get the food I so much needed. This
was a great disappointment, as I feared my strength
would hardly last, to carry me back to that part of the
coast where I had found the oysters. The trees were
so thick around me, I could not see which way to go; but
by observing the sun, I could tell the points of the com-
pass, and direct my steps accordingly ; for I remember-
ed that the beach, on which I landed, was on the south
side of the island, and run east and west. As I walked
along, frequently casting my eyes upward, to see that I
kept a right course, I observed some very curious-look-
ing trees, with tall, naked stems, and a great tuft of leaves
on the top. I had seen such in paintings, but could not,
at once, recall what they were; as I approached them,
I saw, among the long, drooping leaves, some very large
three-sided things; and thinking it possible they might be
good to eat, I threw stones at them, till I knocked one
down. It was nearly as large as my head, covered
with a husk that was tough, and full of fibres, and came


off with difficulty ; but what was my joy and delight,
when I discovered, by the inside shell, that it was a
cocoa-nut I had often seen and tasted cocoa-nuts
in England; but I had never seen one with the
husk on, which was the reason I did not know what
this was, as soon as I saw it. I quickly broke the shell
on a stone, drank off the delicious milk it contained, and
then devoured the kernel. One did not satisfy me,
half-starved as I was; so I knocked down a second, and
ate that as voraciously as the first. While I was thus
satisfying my appetite, my eyes filled with tears of joy
and gratitude, for this new relief in my distress ; and I
felt, more sensibly than ever, that I ought not to despair,
but to do the best I could in the present moment, and
remain unconcerned about my future subsistence.
I had seen sketches of trees like these, in some books
of travels; but they were called palm trees; and the
pictures gave me such a poor idea of them, and how
they actually looked, that I was now very much struck
with their grand appearance and singular way of grow-
ing. Though I thought it likely there were more cocoa-
nut trees, on the island, I marked the spot where this
cluster of them stood; and, taking with me one of the
broken out-shells for a drinking-cup, I continued my
way to the beach.
The tide had receded, a considerable distance ; but I
could only find a few oysters and limpets, not enough
to make a meal of, which made me doubly glad that
I had found the cocoa-nuts. I had the prudence not
to eat the oysters I now picked up, but saved them for
my next meal.
I found some fragments of the boat, that had been
dashed to pieces on the rocks the day before, and a
couple of oars that had been washed ashore; but none
of the bodies of my shipmates. The oars and frag-
ments of the boat, I carefully collected, and carried,
with my oysters, to the shady valley of the brook,
where I meant to pass the night in the same tree I had
already lodged in.


Being now relieved from the fear of immediate dan-
ger from savages or wild beasts, as I had seen no tra-
ces of either during my day's journey, I began to feel
something like security in the pleasant retreat I had
found by the brook. Seating myself on a grassy bank,
I tried to plan some kind of habitation ; but the total
want of tools seemed to render it impossible for me to
do any thing. If I had had a spade, or an axe, or a
knife, or any iron tool, I could have contrived many
things for my comfort and security ; but without any of
these implements, what could be done Careful, as
sailors generally are, to have their jack-knives tiedto a
button-bole, I had been so unfortunate as to lose mine,
just after the wreck of the Neptune. I had two more
knives in my chest, but that went down with the ship.
All the while I was on board the Santa Maria, I was very
much incommoded by the want of a knife ; but little
thought it would soon prove the most serious loss I ev-
er met with. I had reason, now, to regret my knife
more than I can express ; every plan, that came into
my head, for bettering my situation, failed for want of
it; and I went to my tree for the night, very much de-
pressed in spirits by the helplessness of my condition,



MY position in the tree, though improved by placing a
piece of plank among the branches, was not comfortable
enough to make me sleep after day-light; I therefore
made an early breakfast of the oysters, I had collected the
evening before, and set off on a long walk, resolved to see


as much as Icould of the island, before the noon-day sun
should make it oppressively warm. I found the coun-
try beautifully undulated, plentifully watered, and filled
with a great variety of vegetable productions. I looked
earnestly at every plant and tree, as I went along, in
hopes of discovering something that I might safely eat;
but every thing looked strange to me, except a water
plant, which so resembled the water-cress of England,
thatI ventured to taste it; and, finding the flavor the
same, I ate a good deal of it, and relished it well. I
regretted, at every step, that I knew nothing of botany;
and remembered with shame and sorrow, that I used to
laugh at a boy of my acquaintance, for studying it, and
trying to understand the nature of different plants that
he found growing wild in the fields. 0 that I had
done the same," exclaimed I, and then I might find
some wholesome food among these numerous weeds,
and distinguish those which are poisonous, from those
which are good to eat." Though I knew nothing of
botany, my habit of observing every thing that I saw
done, enabled me to make one valuable discovery dur-
ing my walk.
Happening to pluck up some long stalks of a plant,
resembling a nettle, that grew in my way, 1 observed
that they were composed of numerous fibres, so tough
that I could hardly break them ; and, recollecting to
have seen hemp dressed, I thought this looked a good
deal like it, only smaller ; so 1 gathered a large bundle
of it, tied it up with some of the stalks, and slung it over
my shoulder, that I might try, at my leisure, if it could
be made into cordage.
The chief object of my excursion was, to look for
some hollow among the rocks, or natural cave in the
earth, where I might sleep in safety, instead of perching,
like a bird, in a tree. I wished to fix on some spot,
which should be shaded from the noon-day sun, and
yet high enough to command a view of the ocean ; for
to that I looked continually, in the hope of discovering
a vessel near enough for some communication by signal,


I thought so much of being taken off, that I could not
bear to be out of sight of the ocean, even for a few
hours at a time. Vain hope idle expectation how
long and how fondly indulged !
After wandering about, for several hours, among the
wo od and hills on the same side of the island where I
first landed, I found a smooth, grassy terrace, on the
south side of a steep, rocky hill; it looked as if a piece
of the hill had been cut out, to make this level spot, and
the rocks rose up behind it, as steep as the side of a
house ; so that it was perfectly protected on the north.
This terrace was about two hundred paces long, and
twenty broad ; and fiom the front edge of it, the land
sloped gently down to the low ground near the beach.
There were large fragments of rock scattered over
it, as if by some great convulsion of the earth in ages
past; and small clusters of trees dotted the terrace,
very ornamentally. Numerous shrubs and plants grew
among the rocks that bounded it on the north, and it
looked as if it were made for the site of a romantic cot-
tage. No situation could have suited me better, if had
had the means of building myself any kind of hut; but,
as I could not make a shelter for myself without tools, I
was obliged to look for one ready made, in the earth,
or among the rocks, as animals do. Being very warm
and thirsty from my walk, I searched about for a spring
of water; and, in so doing, discovered a small, hollow
place in the steep side of the hill. This, enlarged a lit-
tle, would be exactly what I wanted ; but how to make
it big enough to sleep in, without a pick-axe, spade,
shovel, or any iron tool, was the grand difficulty. I de-
termined, however, not to give up so fine a situation,
without exerting all my ingenuity to adapt it to my pur-
pose ; and I was still more encouraged to undertake it,
when I perceived, at a small distance, a beautiful, clear
stream of water, trickling out of a crevice in the rock.
The more I observed the advantages of this remarkable
spot, the more determined I was to make it my resi-
dence ; and though I had nothing but my hands to work


with, I resolved to scoop out the earth with them, rath-
er than give up sleeping in the cave.
Having refreshed myself by a good draught of water,
I made the best of my way back to the sea-side. This
Snow reached by a much shorter route, than I had tak-
en in discovering the terrace. I hastened back, that I
might gather shell-fish while the tide was low ; and in
this I was more successful than before. While wan-
dering over the beach, I found a very large, strong shell,
with a sharp edge to it, which I thought would serve
me instead of a spade, and answer much better than my
hands had done, to scoop the earth out from the little
cave. With the aid of this tool, I hoped to make it
large enough to sleep in that night.
When I had satisfied my appetite, I carried my bun-
die of nettles, and the large shell, to the side of the
brook, and there I tied up the plant in small
bunches, and putt i in the water to rot the woody part of
the stalk, a process I had seen adopted with regard to
hemp. By the time that was done, I was so tired, that I
lay down on the green bank to rest myself; and before
I was aware of it, I fell fast asleep. IMy position was so
much more comfortable, than when perched in the tree,
that I was more refreshed by that hour's nap, than by
any sleep I had had for many nights. As wild beasts
generally sleep during the heat of the day, I thought it
would be advisable for me always to take a nap on the
grass at noon.
When 1 awoke, I hastened by the shortest way to the
terrace ; and, carrying the great shell with me, began to
work m :. I ..1 .. ::' ..: .. By pa-
tiently r I' 1 .- Ii. .- tim e,I
made some progress ; but it was so much slower than I
expected, that I was obliged to give up all thoughts of
sleeping there that night. It also occurred to me, that
it would not be safe to lodge there, without some means
of defending the entrance; for though it was well guard-
ed by the high rock at the back, there was nothing in
front of the terrace to keep off savages or wild beasts.


Tie cave, when made large enough to sleep in, would
be too contracted if the entrance were closed up entire-
ly ; it was therefore necessary to contrive some bar-
rier, that would protect me while the mouth of the
cave was left open. 1 was greatly puzzled to think of
any kind of defence, which it was in my power to make ;
but, by reflecting upon it all the while I was digging out
the cave. this way of doing it came at last into my head.
I Iha --. :. t young willow trees at the
foot of i i11 1 i. :could be easily transplant-
ed, as their roots do not grow deep in the earth; I
therefore resolved to pull up a number of them, and
1.. iI. 1 I a semi-circle, round the
.... i i would be some protection
at once, and when they grew larger and fixed them-
selves in the earth, they would make a very effectual
I returned to my tree that night, after a hard day's
work, but more comforted and cheerfl llhan I had been
since my shipwreck. I longed to stretch my tired
limbs, at full len: i. but the fear of wild
S.... prey, sent me to my

For many days, I devoted myself to digging out my
cave and transplanting trees; and though the want of
proper tools made it very laborious, I persevered, and
succeeded beyond my expectations. While thus occu-
pied, I dined every day on shell-fish, and breakfasted
and supped on cocoa-nuts and water-cresses. I in-
dulged myself too with an afternoon nap on the grassy
bank, by the side of the brook, whose murmuring sound
lulled me to sleep.
One day, thinking the nettles might have lain long
enough for the woody part to separate easily, I took
them out of the water, and spread them in thin layers
on the grass to dry ; I next pounded them with a large
stick, as I had seen flax pounded; and succeeded per-
fectly in freeing the fibres from the stem. They were of
a good length, and could be twisted into pack-thread.


