Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072758/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: R. Crusoe
Physical Description: 177 p. : 6 ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Jones, John ( Printer )
Cowper, William, 1731-1800
Manufacturer: John Jones, printer
Publication Date: 1826
Edition: 4th ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1826   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Ireland -- Dublin
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Citation/Reference: Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
General Note: Spine title: R. Crusoe.
General Note: Verses by Cowper, p. 175-177.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072758
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27801336

Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
Full Text












I WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of a
reputable family. My father was a native of
Bremen, who, by merchandizing at Hull for
some time, gained a very plentiful fortune.
He married my mother at York, who received
her first breath in that country: and as her
maiden name was Robinson, I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer, which not being easily
pronounced in the English tongue, we are com-
monly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. The
eldest was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's
regiment, but slain by the Spaniards what
became of the other I could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my
education. My father designed me for the
law, yet nothing could serve me but I must go
to sea, both against the will of my father, the-

tears of my mother, and the intreaties of my
friends. One morning, my father expostulated
very warmly with me. What reason, says he,
have you to leave your native country, where
there must be a more certain prospect of con-
tent and happiness, to enter into a wandering
condition of uneasiness and uncertainty ? He
recommended to me Agur's wish, Neither to
desire poverty, nor riches; that a middle state
of life was the most happy; and that the high
towering thoughts of raising our condition by
wandering abroad, were surrounded with mi-
sery and danger, and often ended with confu-
sion and disappointment. I entreat you, nay,
I command you, (says he,) to desist from these
intentions. If you will go, (added he) my
prayers shall however be offered for your pre-
servation; but a time may come, when deso-
late, oppressed, or forsaken, you may wish
you had taken your poor despised father's
counsel. He pronounced those words with
such a moving and paternal eloquence, while
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that
it seemed to stem the torrent of my resolutions.
But this soon wore off, and a little after, I in-
formed my mother that I could not settle at
any business, my resolution was so strong to
see the world, and begged she would gain my
father's consent only to go one voyage; which
if it did not prove prosperous, I would never
attempt a second. But my desire was as vain
as my folly in asking. My mother passionately
expressed her dislike of this proposal, telling

me, That as she saw I wzas bent on my own
destraetion, contrary to th. ir t ,l and my dt'y,
she would say no more, but eave me to myself,
to do whatsoever I pleased.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old,
when one time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow of mine going along with his father, who
was master of a ship, to London, and acquaint-
ing him with my wandering desires, he assured
me of a free passage, and a plentiful share of
what was necessary. Thus, without imploring
a blessing, or taking a farewell of my parents, 1
took shipping on the first of September 1651.
Upon the sixth day we came to an anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcastle ships; and there being a good
anchorage, and our cables sound, the seamen
forgot their late toil and danger, and spent
the time as merrily as if they had been on
shore. But on the eighth day, there arose a
brisk gale of wind, which prevented out
tiding it up the river; and it still increasing,
our ship rode forecastle in, and shipped se-
veral large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard the master
express this melancholy ejaculation, Lord hare
mercy upon us, we shall be all lost and undone!
For my part, sick unto death, I kept my cabin,
till the universal and terribly dreadful appre-
hensions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck, and there I was affrighted indeed. The
sea went mountains high: I could see nothing

but distress around us; two ships had cut away
their masts, and another had foundered: two
more that had lost their anchors, were forced
out to the mercy of the ocean : and, to save
our lives, we were forced to cut our foremast
and mainmast quite away.
Who is there so ignorant as not to judge of
my dreadful condition ? I was but a fresh
water sailor, and therefore seemed more ter-
rified. Our ship was very good, but over-
loaded; which made the sailors often cry out,
She will founder : words I then was ignorant
of. All this while, the storm continuing, and
rather increasing, the master and the more
sober part of the men went to prayers, ex-
pecting death every moment. In the middle
of the night, one cried out, We had sprung a
leak: another, That there wasfour feet water
in the hold. I was just ready to expire with
fear, when immediately all hands were called
to the pump: and the men forced me also in
that extremity to share with them in their la.
bour. While thus employed, the master espy-
ing some colliers, fired a gun as a signal of dis-
tress; and I not understanding what it meant,
and thinking that either the ship was wrecked,
or some dreadful thing had happened, fell into
a swoon. Even in that condition of wo, nobody
minded me, excepting to thrust me aside with
their feet, thinking me dead ; and I was a great
while before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when, upon the signal
given, they ventured out their boat to save our

