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Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072759/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe who was shipwrecked on an uninhabited island, near the mouth of the great River Oroonoque, where he resided twenty-eight years : with an account of his travels through various parts of the world
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 370, 1 p., 5 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Kelly, Thomas ( Publisher )
Clowes, William, 1779-1847 ( Printer )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: For Thomas Kelly
Place of Publication: London (No. 17 Paternoster-Row)
Manufacturer: W. Clowes
Publication Date: 1829
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1829   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 222, but not listed as a reissue.
General Note: Added ill. t.p. with imprint: Published by Thomas Kelly, Paternoster Row, June 27 1818.
General Note: On t.p.: Two volumes in one.
General Note: Plates have legend: London Pubd Oct. 18 1817-Jan. 24 1818 by T. Kelly, Paternoster Row.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072759
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27566787

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Title Page
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    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe: Volume the first
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    The journal
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    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe: Volume the second
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    List of Illustrations
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Full Text

*oubmson Crupsoe h'avtu thrown xMnley overboard efapes fromBS

*C. lR--y d U .fi .


--r t~T,/a~~
~ t~~" ~2~( ?
~U-blUShpd b7Ti~0ZBs Z~li~;P1''--o~.;cr;io. ~ .=e ~:181R .




tiobtnon tetruoe;



Near the Mouth of the great Riv Oroooque,













IF ever the story of any private man's adventures in the world were
worth making public, and were acceptable when published, the Editor
of this account thinks this will be so.

The wonders of this man's life exceeded all that (he thinks) is to be
found extant the life of one man being scarcely capable of a greater

The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and with a religious
application of events to the uses to which wise men always apply them,
viz., to the instruction of others by their example, and to justify and
nonour the wisdom of Providence in all the variety of our circum-
stances, let them happen how they will.

The Editor believes the thing to be just history of facts; neither
is there any appearance of fiction in it; and however thinks, because
all such things are disputed, that the improvement of it, as well to
the diversion as to the instruction of the reader, will be the same; and'
as such, he thinks, without further compliment to the world, he does
them a great service in the publication.




Mtobinmon eruaoc.

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though
not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving off his trade,
lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption 0
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more
than my father and mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my in-
clination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my. mother and
other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into
his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very
warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than
a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house, and my native

country, here I might be will introduiMed, ;ld had a prospect of raising
my fortune by appl, ettio and industry, with a hife of ease and pleasure. He
told me it wais for men of desperate fortunes, on one hard, or of aspiring
superior fortunes, on the other, ihlo iweht abroad upon adventures, to rise
by enterprise, and make thmiiiches famous iin uridertakings of a nature out
of the omtnno road ; that th se thligs were all either too for above me, or
too far below me; that mine was the riddle state, or what might be called
the upper station of low hif, which tie had found, by long experience, was
tie best stale inl thle world, tie most suited to hum;ian happiness, not exposed
to thie miseries ani hardshlips, the labour ald stfferings of the melhamic part
of mankiin, ano not embarrased is th tlhe pride, hlxury, ambition, and envy
of the upprr part of rmailkind: tie told me, 1 might judge of the happiness of
this state by one thig, viz. that this a tile state of life which all other
people envied; that king have frequently lamented ithe miserable cese.
qurcces of being born to grert things, and wished they had been placed in
the nuiddl of two extremes, between thle mean and the great ; that the wise
man gave iis testimony to this, as tlie just ataiadard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor rices.
He bade me observe it, ard I should always find, that tile calimities
of f e svte shared among the upper and lower part of maukindd; but
that the middle station had the fevcst disasters, aId rwas not exposed to so
many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of matinind: nay, they were
not subjected to so many tdstempirs and oneasiiesses, either of body or
hinid, as those wete, who, by vicious Ioving, luxury, and extravagainiets on
one haud, or by hard talbour, sant of ineessariet, and me;an and insufficient
diet, on the otlir hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the uiatura
I'onrequences of their way of living; that the middle station of life was cal-
lit ted for all kitd or virtues, and all kind of crjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the hhandmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, modera-
tion, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, aud all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending tile middle station of life; that this
waiy menr i aeit itly awad smoothly tbroung tre iworid, and comfortably
ort of it, not embarrassed w ith tile I.lbors of the hands or of the head, nla
sold o tho e lrfe of slavery for daily br-ead, or Iharassrd with perplexed eir.
cumsr.tanes, iwhii rob the soul of piacc, aln the body of rest; ot enraged
with the passir" of ersvY, or seert ibrniirg lust of ambition fur great things
bht, iln e i cairctumsta ces, sliding gi ctly thirourig the world, and sensibly
tasting the streets of living, without thie Iitter; feeling that they are happy,
mid learninri, by every day's experience, to ktiow it more sensibly.
After tiis, he pressed rme earnestly, antd i the most affectionate manner,
not tc play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries whick
nature, and tile station of life I was born in,seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do welt for
me, ald endeavour to euter me fairly into the station of life which he hat
been just reconmrelning to me and that, if 1 was not very easy and bappS
ii the woril -f must be my mere fOte, or fault, that must hinder it; and tihat


ae should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which lie knew would be to my hurt:-in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle
at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away : and, to close all, lie
told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom lie had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep bil froin going into tie Low-Country wars;
but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army,
where lie was killed; and though, lie said, lie would not cease to pray for
me, yet he would venture to say to me, that, if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist hi my
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I ob-
served the tears run down Ins face very plentifully, especially lien lie spoke
of my brother who was killed and that, when lie spoke of my having leisure
to repent, and none to assist me, lie was so moved that lie broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full lie could say no more to me,
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home, according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore
it all off: and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act so hastily, neither, as my first heat of resolution prompted; but
I took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than or-
dmnary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to any thing with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that 1 was sure, if I did,
J should never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to
my father to let me make but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more and I would promise, by a double dili-
gence, to recover the time I had lost
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to any thing so
mudc for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing, after such a discourse as 1 had from my father, and such kind and
tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me: and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend
1 should never have their consent to it: that, for her part, she would not have
so much hand in my destruction ;and I should never have it to say, that
my nuther was willing when my father was not


Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I have heard
afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
chewing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That boy might be
happy, if he would stay at home; but, if he goes abroad, he will be the
most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent to it'
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose; though in the
mean time ] continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But, being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time, and one of
my companions then going to London by sea in his father's ship, and prompt-
ing me to go with them by the common allurement of sea-faring men, viz.
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so mucl as sent them word of it; but left them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's;
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences; and in an ill
hour, God knows.
On the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began earlier, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber,
than the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most frightful
manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick
in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what
I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the Judgment of Heaven,
for wickedly leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsel of my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come
to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but, such as it was,
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
any thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us
up; and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind I
made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my
life this voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I re-
solved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm, add indeed


some tune after; but the next day, as the wind was abated, 'and the sea
calmer, I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very grave that
day, being also a little sea-sick still: but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the
sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was,
as 1 thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and cmuld be so calm and pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who
had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and said, Well, Bob,' clapping
me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant you were frightened,
wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-fpll of wind '-' A cap-full,
do you call it ?' said I; 'twas a terrible storm.'-' A storm, you fool!' replied
he, 'do you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a
good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that: you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what charming weather 'tis nowf
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of
the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my formca
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had made in'my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them ofl
and roused myself from them, as it weie from a distemper, and, applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the returns of those fits,--4or
so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with it,
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse:
for, if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such an one as
the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into
Yarmouth roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come
to an anchor; and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz, at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during w"ich time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, asthe common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind forthe river. We had not, however, rid here so long,
but we should have tided ou th ver, but that the wind blew too frtiab
ond, ofter we Ihd lain fourOrft days, blew very hdrd. However, the roads
74 B


being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our grood-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had
all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make every thing snug nad
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought, once or twice, our anchor bad come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors
a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves. The
master was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but, as he went
in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly ay to himselfseveral
ties,' Lord, be merciful to s we shall be all lost! we shall be all undone ?
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still i my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill reawime
the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against; I thought that the bitterness of death had been passed, and
that this would be nothing too, like the first: but when the master him-
self came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked oat; but such
a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke apon
us every three or four minutes. When I could look about, 1 could see no-
thing but distress around us; two ships, that rid near us, we found had cut
their masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our men cried out that
a ship, which rid about a mile a-head of us, was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at
all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away, with only their spritsail out,
before the wind. Toward evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very
loth to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not the ship
would founder, he consented; and, when they had cut away the foremast, the
maitmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
Bat if I can eXpress, at this distance, the thoughts 1 had about me at that time,
I was in tenfold more horror of mind upao account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at
fist, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put ine into such a condition, that I-rao'by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm cosfiBhed with such fury, that the sea
men themselves acknowledged they hadlieer known a nmre. We had


a good ship; but she was deep laden, andso wallowed in the sea, dsat:te
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was myuad-
vantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by fosider,
till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-
tresses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we
had sprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very word, my heart, a
I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed,
where I sat in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that
I, who was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another:
at which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master, seeing somt light collier, who, not able
to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun, a, a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surpF sed, that I thought the ship
had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so are
prised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when every body
had his own life to think of, no one minded me, or what was become of
me: but another man stepped up to the pump and, thrusting me aside with
his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself. .
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was appifsl'
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate al
yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might ran into a.peiasta
the master continued firing guns for help, and a light ship, who had rid
t out just a-head of us, ventured a boat aut to help us. It was with Jhe
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side; till at last, the men rowing
very heartily; and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cat them a
rope over the stern, with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hailedd
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no-pla-
pose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their
own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards,
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that, if the boat
was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so, partly row-
ing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping to.
wards the shore almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarterof an hour out of our ship when
we sa her sink; and then I understood, for the first time, what was aeao
by a ship foundering in the sea. mnpt acknowledge I had hardly eyeialt
look ap when the seamen told mese was sinking for, from that m ent,
hey rather put me into the boa than that I mightLe sad to g0 m. Sy


heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with honrr
of mind; and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the car to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near: but we made slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-house at Win-
terton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by the particular merchants and owners of ships; and had
money givenus sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hall, and have gone home,
I had been happy; and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's para-
bie, bad even killed the failtted alf for me; for, hearing the ship I went in
was cast away in Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that nothing could rest;
and, though I had several times load calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it.-I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, no.
thing but some sucb decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it
was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
two such visible instructions as 1 had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the mana-
tci son, was now les forward than 1: the first time hespoke to me after we
were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, asked me how 1 did: telling his father who I was, and how I had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go further abroad, His father
turning to me with a grave and concerned tone, Young man,' says he,
'you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain
and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring man.'-'Why, sirt
said I; 'will you go to sea no morer-'That is another case,' nid he;
'it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but, as yon made this voyage for
a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you ci wbht you are to expect
if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us an i ur account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarahish.-Pray, continaes he, what are you and on what.
account did you go to sea ? Upon that I told %im nome of my str. .* t4


the ad of which he burst out with a range kind of passion. 'What had
I done,' said he, that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ahip#
I would not set my foot ir. the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pound.' This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which
were yet agitated by the sense of his lose; and was farther than he could
have authority to go.-However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me;
exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my
ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me; 'and, young
man, aid he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you.'
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him ae
more; which way be went, I know not: as for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed
the beat motions that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred
to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every body else.
From whence I have often since observed how incongruous and irrational
the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
sught to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin,
and yet are ashamed to repent: not ashamed of the action for which they
aught justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what mea-
sires to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and,as I stayed awhile, the remembrance oftihedil
trees I had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the little motion I hWiodn
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage. That evil influence which car-
ried me first away from my father's house, that hurried me into the wild ail
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so
forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties,
and even the commands, of my father; 1 say, the same influence, whateWaF
it was, presented the meet unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and.
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailor vinld
garly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not stip
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might, indeed, have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned the duty and
efice of a foremast-man, and in time might have qualifed myself for a mate
or lieutenant if not a master: but, as it aswa lays my fate to choose for the
worse, so I did here; for, having money in my pocket, and good clothes upon
ey bah, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so
T tlsbed had any business inthe- ship, nor learned to do any. It wasu i


lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in London; winch doesas
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was;
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for them very early.
But it was not so with me: 1 first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good aue-
ceas there, was resolved to go again. He taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me may I had
a mind to see the world, told me that if I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and, if I could carry any thing with me, I should have all the ad-
vantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement. I embraced the offer; and, entering into strict friend-
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went
the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me; which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very consider-
ably; for I carried about 401. in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 401. I had mustered together by the assistance of some of
my relations whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my
father, or, at least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first ad-
venture.. This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend, the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant: for I brought home 5 lb. 9oz. of gold-dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 3001., and this filed
me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my rain
Yet even m this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of 15 degrees north, even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved togo the same voyage again;
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for, though I did not carry quite 1001. O amy
new-gained wealth, so that I had O00l. left, and which I lodged with*ay
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortuaes
in thia voyage: and the first was this, viz.-our ship making her course to-
wards the Canary islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry get
clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly comeap


with us a Saw hour, we prepared to fight, our ship having 1I gum, ud
the rover 18. About three in the afternoon he came up with usj and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart or
tern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side
and poured in a broadside upon him which made him sheer off again, water
turning our fire, and pouring in also his mall shot from near 200 men
which be had on board. However, we hadnot a man touched, all our men
keeping close. H4 prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves
but, laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, lie entered 60
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sis
and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chest,
and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three four
men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage. I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business
At this surprising change ofmy circumstances, from a merchant to a misera-
ble slare, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable, and have none
to relieve me; which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that
it could not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, bad taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would, some time or other, be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man of. war, and that then I should be set atliberty. But.this
hope of mine was soon taken away; for, when he went to sea, he left me on
shore, to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of laves
about his house; and, when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Henrl meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate itto that wouldembark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Jrishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that, for two years, Lough
Aten. pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encou-
raging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patoo lying at )ome longer than usual, without fitting out his ahip
whias I heard, wasfor wantof mbneybe used constantly, once or twice
s naeftimenotim ftener,fth wethether was fair, to take the ship's pmaace


and go ott into tle road a.fishing; and, as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row thie boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moreac, as they called
him, to catch a dish offish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fbl
rose so thick, that, though we were not half a league from the shows we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or which way, ne labored
all day and all the next night, and, when the morning came, we found we
had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began to blow
pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and, having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship le had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without
a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of
the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer
and haul home the main sheet, and rom before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and, as I was must dex*
terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
be had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with
two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he haa
provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, over-
night, a larger store of provision than ordinary, and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling, as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants out, and every thing to
accommodate his guests: when, by-and-by, my patron came'on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat,
and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house and
commanded, that, as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring it home to
his house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for a fishing buiesal
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither dd I so much as confaer,
whither I should steer ; for any where, toget oanof that place, was my way