Much pleased with the success of this experiment, I
went on twisting and doubling the string, till I made
some very strong cord. It was not quite so even
as that made by rope-makers, for I had no wheelto
twist tile threads, nor a second person to assist me; but
rough and clumsy as it was, it soon proved of great ser-
vice to me.
I went on with my work very diligently ; and planted
tree after tree, until I formed a complete semi-circle
round the cave. But as a single row of such saplings,
did not seem sufficient, I spared no pains, but planted a
second row, outside of the first. I then interwove the
branches of the two rows together, and at last hit upon
the plan of filling up the space between with the earth
and stones I was removing from the cave. This made
the barrier very strong. Every morning and evening
I watered my little hedge ; but this was a tedious pro-
cess, as I had nothing bigger than a cocoa-nut shell to
carry the water in. I was however rewarded for allmy
labor by seeing the willows alive and growing after their
My plan was to make no opening in the hedge, lest I
should not be able to secure it firmly if attacked ; so,
when I had nearly completed it, I spent a whole day in
making a rope ladder out of my cordage. The rock,
behind the cave, was about as high as the second story
of a house; and on the top of it was a tree. To this I
fastened one end of the ladder, and fixed the other to
the ground, beside the cave, by means of stakes driven
in firmly. I then tried to mount by it, and finding I
could go up and down very safely I completed the bar-
rier, and piled up, on the inside of it, the rest of the
rubbish taken from the cave.
When I had worked a little longer at enlarging my
cave, I came to hard points of rock that I could not pos-
sibly remove with my hands or shell. 0 how I longed
for an iron crow but as I knew that wishing was of no
use, I tried to think of something that might answer the
purpose. I remembered seeing, on the beach, some hard,


green stones scattered about and on examining them I
Sr I i ...
edge to it. '... further I found another that was
equally well i. i i my purpose. It was very thick
-nd hi"r- at one end, while at the other it was small
I grasped; so that I could use it as a mallet
or hammer.
Dii.elt,d with my new tools, 1 set to work with them
i ...-. I I applied the I-r -'I- -fthIe wedge
to the rock, and striking it with .1 ... I I broke offa
large piece. In this way I cleared the cave of all the
sharp iprojt"tin; rocks inside of it ; and made it large
enough I lie at ease, and be at some distance
from the mouth.
1 iad before plucked up with my hands a quantity of
grass, and dried it in the sun ; this hav I now threw
down from above into the enclosure, and made a most
comfortable bed of it at the back part of my new lodg-
fiom this time, I was able to sleep on a dry, soft,
sweet-scented bed, sheltered from wind, rain, and sun.
Those who have always been able to stretch their
weary limbs on a good bed, in a secure place, can hard-
ly imagine how delighted I nas with my rude accommo-
dations ; their being obtained too by my own industry
and ingenuity, gave me a sense of self-approbation that
I cannot describe. I went to sleep rtl-1 -Ft r -ling
happier than I could have thought it ... to
be on this uninhabited island.
The following day was Sunday. I remembered it
as soon as 1 awoke. I recollected too that I had always
been in the habit of putting on clean linen on the sab-
bath ; but now I had no clothes of any kind, except
those I lad worn so long. I determined, however, to
make myself as clean as I could ; so I bathed in the
brook, and left my shirt to soak in the stream, tied by
its sleeves to a bush.
On my way back to my new habitation, I gathered


cocoa-nuts enough to last all day ; and then rested
from all my labors, and spent the day in serious medita-
tion, devout prayer, and tender recollections of my far-
distant home, and the dear friends whom I feared I
should never see more.
As I was counting over the number of days that I had
been on the island, and trying to remember on what day
of the month I was wrecked, it occurred to me that I
should soon lose all knowledge how time passed, if I
did not mark the days, as they went by. The next
morning, therefore, I set to work to make myself an
almanac, by which I could count the days regularly.
Having no paper, pens, or ink, or any thing on which
I could write, I chose one of several trees, that stood
close together and had very smooth bark; on this I
made a scratch, with the edge of a shell, for every day
I had been on the island, and a longer scratch for
When this was accomplished, I considered the impor-
tance of having some kind of signal put up, to give no-
tice, if a vessel should happen to pass by, that there
was somebody on tie island who needed assistance. I
could easily find a tree, for a flag-staff; but what to
make use of for a flag puzzled me extremely. At last,
I made up my mind to give up my only shirt for the
purpose ; 1 have but one," said I to myself; it can-
not last long, and when in rags I must do without it;
so I had better give it up at once, and use it in the only
way in which it can possibly do me any great service.
If it should make a vessel stop and take me off this desert
island, it will certainly be the best use I can put it to."
Thus resolved, I washed my old shirt in the brook,
made it look as white as I could, and left it to dry in
the sun, while I explored the hills on the south side of
the island, and searched for a tall, straight tree that could
be converted into a flag-staff by stripping it of its
On a point of land, higher than the hill on which I
lived, and more to the eastward, I found a solitary tree,

48 A FLAG.

with a straight trunk, that would serve my purpose
extremely well, if 1 could get the branches off, and so
make it look enough like the work of man, to attract the
attention of a sailor; but without any iron tools, this
seemed impossible. 1 resolved, however, to try my
wedge and mallet; and, by very great patience and
perseverance, 1 I I . ...
the upper branch I ... I .. .
eluded to leave Ii. I I .-
m y shirt, to the .I 1I I' .i i. ,, i .h i
two days' hard labor, I had the satisfaction of seeing my
flag flying in the air, well secured, and sufficiently con-
The high point of land, on which I had placed it, I
called Signal Hill ; it is n sight from the ground above
my cave, and commands a more extensive prospect,
than the hill under which I live, and to hleh 1 have
given the name of Fort Hill, from my fortiiications on
its side.



I HAD no eiaen lip most of the cocoa-ntls that grew
on the only trees of the kind which I had yet seen ; and
the shore furnished me with such a scanty supply ol
shell-fish, -I iI :.. I ;;.a:isy about getting food
enough to .
I had been so constantly employed in making a safe
retreat to sleep in, that I had explored only a small part
of the island ; but now I determined to travel over it,
and seek for more cocoa-nuts, and other articles of food.
Being considerably weakened by the hard fare to
which 1 bad been exposed, since I was wrecked, and for


some time before, I found the noon-day sun very op-
pressive; and having no hat to shelter my head from its
ardent rays, I spent half a day in making an umbrella,
to shade me on my intended journey. I had neither
silk nor whalebone; nor had 1 a knife or scissors, sew-
ing-thread or needle; yet I contrived to make some-
thing that answered all the purpose of a large parasol.
I found a kind of willow, the branches of which were
very slender and pliable; with these, I wove a circular
piece of wicker-work, like the cover of a round basket;
to the hollow side, I fastened a stick, and made it firm
by tying it with pack-thread. Then from a young palm
tree, whose top I could reach by a little climbing, I
gathered some large leaves, with which I covered the
outside of my wicker-work. Thus I contrived to make
a screen for my head, which the sun's rays could not
penetrate ; and I was as much pleased with this basket-
work umbrella, as ever any little girl was with a new
silk parasol.
The rest of the day I employed in making a bag to
hold any provisions I might be so happy as to find in
my excursion ; and having a good stock of pack-thread
by me, I thought I would net one with that. I took a
piece of reed, that grew in the marshy ground near the
sea, to form the meshes on; and fastened the end of the
string to a smooth twig six inches in length, for a needle;
and though it was very inconvenient to net with a long
string hanging about, instead of being wound up, as it is
on a proper netting-needle, yet, as I was an expert netter,
I managed with it; and before night, I had a good-sized
bag, with a string in the top, by which I could hang it
round my neck.
Having thus completed the preparations for my jour-
ney, I went to bed, slept well, and rose as soon as the
first rays of light made their way into my apartment. I
tied a large cord round my waist; into which I stuck
my stone mallet, and with my bag and umbrella I began
my day's march. I went first to the beach and break-
fasted on what I could find there; then to the group of

50 LAXS.

cocoa-nut trees, to furnish my bag with a nut, that I
might have something to eat at noon, if my morning's
walk should not lead me to a new stock of provisions.
The morning was delightful; the sun was rising in all
his glory, and appeared to ascend out of the sea. A
variety of birds were singing their morning songs, and
rejoicing at the return of light; the air was pure and re-
freshing, and the plants and flowering shrubs gave out
the sweetest scents. I walked cheerfully forward, on
my tour of discovery; but, as I was not yet assured
that the island did not contain beasts of prey or sava-
ges, I avoided, as much as possible, all forests and thick-
ets; and kept, as much as I could, on open ground,
which allowed of my looking around me. Unfortu-
nately, those high, open places were the barrenest spots
on the whole island, so that I walked a long way without
meeting with any thing that could repay me for my
trouble. Seeing some pretty flowers, that resembled
the convolvulus, and reminded me forcibly of my own
garden, in dear, distant England, I gathered several;
and, in pulling at the vine, I happened to pluck up the
roots; they looked a little like potatoes, and thinking
they might be eatable, I put a couple of them in my bag
with the flowers.
After wandering about all the forenoon, I felt the
want of food and rest; and having just arrived on the
banks of a pretty rivulet, I sat down under the shade of
a fine branching tree, with leaves like a laurel, to eat
the cocoa-nut I had brought with me. I had just begun
my repast, when, all at once, I heard a noise like the
trampling of many animals. I started up on my feet,
and seizing my stone mallet, and holding my umbrella
before me as a shield, I prepared to defend myself
against the attack of some wild beasts. I soon saw a
troop of four-legged creatures coming towards me; but
my alarm was turned at once to joy, on perceiving them
to be that most harmless and useful of animals, the lama
or Peruvian camel.
They trotted by, without appearing to see me, and


pursued their way to the rivulet, where I suppose they
were accustomed to drink. I watched their movements
unobserved. I had once seen a lama, in a collection of
wild beasts exhibited at York, and remembered read-
ing an account of the Peruvians taming them, and using
them as beasts of burden, just as Europeans do mules
and horses. I knew too that warm, soft clothing was
made from their hair or wool, and that their flesh was
excellent food. This thought brought with it a strong
desire to taste a piece of meat, which I had not done
for so long a time; and I determined to kill one of them,
if I could. For this purpose, I placed myself close to
the spot by which they had passed, partly hid behind a
tree, with my mallet in my hand, and waited their re-
turn from the rivulet. A young one happening to come
very near my place of concealment, I gave it such a
stroke on the back of its neck, as laid it dead at my feet
in a moment.
I never remembered, tillI had killed the lama, that I
had no fire to dress it by, nor the means of lighting one.
I had no flint, steel, matches, or tinder; and though I
could strike fire with two hard stones, I could make no
use of the spark, without some kind of tinder; and how
to procure that, I was entirely at a loss. I had read of
savages rubbing two dry sticks together till they take
fire ; and the moment I recollected that, I was satisfied
I could do the same, and therefore promised myself a
good meal of cooked meat that evening.
Having rested sufficiently, and eaten a cocoa-nut, I
prepared to carry home my dead game. If I could
have opened the body, as hunters do, and got rid of its
contents, my load would have been much lighter; but
the want of a knife, or any sharp instrument, made that
impossible; so 1 threw the whole carcass over my shoul-
der, and turned my steps homeward.
On my way, I made another agreeable discovery, and
that was, of a group of lemon trees; they had fruit and
blossoms on them, and some ripe lemons had fallen to
the ground; these I picked up and put in my bag. Af-