lives. All our pumping had been in vain, and
vain had all our other efforts been, had they not
come to our ship's side, and our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
which after great difficulty they caught hold of,
and we hauling them to us got into their boat,
and left our ship, which we perceived sink
within less than a quarter of an hour: and
thus I learned what was meant by foundering
at sea. And now the men incessantly la-
boured to recover their own ship; but the
sea ran so high, and the wind blew so hard,
that they thought it convenient to haul in
shore, which with great difficulty and danger
at last we happily effected, landing at a place
called Cromer, not far from Winterton light-
house; from whence we all walked to Yar-
mouth, where, as objects of pity, many good
people furnished us with the necessaries to carry
us either to Hull or London.
Strange that after all this, I did not, like
the prodigal son, return to my father: who,
hearing of the ship's calamit,. for a long time
thought me entombed in the'deep. No doubt
but I should have shared in his fatted calf, as
the Scripture expresseth it: but my wayward
disposition still pushed me on, in spite of the
powerful convictions of reason and conscience.
When we had been at Yarmouth three days,
I met my old companion who had given me
the invitation to go on board along with his
father. His behaviour and speech were altered,

and, in a melancholy manner he asked me howl
did? telling his father who I was, and how I had
made this voyage for a trial only before I should'
proceed farther abroad. Upod which the old
gentleman turning to me, said, Young man, I
recommend you to chuse another line ot'id'c : the
Ssea is an uncertain element to trust to, adii yo
have late experienced some of the hardships to
which sailors are exposed. Sir, answered I,
will you take the same resolution ? It is a dif-
ferent case, said he, it is my calling, dand, con-
sequently my dity to remain ctented bith it
ut as you have made this voyagefor a trial
merely, and have every other line open to you,
think you might chuse one less I,..I 't.lI. hard-
ship and reverses. Bat pray what are you,"and
on what account did you go to sea. Upon which
-I very freely declared my whole story ; at the
end of which he said, in a tone of seriousness,
yhich I shall never forget, Young man, you
ought to thank God,' thai ybu did not perish
i'hilst you were committing this act of disaojedi-
ence to your Father ; had I knIcw these cir-
uumnstances, you may be assured I never should
have suffered you to sail along with us; thank
God, however, that you may still atoie for the
past. Return to your Parents,' they will for-
g;", 'ou, 'but if you do hot, recollect yont a-
ther's words, anddbeware lea his warntin should
' je realized;-and so we parted.
I thought at first to return home; but shame
O")pposjd that good notion, as il ,1-!, I shouui-

be laiglhed a. by my neighbours and acquaint-
ances. 'So strange is the nature of youth, who
are not ashamed to sin, but yet ashamed to re-
'pent; and so far from being ashamed of those
actions for which they may be accounted fools,
they think it folly to return to their duty, which
is the principal mark of wisdom. In short, I
travelled up to London, resolving upon a
voyage; and a voyage I soon heard of, by my
acquaintance with a captain who took a fianV-
to me, to go to the coast of Guinea. Ilavin;'
some money, and appearing like a gentlemau,
I went on board, not as a pomanou sailor or
forcma.st-man; nay, the corniiauder agreed i
*should go that voyage with him without any
ex'pens ; that I should be his messmiate anm
companion, and that I was welcome to carry
any tiling with me, and make the beet micr-
chandise 1 could.
1 blessed my happy fodane, ha~ IminniLly
thanked the captain for his offer, and apl.i.i,-
ing my friends in Yorkshire, forty pounds weri
sent me, the greatest part of which, my d.ar
father and mother contributed, wiIth which I
bought toys and trifles, as the captain dixreteA
ime. Mly captain also taught me navigation,
so that 1 sooU knew how to keep an account
of the ship's course and to take an observa-
tion, and also became acquainted with seyvral.use-
fal branches of the mathematics. And indeedthis
voyage made me both a sailoranid a merchant;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces,
Troy weight, of gold dustr-for my adar tiur,