My fit contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to gI
something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread: he said that was true; s be brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three jar with fresh water, into
the boat I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident, by the make, were taken out of some Eglish prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees'wax into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use to a
afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles Another trick I tried upon
him, which he innocently came into also:-His name was lamael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley: so I called to him, Moley,' said I, our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot It may be
we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews) for ourselves, for I knew
he keeps the gunner's store' in the ship.'-' Yes,' sys he, 'I will bring aome;
and accordingly he brought a great-leather pouch, which held about a pound
and a halfof powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five
or six pounds, with some bullets; and put all into the boat: at the same
time I found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I
filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another; and thus, furnished with every thing needftl,
we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above
a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from N.N. E., which was contrary to my desire; for, had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at
last reached to the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions were, blow which way
t would, I would be gone from the horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing, (for, when I had fish
on my book I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,) I sid to
the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we muat
stand farther off' He, thinking no harm, agreed; and, being at the head of
the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat near league
farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then, giving the boy the
belm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took him by surprise,
with my arm under his waist, and tosed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with me. He
swam so strong after the beat, that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, mand
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had
done him no hurt, and, if he would.be quiet, I would do him none But,.
sal I, 'you swim well enough to reach the shore, and, the sea is calm; mate
the best of your way to shede a4[ will do you no harm: but if yoe ctate
74 C


near the boat, I will shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have
my liberty.' So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore; and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been confentto have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When be was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, 'Xury,
if you will be faithful to me, I will make you a great man; but, if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me, (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
fathers beard,) I must throw you into the sea too.' The boy smiled in my
face, and spoke so innocently, that 1 could not mistrust him; and swore to
be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me. *
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think
me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had been in.
their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed
we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where
whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind.
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and, having a fair fresh gale of wind
and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when 1 made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the emperor of Morocco's do-
minions, or, indeed, of any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I bad of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in
that manner five days; and then, the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded also, that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor.
in the mouth of a little river; 1 knew not what or where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, nor what river. I neither saw, nor de-
sired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but, as soon as it was quite dark, we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,'
said I, then I will not; but it may be we may see men bQ day, who will be
as bad to us as those lions.'-' Then we may give them tbsiiqot-gun,' says
Xury, laughing; 'make them run away.' Such English Xury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheer-
ful, and I gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottle to cheer him
up After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our


htle anchor, and lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none; for ino hto
or three hoars we saw vast creatures (we knew not what to call them), df
,many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous cowlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frightened when we heard one of these mighty creatures swim-
ming towards our boat: we could not see him, but we might hear him, by
hs blowing, to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast Xury said it was a
lion; and it might be so, fbr aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to
weigh the anchor, and row away. No,' say I, Xury; we can slip our
cable with a buoy to it and go off to sea: they cannot follow us far.' I had
no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two
oars' length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately sept
to the cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he im-
mediately turned about, and swam to the shore again.
* But it is impossible to describe the horrible noise, and hideous cries and
bowliug, that were raised as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a thing, I believe
those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast: and how to venture on
shore in the day ws another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions
and tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when and where to get it
was the point Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the
iars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked
him why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The
boy answered with so much affection, that he made me love him ever after.
Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.'-' Well, Xury,' said
I, we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they
shall eat neither of us.' So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we
hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
to shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and, by-andby, I saw him come ruling
toward me. I thought he was pursued.by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to help him; but, whbel
came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was
a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but.different in colour, and longer
legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the
great joy that poor Xury came with was to te' mele bad fo dgonod water ,
and seen no wild mans... -

-'i-. -'

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pasm fo water fa~
a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when
the tide was out, which owed but a little way up; so we filled our jar
and, having a fire, feasted o the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on
our way, having seen no footatepa of any human creature in that part of
the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not fatrfri
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation, to fiedahat
latitude we were in; and did not exactly know, or at least remember, wha
latitude they were in; I knew not where to look for them, or when to ataA
off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now have easily found someed
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came
to the part where the English traded. I should find some of their vessel upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take ua in,
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lion
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there: so that the Moom
ase it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together
upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day,
and heard nothing but howling and roaring of wild beasts by night
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Tenearife,
being the top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, hsvine tried twice.
I was forced in again by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for
my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the ahore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, alter we had left this
place; and once, in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and the tide be.
ginning to flow, we lay still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that
we had best go further off the shore; For,' says be, look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.' I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great bon
that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hiD, that
hung. as it were, over him. Xury,' says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him.' Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one methb?
one mouthful he meant. However. I said no more tothe by, but bade thi
he still; and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder and with two augsI and laidI


down; then I landed another gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had
three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could
with the first piece, to have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee,
and broke the bone: he started up, growling at first, but, finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that 1 had not hit
him on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and,
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had
the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, hut lie struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore
Well, go,' said I: so the boy jumped into the water, and, taking a little gun
in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand; and, coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head
again, which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; andI was very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?' said I. Me
cut off his head,' said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head; but
he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way
or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin, f I
could. So Xury and I went to work with him: but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day: but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and
t afterwards served me to lie upon.
After ths stop, we made on to the southward continually, for ten or twelve
S days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for
fresh water. My design in this was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal;
that is to say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and, if I did not, I knew not what course
I had to take but to seek for the islands, or perish among the negroes.
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea
or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands: and,
in a word, I put thie whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that
must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have sid,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me,
No go, no go.' However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk to
them; and I found they ran along the shore by me a g od way. I observed


they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great
way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs as
well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat. They
beckoned to moe to stopmy boat, and they would fetch me somenmeat: upon
this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into
the country; and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of
us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to theshore, and
laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends: bat an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully; for, while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury, from the' mountains
towards the sea. Whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whetherthey
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whe-
ther it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter, because, in the
first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened, especially the
women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them, but
the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did
not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into
the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at last, one
of them began to come nearer our boat than I at first expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach
I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sunk down into
the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was strug-
gling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astomishment of these poor creatures at tie
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
felldown as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took beart and came to the shore, and began to search for the creature.
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope,
whichh 1 slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to
an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration;
to think what it was I had killed him with.
SThe other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the noise of the


gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and, though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece
of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as ifI would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal mureof their provisions,
which, though Idid not understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom up-
ward, to shew that itwas empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun: this
they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water ; and,
leaving:my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, with-
out offering to go near the shore, till I saw the laud run out a great length
into the sea, at about the distance offour or five leagues before me; and the
sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land
on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain in-
deed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for, if I should be taken
with a gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
SMaster, master, a ship with a sail!' and the foolish boy was frightened out
of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pur-
sue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was,
viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the
coast of Guinea for negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered,
I was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not he able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but, after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with


this and, as I had my patron's ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them,
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought-to, and lay by for me; and in about
three hours time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish and in French,
but I understood none of them but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman;
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they
then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost hopeless,
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me lie
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to
me when I came to the Brazils. For,' says he, 'I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,'
said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese,.
(Mr. Englishman,) says he, I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance,
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch any
thing I had: then he took every thing into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as
my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what I would have
for it. I told him, he had been so generous to me in every thing, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
upon which he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and, when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was not will
ing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christis: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to
go to him, 1 let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arnved in the Bay de


rodes la Santos or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. Ani
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remem
ber: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
fr the leopard's skin, and forty for the lions skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused every thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered tome
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees' wax,-for I had mad
candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and, with this stock, I went on shore in the
I had not been long here before I was recommended to the house of a
good honest man, like himself, who had an ingeino, as they call it (that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar:
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly,
resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, 1 would turn planter among
them: endeavouring, in the mean time, to find out some way to get mn
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose
getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, 1 purchased as much land, thal
was uncured, as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my planta-
tion and settlement; such an one as might be suitable to the stock which I
proposed to myself to receive from England.
SI had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we ra-
ther planted for food than any thing else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes the year to come: but we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great wonder.
1 had no remedy buttn go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genitis, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
World, as I had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, aming my friendsa,as have gone five thousand mides
affto do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a dir.
tances never to hear from any part of the world that had the least know.
dge of me.
75 D


In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret
I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour; no work
to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just
like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men reflect, that,
when they compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity by their experience: I say, how just has it been that the truly
solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot,
who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous
and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing his lading and pre-
paring for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice:-' Seignor Inglese,' says he (for so he always called me),' if you
will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to send your effects to Lisbon
to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return:
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that, if it come
safe. you may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.'
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
out oe convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left my money, and a pro-
curation to the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures;
ply slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea; the
humanity of his behaviour; and what condition I was now in; with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and, when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to amer-
chant at London, who represented It effectually to her: vs hir,..p, si no5
only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds! lish goods
such as the captain had wrote for, sent them directly t at Lisbon, and
he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils: sax h ich, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business 01-kr of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, td utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.


When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy ofit; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him as a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation: for, the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also; I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But, as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our ad-
versity, so was it with me. 1 went on the next year with great success in
my plantation ; [ raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above 100 lb. weight, were well cured, and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now, increasing in business
and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings be-
yond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all
the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of: but other things attended me, and I
was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which, in my
future sorrows, I should hare leisure to make, all these miscarriages were
procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination, oi
wandering about and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those pro-
spects, and those measures of life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus, in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state
of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story.
-You may suppose, that, having now lived almost four years in the Brazils
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had an
only learned the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friand


ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Sal-
vador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads
but especially to that part which related to the buying negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, ha&
been carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes were bought,
and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came tr.
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told
me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as ser
vants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations: and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have an equal sharr
of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who, in that time,
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to think
of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own defer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling design, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake.to look after my plantation in my absence
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if 1 miscarried. This they
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so: and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case of m)
death; making the captain o' the shio that had saved my life, as before, my


universal heir; but obliging him tote of my effects as I haddc e
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself and the other to be
shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep
up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done
,and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous
an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to may no-
thing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather
than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board, in an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659,
being the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast
When they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it
seems, was the manner of their course in those days, we had very good
weather, only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came
to the height of cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Per-
.audo de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles
on the east. In this course we passed the line !n about twelve days' time,
and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees SS minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came abdutto-the nprt st, and then settled
in the north-east; from whencejtWA .alek s ya -rrible'manner, that for
twelve days together we cp Cl tdise, and, scudding away
before it, let it car r an the fury of the winds
directed, and, duri I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallow T, indeed, did any in the ship expect to
save their lives.
In this distress,'we li i eides the terror of the storm, one of our men
died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude,
but that he was 2S degrees of longitude difference, west from cape St Au-
guatoo; so that he found he was got upon the coast of Guiana, or the north


sart of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons toward that of the never Oroo-
moque, commonly called the Great River; and began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was going directly back to the coast of BraziL
I was positively against that; and, looking over the charts of the sea-coast
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us
to have recourse to till we came within the circle of theCaribbee islands,
and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping
off to sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily
perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance
both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away N. W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief: but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of 12 de-
grees, 18 minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all
human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early
in the morning, cried out,' Land!' and we had no sooner run out of the
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were instantly driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to de-
scribe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances; we knew
nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and, as the rage of
the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes, without breaking in
pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle, should immediately turn about
In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world;
for there was little or nothing more'for us to do in this: that which was
our present comfort, and all the comfoA te had, was, that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
SNow, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having
thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting
off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think oF saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
inst before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship'


rudder; and, in the nhxt place, she broke away, and either sumk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her: we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and, with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's side; and,
getting all into her, let her go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in
number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for, though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly that
the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be in-
evitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could
we have done any thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that, when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards
the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal-we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and, perhaps, made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; and, as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and, separating us, as well from
the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!'
for we were all swallowed up in a moment
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sunk
into the water; for, though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver my-
self from the waves so as to draw my breath, till, that wave having driven
me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and havingapent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath,
left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I gotupon
my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could,
before another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the ea come after me as high ass
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which 1 had no means or strength to


contend with: my business was to hold my breath. and raise myself upon
the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, ana
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it, when it gave back towards
the sea.
The ware that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was
ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so,
to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the sur-
face of the water; and, though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myselfso, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage.
I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but 1 held
it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet,
Stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran, with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very fiat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for, the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and in-
deed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and, had it returned
again immediately, I most have been strangled in the water: but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I should again be covered
with the water, I resolved to hold fast bya piece of the rock, and so to bold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves were
not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the snore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I gotto the main land; where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me dowp
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there were, some minutes be-
fore, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the
life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, a
I may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the custom, via
that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, an
just going to be turned of, and has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I
not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that ve


moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal Wpirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and froth of the
sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off-and considered, Lord !
how was it possible 1 could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a
word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or beingdevoured by
wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to de-
fend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a ward, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into such
terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was, to get up
into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect oflife. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to pre-
vent hunger, I went to the tree, and, getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so, as that, if I should fall asleep, I might not fill; and having cut me
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition ; and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before ; but that which surprised
me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where
sne lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
75 E


dashing me against it. This beinmwithin about a mile froal gin here where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright till, I wished myself an board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand.
I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was about half a
mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting
at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here I
found afresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that, if we had.kept
on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but, as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to getto the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water: but, when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water,
there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time 1 spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did
not see at first, hang down by the fore-chain so low, as that, with great
difficulty, I got hold of it, and, by the help of that rope, got into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great
deal of water in her bold; but that she lay so on the side of a baak of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for, you may be sure, my first work was
to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free: and, first I found
that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and,
being very well disposed to eat,.l went to the bread-room, and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for 1 had no
time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a
large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myelf with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me. *
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be ha, and thi ex-
tremity roused my application: we had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare-top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall
to work with these, and flung as many overboard a I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive away
When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and, pulling them to me,
I tied four of them fa atogether at both ends as well as I could, in the form
of a raft, and, laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them crosmwiys
I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not abl to bear asy

IE7 -- E -HE j- --




great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to work, and with the
carpenter's sa I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight My next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get; and, having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft: these I filled with pro-
visions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to my great disappointment, 1 found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to
our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or
six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to
put them into the chests, nor any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which 1 had left on shore upon the
sand, swim away; as for' my breeches, which were only lir.en, and open-
kneed, I swam on boand in them and my stockings. However, this put me
upon rummaging for clothes, of which 1 found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was jpe
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long earch-
ing that I found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very usdeut pri,
to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold sc ul4,hjve beep
at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what'it contained. .
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There wre two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but, with much search, I found
them: two of them dry and good; the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have
overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements:-lst. A smooth, calm sea. edly. The tide
rising, and setting in to the shore. 3dly. What little wind there was blew
me towards the land, And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat, and, besides the tools which were in the chest I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with thin cargo I put to sea. For a


mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, ouly that I found it driver
httle distant from the place where I had landed before; by which I per-
ceived that there was some in-draft of the water, and consequently I hoped
to find some creek or river there, which 1 might make use of as a port to get
to land with my cargo.
As I imagimed, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my
raft as well as I could to get into the middle of the stream. But here I had
like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily
would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal; and, not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards that end
that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture
I was in; but, holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that man-
ner near half an hour, in which tine the rising of the water brought me a
little more upon a level; and, shortly after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel; and
then, driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea,
and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here
I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie no high, and the other
sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, nlesr a fat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust
her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent,
or on an island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, wiuch roe.
4 very steep and high, and i. ..n..i i. :..u .ri-.p t-.-.l Iu r IilI, chi.U.
by as in a ridge from it, noruir. 1..t I.- ,.., nn. i. i o,. ;.