52 LAAs.

ter a long and warm walk, I reached the terrace with
my various acquisitions. My eagerness to eat a bit of
meat made me set to work directly to skin the lama.
But this I found impossible, with such a poor tool
as a stone wedge. After pulling and hacking away
at it for some time, I was obliged to content myself
with the tongue, which I succeeded in pulling out whole;
and I could not help smacking my lips, at the thought
of eating such a delicate morsel, as I knew that would
be, when cooked. I next set to work to kindle a fire
by rubbing two pieces of dry wood together, and ex-
pected to see it light at once. I rubbed so briskly that
the sweat ran down my face in large drops, but 1 could
not raise a spark; for when the wood was heated enough
to smoke, I was so tired I could not rub a moment lon-
ger. While I stopped to rest and recover my breath,
the wood cooled, and all my labor was lost. I worked
away in this manner a long time, and tried many differ-
ent kinds of wood, but all to no purpose. I could never
do more than make the wood smoke a little. At last I
gave up in despair, threw away my sticks, and lay down
on the grass exhausted and disappointed. I indulged in
many sad thoughts, and mourned bitterly over my lonely
condition. "If I only had a companion," said I to my-
self, he could rub when I was tired, and we should
soon procure fire; but alone here, I am worse off than
the savages."
After some time spent in these mournful reflections,
hunger made me think of eating the meat raw ; but on
trying it I found it so tough, I could hardly bite it, and
the taste was so unlike that of cooked meat, that I could
not relish it at all; and I went to my cave for the night,
feeling very hungry and tired and melancholy. Sleep,
however, soon came to my relief, and I forgot my
troubles for a while.
The first thing I thought of, on awaking the next
morning, was the flesh of the lama, which only wanted
a fire to make it delicious food. As 1 lay reflecting up-
on it, and trying to remember how savage nations cook


their meat, or prepare it without the use of fire, I recol-
lected having read an account of the Tartars putting
the meat, they mean to eat, under their saddles, and
cooking it by the heat of the horse's body, as they ride
along; this heat, I said to myself, may be given to the
meat in another way, as well as by the horse's back; so
up I jumped and began a new experiment in cookery.
I found two pieces of thin, fiat stone; between them I
placed the lama's tongue, and began to strike upon the
upper stone with my mallet. These blows I continued,
without intermission, for eight or ten minutes; and feel-
ing the stone grow hot, I went on striking it with re-
doubled activity for half an hour or more. By that
time, the meat had become, partly by the heat and part-
ly by the blows, quite tender and fit to eat; and to one,
who had not eaten any animal food for such a length
of time, it tasted very well. I was so hungry that the
lama's tongue did not half satisfy me; so 1 made great
exertions to pull off a part of the skin, and get a piece
of the flesh to cook in the same manner ; and at last I
succeeded. I made this still more palatable, by squeez-
ing a litde lemon juice over it; and the excellent meal
I now made, repaid me for all my labor. I ate it with
a thankful heart, and was greatly refreshed and strength-
ened by it.
I could not help feeling sad, when I reflected on the
helplessness occasioned by the want of a common pock-
et knife ; with that, I could have skinned the lama, and
saved the skin whole for various purposes. I could
have eaten my meat, too, much more comfortably, with
a knife to cut it, instead of tearing it to pieces with my
fingers and teeth, as I had been obliged to do. I turn-
ed my mind from these vain regrets, by thinking over
all I had read about the lama, and then a thought occur-
red to me which proved a most happy one. It struck
me that, as the lamas suckle their young, they must have
milk; and if I could catch one of the mothers alive, I
could use her milk as food, and have the pleasure of her
company too. Delighted with this idea, I was revolving


in my mind the best way to catch one, when a violent
shower of rain obliged me to shelter myself in the cave.
It was the first shower that had fallen since I was cast
upon the island; and though heavy dews and fogs had
partly supplied the place of rain, and prevented the
earth's being very much parched, I welcomed the show-
er, anticipating the pleasure of walking out after it was
over, and enjoying the freshness of every thing that had
been washed by it.
The rain became heavier every moment, till it seemed
to run in streams from the clouds, rather than to fall in
drops. I had never seen such rain before, but I had
read of its being common in the West Indies. Pres-
ently it began to thunder and lighten violently. -At each
flash the cave seemed illuminated, and after each blaze
of light there came such loud claps of thunder, as I had
never before heard.
I knew how useful storms are in clearing the air, and
that men and animals,trees and plants, are refreshed and
invigorated by them; therefore I was not sorry to see
one. I rejoiced that I had a cave to shelter me from
the rain, and only feared that my barrier might be un-
dermined by the floods of water that came down on all
all sides. I kept my eyes fixed upon it with some anx-
iety, and was very sorry to see some of the earth and
stones washed away ; but it happened very fortunately,
that there was one weak place, in this barrier, at which
the rain found a passage ; for otherwise, it would have
collected inside, till the quantity of water would have
been so great, as to carry away all my works of defence
at once. As it was, it made an opening for itself, and
ran off harmlessly.
The rain continued so long, that I was obliged to give
up all thoughts of making any excursion that day; but
as I sat in my cave, contemplating my barrier and the
breach made in it by the rain, I resolved not to close it
up entirely, as before, but to leave a space to pass in
and out, and secure it at night as well as I could. Nev-
er having had any alarm, from man or beast, since I had


been on the island, I began to think so much precaution
unnecessary. Also the convenience of a passage in and
out would be very great, and save my climbing the ladder
so often, and running round the hill to my terrace. In
the evening I made my gateway, and secured it with the
two oars I had, till I could get something better. Then
I went to bed, full of schemes for catching lamas with
nooses, as the Peruvians do wild horses, and dreamt all
night that I was in the midst of lamas, and horses, and


FULL of my new schemes, for catching lamas alive, I
rose with the sun, and began my preparations for break-
fasting on another piece of meat, cooked between stones,
as before; but the remaining flesh of the lama was spoil-
ed, the weather being extremely sultry when I killed it.
So I buried it, at a distance from my cave, and went to
the beach in search of other food. There I found, in
thecrevices- if I 1. I ... 1 round balls, that
looked like Et I .. .; 1..- 1 resembling parch-
ment. Supposing them to be the production of some
large sea-fowl, I sucked one of them, found it palatable
food, and made a very good breakfast in spite of my
disappointment about the meat. I then prepared a
noose in such a manner, that it should not choke the
lama, but only draw up to the size of its neck; and
throwing the rope over my shoulder, I marched off, ac-
coutred as before. The country was greatly improved
by the rain; all the vegetable world seemed clad in new
beauty, and the birds sang over my head more merrily
than ever. I now penetrated into the island by new
paths, and much more beautiful ones than I had before


seen. I crossed some very pretty valleys, abounding in
shrubs and flowers, berries and other kinds of fruits.
Some of these resembled a little the fruits I had been
accustomed to, in my own country, but most of them
were such as I had never before seen. The fear of
being poisoned could not restrain me from the tempting
banquet spread before me by the hand of nature, and I
ate without injury of several of the fruits.
Before the sun h. l.1 !i I i 1 ..- r i .-, r I'
course, I had crosse 1 111 i ..... .
eastand est (on I .1 .. i i i
penetrated several miles into the country, without seeing
any living creature except birds, or discovering the least
trace of any human being. I began to fear that, in
changing my course, I should miss of the lamas alto-
gether ; but being weary with my long walk and the
heat of the day, 1 resolved to rest myself at the first
shady place I should find. Seeing a winding river at a
little distance, 1 walked that way, and presently came to
a beautiful, wooded spot on its banks. From childhood
I had always admired and loved fine scenery, and this
taste was now a source of great pleasure to me. I laid
myself down on a smooth, grassy bank, and forgot for a
while my unhappy situation, in contemplating the beau-
ties of nature around me. But I never remained long
unemployed without having painful thoughts, and my
mind soon turned to the dear friends and sweet home
that were so far off; my tears began to flow, and there
is no knowing how long I might have indulged in un-
profitable sorrow, had not the well remembered sound
of the lamas' footsteps roused me to action.
Ijumped up, and had just time to place myself be-
hind a large tree, and adjust my noose properly, before
they appeared. I fixed my eye upon a mother with
two young ones following her; and as she moved gently
by my place of concealment, I had no difficulty in throw-
ing the loop over her head. The bound she gave on feel-
ing the rope touch her, drew it close round her throat,
and had well nigh pulled the end of it out of my hand.

Page 56.