which produced, at my return to London, al.
most three hundred pounds; but in this voyage
I was extremely sick, being thrown into a very
violent fever through excessive heat, trading
upon the coast from the latitude of fifteen de-
grees north, even to the line itself.
But, alas! my dear friend the captain de-
parted this life soon after his arrival. This was
a sensible grief to me; yet I resolved to go
another voyage with his mate, who had now
got command of the ship. This proved a
very unsuccessful one; for though I did not
carry a hundred pounds of my late acquired
wealth, (so that I had two hundred pounds
left, which I reposed with the Captain's widow,
who was an honest gentlewoman,) yet my mis-
fortunes in this voyage were very great. For
our ship sailing towards the Canary Islands,
we were chased by a Salee rover; and in spite
of all the haste we could make, by crowding
as mvrh canvas as our yards could spread, or
our masts carry, the pirate gained upon us,
so that we prepared ourselves to fight. They
had eighteen guns, and we had but twelve.
About three in the afternoon, there was a des-
perate engagement, wherein many were killed
and wounded on both sides: but finding our-
selves overpowered with numbers, our ship
disabled, and ourselves too impotent to have
the least hopes of success, we were forced to
surrender; and accordingly we were all carried
prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men
were sent to the Emperor's court to be sol1

there; but the pirate captain taking notice of
me, kept me to be his own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most
miserable creature on earth, and the warning
of my father came afresh into my thoughts.
However, my condition was better than I
thought it to be, as will soon appear. Some
hopes, indeed, I had that my new patron would
go to sea again, where he might be taken by a
Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and then
I should be set at liberty. But in this I was
mistaken; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and do
the drudgery of his house, and when he re-
turned from sea, would make me lie in the
cabin, and look after the ship. 1 had no one
that I could communicate my thoughts to,
which were continually meditating my escape,
No Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, in
short, no Briton amongst his slaves but myself;
and for two years I could see nothing practica-
ble, but only pleased myself with devising
plans which I was always obliged to relinquish.
After some length of time, my patron as I
found, grew so poor, that he could not fit out
his ship as usual; and then he used constantly
once or twice a week, if the weather was fair,
to go out a fishing, taking me and a young
Moorish boy to row the boat; and so much
pleased was he with me for my dexterity in
catching the fish, that he would often send me
with a floor who was one of his kinsmen, and
the youth before-mentioned, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

('ne morning, ai we were filing, there
arose such a thick fog, that we lost sight of the
shore ; and rowing, we knew not which way,
we labored all the night, and in the morning
we found ourselves in the ocean, two leagues
from land. However, we attained there at
length, and made the greatest haste, because
our stomachs were exceedingly sharp and hun-
gry. In order -to prevent such disasters fur
the future, my patron ordered a carpenter to
build a little state-room or cabin in the middle
of the long boat, with a place behind it to
steer and haul home the main sheet, with other
conveniencies to keep him from the weather, as
also lockers to put in all manner of provisions ;
with a handsome shculder-of-mutton sail, gibing
over the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fishing;
and one time, inviting two or three persons of
distinction to go with him, laid in provisions
extraordinary: providing also three fusees,
with powder and shot, that they might kill
some sea fowl along the coast. The next
morning, the boat was made clean, her ancients
and pendants out, and every thing ready : but
their minds altering, my patron ordered us to
go a-fishing, for that his guests would certainly
sup with him that night.
And now I began to think of my deliverance
indeed. In order to this, I persuaded the
Moor to get some provisions on board, and' to
procure some powder and s hot, pretending to
kill sea-curiews, which Le innocently and reca-

dily agreed to. In short, being provided with
all things necessary, we sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to
fishing; but though I knew there was a bite, I
dissembled the matter, in order to put farther
out to sea. Accordingly we ran a league far-
ther, when, giving the boy the helm, and pre-
tending to stoop for something, I seized Muley
by surprise, and threw him overboard. As
he was an excellent swimmer, he soon arose,
and made towards the 'boat; upon which I
took out a fusee, and presented it at him:
" Muley," said I, I never yet designed to
" do you any harm, and sbek nothing now but
" my freedom. I know you are able enough
" to swim to shore, and save your life ; but if
'" you are resolved to follow me to the en-
" dangering of mine, the very moment you
" proceed, I will shoot you through the head."
The harmless creature, at these words, turned
himself from me, and, I make no doubt, got
safe to land. Then turning to -the boy Xury,
I perceived he trembled at the action; but I
put him out of all fear, telling him, that if
he would be true and faithful to me,. would
do well by him, and not hurt him.
We then pursued our voyage, I kept to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast; but
in the dark of the evening I changed my course,
that I might keep near the shore; and having
a fresh gale of wind, with a very pleasant
smooth sea, by three o'clock next day, I was
160 miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco's