Bo flNSOlt CUSOk. o

and 'r of the pstols, and a hon of powder; and, thus armed. I trailed fi
discovery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour
and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my'great aftliction, vit,
that I was in an island, envirooed every way with the sea, no land to be seen,
except sooe rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than
this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fwls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when
I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, bat from all the
parts of the wood there arose an innumerable numberof fowls, of many sorts,
making a confused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, 1 took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it,
but had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit
for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to boy raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day. What to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that
night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, ra out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart till I got every thing out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I
should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved ts
go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that'I tripped
before went from my hut; having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pat.
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet
Igot on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and havag,
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
nard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me: as, firnt, h the
carpenter's stores I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
rew-jack a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that most usefif


thing called a grind stone. All these I secured together, with several thing
belonging to the gtnner, particularly two or three Iron crows and two bar-
rels of musket.bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the shIp's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a
spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
1 was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but, when I came back, I
found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted witl me. I presented
my gun to her; but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and colu
spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent with the sail, and some
poles, which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and, spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept
little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I be.
lieve, for one man: but I was not satisfied still; for, while the ship sat uprigh
in that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out of her that I could
so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away something
or other; but particularly, the third time I went, I brought away as muca
of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I coull
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as muck
at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be sails but as mers
canvass only.


But that which comforted me still more wias that, last of ah, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing tor to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this.
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirit.
and a box ofsugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was surprising to me be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spelled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and.
in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and
cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and, having cut
down the spritsail-yard and the mizen-yard, and every thing 1 could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away:
but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed
the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but, as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water,-a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times on board
tle ship; in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece,
but, preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually as that nothing could be found, yet I dis-
covered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money,
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 0 drug!' said I aloud, 'what
art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the
ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of se
for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of
making another raft; but, while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-
cas and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh


gale fomtheshore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pr
tend to make a raft with the wind offshore; and that it was my business to
be gone before the time of flood began, or otherwise I might not be able t*
reach the shore at all Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very
hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night; and in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz, that I
had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her that
could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any thing out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what
kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or
a tent upon the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me: 1st., Health and fresh water, I just now mentioned. adly., Shelter
from the heat of the sun. Sadly Security from ravenous creatures, whether
men or beasts. 4thly, A view to the sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which 1 was not
willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side
of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-
side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side
of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock
at an.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descende
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on


the N. W.; ide of the hil; so that it was sheltered from the Seat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those
punatries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-crele before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty
yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then 1 took the pieces of cables which I cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it This cost me a great
deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
mee; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no nee4
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that
in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a
large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sais.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would
spoil by the wet and, having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said
by a short ladder.
When I bad done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and, bnng-
ing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, 1 aid
them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and an half; and thus I made me a cave, jud
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my heuse. It cost me
much labour and many days before all these things were brought to per.
fiction; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took up
some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my
sheme for the settingap my tent and making the cave, that a storm of ram
falling from a thidc, dark clied, a sudden Bash of lightning happened and,
t6 F


after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it I was not
so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself:- 0 my powder My very
heart sunk within me when I thought, that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed; ao which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food,-as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about
my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this rake upon me, that, after the storm was over, I
laid astde all my works, my building anm fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in hope t'dt, whatever might come, it might not all take fire
at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think my
Dowder, which in all was about 240 lbI weight, was divided in not less than
hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy,
I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
Is the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any thin,
fit for food; and, as near as 1 could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz, that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come
at them: but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in
*he valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a
terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence 1 concluded, that, by the po-
sition of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that, they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so, afterwards, I took this method:
-1 always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed
a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily but, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still tb
her till 1 came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried thb
old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my en-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not
eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with
flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my
bread esoecially) as much as possibly I could.


Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abaoB tDtey neemry to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as alft
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its proper place: but I must first give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage; and a great way, viz., some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind; I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and
m this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run penti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providenee should thus completely ruin its crea-
tures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so abandoned without help,
so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such
a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me; and particularly, one day, walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way
thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember
where are the rest of youZ Did not you come eleven of you into the boatI
Where are tie tent Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there*V And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furished for my subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a
hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where she fire'
struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all the*
things out of her: what would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries
of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particularly' said I aloud
(though to myself, what should I have done without a gun, without ammau
nation, without any tools to make any thing, or to work with, without
clothes, bedding, a tret, or any manner of covering?' and that now I had all
these to a sueicient quantity, and was in -a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition was spent:
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come, not only
after my ammuniltion should be spent, but even auter my health or anrength
should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
utroved at one blast; I mean my powder being blown up by hlghtning; ant


this made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and tbea.
dered, as I observed jut now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
Ifro its beginning, and contire it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September, when, in the manner as abovesaid, I first et fwt upoa
this horrid island; when the aun, being to s in its autumnal equinox, was al-
most just overfmy head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to being the
latitude of 9 degrees, 2a minutes, north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and ink,
andshould even forget the sabbath days from the working days but, topre.
vent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz,
- I came on shore here on the tOth of September, 1659." Upon the sides
of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh
notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly
and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I brought ot of the
ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several thingsof less val but not at all less useful to me, which I found, some
tune after, in romaging the chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper-
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunners, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives,
charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I
might want them or no: also I found thbe very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed u%, among my
things; some Portuguse books also, and, among them, two or three popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And
I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for
carried both the cats with me: and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted no-
thing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make np to me
I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I ocn
served before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded inem to ths
attEost; and I shall shew, that, while my ink lasted, 1 kept things very exact
but after that was gone I could not; for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and ofthese, this of ink was one; as also a
spade, pick.axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles pins, and
thread: as for lien, I soon learnt to want that without much dificulty.
This want of tools made erery work I id go on heavily; and I was oqr

S- oF mot-so- noses. 4* -
QV -ROs tliSOt CAOBOE. 45'-

a whole year bebre I bad entirely finished my little pale, or sOrimaded y
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy a I could wel lift,
were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by fr,
m bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting at bring-
ing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the grdmnd;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it
made driving these pots or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to
lo, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employment,
I that bad been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I
was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me (for I was like to
have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,
and afflicting my mind: and, as my reason began now'to master my de-
spoodency, I began to comfort myself as well as 1 could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my ease fro
worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts
I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible desolate
island, void of aU hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be misera-

I am divided from mankind, a soli-
taire one banished from human so-
I have n clothes to cover me.

I am *itlout any defence, or means
to resist any violence sf man or beast.

soul to speak to, or relieve

But I am alive; andno drowned,as
all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out too from all the
ship's crew, to be spared from death;
and He that miraculusly saved me frm
death can deliver me from this con
But I am not starved, and perishing
in a barren place, affording no suste-
But I am in a hot climate, lwere if
I had clothes, I could hardly weat
But I am cast on an island where 1
see no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa: and what if I
had been shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
got ut so may necessary things a
will either supply my wants, or enable
me to supply myself, even as long as

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that theo was arese
say condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative


or something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direc-
tion, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world, that we may always fnd in it something to comfort ourselves from.
and t(rset, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the ac.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a
rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather
call it a wall, for 1 raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside; and, after some time (I think it was a year and a half),
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with
boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which
I found, at some times of the year, very violent.
1 have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself
to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and, when I
found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the
right hand, into the rock, and then, turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out in the outside of my pale or for-
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure, without a table;
so I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and squaring every
thing by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every .
man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools;
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, per-
haps, were never made that way before, and that with inftiite labour. For
example, if 1 wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till
I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board of a whole
tree but this I had no remedy for but patience, any idore than I had or a


prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
broad: but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when 1 wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a
word, to separate every thing at large in their places, that I might easily
come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns,
and all things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing so
ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in
such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employ-
ment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only hurry as
to labour, but in much discomposure of mind; and my journal would, too,
have been full of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus:-
' Sept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and escaped drowning, instead of
being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the
great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and recover-
ing myself a little, 1 ran about the shore, wringing my hands and beating
my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to re-
pose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being deDoured.'
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all
that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that,
at a vast distance, 1 spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal: of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to:
leave it off.


September Both, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on this dismal
unfortunate island, which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR ; all the rest of
the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, vz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,'
nor place to ly to: and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death be-


fore me; that I should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered .
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.
October 1. In the morning, I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for, seeing her sit up-
right, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the
other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined,
if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that
they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved, we might, perhaps, have built us a boat out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam of
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th. All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship; which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy
Oct. O. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but, being
m shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of
them when the tide was out.
Oct. 95. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing a little harder than
before), and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only
at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I
had saved, that tile rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in
the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encamp-
ment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortific ,o,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with.turf.
From the 26th to the Soth, I worked very hard in carrying all my od
to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained eaxodingly
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island withl. gun, to see
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed aj&c-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which 1 afterwards killed also because it would not
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in, to swing my
hammock upon.

O RO OBtlsON CRUlsOB. 49

Wee. It. I set up all my cheats and boards, and the pieces'*f timber
which made my rafts; and with thin formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon I went to work'to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, ofgoipgout
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rin ; then em-
ployed myself touork till boout eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live
onr; and from twelve to two I lay down to seep, the weather being exces-
sive hotel and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part of
this day and the next was wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman: though time and necessity made me a com-
plete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any one ele.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and killed a wild
cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: of every creature
that I killed I took off the skins, and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sort of sea-fowl which I did not understand: but
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which, while
I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were), got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.
No4. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it; though no to my liking: nor wa it long before I learned
to mend it.
NoA. 7. Now it began tobe e settled fair weather. The thB Sth, th, loti
and part of the Ilth (for the ] th was Sunday, according to my reckoning),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled
it in pieces several times.
N.ote. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, emitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth: -but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ia 'whiec frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. A soon as it
we ori 4 resolved to saparale my nock of powder utlo u many little par.
ceh as pi 'that it mahli .ot be la dangtr.
VYm. .i~rL T.lb Le three days I spent in makmn bnle square chest or
about a pound. ur two pounds at most, of powder:
and lso f powder m, I stowed it it places as wirnr and as remote
from one snoe m pomble. On one oi these three days I klled a large
irdl that was VgUf4jaI bot I knew not whal to canH L
Nvo. 17. Th. dmf-tj s to dig behind my leat., ow the oeek. to make
room for my flrithi e
R te. T~ge tn Iiled excedamgy for tu work, L ,a pf k-ase,
*diovel, aik wldcbul er or basket so I deisted from my were.I n
2T G

began io consider how to supply these wants, and make me some tools. As
for a pick-axe, I made use df the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade; thin was so ab-
aoluteiy necessary, that, minded, I coual do nothing effectually without it;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Noa. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazis, they cal the iron-tree, from its ex-
ceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
c t a piece; and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine: forl worked iteffOcc
tnaUy, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part having no iron
shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a
ahrel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.
1 was still deficient: for wanted a basket, or awheel-barrow. A basket
I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware; at least, none yet found out: and, as to the
wheel-barrow, 1 fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to go about it: besides, I had no posable
way to make iron godgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in;
so 1 gave it over: and, for carrying away the earth which I dog oat of the
cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in
for the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shorel: and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheel-barrow, took me up no less than four days; I mean, al-
ways excepting, my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom mitted,
and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat,
Nov. 2. My other work having now stood still, became of my making
these tools, when they were finished 1 went on; and, working every day,
as my strength and time allowed, l spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods ommodiouuly. ,
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this rooms orrave, aci
enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine; a kitchen dinian
room, and a cellar. As for a lodging, kept to the tent; except that wome-
tmes, in the wet season of the year, it rained sohard thtl coaoiM nt keep
myself dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within, my
pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, I a d
hem with flags snd large leaves oftrees, like thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vaust fieiobed; whae .l
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great qmuatity of eart-frll
down from the top and one side: so much, that, i hort, it fritateed.,ti
and not without reason too; for, if I had been nider it, I ahboltgever bha
wanted a grave-digger. Uponthis disaster I had a great dealof work tode