Perceiving that her struggles would soon free her from
my hold, I made the end of the rope fast by giving it
a turnround the trunk of a small tree. Thus secured,
she jumped and pulled in vain, till she tired herself out.
The young ones played many pranks about her, wonder-
ing, no doubt, what ailed their poor mother. I sympa-
thized so much with her unwillingness to be made a cap-
tive, that I had serious thoughts of letting her go; but at
length I yielded to reason. Knowing how useful she
would be to me, and that she would, in time, be recon-
ciled to captivity, I resolved to lead her home if I could.
I might have caught as many as I pleased, for my
presence did not alarm them in the least; they passed
by me as unconcerned, as if I were a tree or a stone.
This should have satisfied me that the island was unin-
habited ; for whenever the power of man has been felt,
his approach is feared by all inferior animals.
The flock of lamas drank at the river, and then trot-
ted offagain into the woods; and when I thought my
prisoner was sufficiently exhausted to be manageable, I
began to lead her to her future home, while her kids
followed close after us.
At first she stepped along very quietly, and I began
to think I should have no more difficulty with her; but
she soon undeceived me, and began such a set of capers
that I was obliged to throw away my umbrella, and then,
with both hands, I could but just keep hold of the cord.
Sometimes she showed her anger by stamping on the
ground with her fore feet; then she would bound as
high as my head, and draw me along with such force as
nearly threw me down ; now and then she would stand
entirely still, and fix her large, dark eyes upon me, lay
back her ears, and spit in my face. 1 had seen an ani-
mal of this kind do the same thing before at a show of
wild beasts, or I might have supposed it a peculiar mark
of scorn and indignation at my treatment of her.
Occasionally she would allow me to lead her along
for some distance; but, at intervals during the whole
route, she was very refractory; and I was so worn out


with the exertions I had made, that when I reached my
terrace, I could only tie her to-a tree, and go at once to
my soft bed of hay, where falling asleep directly, my
whole night's rest seemed like one short nap.
I well remember that my first sensation on awaking
was hunger, for I had eaten nothing for twenty-four
hours but the eggs that I found on the rocks, and some
:11 i d n my long walk; and this was a
-'. '* ; I had taken so much exercise. I
rose, determined to kill one kid for present use, and by
so doing secure to myself a part of the mother's milk;
but when I joined my new companions, and saw the
pretty gambols and joyous faces of the young ones, and.
the subdued appearance of their captive mother, I could
not bring myself totake the life of either. I tried, how-
ever, to get some milk from the old one, but in vain; so
I supposed the rightful claimants, the kids, had been be-
forehand with me, and left nothing for their new master.
But I afterwards found that die lama withheld her milk
at pleasure; and it was not till she became tame, that I
could get a drop from her.
I went to the beach for a breakfast, and found more
of the same kind of eggs, and plenty of oysters; both
good kinds of food to eat raw. I was now convinced
that there was no danger of my starving to death, while
I had strength and health to obtain and eat the raw vi-
ands within my reach ; but still I foresaw many acci-
dents, that might happen, to cut off these resources. I
strnncl.r d-ir'd therefore, to have a stock of vegetables
-.j '. ... o .. .. ... cave, together with a flock of lamas,
and a fire to cook with. As I had already done more
towards making my situation tolerable, than I had at first
thought possible for a man to do alone and without tools,
I resolved not to despair of effecting a great deal more.
I now turned all my thoughts to the invention of some
method for obtaining a fire. I tried to make tinder of
dried leaves and decayed wood, and the ravelings of my
cotton stockings ; but none of these would take fire
from the sparks produced by striking together two pie-


ces of quartz; again and again I lamented my igno-
rance of the substance called spunk, used by the sailors
to light their cigars with. I remembered perfectly how
it looked, and thought from its appearance it must be a
marine plant. I therefore spent many hours looking for
it among the rocks and sea weed ; but all in vain. At
last, as I was one day in a thick wood looking for cocoa-
nuts, I seated myself under the shade of a fine branch-
ing tree of a kind unknown to me ; and, upon exam-
ining its bark, I saw, growing out of it, a fungus that
looked so exactly like spunk, 1 could not doubt that it
was the very thing I had been in search of. As I al-
ways carried two stones in my pocket that would strike
fire, I made the experiment at once ; but alas! without
success; every spark fell lifeless on the fungus. I was
disappointed, but not discouraged; it came into my
head that it might require to be dried before it was used.
I therefore looked about, to find some that had been
severed from the tree long enough to dry, or for a dead
tree, on which it might have grown and died with its
parent stem. The latter soon presented itself, and my
heart beat perceptibly quicker, as I struck the stones
together over this dry fungus, and found to my great joy
that it kindled immediately. With the lighted spunk, I
set fire to some dry leaves and broken twigs, that lay
about, and delighted my eyes with the sight of a blaze,
that I might fully realize the certainly that I possessed
that best of servants, and worst of masters "-a fire.
As I had nothing with me to cook, I suffered the fire
to burn out; but collected, very carefully, all the spunk
I could find, and carried it home. Having no meat in
my possession, and my three lamas being now such
pets that I could not bear to kill one of them, I went
to the beach for something to cook ; intending, if I
found nothing else, to gather some oysters and roast
As I reached the sands, I saw something on them like
a large roundish stone, where 1 had never remarked one
before; on approaching it, I perceived that it moved on


four legs; and when I overtook it, I found it to be a kind
of turtle, though not exactly like the green turtles, that
are brought to England from the West Indies.
I quickly stopped its march toward the sea, by turn-
ing it over on its back, which made it quite helpless.
Then, following its track tothe place it had just come from,
on the sands, I found, lightly covered, a large deposit of
the soft eggs, which I had eaten for birds' eggs, but
which, I was now convinced, belonged to this creature.
Having my bag by my side, I put several of them in
it, with sea-weed between, to prevent their breaking;
and then took the turtle on my shoulder, and walked
back to my terrace. I thought he weighed a good ma-
ny pounds, when I first lifted him up; and before I
reached home, his weight seemed doubled. I had
scarcely strength to ascend the terrace with him on my
shoulder, so much was I weakened by the want of nour-
ishing food, properly cooked.
From descriptions I had read of a kind of turtle or
tortoise, found in some of the South Sea islands, and
called terrapin, I knew this must be of the same kind,
and if so, very good to eat ; I was therefore determined
to kill him at once. and dress some of the meat. But
this was easier said than done; for he had drawnn his
head into his shell, and covered it so closely with his
hard, scaly legs, that it was impossible to get at it. His
legs, when drawn up, presented a tough, hard substance,
thatjust filled up the interstices of his shell; and made
him as invulnerable as a knight in complete armour. I
rolled him over and over, and tried every means I
could think of, to make him alter his position; but all in
vain. There he remained, inmoveably closed up ; well
knowing that his safety depended on his being perfectly
This was a most tantalizing situation for a hungry
man like me; if I had possessed a hatchet, I should
quickly have divided his upper from his lower shell; but
how to do that with my stone wedge and mallet Idid
not know. Disliking, however, to mangle the poor crea-


ture without killing him at once, I determined to make a
fire and roast my eggs, and let him alone a while longer.
In rummaging round for materials to light a fire with,
I found the roots which I had gathered long before, and
S1.: 1. 1 .-. 1 i. .:.ie like the convolvulus; these, I
I i.: ..I I : ...:. and having made a fine cheer-
ful fire, and got a good bed of ashes, I put them and the
eggs into it.
The eggs were done long before the roots, and as my
appetite was very keen, I could not wait for the whole
dinner to be served up at once, but began on the first
dish; and never did any thing taste so well to me. No
one ( ...... ,he luxury of eating cooked victuals,
who i.. .. i1. for months on raw provisions, as I
had done. To me these eggs, though of a coarse kind,
and eaten without salt, which they very much needed,
tasted deliciously ; and when I reflected on the various
benefits to be derived from fire, my heart overflowed
with gratitude to the Giver of all good gifts, for this great
When I had done my dinner, I found my boxed-up
friend had walked off, unobserved, to a considerable
dista. I..i .i as I came near him, he shut him-
self i I put him on his back, within my
enclosure, and left him.
I now set to work to make a fishing-net of the string
I had amused myself with spinning, at various times,
from the fibres of the nettle. I knew I could catch a
variety of fish, which, with the help of fire, would be
excellent eating, though quite useless to me without;
and as 1 lived near the sea, in which they abounded,
they would be a very convenient article of food.
1 let my fire burn out, and some hours after with-
drew the roots from the warm ashes, and found them a
most excellent vegetable, in texture like a potato, hut
much sweeter. Of these and a drink of lama's milk,
obtained for the first time, I made a most luxurious sup-
per ; and went to bed, in excellent spirits, and full of
schemes for the future.




THE first days, which I spent on this island, made
such a deep impression on my mind, that I can remem-
ber precisely what I did each day ; but as week after
week passed away, and I became accustomed to my
situation, I cannot so distinctly recollect the manner in
which my time was employed. Though I know the
order of events, I cannot now tell how many days pass-
ed, after I caught the live lamas, and before I found the
spunk, but I know it was several ; and during that time,
there were some little matters, which I have omitted to
put down in their proper place, but which I will now
Not knowing that lamas have stomachs somewhat
like camels, and that they do not drink often, I thought
it important to have a good watering-place for them; so
I put a large shell under the little stream, that flowed
out of the rock near my cave. This shell was at least
two feet long, and about sixteen inches broad, of an irreg-
ular oval shape, with deep notches in the margin, of a
pink color inside, and highly polished. The constant
flowing of the stream kept it full of water, and made it
run over at all these notches. It had thus a very pretty
effect, and doubly repaid me, by its beauty as well as
usefulness, for the hard tug I had in bringing it from the
beach to my terrace.
About the same time, I made myself a comfortable
seat, under the shade of a tree, near my pretty fountain,
by placing a piece of the plank that was washed ashore
from the wrecked boat, on some stones ; and there I fre-
quently sat, to enjoy the company of my dumb compan-
ions, the lamas, which had become quite tame. The
young ones soon followed me about, and put their noses


into my hand, to find if I had any berries for them, as I
often brought home from the woods such as I observed
them to be fond of. By robbing them of a little of their
mother's milk every day, they were soon weaned ; and
I had the full benefit of the old one's milk, which I used
to keep in cocoa-nut shells, and drink out of the same.
After I found the spunk, I was very desirous of eating
some roast meat, not only for the sake of its taste, but
because I hoped it would restore my strength, which
was considerably wasted ; so 1 went into the country
behind the hills, and killed a young lama, and brought
it home on my back. I thought the load would tire
me less than the exertion of leading it home; and, besides,
I knew that if I brought it home alive, I should be
unwilling to kill it at all.
The pleasure of eating this sort of food was dearly
bought; great was the trouble it cost me, to tear offa
part of the skin, divide the limbs, or get offa piece of
the flesh, without a knife, or edged tool of any sort,
unless my stone wedge may be so called. I was forced
to use my teeth and nails, and pull and tear the flesh
apart, which was so disagreeable to me, that I could
hardly bring myself to do it.
When I had at last succeeded in separating a proper
sized piece to roast, I made a good fire, in a sheltered
nook of the rocks, near my cave. I then took for a
spit a slender branch, and having run it through the meat,
I rested the ends on two forked sticks, stuck into the
ground before the fire. This was all done and the
meat began to scorch, before I remembered that it
ought to be basted with something, or it would burn on
the outside before it was done through. Having seen
my mother's cook use salt and water for this purpose, I
put my meat a little way back from the fire, while I ran
with two cocoa-nut shells, to the sea-side, for some salt
water. When I had brought it to the spot, I found a
dripping-pan was still wanting to complete my means of
cooking ; so, to supply that deficiency, I took my shell
shovel, washed it clean, and placed it under the meat,