doinions. I continued sailing for five days
succesively, till such time as the wind shifting
to the southward, made me conclude that if
any vessel was in chance of me, they would
proceed no further.
After so much fatigue and thought, 1 an-
chored at the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, or where, neither did I then see any
people. What I principally wanted was fresh
water; and I was resolved about the dusk of
the evening to swim ashore: but no sooner
did the gloomy clouds of night begin to suc-
ceed the declining day, than we heard such
barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures, that one might have thought the very
strongest monsters of nature had their residence
there. Poor Xury, who was almost dead with
fear, entreated me not to go on shore that night.
"* Suppose I don't, Xury," said I, and in the
" morning we should see men who are worse
" than those we fear, what then ?" "0 den
" we may give dem de shoot gun," said he,
" laughing, "- and de gun make dem all run
" away." The wit, and broken English which
the boy had learned from myself, for we had
passed a great deal of our time together,
pleased me entirely, and made me still fonder
of him than before. We could get but little
sleep all the night for the terrible cowlings they
made; andindeed we were very muchaffrighted.
The next morning, I was resolved to go.on
shore to get in fresh water, and ventured my-
self among the beasts or savages, should either

attack me. Xaty said he would lake one of the
jars, and bring me some. I asked him why he
would go and not I ? The poor boy answered,
" If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
" away." This, indeed increased my affect.
tion for the child. Well, dear Xury," said I,
" we will both go ashore, both kill wild mans,
" and they shall eat neither of us." So giving
Xury a piece of bread to eat, we waded ashore,
carrying nothing with us but our arms, and two
jars for water. I did not go out of sight of the
boat, as dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes: but the boy seeing a low
descent or vale about a mile in the country, he
wandered to it; and then running back to me,
with great precipitation, I thought he was pur-
sued by some savages or wild beasts; upon
which I approached, resolving to perish, or pro-
tect him from danger. As he came nearer to
me, I saw something hanging over his should.
ders, which was a creature he had shot like a
hare, but different in colour, and with longer
legs; however, we were glad of it, for it proved
wholesome and nourishing meat; but what
added to our joy was, my boy assured me
there was plenty of 'ater, and that he saw
" no wild mans." And greater still was our
comfort, when we found fresh water in the
creek where we were, when the tide was out,
without going so far up into the country.
In this place I began to hope that I should
meet some of the English trading vessels, who
would relieve and take us in.

The placo I was in was, no doubt, that wild
-country. inhabited only by a few, that lies
between the Emperor of Morocco's dominiotrs
and the neeroes. It is filled with wild boasts,
nnd the Moors use it for hunting chiefly.-
From this place, I thought I saw the top ot the
mountain Teicriffe, in the Canaries, which
-made me try twice to attain it, but as often
wais I driven back, and so forcod to pursue my
fortune along shore.
Early one morning we came to an anchor
under a little point of land, but pretty high :
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay ready
to go further in ; but Xury, whose youthful and
penetrating eyes were sharper than mine, in a
soft tone, desired me to keep far from land,
lest we should be devoured; For, look york
" der, master, and see do dreadful monster
" fast asleep on de side of do hill.' Accord-
ingly looking where le pointed, I o.epied a
e'earful monster indeed. It was a terrible great
lion that lay on shore, covered as it were ,by a
shade of a piece of the hill. Xury," said I,
" you shall go on shore and kill him." But
the boy looked amazed. Me kill him !" says
lie, he eat me at one mouth," meaning one
*mouthful. Upon which I bid him lie still, and
charging my biggest gun with two slugs, and
a good charge of powder, and pulling in shore
till we had come within musket shot of the
place where he lay, I took the best aim I
could to shoot him through the head, but his
leg lying over his nose, the slug broke his
knee bone. The lion awaking with the pain,