; Or BBtINSON Cl OtR.L 51

mer again, for I had the loose earth to carry outG and, which wa orMore
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that might he surf no more
would come down. f
Dec. 11. This day I went to *rk with it sccoeaingly; and got twr
shors or posts pitched upright to the top, with.two pieces of boqr across
over each poet: this I Anished the next day; and, setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the post
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part offmy houe.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 0th, I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that could be hung up: and now
I began to be in some order within doors.
Dew. I carried every thing into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me: also I made me ao.
other table.
Dec. 94. Mch rain all night and all day: no stirringout.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain ; and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasantier
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that I catched.iA
and led it home in a string: when 1 had it home, 1 boundnd ad splintered up
its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew well, and as
strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot were all spent
Dec. 28, 29, 0, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within door.
J.mmry 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going ( rther into
valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at however, I rs~ilyed
"to try if I could not bring my dog to bunt them down. Accordingly, the
next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the goats: but I.was
mistake for they all faced about upon the dog. and he knew bbi danger
too well, for he would not come near them. -
Ja. I began my fence or wall; which, being still ealm of amy eii g
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make vey thick and b rong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely aosit wht wa sjd
in thejournal: it is sofcient to obsere, thatI waolesa:tiaettrw frBp
the Sd of January to the 14th of April weting,inishiW g, salrdetBPg
this wall; though it was no more than about S yards nk legIs heig a
balf-cure, from one place in the rock to another place, about teDtgl s
from it, the door of the cane bemg in the ceter, behad a.
All this time I worked very tard the :ain hindering me many days,

nay, sometimes weeks, together: but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wal was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible
labour every thing was dose with, especially the bringing piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground for I made them much bigger
than 1 needed to hare done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced with a turf
wall raised ip close to it, I persuaded myself, that, if any people were to come
on shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a habitation: and it
was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,
when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in these walks,
of something or other to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeos, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeous, in the holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I en-
deavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but, when they grew older,
they 8ew all away; which, perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them: however, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat And
now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in
many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as,
indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, I could never make a cask
to be hooped. I had a soall runlet or two, as 1 observed before; but I
could never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it: I could neither put in the beads, nor join the staves
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon as it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of bees' wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure; but I had none of that now: the only remedy I had
was, that, when I had killed a goat, I saved the tallow; and, with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear
steady light, like candlee: In the middle of all my laboura it happened, that
in rummaging my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry; not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbo. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I
saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and, being willing to have the
bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it
for fear of the lightning, or some such use, I shook the balsk of corn out of
it, on one side of my fortifiation, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just nw mentioned that I threw this
stuff away; taking no notice of any thing, and not so much as remembering
that I had thrown any thing there: when, about a month water, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancred

o? aO3ssI ON CBtrnOE. 5S

might be some plant I had not aeen; but I was asrprsed, and perfectly
astoniMed, when, after a little longer time, saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfect green barley of the same kind as our Euro
pean, nay. as our English barley.
It i impossible to express the astonishment and conetaion of my thoughts
on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;
indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor bad entertained-
any sense of any thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or,
as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing events in the
world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was
not proper for corn, and especially as I knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild miserable place,
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; pad I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account: and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it stiU
all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling atalka, which proved
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Arica,
when I was ashore there.
I not oaly thought these the pure productions of Providence for my smp
port; but, not doubting 'that there was more in the place, I went over all
that part of the island where I had been before, searching in every corner
and under every rk, for more of it; but I cold not find any. At ast it
occurred to my thoughts that I bad shook out a bag of chickens' meat m
that place, and then the wonder began to ease: and, I must coness, my re-
ligious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too apon the dian
covering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought
to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence as if it
had been miraculous; for it was realty the work of Providence, as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of orn should remain
unspoiled, when the rata had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped
fIam heaven; A also that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it ei ag th< at ae of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if bad thi wn it any where else, at that time, it would have been
burnt up and destroyed
I carefoay saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their asoen
wiach was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
now them all again; hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to
aoppy me with bread. But it was not till the fourt y t e hat I could allo
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even the but sparingly, as I
shall shev aflerwardsin its order; for I lost all that I sowed the firt sessn,
by not obsieiiog the proper time: as I sowed just before the dry seag a
that it nevercame up at all, at least not as it would have done; of which in
ts place.


Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rie,
which I preserved with the same care; and whose use wasof the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food, for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.-
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my wall
done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving to get into itnot by
a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder to the top,
and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a com-
plete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough; and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost all my labour
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:-As I was busy
in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was
terribly frightened with a most dreadful surpr isng thing indeed; for, all on
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roofof my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but
thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before: and, for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder; and, not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill, which 1
expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrole earthquake: for the
ground I stood on shook three times, at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks as wouldd have overturned the strongest building that could
be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also that
the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had) that I was like one dead or stopified; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed it
sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and,
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror and
Thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and my household goods,
and burying all at once: this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
to take courage; yet I haf not heart enough to go over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had not the lest
serious religious thought; nothing but the common Lord, have merry upm
me!' and, when it was over, that went away too.

eP BOPIl4so CeRIAfz, ,b

While Isat thus, I found the airverastra.d;grqw dcou,4 s it.it wold
rain; and soon after the wind rose by littleandlittle, so thatiD n I than half
an hour it btew a most dreadful hurricane; he se was, all on a sudden,
covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered with a byeachof the
water; the trees were:torn up by the roots;,qnd a Aerpible stormitwas.
This held about three hours, and then began: to abate;. and, two hour
more, it was quite calm,.and began to rain very hard.. Althis;while .sa
upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected; when, on sudden, it
came into my thoughts, that these winds and ran being, tpe consequence ot
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture
into my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revived and the
rain also helping to persuade me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but
the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy,
for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new
work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sik, to let the
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been
in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the earthquake fol-
low, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small mup
of rum; which, however, 1 did then, and always very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night,
and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but, my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best do; concluding.
that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living
for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men: for, if I taid where I wa I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the place where
it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the hill and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent. JIpent the
two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed alive affected
me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad,
without any fence, was almost equal to it: but still, when 1.looked,about,
and saw how every thing was put in order, how pleasantly Lwascoaceled,
and how safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the mean
time,tt occurred to me that itwould require avast deal oftim or me todothis;
and that I must be contented to run the risk where I wd5,ti ll had formed
a convenient camp, and secured it so as to remove to it. With this con.
olasion I composed myself for a time; and resolved that I wouldgo to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c, in a circle a
before, and set up my tent in it when it was finished; but that 1 would
venture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to. Thi
Was the Slat

April S. The next morning I began to consider of meas to put this
measure into execution but I was at a great loss about the tool. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all fll of notches, and dull: and, though 1 had a grind-
stone, I could not turn it and grind my fools too. This cased me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics
or a judge upon the life and death of man. At length I contrived a wheel
with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty.
Note. I had never seen any such thingio England, or at east not to tal
notice how it was done, though since I have observed itt very common
there: besides that, my gridstone was ery large and heavy. This machine
cost me a fall week's work to bring it to perfetion.
April 28, St9 These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grind-stone performing very well
April 80, Having perceived that my bread had beea low a great while,
I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the tide being low,
I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
cask: when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pietes of
the wreck of the ship, which were drive n shore by the late hurricane;
and, looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel that was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water,
and the powder was caked as hard as stone: however, I rolled it farther
on the shore for the present, and went on upon the sands as nearas I could
to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The fore-
catle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and
the stern (which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force
of the sea, oon afterI had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one ide: and the and was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was iut; whereas
there was a great piece of water before, so that I could not come within a
quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as
by this violence, the abip was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habi-
tation; and I busied myself mightily, that day specially, in searching whe-
ther I would make any way into the ahip: but I found nothing was s be
expected of that kind, for all the inside of the hip was choked up with saad.
However, as I had learned not to desAair of any thing, I resolved to p

pr OBITNsON CloSO: 57
every thing to pieces that I coult of the ship, concluding that every thing I
could get from her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part, or quarter-deck, together; and,
when I had it cut through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but, the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that~4ime.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I
was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dol-
phin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the suj,.aid ate them dry.
May 5. Workedon the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir-planks off from die decks; which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron-work: worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work: but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, yvhich lay now quite clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore aso with the tide. I left the iron crow
in the wreck for next day.
May 9., Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it;
but it was too heavy to remove.
May lto 14. Went every day to the wreck; andgota greatmany pieces
of timber and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15, I carried two hatchets, to try if.could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, byplacing the edge of one hatchet,4ud driving it with the other;
but, as it lay about a foot and a half in the watertI could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force ofthe water; but Istaid so long in the woods to get pi-
geons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.,
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreckblown on shore, at a great dis-
tance, two miles off me, but resolved t"see what they were, and found it
was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 94. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests: but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to landthat day bt pieces of timber,
76 H


and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water aid
the sand had sp.led it I continued this work every day to the l1th of June,
except the time necessary to get food; which I always appointed, during
think part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out: and by this time 1 bad gotten timber, and
plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known
how: and Ialso got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred
weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity: for, had I happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
Jane 17 spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three score eggs:
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that I
ever tasted in my life; having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I staid within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which I knew was not usual
in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
Jane Qo. No rest all night i violent pains in my head, and feverish.
June el. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the apprehensions of
my sad condition, to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull; but scarce Inew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being ll confused.
June 32. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
Jiae S3. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent
June 24. Much better.
Je 95. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hers; cold fit,
and hot, with faint sweats after it.
Joue 96. Better; and, having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I wolad fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed: and, when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say; only lay and cried, Lod, look upon me! Lord, pity
me! Lord, have merry upon me!' I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours; till, the fit wearing ofif I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I
was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again, nl tifissecond lesp

O RosBIUsoNt CItSoZ. 59
Ihadthisterrible re r i--T Lm..aot utt T n.. .atta .oA uwe groi'd .on the
ontaide of my wall. whtrr I whn tLe .;irm bt,* it.r the arin.o&.e,
apd that I say a oi ,:-ndd i i.. r aid i td.l( ciridJ. ii i Dnrgtt dame of
fire, arnd light up-r. ihii ro,..r.) i^ w, a. u. a -r -- -r:t.m A i .tie, *) thIbp
1-u4 but just bear to loqk towards him h Qs quatenance was mqt intp-
pressib~y reaf4tl, mposqible fr wnrd tpodegerybr: t, I.. hL, ir.p d upop UIt
ground wit c hit feet, I typght, tp e ytp trepled,juqt as it l4t dqgp b*fre
io tle e rthquake;, and el1 the gir hopped, to my apyrlepsliopi, a if it had
been filled with faiane of iae. I~e had no souer landed upos he earmt
but he moved fonurar4 towards Ml, with a long spear or wPapoq in hi b3 4i,
to kill aoe; and when be care to a rising ground, at some distaoe, he kpoke
to me, or I heard.a voice so terrible, that it is tppo:slie Ka expre* e terror
ofit: all that ean say T upnerstond wa this Seesqg ae these thing 4vp
not brought tthee to reppptance, now thou shalt die;' at w4ich words I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me
SNo one that ha~i eser read this account will expect that I should be shbt
tp describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision; I miea, that pe
while it was a draam, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but-a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what 1 had received by the good in,
stroetioo of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I d4
not rerenther that Ihad, in all that time, one thought that ao much as tended
either to looking upward towards God, or inward towards a reflection upon
my own ways: bat a certain stupidity of soal, without desire of good or
conssoenep of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me and I ws all that the
mast hardeped, unthinking, wicked creature among our common aailors, ea
he supposed to be; not having the least sese, either of the fear of God in
danger or pf tliuho" es to him in deiverances.
In the relating what i already past of my story, this wil be the more easily
believed, when I alr~pl it, that, through all the variety of miseries that hd
t9 this day hofaHen fie I never had so muc as one thought of its being the
hand of Gad, ot tha it was a just punishment for my sia; either my re.
bellins behevioar pginst my father, or my present sias which were great;
or even as a puniohaent for the general course of my wicked life. When
was on th desperate expedition on the desert shores of Afriea I peer had
so ourh as one thought of what wepld become of me or one wish to God
to direct me whither I should go, or to kee me from the danger wc.ic ap-
parently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures s cruel sayags:
hut I was quite thoughtless of a OGd or a ProvidePnc acted hie a sw
brate, fre the priniple of nature, and by the dictates of commniPa
oly; teadindeed hardly that When I was delivered and taken qvatspa
bay e pratuegume e captain, well useed, ad dealt with jastly anod aualy,
V awI440baritly, I had not thele anh^kfilqueaa y tbaugds Wleyi


again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island,
I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I only said
to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness: but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed;
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me: just the same
common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they have got safe
ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl of punch,
and forget almost as soon as it is over: and all the rest of my life was like it
Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my con-
dition,-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind,
out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,-as soon as I saw but
a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all
the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied my-
self to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the
hand of God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered
into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had, at first, some
little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as
I thought it had something miraculous in it; but, as soon as that part of the
thought was removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
Power which alone directs such things, yet, no sooner was the fright over,
but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God
or his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from his hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of
life But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries
of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the
violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake;
and I reproached myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by
uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under un-
common strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These re-
flections oppressed me for the second or third day of my distemper; and in
the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my con-
science, extorted from me some words like praying to God: though I cannot
say it was a prayer attended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused; the


convictions great upon my mind; and the horror of dying in ach a misera-
ble condition raised vapours in my head with the mere apprehension: and,
in these hurries of my soul, I knewnot what my tongue might express: but it
was rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a miserable creature am I!
If should be sick, I shall certainly die for wadt of help; and what will be-
come of me 'T hen the tears burst out of my eyeN and I could say no
more for a good while. In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the be-
ginning of this story, viz., that, if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having ne-
glected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
SNow, said I aloud, my dear father's words are come to pass; God's jus-
tice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the
voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a station of life wlrein
I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor
learn from my parents to know the blessing of it. I left them to mourn
over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequeneasfit: I
refused their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the world,
and would have made every thing easy to me; and now I have difficulties
to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support; and no assist-
ance, no comfort, no advice!' Then 1 cried out, Lord I be my help, for I
am in great distress.' This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to my journal.
J1me 08. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I bad had,
and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and, though the fright and terror
of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague wonld
return again the text day, and now was my time to get something to refresh
and support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was to fi1 a
large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed: and, to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I
got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coast, but could eat
very little. I walked about; but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the
turtle's eggs; which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, aswe call it in the
shell: and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing t,
as could remember, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk;
but found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry the gua (for I never
went out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat down up6i the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very el
and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these ocrvsnreW :
SWhat is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much H her~A1H
produced ? And what am 1, and all the other creatures, wild and t ,
human and brutal? Whence are we? Sorely we are all made ly s e
tecretPower, f-i formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And while