while I poured on the salt water ; this soon mixed, in
the shell, wit the juices that dropped Lom the tm eat,
and made re. .. I 1., .
I made a ... I I I ticking a shell into a slit
in the end of a twig ; with this I Iasted the meat well,
allt tile tie it was roasting. It scemed to me to be a
great while cooking : partly, I suppose, nwi ill- to my
impatience, and partly in consequence of thie fie not
being enclosed, and tieLe being nothing round tie meat
to reflect tile heat oil tle side fardtest fon the fire, as
tile tiled screen does in im mother's Iitilesn. Consid-
erigi my sl'mder piepatation=, ihowe-rr, I performed the
duties of a cook to isy own isatilsthition entirely. Tle
Sil if tile wooed uns uitic to ly car, and tile
Si fire delighted lmea,i though its lieat made ihe
sweat rI1l1 dowil 1i1t ICe.
At last however, the meat seemed tlhoiouhly done ;
and fleor want ofla diih, l tooi .-pan, or
shell shovel, and placed i .. k for a
table. Without a knife, fork, or pilcte, I was obliged to
use my fingers and eat out otile dll : but iuntoer and
Swil reconcile one to mani things ; so I made
I tllese inconveniences, and tile inilt certainly
tasted better tian the best dressed diii tihat was ever
served up to me before. All that was \anling to make
the meal delicious, wa, bread and salt ; lose two com-
mon articles of food would now lhte been to me tlhe
grea'tst delicacies. Thle iiyet crnst, the blackest rye
bread that 1 ever saw in England', ould Il;ve been a
treat to me ; and I wondered that 1 had not valued
bread more hlcn at holrn.. I reIcleted lihat I had not
procured more oftlle excellent loots lersemtling potatoes
sweetened, and roas'tedii en to eat witl aly i elat; but
that was a luxury received for lnohiier time. Soon
afterwards, I made a business of gatl, I-.7- ,,n.
tity of those roots ; but, as tie line I .
and I was not well acquainted withl tile leaf, I had at
first some diliculty in finding it.
Remembering that tile Peiuvians use tie lama as a


beast of burthen, I determined to try to make mine
useful in that way. It was necessary to have some
contrivance for holding the load on the back of the
lama; so after a good deal of consideration, I thought
of attempting to make some panniers, such as are slung
over the backs of mules, in countries where those animals
carry all the burthens.
I found enough of the proper kind of willow for
wicker-work, .. .... ,. .. but I had great
difficulty in g ..... II .. .. I my purpose,
as the wood was very tough, and I had nothing to cut it
with. When once I had procured my stock, it was no
trouble to me to weave the panniers ; for I learned the
art of basket-making when a boy, and had not forgotten
how to set to work. To be sure, 1 had never woven
any thing of the shape I now wanted, with one flat side,
to go next the lama ; but I succeeded tolerably well,
and made a pair of panniers, that were pretty good
mates, and sufficiently strong and capacious.
These I slung over the back of the lama with a stout
cord ; and that this m;ght not hurt her, 1 put it over a
piece of bark with a stLffing of grass under it, like the
little saddle used in a cart-harness, and made all fast
with a string.
I had for some time accustomed the old lama to be
led about; and as I often took her to graze on the herbs
she liked best, she was always willing to accompany me.
But when I fastened the empty panniers on her back,
she was really frightened, and tried to run away from
them ; to prevent this, I made blinders for her, of bark,
and fastened them on with my cordage. This produced
the desired effect; for, though she was a little uneasy
at first, on feeling something on her back, she was not
alarmed by it. I accustomed her first to a small load,
and then to a heavier one, until by degrees she did all
the work I had occasion for.
With this excellent help, I brought to my cave a good
stock of the sweet potatoes, as I called them ; also ber-
ries and fruits and various kinds of nuts, besides cocoa-


nuts, that I found to be palatable food. I even made
.her bear one of her own species on her back, when I
had killed it for eating.
I hardly need say that 1 became very fond ofthis use-
ful creature, and often contrasted my first walk with her,
through the woods, with the journeys that we now made
together. The kids generally followed in our train, but
were not old enough to share our toils. Wild lamas
would sometimes approach us, when we were out on
these excursions, and show some astonishment at their
sister in harness ; but she took very little notice of them,
and seemed perfectly contented with her lot. The kids
would join the herd and sport with them awhile, but
soon left them again, to return to my side, which was a
proof of attachment that pleased me very much.
The affection of these animals was a great comfort to
me in my) solitude ; I used to talk to them just as if they
could understand me, and so try to cheat myself into a
belief, that they were more to me than their natures
were capable of. I had another reason for this ; I fear-
ed I might forget how to speak, if I did not practise; and
as I always hoped to be taken off the island by a pass-
ing vessel, I wished to be able to speak intelligibly.
Every Sunday, I used to recite aloud all the hymns and
chapters that I could remember ; and having learned a
good many, in my childhood, it kept me spouting for an
hour or more. At other times, I would repeat songs,
tell stories, and narrate my own adventures, for the sake
of practice. Any one who had heard me, and seen me
addressing my lamas as if they were human beings,
would certainly have thought me crazy.
My terrapin became one of my family, and finding I
no longer tried to injure him, he walked about, at his
ease, within my barrier. Occasionally I let him out on
the terrace, when the kids would try to play with him;
but his grave demeanor baffled them, and prevented any
The difficulty of preparing meat for eating made me
live a great deal on fish, and I succeeded very well in


contriving some fishing-tackle. I netted a bag and then
fastened it to a hoop made of a twig bent round ; this I
tried to tie to the flat end of an oar, but for want of a
notch in the oar, which I had no knife to make, the
string continually slipped off; instead, therefore, of the
oar, 1 was obliged to get a straight branch of a tree with
a small fork at the end. It was very difficult to sever
even this slender limb from the trunk without any iron
tool, but when I succeeded, it answered the purpose
nicely ; for I could put the hoop into the fork, and tie
each tine to the side of the hoop securely. With this
instrument I often scooped up three or four fine fish at
once, besides crabs, which I found to be excellent food
and easily cooked, for I could roast them in their shell
and eat them out of it. As I had no pot to boil any thing
in, I was obliged to roast all my fish, or cook them in the
Procuring and preparing food, with such small means
as I had of doing either, took up a great deal of time;
and every thing spoiled so quickly, in this warm climate,
that Icould do little more than provide for each day as it
came. It was, however, very happy for me, that I had
this constant employment; fir when I was not obliged to
exert myself, I spent hours in melancholy reverie, with
my eyes fixed on the ocean, hoping to spy out a sail.
During the first month of my solitary life, I was subject
to sudden changes in my feelings. After being very
busy and cheerful for a while, some trifle would re-
mind me of my misfortunes, and throw me into a state
of dejection that would last for hours. When worn out
with vain regrets, I used to turn my mind to God; and
when I lifted up my heavy heart to that ever-present
Friend, my sorrow would gradually subside. The more
I thought on the goodness of my Heavenly Father, the
more I loved him ; and with that love, came peace and
comfort to my soul. After experiencing this blessed re-
lief many times, I learned to seek it sooner, and thus my
fits of melancholy became shorter, and returned less fre-
quently; but what I suffered during that first summer


can never be told, or comprehended by any who have
not 1 .1 ,, I
% I1 I I I .. ..a island six months, by my
reckoning, I found it would be inconvenient to count the
weeks as they became more numerous and therefore I
added another column to niy calendar I ;--: ..-11.-i
tree and making a notch on that for I
But as I hoped to get away before it would be necessa-
ry to count years, I would not make any arrangements
for such a long period.
On first coming here, I found every thing in the beauty
of spring; the vegetable world was putting forth buds
and blossoms in October, just as it does in Apiil and
May, in England ; and knowing that, in southern lati-
tudes, seasons are reversed, I considered that I had
a long sumner before mie. In this, I was not mistaken.
For many months the weather was fine, tllouli rather
oppressively warn, rilh occasional thunder storms and
sudden gusts of wind, that blew for a few minutes, or
half an hour, and then were as suddenly over. But
when I had enjoyed this fine weather for six months, I
tiopn i rhl- inwhat soilt of change I mligt expect. The
Sand lemon trees, that I had Iound, con-
vinced me I need not tfar any cold weather; but I had
read of mild climates that wereu subject to long continu-
ed rains. Thinking that might be the case here, and re-
membering the torrents that fell during a thunder
storm, I determined to provide against such a time as
well as I could.
As I had not yet explored much of the island, or
found out half its resources, 1 resolved on making an
extensive tour while the fine weather lasted. It will
i I .1 .. have visited every
S 11 i i ich I was confined;
but several reasons prevented it. My shoes being
Sr blistered, and continued very ten-
S ii i esides this, I ahvays liked to bein
.i i .. i. ithe south side of tile island ; it
increased my sadness to go away from the coast, even for


a few hours. I feared, too, that there ---;-r -
the other side of thile ount;ais, which Ic i .
from the south patrt of the ilanid, and I dreaded discov-
ering myself to them. These, anl many other smaller
circumlstaices, hI1d lidlicrto kept lme fromla wandering
far; but now my lfil t \erte Ithardened by uLe, toy fears
were ally Id Iby Ilon coLntiinLued safelt, aod I was bent
on making tlih tour ofi tie i lid bIy thle coast, as well
as examining the interior. I therefore prepared Ibr an
excrttio o tvseiral datl
Mly i n! lli wias o!hi'n incoavesient ; so I nade a cap
of sickr--tik, and covered it very Ilickly ,ith leaves
to deitnd imn heai d l 6 the sun, anid contrived a briam
of leaves, liktsite, to blde mN eyes and neck. I also
made a palir of sllil]Cru pannelll s uil bhllders for the
young l1lis, illlad t hltIers abolmt their necks, and
pack-saddole, of bark and hay, on their backs. Having
trained themi fir t: few days belote I set tff, and found
them very tractable, I thouusht I could make theom carry
the pannieri allterintely, an;i lead thie one that was load-
ed, leaving the other at hlherty to follow, till her turn
calne. I took with l'e sotmte sprie -1 ;:- 7
Stone wede'e anid miallet, tand ; co( I I i
1. sp'unk and stones to strike fire with,
SI I he bag I wore suspendled round rnmy
neck. This wa all thi treasure I poisessed in the way
of imitpldemeltts except y shell shovel, and I resolved
not to leave that behind, eating I might want it in nmy
journey. I took a lfew baked potatoes with me, for pres-
ent use, (irutisg flo a further supply of eatables on the
way ; and l ihu p l'ard I set forwUard. But tile history
of this excursion deserves a fiesh chapter and a new
pen. I have written all the foregoing with tile same one,
lest my stock should not hold out; and without mending
it. as I have no penknife.