got up, but soon fell down, giving the most
hideous groan I ever heard; but taking my
second piece, I shot him through the head,
and then he lay struggling for life. Upon this
Xury took heart, and desired my leave to go
on shore. Go then," said I. Upon which,
taking a little gun in one hand, he swam to
shore with the other, and coming close to the
lion, put a period to his life, by shooting him
again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not being good to eat. Xury
was like a champion, and comes on board for
a hatchet to cut off tile head of his enemy ;
but wanting strength to perform it, he cut off
and brought me a foot. I bethought me, how-
ever, that his skin would be of use. This cost
Xury and me a whole day: when spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the hot beams of the
sun effectually dried it in two days time, and
it afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living spar-
ingly on our provisions, and went no oftener
on shore than we were obliged for fresh water,
in hopes to meet some European ship. If
Providence did not favour me, my next course
was to seek for the islands, or lose my life
among the negroes; in a word, either I must
meet with some ship, or certainly perish.
One day as we were sailing along, we saw
people standing on the shore and looking at us;
we could also perceive they were black, and
.stark nake1. I was inclined to go on shore ; but

Xury cried, No, no; however, I approached
nearer, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a long way. They had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who held a long
stick, which Xury told me was a lance, with
which they could kill at a great distance. I
talked to them by signs, and made them sen-
sible I wanted sometiinir to eat; they beckon-
ed to me to stop my boat, while two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half
an hour came back, and brought with them
two pieces of dry flesh. and some corn, which
we gratefully accepted; and to prevent any
fears on either side, they brought the food to the
thlore, laid it down, then went and stood a
great way off, till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to
them, being all we could afford, two mighty
creatures came from the mountains, one as it
were pursuing the other with great fury, which
we were the rather inclined to believe, as they
seldom appear but in the night, and both these
swiftly passing by the negroes, jumped into
the sea, wantonly swimming about, as though
the diversion of the waters had put a stop to
their fierceness. At last one of them coming
nearer to my boat than I expected, or desired,
I shot him directly through the head, upon
which he sunk immediately, yet rising again,
he would have willingly made to the shore,
but between the wound and the struggling in
the water, he died before he could reach it,

It is impossible to express the consternation
the poor negroes were in at the firing of my
gun ; much less can I mention their surprise,
when they perceived the creature to be slain by
it. I made signs to them to draw it near with
a rope, and then gave it to them to haul on
shore. It was a beautiful leopard, which made
me desire its skin; and the negroes seeming
to covet the carcase, I freely gave it to them.
As .for the other leopard, it made to shore,
and ran with a prodigious swiftness out of
sight. The negroes having kindly furnished
me with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave, and
after eleven days sail, came in sight of the
Cape de Verd. But the great distance I was
from it, and fearing contrary winds would
prevent my reaching them, I began to grow
melancholy and dejected, when upon a sudden,
Xury cried out, Master, master," looking as
affrighted as if it was his master s ship sent in
search of us. But I soon discovered she was
a Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for
life to come up to them. But in vain had it
been, if through their perspective glasses, they
had not perceived us, and shortened their sail
to let us come in. Encouraged at this, I set
up my patron's ancient, and fired a gun, both
as signals of distress; upon which they very
kindly lay to, so that in three hours time I came
up with them. They spoke to me in Portu-
guese, Spanish, and French, mut none of these
did I understand, till at length a Scots sailor


called, and then I-told him I was an English-
man, who had escaped from the Moors at
Salee, upon which they took me kindly on
board, with all my effects.
Having a pleAsant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the 'Bay de Todos los Santos,
or, All Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after.
And here I cannot forget the generous treat-
ment of the captain. He would take nothing
for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for
the leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's.
Every thing he caused to be delivered to me, and
what I would sell he bought. In short, I
made 220 pieces of my cargo, and with this
stock I entered'once more, as I may say, into
the scene of life
To be brief, I bought a settlement next
door to an honest anit kind neighbour, born
at Lisbon, of English parents, whose planta-
tion joining to mine, we improved very ami--
cably together. Both our stocks were low;
and for two years we planted only for food :
but the third year we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of ground,
the ensuing year, for planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the
captain who took me up departed from the Bra-
zils. One day I went to him, and told him what
stock I had in London. desiring his assistance
in ;-. ,i', it sent out to me; to which the good
gentleman readily consented, lint would only
i.have lme soid for half m1y moll'y, lest it should
miscarry, which, 'if it did, I migot still. have th