tb t? Tfna it followed, most naturally, *It is God that has made all
Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, he
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the
Power that could make all things mwat certainly have power to guide and
direct them: if so, nothing can happen in tie great circuit of his works,
either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that I am
here, and am in this dreadful condition: and, if nothing happens without
his appointment, he ias appointed all this to befall me.' Nothing occurred
to my thought, to contradict any of these conclusions; and therefore it
rested upon mue with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of me only, but of
every thing that happens in the world. Immediately it followed, Why
has God done this to me What have I done to be thus used ? My con-
cience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed; and
methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch! dost thou ask what
thou hast done V Look back upon a dreadful mispent life and ask thyself
what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth roads; killed in
the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war; devoured
by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all the
crew perished but thyself? Dnst thou ask what thou hast done I was
struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word
to say; no, not to answer to myself; and, rising up, pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went over my wall as if I had been going to bed:
hut my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so
1 sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their to-
bacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a rob of tobacco m
one of the chests, which was quite cured; and some also that was green,
and not quite cured,
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in this chestI found a core
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and, as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took
out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I took it
oat, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What
se to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor whether it
was good for it or not; but I tried several experiments with it. as if I was
resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain,
the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I hod not been much used
to. Then I took some, and steeped it an hour or two in some ram, and re-
solved to take a dse ofit when I lay down: and, Isgly, I brnl somt upon

vr RlHmsbR cadoE. 3
a pan of rals, d hd My'ea ae owtn r tbe oke of it as tlong al roilld
bear it, as well for the beat, as almost for suffocation. In the internal oftht
operation I took up the Bible, and began tbrtad; but my head was too much
disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at est it that time; only, having
opened the book estually, the first words that occurred to me were these -
Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, ad thou halt
glorify me.' These words were very apt to my cste and bmade some im-
pression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much
as they did afterwards; for, as for being deliverAd, the word had no sound,
as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so possible, in my appre-
hensioh of things, that as the children of Israel said, when they were pro-
mised fies to eat, 'Can God spread a table in the widernessn so I began
to say, Can even God himself deliver me from this place And, as it was
not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon
my thoughts, but, however, the words made a great impredion upon me,
and I mused upon them very often. It now grew late; and the tobacco
had, as I aid, dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I left
my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want any thing in the night, and
went to bed. But, before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all ty
life; I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if
I called upon hhi i the d4y of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had-
steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that, in-
deed, I coitd scartc get it down: immediately upon this I went to bed. I
found presently the rm few up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and Waked na more till, by the sun, it must necesearily be
ear three o'clock in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I a
partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise I know not how I taould lose a day out
of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared, some years after .
had done; for, if I had lost it by crossing and recrossig the line, I should
have lost more than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and
never knew which v:ay. Be that, however, one way or the other, wheh I
awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful: when I gotp, I was stronger tha I was the day bere, and my
stomach better, for I vra hbegry; and, in short, I had no At the next day,
but continued nmch altered for the better. This was the 9th.
The 80th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with my gun,
but did oot care to travel too far. I kifed a ea-fowl or two something like
a brand goose, and brought them home; but we not very forward to eat
themo; to I ate some more of the trtle'a eggs whtch were very gpa
Tlhi ezra.n; I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
te day before, vit., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take to
mnithas before, not did I chew any of the le4 or hold my head over the
moke. h eo*e tr) was ot so wel the next day, which wan the fimtn


July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but
it was not much.
July I renewed the medicine all' the three ways, and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 8. 1 mised the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, I will deliver thee;' and
the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it: but, as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I
was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz: 'Have I not
been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness; from the most distressed
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to met and what notice
have I taken of it? Have I done my part God has delivered me, but I have
not glorified him; that is to say, I have not owned and been thankful for
that as a deliverance: and how can I expect a greater deliverance i' This
touched my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave
God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and, beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and every night; not binding myself to the number
of chapters, but as long'as my thoughts should engage me. It was notlong
after I set seriously to this work that I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of
my dream revived; and the words 'Al these things have not brought thee
to repentance' ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of
God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very same
day, that, reading the scripture, I came to these words: 'He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give remission.' I threw
down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy ofjoy, I cried out aloud, 'Jesus, thou Son of David .
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!' This was the
first time in all my life I could say, in the true sense of the words that I
prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true
scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of
God: and from this time, I may say,I began to have hope that God would
hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on me, and
Twill deliver thee,' in a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of any thing being called delivernce but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in: for, though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison tome, and that in the worst
sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sunlappeared r


dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load
of guilt that bore down al my comfort. As for my solitary lie, it was no-
thing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it
pas all of no consideration, in comparison with this. And I add this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that, whenever they cometo a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance fromsin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction. But, to return to my journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by
constantly reading the scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew no-
thing of; also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me to furnish
myself with every thing that I wanted, and make my way of living as
regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my haad, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be.
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli.
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can 1 recommend it to any one to practise
by this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather con-
tributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
hmbs for some time: I learned from it also this, in particular, that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing tomy health that,
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for, as the rain which came in the dry season was
almost always accompanied with such storms, so I found tit this rain
was much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that io human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I hada great
desire.to make more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other
productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey
of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher; and that it was no more than a little brook ofrmn-
nmg water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry season, there was
hardly any watering some parts of it; at least, not any stream. Onte
banks ofthisbrpook Ifoundmanyplesantsavannahsormeadows,platn
and covered with grass: and on the sing parts of them, next to theM
grounds(where the water, as it might be supposed, neveror fid
found a greateal of tobacco, green, and growing to a very great andrhil~
stalk: and there were divers other plants, which I had nctrowledge 4 or
76 I


vnlerstanding about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I
saw large plantsof aloes, but did not understand them. I saw severe sugar-
canes, but wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself
with these discoveries for this time; and came back, musing with myself
what coure I might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the
fruits or plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no conclusion;
for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils
that 1 knew little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might
serve meto any purpose now in my distress
The next day, the l6th, I went up the same way again; and, after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and the
savaunn:s begin to cease, and the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits; and particularly I found melons upon
the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the vines, in-
deed, had spread over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were now just in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was
exceedingly giad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them ; remembering, that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the
eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by
throwing them into flues and fevers. 1 found, however, an excellent use for
these grapes; and that was, to cure or dty them in the sun, and keep them
Sas dried grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought would be (as indeed
they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes were to
be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation; which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. At
night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well;
and the next morning proceeded on my discovery, travelling near four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping still due north, with
a ridge of hills on the south and north sides of me At the end of this march
I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west;
and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by
me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, every thing being in a constant verdure, or Bourish
of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the
side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though
mixed with other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as com-
pletely as any lord of a manor in England, I saw here abundance of coca-
tees, and orange, lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing
any fruit; at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with iater, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and


refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons to
furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and melons in another place; and,
taking a few of each with me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to come
again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must
now call my tent and my cave): but, before I got thither, the grapes were
spoiled; the richness of the fruits, and the weight of the juice, having broken
and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring only a few.
The next day, being the l9th, I went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts which had done this, but what they were I
knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up in heaps, and
no carrying them away in a sack; but that one way they would be destroyed,
and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight; I took
another course. I then gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung
them upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun; and, as for the limes and lemons, 1 carried as many back as I could
well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great plea-
sure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation;
the security from storms on that side; the water and-the wood: and con-
cluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode ma, which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where I
was now situate; if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head; and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me: but when I came to
a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it
was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, by
the same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place; and, though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should over happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and
woods in the centre of the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to
render such an affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that, there-
fore, I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enqsmued
of this place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole rs
part of the month of July: and though, upon second thoughts, I rpolved,:tu
above stated, not to remove; yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and


surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a doable hedge, as high
as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-wood. Here I
lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together; always going over
it with a ladder, as before: so that I fancied now I had my country and my
sea-coast house. This weok took me up till the beginin g of August,
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when
the rains came on, and made me stick close to my fint habitation: for,
though I had made a tent like the other, with a piece of sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found the grapes I had hung up
were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun: so
I began to take them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did
so, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I should have
lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had 1 taken them all down, and carried most
of them home to my cave, but it began to rain: and from hence, which was
the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave
for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family. I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me,
or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home with three kittens. This was the more strange
to me, because, ahout the end of August, though I had killed a wild eat, as
I called it, with my gon, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats: yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one; and both of my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But,
from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was
forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my
house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the f2th, incessant rain; so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement I
began to be straitened for food; but, venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the a6th, found avery large tortoise, which
was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus: I ate a hnnch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, broiled,
for my dinner (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
any thing); and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my sapper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
threlhours at enlarging my cave: and, by degrees, worked iton towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the bill; and made a door, or way oaut
which came beyond my fence or wall and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I bad managed myself


bere, I was in a perfect enclosre; whereas now I thought I lay exposed;
and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the
biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat,
September 3. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on share three hun-
red and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast setting it apart
for religions exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the moat serion
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgt
ments upon. me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hour, even
till the going down of the son, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of grape
and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it I had all this time ob-
served no sabbath-day; for, as, at first, I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after sme time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were: but now, having cast up the days, as above, I
found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and et apart
every seventh day for a sabbath: though I found, at the end of my account,
I hWd lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink begin-
ning to fail me, I contented myself to use it more sparingly; and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I
bought all my experience before I had it; and what I am going to relate
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I had made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which
I had so surprisingly found sprang up, as I thought, of themselves. I believe '
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley and now
I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains; the son being in its
southern position, going from me Accordingly I dug a piece of grt d, as
well as could, with my wooden spade; and, dividing it into two parts, .
sowed my grain; but, as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts
that I would not sow it all at first, became I did not know when was the
proper time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each: and it was a great comfort to me afterwards that 1 did so,
for not one grain of what I sowed thistime came to anything; aor the dry
month following. and the earth having thus had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all til
the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if iti had ben but newly
sown. Finding my fst seed did not grow, wbh~h I l .ly imagined ws
from the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make aonel,
trial in; and I dog up a piece of ground near my ae t buowr, and sowed Ls
rest of my seed in lebrary, a little before the vernal equeso T anS, hoai
the rainy mouth of March and April to water it, sprng up very pleantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having only part of the ed le and not


daring to sow all that I had, I got but a small quantity at last, my whole
crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind, But by this experi-
ment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when was the
proper time to sow; and that I might expect two seed-times and two
harvests, every year.
While this corn was growing, 1 made a little discovery, which was of se
to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began
to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower; where, though I had not been some months, yet I
found all things just as 1 left them. The circle or double hedge that I had
made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cat eot of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown with long
branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping
its head; but I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut
from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees
grow; and I pruned them, and led them to grow as much alike as I could
and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years
so that, though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in dia.
meter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This
made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in
a semicircle, round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards dis-
tance from my first fence, they grew presently; and were, at firt, a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also; as I shall
observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus:-From the middle of February to the
middleof April, rainy; the sun being then on ornear the equinox. From the
middle of April till the middle of August, dry; the sun being then north f
the line. From the middle of August till the middle of October, rainy; the
sun being then come back to the line. From the middle of October til the
middle of February, dry the sun being then to the south of the line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and sometimes shorter, as the
winds happened to blow; but this was the general observation I made.
After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad 4he
rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might
not be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as muchas possible during
the wet months. This time I found much employment, and very suitable
also to the time; for I found great occasion for many things which I had no
iiiy to furnish myself with bat by hard labour and constant application:
particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket; hut all the twigs I
could get for the purpose proved so brittle, that they would do nothing. It
proved of excellent advantage to me now, that, when I was a boy, I saed to
take great delight in standing at a baslet-moker's in Ihe town wstdtl