AmorGr other preparations for my journey, I had
climbed to the top of Signal Hill, to take a survey of the
country, and learn something of the coast, that might
serve to guide me in my course; but objects look so
differently, when viewed from a height, that I was not
much the wiser for my toilsome ascent. I discovered,
however, that the range of hills, on the south side of
which I lived, extended a good way to the eastward,
and that the land seemed to be in the form of a point or
promontory. As I had never been far in that direction,
1 resolved to take that course, and, by keeping along at
the foot of the hills, see where it would lead me.
Every thing favored my departure, and I set off in
excellent spirits, on this tour of observation and discov-
ery. I kept as near the coast on my right hand, as I
could without encountering rocks, for I wished to under-
stand the shape of the island and know all its bays and
coves; while the range of hills on my left was a general
After walking slowly about three hours, as well as I
could judge by the sun, the hills gradually disappeared,
and I came to a smooth, grassy cape, or ridge of land,
that sloped down to the coast on each side. The her-
bage here was short and sweet, so I let the lamas
graze, while I walked forward far enough to ascertain
that this point of land was really what it seemed. The
waves gently kissed the shore on each side, and the
stillness of the water, far and near, reminded me that it
wasjustly named the Pacific Ocean. There was not a
cloud in the sky, or a breath of air to be felt ; and as
the sun was now pretty high, the heat was oppressive.
Being satisfied that the cape terminated in a rocky point,


and that there was nothing further to be seen, I named
it the "Land's End," after the last corner I saw of old
England, which it somewhat resembled in shape; and
hastened back to my lamas, determined to seek a shady
spot, in which to rest myself and them.
I now followed the coast on the opposite side of the
cape, and soon found myself on the northern side of the
same range of ]ills. 1 then struck more inland, and
came to a narrow valley, that appeared to extend from
the hills to the coast, and to be full of trees, for 1 could
see their tops from the high land by which I approached
it; and I did not doubt that I should there find water
as well as shade.
The sound of a mountain stream saluted my ear, as
soon as I began to descend the wooded sides of this val-
ley; but what was my surprise and delight, when, from
a rock a few yards lower down, I beheld the prettiest
water-fall I ever saw !
A considerable stream leaped from a perpendicular
cliff, at the head of this dingle, into a large basin, formed
in the rocks many yards below; and then found its way,
by various romantic windings and lesser falls, to the sea.
The groves, on each side, were free from underwood,
and perfumed the air with their delicious odors. I
was lost in admiration at the great variety and beau-
ty of the trees around me; most of them were such
as I had either never seen, or seen only of a much
smaller size. Here were myrtles and laurels as large as
forest trees, besides lofty palms and numerous pimentos.
From every part of this last tree proceeded a grateful
perfume that filled the air. In an account I once read
of Jamaica, there was a particular description of the
pimento, by which I knew it as soon as I saw and smelt
it; itis much valued there for its seeds, which are used
as spice all over Europe, and called in England allsice,
or Jamaica pepper. The trees were now in fruit;
and I determined to return here when the time came
for gathering the berries, and supply myself with a stock
of spice, to season my food with, instead of salt.


lWhere the stream ran smoothly along, its banks were
of the most vivid green, interspersed with flowers of
valiols lines. Such a scene of enchantment I never
before beheld; and I si ed to tohilk, that there was no
human being to admire it witl me; no one, to whom I
could say, "' How beautiful this is !"
The impatience of i- dumb compianious to reach a
particular kind of hblilae, tli;t grew near tle water,
aroused ile froinl nly leriie ; a;id I ncconmpanied thelm
to a part of the stire-, liiere it, dI s-o suituce was
unbroken by a rippic a; nod n one oudii have uipected

a sticl,, Iloiiin upon it, showed thel rie at lich it
Here I unloaded the la mas, and give tihem their lib-
ernt hlile 1 relfrced li l nln lhlh ime of t older
ones nulk, and thie loatd potzaloes I had brought with
me ; anid ;lt the siine ilice I n-ild im c5 os on tiie beau-
ties around me, m:d ihou-:ht of my learu nutmie land ind
her smiling I nudIsI
At fitst, I should be I tppier for livtin in
tis dclightrfi ; bti, on furli t!ri consideration, I
knew I coi i ali r bea r to be olu of b4igbt of those
widee actcrs." tnuds ahich I constl'nly looked for
deli-cr;ince rom;i m so!iiLud. 3' lhst and last act,
ere day, was to cinb, I. y rople ladder, to the high
land abimie theu ci, end lok out lbr a vessl ; the bare
possibility of ecipec -..s more to ime, than all this fine
scenery, uniil as I tudired it. So I resolved to con-
tinue lly residence ait lle cave, but to make frequent
visits to tlis iomanitic siit : and in imitation of other trav-
ellers, who give names to tie places they discover, I
called this Gordon Vale, in remembrance of my late
excellent fiend and commander.
Having eaten my dinner. I fell asleep, and so passed
awy twnrest o tlerll par or e day. Ol awraking, 1 found
my ilithfil attendants sleeping close by me, and the
leni of one '' leg. The attachment and
confidence, I 1 1, was a cordial to my heart,


and brought tears to my eyes. As soon as I moved,
they started up and seemed as eady as I was, to con-
tinue their journey.
I reloaded tlhe, and went down the vale to the coast,
where the mountain stream emptied itself into a pretty
little sheltered bay, and was so shallow we could easily
ford it.
I followed the sweep of the bay, and was examining
some curious sea-weed, such as I had not before seen,
when a most unexpected --1 C. I my eyes -frag-
ments of sailos' clothes, ., I. I wore, and numner-
otis human bones lying among them. I was convinced
that I here sa thel remains of my own shipmates, whose
bodies hlad lloaltd ashore, and been quickly consumed
by birds osf ltrcy and insects.
I could not, at first, account for the clothes being so
torn ; but, tiecr a while, I supposed it to be done by the
birds of prey, in older to come at the flesh within them.
The pieces \hlich hl baduttons on them, I picked upo and
threw into my panniers, also tile shoes, though a good
deal injured by salt tsuter and the sun. I then set to
work. to bury the hones, and the rest of the fragments.
This I dli, out or respect to tile memory of my former
companions, and for my o\n satisfaction; for to them
I knew it coldd not be of the least consequence.
While working, sorrowfully enough, at putting the
bones into a grave, dug for the purpose with my shell
shovel, I made a most valuable discovery ; it was noth-
ing less than a jack-knfe I I found it still tied, in true
sailor fashion, t I 1 I r i 1 No one can
at all imagine sessionn of this
knife, all rusty as it was, unless situated like me ; which
I hope no one ever will be. My joy seemed too much
for me ; and being already a good deal overcome by my
occupation, I cr:ed and laughed by turns, like a fool.
Finding this treasure put it in my head to look for
other articles that might be in the pockets, or fallen out
among tie bones ; and I was happy enough to pick up
another knife, a better one than the first, three tobacco-

74 GonowN BAY.

boxes and a broken watch, with chain, key, and seal,
which I knew to be the captain's. This made my tears
flow afresh, as it convinced me that some of the bones,
I was then burying, had belonged to my excellent com-
I also found some Spanish dollars and half-dollars, but
they were so perfectly useless to me, I hardly thought
it worth while to pick them up ; and I could not help
saying aloud, as 1 compared the real value of silver and
iron, I would not exchange one of my rusty iron
knives, for a hundred pounds of silver, or of gold either."
I wondered that men should ever set such a value
upon those metals ; not considering at that moment, as
I now do, that they are valued, when coined into money,
as the representatives of useful articles of food, clothing,
&c.; a convenient kind of substitute, that can always be
exchanged for the necessaries of life, among civilized
When I had finished burying the remains of my com-
panions, I collected all I had reserved for my own use;
and having carefully secured my precious knives and the
watch, I threw the rest into my panniers, only putting
the money into the tobacco-boxes.
I then marched off from Gordon Vale and Gordon
Bay, well satisfied with the names I had given to those
places, and feeling very rich in my new acquisitions.
Finding these bodies on this side of the island, made
me think it likely I might discover others, as well as
parts of the wrecked boat, and perhaps of the ship Santa
Maria herself; as she disappeared from the sand bank,
the night after I reached the island, when the wind blew
very hard for two or three hours, and was probably
dashed to pieces. I now followed the coast closer than
ever ; and visited every part that looked like a bay, or
inlet, or cove, where I thought it likely any thing might
be washed on shore. But though two hours'walking
brought me to another small bay, I found nothing but
some pieces of plank, too heavy for me to carry away ;
these I dragged a little farther from the water that they


might not float away, in case I should want them at
some future time ; and carefully extracting all I could
of the rusty nails, that were sticking in them, I tied
them up in a piece of cloth so as not to lose one of
them ; well knowing the value of iron, and of any thing
sharp-pointed, like a nail.
I now thought it was time to look for a sheltered spot
to spend the night in, as well as for some provisions for
my supper. My fishing-net soon procured me a crab,
and two or three fishes ; these I put in my panniers, lest
the land productions, of this part of the island should
not serve me for food ; and then, having determined to
call this second bay Nail Cove, I turned my steps inland,
and left the seashore for that day.
A beautiful wood, the top of which was illumined by
the red glow of the setting sun, looked very inviting; and
I made my way to it over a plain covered with grass as
high as my shoulders, which was very tiresome walking.
The lamus would not go first, to beat a path for me;
they knew better, and chose to follow in my wake.*
This high grass was very dry, and looked a little like
a ripe crop of oats ; for the seeds grew on the top of the
stalks in the manner of oats, only smaller. They some-
times thrashed my lips as I passed along, and I found
they had quite a good, farinaceous taste; so I put
some of them in my pocket, hoping to make them grow
near my cave, and improve by cultivation, but they
never came to any thing.
After walking at least three quarters of a mile through
this high grass, I came to a little sluggish stream, which
separated me from the wood where I intended to sleep;
but, as the banks of it afforded some sweet herbage for
my companions, 1 altered my mind, and resolved to pass
the night on this side of it. A dry, gravelly bank prom-
ised me a good place to sleep on, as I had now little
fear of man or beast; and plenty of dry wood, lying
about, offered me die means of making fire.
The track a vessel leaves in the water.