1:-t*P RoBtNSON CRtSOL. 71
father lived to see themaeke their wicker ware; and being, as boys asusly
are, very offcious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they
worked those things, and sometimes leading a hand, I had by these meaIs
fall knowledge of the methods of it, so that I wanted nothing but the ma-
terials; when it came into my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence
I cat my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the allows, willows,
and osiers in England; and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day,
1 went to my country-house, as I called it; and, cutting some of the smaller
twigs I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire: whereupon I
came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which
I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry
within my circle or hedge; and, when they were fit for use, I carried them
to my cave and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making,
as well as I could, several baskets, both to carry- earth, or to carry or lay
up any thing as I had occasion for. Though I did not finish them very
handsomely, yetI made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose: sad
thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and, as my wicker
ware decayed, I made more; especially strong deep baskets, to place my corn
in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two other wants. I had
no vesel to hold any thing that was liquid, except two runlets, which were
almost full of rum; and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and
others (which were case-bottles) square, for the holding of waters, spirit ,
&e. I had not so much as a pot to boil any thing; except a great kettle,
which I saved aot of the ship, and which was too t. fr .et ,1 a I de.
sired it, vi., to make broth, and stew a bit of meat t .u..:I. T'w ( r road
thing 1 would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible for f
me to make one; however, I fouda contrivance for that too at last I eta
played myself in planting my second row of stakes or piles, and also in this
wicker-working, all the summer or dry season; when another sinees to6e
me up more time than it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island; and
that I bad travelled p the brook, and s on to where 1 had built my bower,
and' where I had an opening quite to the se, on the other side of the island,
l now reolvedto travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side: staking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than
usual; with two biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for
my store; I began myjourney. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea, to the west; and it
being a very clear day, Ifairly described land; whether an island or continent
I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending front W. to W. 8. W, 44
very great distace; by mygness, it could not be lea than fifteen ortweaty.
leagues off
I could not tell what part of the world this might be; otherwise than
that knew it mast he part of America; and, as I concluded, by all

obe-rvateis, miAl be near Lit .'nam h donmmnis; uas4 perhaps wa dlth-
habiled by ma.ren, where, a' i .ela h barve iandealo I bad ther.i a wone
endition th. n I was now. I thrrtlbrearqoiaeed ia the ds wihnsof Pro-
videae, rich I began now to ad u to an erteTe ordered every thig ir
the best; Isay, I quieted my mind with, t and left off atieinag W lf
aw-n f [nia abe is c tO inc there. -
i after some pause upon this afir, I considered, that, if thi(W ad was
the Spania coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see e w* i pmn
or repas one way-or other; kbut if not, then it was the aagne cinl:litreea
the Spanish country and the Brazils, whoe inhabitants are Indeed the wit
d savages; for they are cannibals, or me-eaters, and fail not t naide'mdl
devwor a human beings that fall into their bands.
With thea considerations, walking very leisurely forward, I fannd this
ide of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter than mine; tti-epen
or savannab field sweetly adorned with fIowers and grass and lidl ofy.v
Sfe woods., I aw abundance of parrots; and fain wild have caught ea,
if powaile, to hae kef- it i ke ttame, and taught it tospeak to me. Idli
after taing some pains, t..'h a young parrot; for I Iocked it down with a
tick, and, having recovered it, I brought it home: but itiar m years
beIfre I could make him peak ; however, at last I taught hiAto c*ll ait by
my name very familiarly. Bat the accidet that followed, though it be a
trile, will be very diverting in its pce
I a exceedingly amnsed with this jorey. Ifaand, in th low ground,
Bies, as I thought them to be, and f as:te: they diffeed greatly fne alt
tbeather kids I hul mt l lbt, nor ulj a1 ata myself toIetthenvthaglh
i eterl. Rut I t..l no ed lon Ir eeluroms; for I had no want t
aLnd f nl thai ahL ust.h a e pa t ano: .istcally iheathee ortar.iz.
i. peo an., and tuari., or Iortue. i' .b thes added to my grapes
aldcn haHll-miarLea could nol hP.e ri'unuhed a uble better dural, in propeOr
S fin to ithe company; and, tIhoub ih mas wasa deplorable eeasi, yetilhad
great na .c r tlihnr l .Mn a I w naol dnren to any etuheatlit fr
food, but had rather plenty, ten to dainties. *
Inever trasnefl on tins ojnarey ashbe rao milea ottnghtiC ta de, or
thereabout; but I lootk maw i torns aod return, to aee A it I
oeld make, that I .ame wem-y einus; to the place where m Yt ,it
down for the night; and ihen I ithe rerpe ed En ef in a Ae filided
iyspir u a row of stones, E upright in the ground, dber oiBs'fm ea
to anothbe, or s, m no wild nature mold amer at me lnhout stikfag es.
ks Msn I m cae in the see-shDra I as mrpriwd to ae Inttia n ea
up my lot ad the worst jd of the e tland: for here indeed te tir was
eierrd nth Ianmenable turtles; whereas, on *be fiher id, f lid ftud
I s a yeam and half Here wasm zhatib ter amber o Ralw
4, a yj kinds; imre of r ab bad elen, and gfi thiirhi& T had lt lea
before, and many of rhem ery good meat; hlat antie I knu ita t
ama o expL Ib thoe caled pengmas.
Trami have AS t as may as I plek* iMaras ity sparit aF

av WOBINsol ECBUSOR. -' 73

powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to kill a ahe-goat, if I would
which I could better feed ona But though there were many goats here,
more thaa on my side the island, yet it was with much more diliculty that
I could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw
me much sooner than when I was upon a hil.
I confew this side of the country was much pleaanter than mine; yet I
had not the least inclination to remove; for, as I was fixed in my habitations
it became natuial to me, and I seemed all the while I was her tobe as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the as.
shore towards the east, I oppose about twelve miles ; and then, setting up
a great pole upon the share for a mark, I concluded I would go home again n,
and that the next journey 1 took should be on the other side-of the island
east from my dwelling, and so rou till I came to my post again: of which
in its place.
i took another way to come bitr trhan Ihat I s an, th.niaig I j cMs
easily keep so mch of the island n? rtiw. th I rould anis mi Pt
dwelling by viewing the country: buot I i..ul m. vli mistaken; for. hi n
come about two or three miles, I folui nsul dir ,.dd ioo a n" r large .
valley, but o earrounded with hills, ard ih I-i :.; a-ered mith wool, ltJ. r
I could not see which was my way bl any lire,: t., u, st hla1 i the seu. mri."'-,
even then, unless I knew very well the p[,...ln .i ith sua er Ib1S t.Im oft'Il
day. And it happened, to my farther misfortune, that the wesber proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley; and not being ableat
see the son, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last was obli0g
to find out the sea-side, lookfor my pot, and come tnik the l ne wuarf
went; and thea by easy journeys I turned homeward, the weart
exceeding hot, and my gun ammnition, hatchet, aoni Aus, r thi i rI
heavy. m
la this journey my dog surprised a young kid, a.ii wAd upon n;
running to take hold of it, I caught it, and saved it sh from the dog.- I
had a great mind to bring it home, if Icould; for I had obten been m~ vig
whether it might not be potible to get a kig or two, and so raise ii breed d
tame goats, which might supply nle when my powder and shot should tbali
pent. I made a collar for this little creatre; and with a string weh"l Ihad
made of sme rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him aloey
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and thee I eankdosa
him and left him for I was very impatient to be at home, fren wteabeJI
had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a atiketion it was to me to come into my oli
hutch, and li down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering Jmsrney
without a settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my ma
heoae, a I called it to myself was a perfect settlement to me, compared it
that; an4it readered every thing about me so comfortable, that h~thfid
I woiEd neer go a great way from it again, while it should beartylo t'
ipay on th island.
I reposed myself ere a week, to rest and regale myself tr my
77 IK %


journey: during which most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair
of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be more domestic, and to
be mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid,
which I had penned within my little circle, and resolved to fetch it home, or
give it some food: accordingly I went, and found it where I left it (for indeed
it could not get out), but was almost starved for want of food. I went and
cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw
it over, and, having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was
so tame with being hungry, that I lad no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog: and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving,
so gentle, and so fond, that it aas from that time one of my domestics also,
and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniver-
aary of my landing on the island; having now been there two years, and no
more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent
the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the many won-
derful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and without
which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty
thanks to God for having been pleased to discover to me that it was pos-
sible I might be more happy, even in this solitary condition, than I should
have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the pleasures of the world:
that he could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and
the want of human society, by Iis presence, and the communications of his
grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon his providence here, and to hope for his eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed,
abominable life I led all the past part of my days: and now I changed both
my sorrows and my joys: my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my
first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the
country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me
on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods,
the mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up
with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness,
without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures of my mind,
this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my
hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle
of my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together: this was still worse to me; but if I
could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings by words, it would go
off; and my grief, being exhausted, would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily read the
word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One


morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, I will
never leave thee, nor forsake thee:' immediately it occurred that these words
were to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God
and man S Well, then,' said I, if God does not forsake me, of what ill
consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should forsake
me; seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the
favour and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss '
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible
for me to be more happy in this forsaken solitary condition, than it was
probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in the world;
and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me
to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst thou be such
a hypocrite,' said I, even audibly,' to pretend to be thankful for a condition,
which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldest
rather pray heartily to be delivered from?' Here I stopped: but, though I
could not say I thanked God for being here, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providence, to see the
former condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent.
I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed
God for directing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack
it up among my goods; and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the
wreck of the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my
works this year as the first yet, in general, it may be observed, that I was
very seldom idle; but having regularly divided my time, according to the
several daily employment that were before me; such as, first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time
for, thrice every day: secondly, going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours every morning, when it did not rain:
thirdly, ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
catched for my supply: these took up great part of the day; also it is to be
considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith,
the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four hours
in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in; with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and
went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exceed-
ing laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for want of tools,
want of help, and want of skill, every thing I did took up out of my time:
for example, I was full two-and-forty days making me a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas two sawyers, with their tools
and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: It was a large tree which was to be cut down, be-

case my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days cutting
down, and two more in cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log,
or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing I reduced both
the side. of it into chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned it,
aod made one side of it smooth and flat as l board, from end to end; then,
turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank to
be.about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one ay judge
the labour of my hands in such a piece of work; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things: I only observe this in
particular, to shew the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work, viz, that what might be a little to be done with help and toos,
was a vast labour, and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand.
Notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I went through many things;
and, indeed, every thing that my circumstances made necessary for me to
do, as will appear by what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my
crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them
was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quan-
tity of half a peck, having lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season
but now my crop promised very well; when, on a sodden, I found I was in
danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce
possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called
hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as
noon as it came up, and ate it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.
I saw no remedy for this but by making an enclosure about it with a
hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the more, because it re-
quired speed. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my
crop. I got it tolerably well fenced in about three weeks time; and, aboting
some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all
night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while the corn was in the blade, o
the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it wasin the ear for, going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded
with fowls, I know not of how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among them (fr I always had
my gun with me); I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the cour itself.
This touched me sensibly; for I foresaw that in a few days they would de-
vour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a
cropat a ll and what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose
my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and d& In le
first place, I went among it to see what damage was alrenj1 douseMa
found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that, as it w Y t imopn


for them, the lows not so great but that the remainder was likely 4o be
a good crop, if it could be saved.
I stayed by it to load my gun; and then coming away, I could easily see
the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they pply waited
till I was gone away; and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked
off, as if gone, I was no sooner out of their sight than they dopt down, one by
one, intothe corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain they ate now was, as it
might be said, a peck-loafto me in the consequence; so; coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England,
viz., hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to ima-
gine that this should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls not only
never came to the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island,
and I could never see a bird near the place as long as my scare-crows.hung
there. This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and, about the latter end
of December, which was my second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a site or sickle to cut it down: and all I could
do was to make one as well as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or
cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down: in short, (
reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in
a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and,
at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley;
that is to say, by my guess, for had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and I foresaw that, in,
time, it would please God to supply me with bread: and yet here I was per-.
plexed again; for 1 neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn,
or, indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if I made it into meal, how to
make bread of it; and, if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it;.
these things being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store,
and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but
to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of
providing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked.for my bread. It is a lid,
wonderful, and what.I believe few people have thought much upiano rv
the strange multitude of little things necessary in the providing, producing
curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found fbis to my daily dis,,
coorageanent and was made more sensible of it every hour, even afterI Jhad
got the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpect:
edly, And, indeed, to a surprise.
Firgs I had- o plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to dig it:
ell;,this I conquered, by making a wooden spade, as I observed befte.,
r .


but this did my work in but a wooden manner; and, though it cost me a
great many days to make it, yet, fbr want of iron, it not only wore out the
sooner, but made my work the harder, and performed it much worse.
However, this I bore with, and was content to work it oat with patience,
and bear with the badness of the performance. When the corn was sown,
I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it, When it was ic. n;... 1., I r a, I have observed al-
ready how many things I wanted i iti.. ,i ... I t r.- v or reap it, cure
and carry it home, thresh, part it from the chaf, and save it: then I
wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into
bread, and an oven to bake it; and yet all these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage
to me: all this, as I said, made every thing laborious and tedious to me, but
that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, be.
cause, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed
to these works; and, as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I
had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself
wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper
for the performing all the operations necessary for making corn 6t for my
But now I was to prepare more land; forI had seed enough to sow above an
acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's work, at least, to make me a.
spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, andvery heavy,
and required double labour to work with it: however, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large fat pieces of ground, as near my house as 1
could find them to my mind, hnd fenced them in with a good hedge; the
stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before, and knew
it would grow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work took me up fall
three months, because great part of the time was in the wet season, when
I could not go abroad, Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could
not go out, I found employment on the following occasions; always observ-
ing, that, while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking to my parrot,
and teaching him to speak; and I quickly learned him to know his own
name, and, at last, to speak it out pretty loud, Poll;' which was the first
word 1 ever heard spoken in the island, by any mouth but my own. This,
therefore, was not my work, but an assistant to my work j for now, as I
said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as follows:-I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessel
which, indeed, I wanted much, but knew not where to come at them. how-
ever, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I would
ind out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried
an te sun, be hard and strong enough to hear handling, and to hold any
thing that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary
in the preparing corn, meal, &c., which was the thing I was upon, I renlved


to make some as large a I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold
what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how
many awkward ways I took to raise this pastil; what odd, mishapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay
not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell in
pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were dried: and, in
a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper
it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make above two'large earthen
ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them
very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which
I had made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as be-
tween the pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it
full of the rice and barley-straw; and these two pots, being to stand always
dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and, perhaps, the meal, when the
corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet 1 made
several smaller things with better success; such as little round pots, flat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any thing my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sun baked them very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot
to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It hap-
pened some time after, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat,
when 1 went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece
of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and
as red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it; and said to myself,
that certainly they" might be made to burn whole, if they would burn
This set me to study how to order my fire, s as to make it burn some
pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters bur in, or of glazingthem
with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large
pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my
fire-wood all round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the
fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots
in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at
all: when I saw.them clear red, I let them stand m that heat about five or
six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run;
for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence ofthl
heat, and would have run into glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire
gradually, till the pots began to abate of the red colour;' and watching
them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning
I had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins, and two other
earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired; and one of them perfectl-
glazed with the running of the sand.


After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted o sort of earthen
ware for my use; but I must needs say, a to the hapes of them, they were
very indifferent, as any one may suppose, as I had no way of making them
but as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that
never learned to raise paste.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine when I
found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and 1 had hardly
patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well, and
with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth; though I wanted oat-
meal, and several other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would
have had it been.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar to stamp or heat some corn
in; for, as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of
art with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great loss; for,
of all trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter
as for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent
many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit
for a mortar; but could find none at all, except what was in a solid rock,
and which I had no way to dig or cut out: nor, indeed, were the rocks in
the island of sufficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy crumbling stone,
which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break
the corn without filing it with sand: so, after a great deal of time lost in
searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out a great block
of hard wood, which I found, indeed, e uch easier; and, getting one as big
as IT ad strength to stir, 1 rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my
axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made
a hollow place in it, as the Indians, in Brazil, make their canoes. After this,
I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called iron-wood; and
this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I pro-
posed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal, to make my
SMy next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search, to dress my meal, and
to part it from the bran and the husk, without which I did not see it pos-
sible I could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing, even but to
think on; for I had nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean the
fine thin canvas or stuff, to search the meal through. Here 1 was at a full
atop for many months nor did I really know what to do; linen I had none
let but what was mere rags; I had goats' hair, but neither knew how to
weive it nor spin it; and, had I known how, here were no tools to work it
with. all the remedy I found for this was, at last recollecting I had, among
the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckeloths of
calico or mualin; with some pieces of these I made three small sieves, proper
enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did
afterwards. I hall shew in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how 1 shaaul


make bread when I came to have corn: for, first, I had no yeast: as to that
part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it; but for an oven, I was, indeed, puzzled. At length I found out
an expedient for that also, which was this:-I made some earthen vessels,
very broad, but not deep; that is to say, about two feet diameter, and
not above nine inches deep: these I burned in the fire, as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and, when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire
upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own
making and burning also; but I should not call them square.
When the fire-wood was burned into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there let them lie till
the hearth was very hot; then, sweeping away all the embers, I set down my
loaf, or loaves, and, covering them with the earthen pot, drew the embers
all round the outside of the pot, to keep in, and add to, the heat; and thus,
as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-loaves, and be-
came, in a little time, a good pastry-cook into the bargain; for I made my-
self several cakes and puddings of the rice; but made no pies, as I had no-
thing to put into them except the flesh of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of
the third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed, in the intervals of
these things, I lad my new harvest and husbandry to manage: I reaped my
corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the
ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out; for I had no floor to
thresh it on, or instrument to thresh it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build
my barns bigger: I wanted a place to lay it rp in; for the increase of the
corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels,
and of rice as much, or more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use
it freely: for my bread had been quite gone a great while: I resolved also to
see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but
once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were
much more than I could consume in a year so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity
would fully provide me with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran
many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side
of the island; and I was not without some secret wishes that I was on shore
there; fancying, that seeing the main land, and an inhabited country, I
might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps, at last,
find some means ofescape.
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition,
and that I might fall into the hands of savages, and, perhaps, such as I might
have reason to think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa: that, ifl
once came in their power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and, perhaps, of being eaten; for I had heard that
77 L


the people of the Carribbea coast were cannibals, or man-eaters; and I
knew, by the latitude, that I could not be far off from that shore. IIhe%
supposing they were not cannibals, yet that they might kill me, as they ban
many Europeans who had fallen into their hands, even when they have been
ten or twenty together; much more I, who was but one, and could make
little or no defence; ad these things, I say, which I ought to have considered
well of, and did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, took up none of my ap-
prehensions at first; yet my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting
over to the shore.
Now I wished for my boy oury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-
mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa; but this was in Vain: then I thought I would go and look at our
ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way,
in the storm, when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where she di(
at first, bt not quite; having turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy rough sand;
but no water about her as before. If I hadhad hands to have refitted her, and
to have lauched her into the water, the boat would have done very well,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough; but I
might have foreseen that I could no more turn her, and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the island: however, I went to the woods,
and cot levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try
what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down,
and repair the damage she had received, she would be a very good boat,
and I might venture to sea in her.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think,
three or four weeks about it: at last, finding it impossible to heave her up-
with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine her,
and so as to make her fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide
her right in the fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir her up again, or fo get
under her, much less to move her forward towards the water; so I was
forced to give it over: and yet, though 1 gave over the hopes of the boat,
my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than diminished, as the
means for it seemed impossible.
At length, I began to think whether it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even without
tools, or, as I might say, without hands of the trunk of a great tree. This I
not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the
idea of making it, and with my having much more convenience for it than
any of the negroes or ladians; but not at all considering the particular in-
conveniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., the want of
hands to move it ioto the water when it Was made,--a difficulty much harder
for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to
then m: r what could it avail me, if, after I had chosen my tree, and with
much trouble cut it down, and might he able with my tools to hew and dub


the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cot out the inside
to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it; if after all thi, I must leave
t just where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?
. One would imagine, if I had had the least reflection upon my mind of my
circumstances while I was making this boat, I should have immediately
thought howl was to get it into the sea: but my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off
the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it
over forty-five miles-of sea, than the forty-five fathoms of land,where it lay,
to set it afloat in the water.
I went to work upon this boat the most likg a fool that ever man did, who
had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without de-
termining whether I was able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of
launching my boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to my own
inquiries into it by this foolish answer: Let us first make it; I warrant I
will find some way or other to get it along when it is done.'
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy pre-
vailed, and to work I went I felled a cedar-tree, and 1 question much
S whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the Temple at
Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
where it lessened, and then parted into branches. It was not without in-
finite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty days hacking and hewing
at the bottom, and fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and the
vast spreading head of it, cut off: after this, it cost me a month to shape it
and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright, as it oughtto do. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it: this I
did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it.
The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that
was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may
be sure; and there remained nothing but to get it into the water; which,
had I accomplished, I make no question but I should have begun the
maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
SBut all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost
me inexpressible labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water,
and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up bill towards the
creek. Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the
surface of the earth, and so make a declivity: this I began, and it ot me a
prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their del ani
m new) ? When this was worked through, and this difficulty


stall much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other
boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock
or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the
canoe down to the water. Well, 1 began this work; and, when I began to
enter upon it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the
stuff was to be thrown out, 1 found by the number of hands I had, having
none but my own, that it must have been ten or twelve years before I could
have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end
it must have been at least twenty feet deep; this attempt, though with great
reluctancy, I was at length obliged to give over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of
beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of
our own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and
kept my anniversary with the same devotion and with as much comfort as
before; for, by a constant study and serious application to the word of God,
and by the assistance of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what
I had before; I entertained different notions of things; I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation
from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a word, I had nothing to do with it,
nor was ever likely to have; I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look
upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but-was come out ofit; and
well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives Between me and thee is a
great gulf fixed:
In the first place, I was here removed from all the wickedness of the
world; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride
of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now capable of en-
joying: I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself
king or emperor over the whole country which I had possession of; there
were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or com-
mand with me: I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use
for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had.
tortoise or turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put
to any use: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had
grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have
loaded that fleet when it had been built.
But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had enough to
eat and supply my wants, and what was the rest to me If I killed more
flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or vermin; if I sowed more corn
than I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down were lying to
rot on the ground; I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and that
I had no other occasion for but to dressmy food.
In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upo just
reflection, that all the good things of this world are of no farther good to u
than for our use ; and that whatever we may heap up to give to others, we
oejoy only as much as we can use, and no more. The moa covetous gqnpm
r ^


miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness if he
had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do
with. I had no room for desire, except it was ftr things which I had not,-
and they were comparatively but trifles, though indeed of great use to me.
I had, as I hinted before, ayparcel of money, as well gold'as silver, about
thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay:
I had no manner of business for it; and I often thought within myself, that
I would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-
mill to gsind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for sixpenny-worth of
turnip and carrot-seed from England, or for a handful of peas and beans, and
a bottle of ink. Asit was, I had not the least advantage by it, or benefit from
it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave
in the wet seasons; and, if I had had the drawer fall of diamonds, it had been
the same case,-they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.
I had now brought my state of life to be much more comfortable in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind as well as to my body. I
frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand of
God's providence, which had thus spread my table in the wilderness: I
learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the
dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted: and
this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them;
and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of
it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they
see and covet something that he has not given them. All our discontents
about what we want appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness
for what we have.
Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to
any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was, to
compare my present condition with what I at first expected it would be;
nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the good providence of God
had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up near to the shore, where
I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the
shore, for my relief and comfort; without which I had wanted for tools to
work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.
I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, id
the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of
the ship. I could not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles;
and that, as it was long before I found any of them, I mast have perished:
that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage: that, -f I
had killed a goat or a fowl by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open
it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must
gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.
These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to
me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and
misfortunes: and this part also I cannot but recommend to the reflectim of
these who are apt, in their misery, to say, 'Is any affiction rlie miner Le

them consider how much worse the cases of some people are, and their caM
might have been, if Providence had thought fit.
I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with
hopes; and this was, comparing my present condition with what I had de-
served, and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of Providence. [
had lived a dreadftu life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God;
I had been well instructed by my father and mother; neither had they been
wanting to me in their endeavors to infuse an early religious awe of God
into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature wid end of my being
required of me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all
lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though his. terrors are always
before them; I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring
company, all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was
laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despismg of dangers,
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long absence
from all manner of opportunities to converse with any thing but what was
like myself, or to hear any thing that was good, or tending towards it
So void was I of every thing that was good, or of the least sense of what I
was, or was to be, that in the greatest deliverance I enjoyed (such as my
escape from SalJee, my being taken up by the Portuguese master of a ship,
my being planted so well in the Brazil, my receiving the cargo rom Eng-
land, and the like), I never had once the words' Thank God' so much as on
my mind or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much as a
thought to pray to him, or so much as to say, Lord, have mercy upon me'
no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.
I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have already
observed, on account of my' wicked and hardened life past; and when I
looked about me, and considered what particular providence had attended
me since my coming into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with
me,-had not only punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had
so plentifully provided for me,-this gave me great hopes that my repentance
was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.
With these reflections I worked my mind up not only to a resignation to
the will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a
sincere thankfulness for my condition; and that I, who was yet a living man,
ought not to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that
I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected in that
place, that I ought never more to repine at my condition, but to rejoice, and
to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of
wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed by a
miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long
series of miracles; and that 1 could hardly have named a place in the uniu-
nabtable part of the world where I could have been cast more to my d-.
vantage; a place where, as hd no society, which was my afhiction on oM
hand, so I found no ravenous beasts no furious wolves or tigers, to tbrei~ie

'Of no1NSON CRIUSO. 87
my lif; no venomous r poisons creates, which I might feed on to my
hurt; no savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a
life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted
nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to make myself sensible of God's
goodness to me, and care over me, in this condition; and after I did make
Just improvement of these things, I went away, and was no more sad.
I had now been here so long, that many things which I brought on shore
for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.
My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all but a very little,
which I eked oat with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce
left any appearance of black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made
use of it to minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me: and, first, by casting up times past, I remember that
there was a strange concurrence of days in the various providence which
befell me, and which, if I bad been superstitiously inclined to observe days as
fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great
deal of curiosity.
First, I had observed, that the same day thatI broke away fromamoy father
and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in order togotoo sea, tAh* me day
afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man of war, and made a slave: the
amne day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth
Roads, that same day-year afterwSrds I made my escape from Sallee in the
boat: and the same day of the year I was born on, viz, the Soth of Sepl
member, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six year,
after, when I was cast on shore in this island: so that my wicked life and
my solitary life began both on one day.
The next thing to my ink being wasted was that of my bread; I mea tlh
biscuit which I brought out of the ship: this I had husbanded to the last
degree, allowing myself bat one cake of bread a day for above a year; and
yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got any corn of my
own; and great reasonT had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting
it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.
My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to linen, I had none for a
great while, except some ebequered shirts which Ifound in the chests of tihe
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, because many times I covA
bear no clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I
had, among all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
There were also, indeed, several thick watch-coat of the seamen's which
were left but they were too hot to wear: and though it is true that the.
weather was so violently hot that there was to need of clothes, yet I could
not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not;
nor could I abide the thought of it, though I was al alone. The ranoo why
I could not go qaite naked w ,, n'.1 anl ot1 r 1 th- Tca ui tth, is w iell
when quite naked as with awr rvlwr nun ra iE, [ r i er, heat fil
blistered my skin: whereas, i,ih a shirt on, the sir itsUi mine some motion,
an, whistling under the sirt, was twofolcooler than without it. ;No more
could I ever bring myasf to go out in the beat of the au without a cap or

bat; the heat of the sun beating with such violence as it do in that place
would give me the head-ach presently, by darting so directly upon my
head, without a hat or cap on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put
on my hat, it would presently go away.
Upon these views, I began to considerfabout putting the few rags I had,
which I-ealled clothes, into some order: I had worn out all the waistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of thi
great watch-coant that I had by me, and with sauh other materials as I had;
so I set to work a tailoring, or rather, indeed, a botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three new waist-
coats, which I hoped would serve me a great while: as for breeches or
drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterward.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed,
I mean four-footed ones; and I had hung them up, stretched out with sticks,
in the sun, by which means some of them were so dry and hard that they
were fit for little, but others I found very useful The first thing I made of
these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off
the rain; and this I performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of
clothes wholly of the skinW, that is to say, a waistcoat and breeches, open at
the knees, and both looe; for they were.rather wanting to keep me cool
than warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly
made; for, if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they
were such as I made very good shift with; and, when I was abroad, if it
happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being uppermost, I was
kept very dry.
After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me an umbrella
I was, indeed, in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one: I
had seen them made in the Brazils, where they were very useful m the great
heats which are there; and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and
greater too, being nearer the equinox: besides, as I was obliged to he much
abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make any
thing likely to hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled twoor
three before I made one to my mind; but at last I made one that answered
indifferently welL The main difficlty -ounod was to make it to-let down:
I could make it spread, but if it did not letdown too, and draw ini it was not
portable foe me any way but just over my head, which would not do. How.
ever, at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with skins, the
hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the
sun ao effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with
greater advantage than I could before in the coolest; and, when I had no
need of it, could close it, and carry it under my arm.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by
reigning tonthe will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal
ofhisprovideane. Thimade my life betterthan soiable; for, when I began
to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus coo.
ersing mutually with my own thought, and, a I hope I Imy say, wit


even God himself by ejaculations, was not better than the.otmost enjoyment
of human society in the world?
I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing hap-
pened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and
place, just as before. The chief things I was employed in, besides my yearly
labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which
I always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one year's provision
beforehand; I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily-pursuit of going
out with my gun, I had one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I
finished: so that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide, and four feet deep, 1
brought it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so
vastly big, as I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought to do,
how I should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the
water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it wa, as a
memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time: indeed, the next time,
though [ could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could
not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, near half a
mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and, though
I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of
having a boat to go offto sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size-ofit was
not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the
first; I mean of venturing over to the terrafirma, where it was above forty
miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end
to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat, my -ext
desig was to make a cruise round the islands for as Ihad been on the
other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, overthe land,
so the discoveries 1 made in that little journey made me very eager to set
other parts of the coast; and, now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but
sailing round the island.
For this purple, that I might do every thing with discretion and consider
ration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it oat ofasome
of the pieces of the ship's sails which lay in store, and of which I had a gat
stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I hind
she would sail very well: then I made little lockers, or boxes, at each end
of my boat, to put provisions necessaries, ammunition, &c., into, to be kept
dry, either from rain or the sprayof the sea; and a little long hollow place
I ct in the insi of the boat, where I could laymy gun, making a flap to
hang down over it, to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast; to staad.bver
my head, and keep the heat.of the sun off me, like an awning; an4 Ob s1
very now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far
out, nor far from tha little creek. At lat, beipg eager to'vie* the cireftn
erence of my little kingdom, I resolved upon-my cruise, andaccordingly I
victualled my ship far the voyage, putting in two dofen of-loaves (cakes I
should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice
77 M