I congratulated myself on having brought my supper
with me, from the seashore, as I here saw nothing
eatable, e-pt -,nme rne,-ne tin- t rl,- in the brook. I
unloaded 11 in 1 ie, and set them
all at liberty to get their own meal, while I cooked mine.
But I soon found, that this would prove no place of rest
for me, for I was beset by mosquitos on cverv side;
the first I had met with on the island, and coining no
doubt from some i.:..... waters, near this sluggish
stream, which was .1 the mountain torrents and
sp 1'..l. 1 1I .,] *..l1 I .. ",1 hastened
Si .. ii i .. elf from the
attacks ofthese tormenting insects, by getting to leeward *
of the smoke. I roasted my crab, and tried to eat it,
but could not enjoy my supper, on account of the mos-
quitos; and I determined to quit the spot, before I
attempted to sleep. The moon was just risen, and by
her light I found my :.1. ...,. 1 1 1 .. .
the stream, which I .1i i i1 1 t i ;. I ,
without difficulty that I crossed, as there was a good deal
of mud and soft ground on each side. A cloud of
mosquitos still followed me, and I feared I should not
get rid of them by changing my quarters; but as I
ascended the high ground opposite, a brisk wind sud-
denly arose, and delivered me at once from my tormen-
tors. A long, barren slope led from the river to the
wood, which clothed the side of the hill; and, on reach-
ing the skirts of it, I turned to see the prospect, and had
a very fine view of the country below. I now perceived,
that in crossing the plain of high grass, I had had the
mouth of a large river on my right; into which, the small
stream, that I had just crossed, emptied itself.
Being very much fit;-lr-, hvd m," day's march, I
threw myself down on i i.. ....I sheltered spot I
could find ; and my lamas were no sooner unloaded,
than they did the same. I observed that the, never
f...] .' .1. .1.' .1 1 .. 1. .....t .. 1 .. :., t at

The side towards which the wind blows.


I soon lost all consciousness of where I was, in a deep
slumber; how long it continued, or what awaked me, I
know not ; but on opening my eyes I beheld a most
appalling sight. Vast clouds of smoke and sheets of
flame, were rolling over the plain below. I rubbed my
eyes and stood up, to convince myself 1 was really
awake ; and then gazed, in silent amazement, at the
wide-spreading conflagration, so suddenly and unac-
countably kindled. A gentle breeze fanned die flame,
and carried it over the plain at a rapid rate. It was a
grand sight, and accompanied by such a loud, crackling,
roaring noise, as made it quite awful. As I gazed upon
it, I shuddered to think how little the power of man
could do, to arrest the progress of such a fire as this;
:.,1 I i i :.., .I r my own safety, which I thought I
I...* i i., .o those tormenting mosquitos, that
drove me across the river.
I watched the progress of the fire, till it had swept
across the plain, and I : .. to diminish for want of the
dry fuel it had there i ; and when it was almost er-
tinct, I dropped asleep again, from exhaustion of mind
and body.



MY second day's journey was so much less remarka-
ble than the first, that I do not remember half so much
about it. One thing, however, I must not omit to no-
tice, and that is, my discovering the cause of the fire, the
night before. In the morning, the plain presented a dis-
mal appearance, blackened all over by the burnt stalks
of grass ; and as I gazed at it, I observed that this black
appearance extended, in one place, to the gravelly bank,


by the side of which I lighted my fire. The truth then
flashed on my mind. The fire had been communicated
by dried leaves and sticks, that lay on the top
of the bank, to the grass on the plain, and I was
myself the innocent cause of the destruction I had
witnessed. I resolved to take a lesson of caution,
for the future, from this accident, and never again to
leave a large blazing fire to burn out unheeded.
On crossing the top of the wooded hill, on the south-
east side of which I had passed the night, and coming to
, : -... .. .i. t ..- themonthof
i...i. I i -,. .. i ... 1.i t was flowing
.,- I 1 .. ...led on each
side by more woody mountains, than any I had yet seen.
I spent the whole day in this .valley ; travelling, some-
times in a forest, sometimes on open ground, and often
1. .. without perceiving it; till 1 came to
ai. .i:1 i. h I could see the river, the course of
which I was trying to pursue. The beauty of several
small valleys tempted me to explore them, and delayed
me some I--r- --i -- -bi-- to see as much
as I could ii .. I At night-fall,
I found i .. *" I .1 I here a sudden
bend of the river to the west seemed to enclose it entirely.
A dry nook, among some shelering rocks, with a bed of
fern leaves, received my weary limbs, after a light sup-
per of milk and berries; and undisturbed repose restored
my vigor for the morrow.
My interest in exploring the country increased as I
proceeded; and though travelling where there are no
roads or paths, is very hard work ; and depending for
food on wh a one can find, is a very uncertain way of
living, I enjoyed myself more, during this journey, than
at any time since I was wrecked.
My third day's journey was entirely among the moun-
tains. As I could not cross the river with my loaded
lamas, I followed its course among the hills; and was
rewarded for my pains, by discovering new and beauti-
ful productions.


Of various trees, that met my view, and were entirely
new to me, one kind particularly attracted my attention.
It was as large as a middling-sized oak, but with a
straight trunk. The branches came out very regularly
and horizontally from it, on every side, beginning about
twelve feet from the ground ; the lower ones being the
longest, and the next set of branches shorter, and so on,
up to the top. The shape of the tree was beautifully reg-
ular. The leaves were about a foot and a half long,
very thick and soft, and yielded a milky juice, when
squeezed. The fruit of this superb tree was as remark-
able as the foliage; large, pale green balls hung from every
part of it, heart-shaped, and of the size of a child's head.
I never saw a richer looking fruit ; but whether it was
eatable or not, I did not know ; and I determined, that
if it were possible, I would handle as well as see it. I
could not climb the bare trunk, and so get to the
branches, and thence to the fruit ; what then was to
be done ? I threw stones at the fruit, to knock it down,
as I did cocoa-nuts; but it was too tender to bear a
blow without injury, and too firmly fixed to the stalk to
fall off. At aist I thought of a way of getting at
it. I threw the end of a rope over one of the long
horizontal branches, and having pulled it down within
myreach, gathered several specimens of the fruit. It
had a thin skin ; and on breaking it open, I found a
substance more like new bread, than any thing else ;
it had very little taste, and that was sweetish. The
sight of it reminded me strongly of the wheat bread in
my father's house, and made me long for a slice of it
very much. While thinking about it, it popped into
my head that I had heard or read of a tree, called the
bread-fruit tree ; and that this might be it. As the fruit
was not very palatable when raw, I resolved to try it
cooked ; for it looked so good, I thought it must be eatable.
Being about the time that I usually dined and rested,
I unloaded my lamas, and kindled a fire with my spunk.
This fruit seemed too tender to bear baking in the ashes,
and as I had no utensil for boiling, I tried roasting it.


Every few minutes, I cut out a little piece with my
knife, and tasted it, to find out what effect the fire had
on it. Every time I tasted, it was improved ; till at
last it was so like bread, that I could no longer doubt it
was the true bread-fruit, and that I had made a
very valuable discovery. With this bread, and the
lama's milk, I made an excellent meal; and before leav-
ing the spot, I gathered enough to load my lamas, with
what was already in their panniers.
I amused myself, as I went along, with cutting sticks
with my new found tool, the jack-knife ; and prom-
ised myself great advantages from it, when I should
return to my cave, and have leisure to clean off the rust
and sharpen it on a stone. I slept the third night in a
pretty grove of trees, on the side of a hill, surround-
ed by mountains. I did not fall asleep immediately,
but lay on a bed of dry leaves, looking at the moon and
stars. Nothing made me feel the great distance which
separated me from my friends, more than the appear-
ance of the heavens in a clear night. Instead of the
Great and Little Bear, and all those familiar constella-
tions, I beheld a large assemblage of stars, that were
entirely new to me; I could only distinguish among the
polar constellations that called the Cross. While gazing
on its brilliant stars, my thoughts turned on dear Eng-
land and those I loved there, and suddenly it crossed
my mind that a vessel might pass the island, without my
knowing it, while I was so far inland, and that I might
thus lose an opportunity of escape from solitude. Theidea
made me miserable for a while ; I blamed myself for
ever leaving the coast, and wished myself back at my
cave so much, that I could hardly wait for daylight, to
return. After fretting and lamenting for some time, I
began to consider whether I was not wrong in making
myself unhappy in this way; and then I thought over the
great advantages I had gained by my excursion, and was
quite ashamed of myself. Before I went to sleep, I
settled it in my own mind, that I had nothing to regret
in having taken this journey; but that it was time for


me to turn my steps towards my cave, and find my way
back again to the coast.
I was awakened, the next morning, by strange noises
that mingled in my dreams, before they roused me
entirely ; when quite awake, I could not tell what to
make of them, until I discovered a tree, at some little
distance, covered with parrots, that seemed to be hold-
ing a council, in which all were talkers and none hear-
I wished to catch one of these parrots alive, and carry
it home with me, that I might teach it to talk, and so
have the pleasure of hearing a few words uttered by a
different voice from my own. For this purpose, Ihastily
made some loops of twine, with slip-knots, and fastened
them to the ground by suitable stakes, cut with my jack-
knife; then I strewed some crumbs of bread-fruit over
them for bait, and withdrew to eat my breakfast, and
watch the effect of my gins, from a distance. But
though the saucy creatures came and ate up the crumbs,
and looked very knowingly at the loops and sticks; they
walked over the string, without happening to catch their
feet in one of the loops, and I was too anxious to reach
the seashore, to spend any more time in ensnaring par-
rots. But I named the grove after them ; and resumed
my walk, as soon as I had finished my breakfast and
loaded my lamas.
I now kept the rising sun on my left hand, and march-
ed directly south, knowing that my cave must he in that
direction ; and as I had been travelling in a northwest-
erly course, ever since I left the Land's End, I thought
it would be but a short cut, across the country, to my
abode on the terrace. I found it, however, a much
longerjourney than I expected; for, though the distance
was not great, the nature of the ground was such, that I
was three days in accomplishing it. The first day I was
entirely among mountains ; and they so bewildered me,
that I frequently walked many miles out of my way. At
night I took up my quarters by the side of a considerable
river, which ran across my path, and effectually pre-