(a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I
mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen's chests: these I took, one
to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year ofmy reign, or my captivity,
which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer
than I expected; for though the island itself was not very large, yet, when I
came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of racks lie out about two
leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it; and beyond that a
shoal ofsand, lying dry halfa league more, so that I was obliged to go a great
way out to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise,
and come back again, not knowing hoew far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back again; so I came to an
anchor; for I had made me a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken
grappling which I got out of the ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up
on a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of
it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong,
and indeed a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close
to the point; and I took the more notice of it, because 1 saw there might
be some danger, that, when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by
the strength of it, and not be able to make the island again: and, indeed,
had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there
was the same current on the other side the island, only that it set offat a
farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I
had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should presently
be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at
E. S. E., and that being just contrary to the said current, made a great breach
of the sea upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore, for the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-night, the
sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a warning-piece again to all rash
and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point, when 1 was not
even my boat's length from the shore, butI found myself in a great depth of
water, and the current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along
with it with such violence, that all I could do could not keep her so much as
on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the
eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me,
and all I could do with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to
give myself over for lost; for, as the current was on both sides of the island,
I knew in a few leagues distance they must join again, and then I was irre-
coverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no
prospect before me but of perishing, notby the sea, for that was calm enough,


bat of starving for hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the shore, as
tlg almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great
jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots but what was all
this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no
shore, no main land or island, for thousand leagues at least
And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even
the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now Ilooked back upon
my desolate solitary island as the most pleasant place in the world; and all
the happiness my heart cold wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eagerwishes: '0 happy desert,' said I, '1 shall
never see thee more. 0 miserable creature! whither am I going r Then I
reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how 1 had repined at
my solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there
again V Thus we never see the true state of our condition till it i illu
stated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy hut
by the want of it. It is scarce possible to imagine the coosternation I was
now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to
be) into the wide ocean almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of
ever recovering itagain. However, I worked hard till indeed my strength
was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is,
towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could;
when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought 1 felt a little
breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S. S. E. This cheered my
heart a little, and especially when, m about half an hour more it blew a
pretty gentle gale. By this time I was got at a frightful distance from the
island, and, had the least clody or hazy weather intervened, I had been un-
done another way too; for Ihad no compass on board, and should never
have known how to have steered towards the island, if I had but once lost
sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my
mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the north as much as pos-
sible, to get out of the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I
saw, even by the clearness of the water, some alteration of the current was
near; for, where the current was so strong, the water was foul; but, per-
ceiving the water clear, I found the current abate ; and presently I found to
the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks: these
rocls, I found, caused the current to part again; and as the main stress of it
ran away more southwardly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other
returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran
back again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream.
They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to the'upoon the
ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such-like extremities, may guess what my present,surprise of
joy was, and how gladly Iput my boat into the stream of this eddy; and,
the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheer-
fully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under fooL
This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly to.

wards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward than the
current which carried me away at first; so that, when I came.near the island,
I found myself opera to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end
of the island, opposite to that which I went out from.
When I had made something more than a league of way, by the help of
this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther. How-
ever, I found that, being between two great currents, viz., that on the south
side, which had hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about a
league on the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake of the island,
I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having still a
breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island, though
not making such fresh way as I did before:
About four o'clock in the evening, being then within league of the island,
I found the point of the rocks, which occasioned this disaster, stretching out,
as is described before, to the southward, and, casting off the current more
southwardly, had, of course, made another eddy to the north; ard this I
found very strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay (which
was due west), but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale, I
stretched across this eddy, slanting northwest: and, in about an hour, came
within nearly a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got
to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my
preservation, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
boat; and, refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat
close to the shore, in a little cove lihat I had spied undlr some trees, and
laid ome down to sleep, being quite spfnt with the tabour and fatigue of the
I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat: I had run
so much hazard, and knew too much of the case to think of attempting it by
the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the west
side), I knew not; nor had I any mind to run any more ventures; so I only
resolved in the morning to make my way westward along the shore, and to
see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to
have her again if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabout, coast-
ing the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where t found a very
convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in
a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and, having stowed
my boat very safe, 1 went on shore to look about me, and see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been be-
fore, when I traveled on foot to that shore; so, taking nothing out of my
boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceeding hot, I began my mareh.
'The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon,
and I reached mny old bower in the evening, where I found every thing
standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said be-
fore, my country house.
I got ever the fence, and laid me down in the shade, to rest my limbs, for

i was Tery weary, and fell asleep: but judge you, if you can, that read my
story, what a surprise I must be in, when I was awaked out of my sleep by
a voice, calling me by my name several times, RRobn, Robin, Robin Cruiae;
poor Robin CrusoeI Where are you, Robin Crusoe Where are'you?
Where have you been'
I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as
it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking the latter part, that
I did not wake thoroughly; but, dozing between sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me; bat, as the voice continued
to repeat Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,' at last I began to wake more per-
fectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the utmost
consternation i but no sooner were my eyes open but I saw my Poll sitting
on the top of the hedge, and immediately knew it was he that spoke to me;
for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach
him; and he had learned it so perfectly, that he would sit upon my finger,
and lay his bill close to my face, and cry Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are
you t Where have you been ? How came you here?' and such things as
I had taught him.
However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could
be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself First,
I was amazed how the creature got thither; and then how he should just
keep about the place, and no where else: but, as I was well satisfied it
could be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it; and, holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name,' Poll,' the sociable creature came to me, and sat
upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, Poor Robin
Crutoe! and how did I come here? and where had I been just as it he had
been overjoyed to see me again: and so I carried him home along with me.
I now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to
dd for many days to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I
would have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the
island; but 1 knew not how it was practicable to get it about As to the
east side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there
was no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very
blood run chill, but to think of it; and, as to the other side of the island, I
did not know how it might be there; but, supposing the current ran with
the same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by
the island, as I had been before of being carried away from it; so, with these
thoughts, I contented myself to be without any boat, though it had been
the product of so many months' labour to make it, and of so many more to
get it into the sea.
SIn this government of my temper I remained near a year; lived a very
sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts behig very
much composed as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself
to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all
things except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the methame exercise which my ne-
essities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I could, upon occa-
aion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few tool
I had
Besides this I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware,
and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found in-
finitely easier and better; because I made things round and shapeable,
which before were filthy things indeed to look Bti I think I was never
more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for any thing 1 found
out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and, though it was a
very ugly clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like other
earthenware, yet, as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I
was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been always used to smoke:
and there were pipes in the ship but I forgot them at fir, not thinking that
there was tobacco in the island; and afterward, when I searched the ship
again, I could not come at any pipes at all.
In my wicker-ware, also, I improved much, and made abundance of ne-
cessary baskets, as well as my invention shewed me: though not very Ilaod-
some, yet they were such as were very handy and conienient for my laying
things up in, or fetching things home. For, example, if I killed a goat
abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay i % lsa i. an i it in pieces,
and bring it home in a basket: and the like by a turtle; I could cut it up,
take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for
me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also
large deep baskets were the receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed
out as soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets.
I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably: this was a
want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to
say, how I should do to kill any goats. I had, as is observed, in the third
year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was
in hopes of getting a be-goat; but I could not by any means bring it to
pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and, as I could never find in my heart
to kill her, she died at last of mere age,
But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, asI have said,
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and,
particularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young. For this purpose I
made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they were more than once
taken in them, but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire; and I always
found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length Ireaved to try a
pit-fall: so dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I-ad ob-
served the goats used to feed, and over those pits I pieced: hrdles, of my
own making too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put
ean of barley ad dry rice, without setting the trap; ad I could easily per-
ceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for 1 could see the


marks of their feet At length I set three traps in one night; and, going
the next morning, I 'bund them al standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone: this was very discouraging. However, I altered my traps; ad, not
to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found
in one of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the others three kids, a
male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce, I
durst not go into the pit to him; that is to sy, to go about to bring him
away alive, which war what I wanted: I could have killed him, but that
was not my business nor would it answer my end; so I even let him out, and
he ran away, as if he had been frightened out of his wits. But I had forgot
then, what I had learned afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had
let him stay there three or four days without food, and then have carried
him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as
tame as one of the kids for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures,
where they are well used.
However, for the present, I let him go, knowing no better at that time:
then I went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with
strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all hocpq.
It was a good while before they would feed; but, throwing them some
sweet corn, it tempted them and they began to be tame. And now I found
that, if I expected to supply myself with.goat's flesh when I had no powder
or shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I
might have them about my house like a flock of sheep. aot then it oc-
curred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would
always run wild when they grew up: and the only way for this was, to
nave some enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pae,
to keep them in so effectually, that those within might not break out, r
those without break in.
This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet as I saw there
was an absolute necessity for doing it, my fiat work was to find out a proper
piece of ground, *vhee there was likely to be herbage for them to eat,
water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
Those who understand such enclasures will think I had very little on-
trivance when I pitched upon a place very proper for all these (being a
plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah, as oer people call it in the
western colonies),which had twoor three little drillsof fresh water in it, and
at one end was very woody; Isay, thej will smile t my fprecast, when I shall
tellthem I began my epelosing this piece of groendin s~ch amauner, that
my hedge or pale must harvebeen at least two mlles sbqut. Nor was te
madnesr of it so great asto thelcompase, for, if it ws ten .ilae abqut, I was
like'tb have time enough to do if id; batI did not coaider that my goats
would be as wild in s much compass as if they had had the whole island;
and I should have so much room to chase them in, that I should never eatb
My hedge was beg, and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards, where


this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first
beginning, I resolved to aclaose a piece of about 15O yards ia length, and
100 yards in breadth; thich, s it would maintain as many as I should have
in any reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could add more ground
to my enclosure.
This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage.
I was about three months hedging in the first piece; and, till I had done it,
1 rethered the three kids in the best iprt of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and very oflen I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or handful of rice, and feed them out of imy ii;, tld
so that, after my enclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would
follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of cor.
This answered my end; and, ii about a year and a haf, I had a fock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and i two years more I had three-and
forty, besesi several that I took and killed for my food. After that 1 en-
closed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pelts to drive
them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground
into another.
But this was not all, for now I not only had goat's flesh to feed on when
I pleased, but milk too a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I did not
so much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really
an agreeable surprise: for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a
gl]on or two of milk in a day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food
to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it; so 1, that
had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made,
only when 1 was a boy, after a great many essays and miscarriages, made
me both butter and cheese at last, and also salt (though I found it partly
made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the rocks of the sea),
and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can our Creator treat his
creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed
in destruction! How can he sweeten the bitterest providence, and give us
cause to praise him for dungeons and prisons What a table was here
spread for me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing, at first, but to perish
for hunger!
It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit
down to dinner: there was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole
island; I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command; I could
hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away; and no rebels among all my
subjects. Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by
my servants: Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person per-
mitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown very old and crazy, and
had found no species to multiply his kind upon, satalways at my right hand;
and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the other, expecting
now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of special favour.
But these were not the two cats which I brought one shore at first for
they were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by


my own hand; but one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind
of creature, these were two which I had preserved tame; whereas the rest
ran wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last; for
they would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at last I was
obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they left me.-
With this attendance, and in this plentilul manner, I lived; neither could I
be said to want any thing but society: and of that, some time after this, I
was like to have too much.
I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my boat,
though very loth to run any nore hazards; and therefore sometimes I sat
contriving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself
down contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I have said, in my last
ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the current set,
that I might see what I had to do: this inclination increased upon me every
day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge of
the shore. I did so; but had any one in England been to meet such a man
as I was, it must either have frightened him, or raised a great deal of laughter:
and, as I frequently stood still to look at myself, 1 could not but smile at the
notion of my travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in
such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows:-
I had a great high, shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap hang-
ing down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off
from running into my neck: nothing being so hurtful in these climates as
the rain upon the flesh, under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goats skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same: the
breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
suck a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of
my legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of some-
things, I scarce know what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs,
and lace on either side, like spatterdashes; but of a most barbarous shape, as
indeed were all the rest of my clothes.
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, whirc I drew together with two
thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and, in a kind of a frog on either side
of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet; one
on one side, and one on the other. I had another belt, not so broad, and
fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder; and at the end
of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goafs skin too; in
one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot At my back I carried
my baspt, and on my shoulder my gun ; ard, over my head, a great, clumsy,
ugly goat's #kin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing
I had aboutmne, next to my gun. As for my face, the colour of it was really
not so mulatto-like as one might expert from a man not at all careful of it,
and living within nine or ten degrees oqthe equinox. My beard I had once
suffered to grow till it was about a quarter cf a yard long; but as I had
78 N

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