vented my going any farther in that direction. I stretch-
ed my weary limbs on a grassy bank, and had not
yet fallen asleep, but was looking at the stars, and
observing the stllness of the night and clearness of the
atmosphere, when every nerve in me was shaken by a
loud crashing noise, such as I never before heard. It
reverberated among the mountains in the most solemn
manner, and then died away, Inl-inki tie stillness that
succeeded most striking and i i i : It was some
lime before I could breathe freely, and when I recovered
my composure, I I (I by the remarkable still-
ness of tho niiih I I had experienced before,
but the loud noise was new to me. I could not under-
stand it for some e ; but as I knew it must have a
natural cause, I tried to think what it could be. At last
I came to the counlusion, that it must be either a fall-
ing rock, or a fiing tree ; and as it had not affected my
safety. I ie soh ld not to be kept awake by it. After
asking tli- protection of God for the night, I fell asleep
and restld well.
In the iornti, I sucvee. C ii 1 1 r e riv-
er for sonue plc siall c for,
though I roild .esily hare sv .i n and
so could im l ania too, wilout their loads, I was obliged
to devise some means of taking my goods and chattels
over. Tie store am was deep and rapid, and there was
no possibility of it thereabouts ; so we were
forced to turn out I eastward, and go up the valley
by the side of tie river. I soon found that it took a
bend to the south, which favored my course ; and by
going orer a hihli hill, I got rid of the river, and saw no
more of it. But the precipices and chasms, that I met
with, frequently turned me out of my way, and prevented
my getting nmuch nearer the coast, after a long and
fatiguing day's march. I lived, I i- of my
brad-fruit and mill ii. i .. I day I
I from my direct southerly course, by a
fertile looking plain to the west ; and there I met with a
rich reward for all my toilsome journey over the moun-


tains, an abundance of fine ripe grapes, on which
I feasted both my eyes and palate, and found them
very refreshing. The vines hung in beautiful fes-
toons from tree to tree, or covered, with their rich
foliage and fruit, the smaller bushes and shrubs that
grew in their way. Numerous trees, such as I iad seen
elsewhere, and many that were new to me, adorn-
ed this beautiful plain, which was bordered on the
north and south by a river, on the east by the mota-
tains, and extended to the west further than I had time
to go. I was very desirous oftaking away with me some
of these delicious grapes ; ut how to carry them, with-
out crushing them by their own : .. I i.t .i
At last I thought of tying some i .
the panniers on the inside, and i 1 i I
a snill supply, resolving to go there again very soon
and procure more. I also gathered some ripe lemons
on this luxuriant spot, which 1 called my vineyard. The
river that lay to the south of this plain, intercepted my
c~ I 1 1 to go up its banks till
I 1 'I.. i i .:h i to ford it. I now
approached the r-o- -f hills on the soul side of which
Ilsi i i .. .. 1. .
This .
sessed of a knife, I longed much to eat some loast meat,
properly cut and carved. Yet I had neither time nor
strength to go out of my way in search of them. At-
tracted by the tame lamas, they came ve:y near us, and
seemed to be observing the difference between these
loaded animals and themselves. I tlicreare had no
difficulty in knocking down a young one with my stone
mallet. On seeing their comrade tail, they all took to
their heels and scampered offamong the hills.
I shall never forget the satisfaction 1 felt in having a
sharp instrument, with which to c tr open the Jama and
take out the contents of the body. I put it across the
back of the unloaded kid, and tied the feet under her.
Soon afterwards, I reached a part of the hill where I
had frequently been before, and felt something of the


pleasure that travellers do, on approaching their homes;
though mine was nothing but a cave on a desert island,
and contained no friend to greet me on my return.
When I came over tie brow of the hill on which 1 lived,
n-1. ---.. ...r -I:ht of the ocean and the beach on
* I ..I. I.. ..I my heart swelled with a variety of
emotions that caused me a flood of tears; and I should
have thrown myself down on tie grass, and in~-I.-1 i- i
long and painful reverie, had not the necessi. 11
ing my lamas, who swere ., : 1 i.
well known home, obliged I i
The sight of my flourishing hedge, pretty foun-
tain, and comfortable retreat, the cave, awakened better
feelings, and made m i .
abode ; and when I i .... i
acquired in my excursion, I became quite cheerful.
Being very huligly and in need of nourishing food, I
resolved to have a mleat supper ; so I set about skin-
ning the dead lanma wlth my jack-knife, while it was yet
light enough for ne to see to do it. I crt off a good
slice of the hannch and roasted it as well as I could
without any salt water to baste it will ; and having season-
ed it with lemon juice. I ate it with a good relish ; all the
better too Cf- P. i-' a knife to cut it with, and some
roasted .., to eat with it. This was the best
meal I had) et made on the island ; and after my long
privations it seemed so excellent, that 1 thought nothing
could be better. The business of preparing my supper
had driven away all sad thoughts ; I ate it with a thank-
ful heart, and went to bed composed I li-r
When I lay down on my bed of .. i r ir ..; r
under me tilAt never was there before ; and on thrust-
ing my hand through the hay to feel what it could be, I
V : .. 1 I i I I,. verrapin He had probably
.or one of his long naps of
S ,i expected to be disturbed
till bh was ready to come folth; but I soon showed him
the way out of m sleeping apartment, and covered him
up witi hay in a nook outside of the cave.


It was not time yet for the terrapin to lie dormant, as
his brethren were to be seen walking about the shores;
but I suppose that, being a prisoner and deprived of his
usual walks, he betook himself to sleep, because he had
nothing else to do.



THE morning after my return from my journey, I
spent in overhauling the treasure, of various kinds, that I
had brought home with me. Different ledges of rock,
in my cave, served for shelves; on these I arranged my
bread-fruit, and stowed away my tobacco-boxes filled
with silver coin, and the old shoes and pieces of clothing
and nails, that I had picked up in Gordon Bay and Nail
Cove. The bunches of grapes, I hung up in the sun to
dry ; and took care to put them out of the reach of the la-
mas, who liked grapes as well as their master. My
precious jack-knives I kept always about me, well se-
cured to button-holes, that I might not lose them in any
of my walks and jumps. With one of them, I cut
some small stakes, and stretched out the lama's skin on
the grass, that it might dry in the sun, and be of some
service to me afterwards. *
I found it took up so much time to cook victuals three
times a day, that I now dressed enough at once to make
several meals, and ate it cold. As long as the lama's
flesh lasted, I desired nothing but that and the bread-
fruit. I found, however, that large portion of the meat
spoiled before I could eat it, and I tried to invent some
way of preserving it; which, as I had no salt, was very


I remembered having read, that the Peruvians cut up
their I n- I .. : .
and I t. ii1.. ir ,i .
I suppose, to the air being moister here than in Peru,
where it is remarkably dry. I next tried to make the
water of the ocean answer instead of brine. 1 put a
piece of meat in a hollow of the lock, ihiclh I filled with
salt water by means of a capital dipper, made with four
cocoa-nut shells, tied upon an oar ; with this I soon
baled up water enough to fill the hollow, and having
put the meat in, I aud a clean stone on it to keep it
under water. IT "' i 1 .. in the open air,
but not long e. I I I a stock of pro-
visions so cured.
The day that I was disappointed, by the meat's spoil-
inm whiich was in salt warte, found, on the shore, a fine.

.ice, a. .i.. .t i i ,i I I .
ture, and pinned his I
such a inucer, that he could not draw r it into lis shell,
and ihen I easily severed it from his body with my jack-
knile. The nounrIing food I had lately eaten, had so
restored my stlcngth, that I easily shouldered this heavy
terrapin, and carried him to my terrace. There I cut
open his shell and cooked some of the fiesi, hichi I
found to be delicious food, of a much finer flavor than
the lama, and so much iftter, that I was at no loss for
any thing to baste it with. I had found a deep recess in
the rock, near my cave, where I made my fire. Being
sheltered from the wind, it burnt pretty steadiJl, and a
good quantity of ashes retained the heat, and enabled me
to roast and bake pretty well. Still I was gently in
want of cooking utensils, and, next to a knife, an iron pot
would have been *i- -tI-t 7i-:- t m
Having cooked I I .1 ., i could eat
S- i I i. i. ., ,. t should
i i I 1 i i i 1i i dowith
S i i .. ... ke, that
... ii. ..I .: ii ide of a

Page 86.

:--- i ;-!- ---tf -;--11- --..-einto myhead, thatI
S. I .When I had once
I i I I i i.t had not occurred to
r .ii. ii bacon smoked in tlhe
chimncn of my faihei's kitchen ; and though they were
salted first, I trusted that the smoke miiht do without the
As I could not drive nails into tl 1-- the
meat on, 1 ixed two poles, one on e I I I I fire,
and ilmnde ihe ends meet above it, high enough not to
burn, and low enough for the meat, suspended between
tlenl, to bang in the thickest of tie smoke. I selected
the leanest pait of the terrapin to dry; -n' I-- ;-;
it up. and made a good fire under it, I i i i.1
by melting it in my shovel and pouring it wile hot into
a cocoa-nut shell. This I thought would do to baste a
lean lama, or might be used as butter with the bread-
fruit or sLweet potato, uben I was too busy to prepare a
dish of meat. It never served me for either of these
purposes, but proved far nnre valuable in another way,
as will appear hereafter. Tile upper shell of the terra-
pin, which was very rounding, I scraped out clean, and
set in the sun to dry. It made me an excellent vessel,
fit for various uses; and the under shell, which was
nearly flat, I prepared in the same way, and employed as
a plate.
i r 1" : tI 1 well, tatImadesev-
S* .I i, ler to get their meat
and prepare a stock of provisions for the winter, before
the fine weather should be over. I found the lamas had
S, I a and my tame companions. I was
I i i. I ,end hours in ambush, in order to get
*i.. I I one. Sometimes I attempted to run
down a young one; and as my activity and speed increas-
ed much with practice, I was soon able to catch them
in this way. I kept some alive and increased my flock
of tame ones, as well as added to my store of smoked
meat. Bet . r I.': h I be-
came very f ..I i .. I :... :... .. afresh

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