remainder to support me; and so taking let-
tors of procuration from n, hid mie tiroubl
myself no further about it.
And indeed, lie not only procured the
money I had drawn for upon my captain's
widow, but sent me over a servant, with a
cargo proportionable to my condition. iHe
also sent me over tools of all sorts, iron work
and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncom-
mon success crowning ig myi prosperous labours,
I might have rested lappy in that middle state
of life which my father so often recoinmended ;
yet nothinir would content me. Ilaving lived
imor years in Brazil, 1 had not only learned tlh
lmnguagFL'e. hut contracted acquaiintance with
ihe most eminent planters, and even with the
merchants of St. nah ad:lore, three of whom
came one morning to me, saying they had
a secret proposal to 1make. Atter enjoiiiing
ime to secrecy, they told me they liad a mind
to fit out a ship to go to (inil 'a, in order to
stock the plantation with negroes, which, as
they could not be publicly sold, thiy would
divide among tlhem ; and if 1 would go their
supercargo in the ship, to. manage te the trading
part, I sholrld have an equal share ot lhe
negroes, without providiJig any stock. 'l'IIH
.tilng indeed was fair enough, had I heon in
another condition: I however, I could not r,-
sist the proposal, blit aecepltei the 1,11,011
condition ut their looking altlir mv pla.u-


The ship being titted oiut, andi all things
ready, we set sail the first of September. 1(i5i.
We sailed northward upon the coast, from
whence going farther into the ocean out of the
sight of land, we steered as though we were
bound for the island Fernand do Norenba,
leaving the island on the cast; and then it
was we met with a terrible tempest, which
continued for twelve days successively, so
that the winds carried us wheresoever they
pleased. In this perplexity, one of our men
died, and a man and a boy were washed over-
board. When the weather cleared up little,
we found ourselves upon the coast of Guiana.
Upon this the captain gave reasons for return-
ing; which I opposed, counselling him to
stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I sup.
posed, might be attained in fifteen days. So
altering our course, we sailed northwest and
by west, in order to reach the Leeward
Islands; but a second storm succeeding, drove
us to the westward, so that we were justly
afraid of falling into the hands of cruel sa-
vages, or the paws of devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in
the morning, cried out, Landt Land! which
he had no sooner said, than our ship struck
upon a sand-bank, and, in a moment, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we ex-
pected we should perish immediately. We
knew not where we were, or upon what land
we were driven, whether it was an island or
the main, inhabited or not inhabited, and we


coulh not so much as hope. that the ship
would hold out many minutes, without break-
ing in pieces, unless tih wind by a miracle
should turn about immediately. While we
stood looking at one another, expecting death
every moment, the mate lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest got her flung
over the ship's side ; into this we all got, being
eleven in number and committed ourselves to
old'ss lmercv, and the wild sea. And, now we
saw that this last effort would not be a suffi-
cient protection from death; so high did the
sea rise, that it was impossible the hoat should
live. .\s to making a sail we had none, noi-
tier if wo had. could we make use of any. So
that, when we had rowed, or rather were driven
about a league and a half, a raging wave, like
a loft) mountain, came rolling a-stern of us,
and took us with such fury, that at once it
overset the boat. Thus being swallowed up
in a moment, we had only time to call upon
the awful name of God, and to implore, in
dying ejaculations, his infinite mercy to re-
ceive our departing souls.
Men are generally counted insensible, when
struggling in the pangs of death; but while I
was overwhelmed with water, I had the most
dreadful apprehensions imaginable, for the
thoughts of every thing which I had done
amis:- came crowding to my mind. I had dis-
obeyed my parents, I had slighted their ad-
vice, I had left them to follow my own way-
ward inclination, and I.was now about to ap.

RoII\,soN Cii usoi, clin-ing to tlb reoks.

-ecar before that Being" whom I had offended.
I was going I thought I knew not whither.,in a
dismal gulph unknown, and as yet unperceived,
never to behold my friends, nor the light of this
world any more I strove however to the last
extremity, while all my companions wore over-
powered and entombed in the deep; and it was
with great difficulty I kept my breath till the
wave spent itself, and, retiring back, left me
on the shore half dead with the water I had
taken in. As soon as I got on my feet, I ran
as fast as I could, lest another wave should
pursue me, and carry me back again. But for
all the haste I made, 1 could not avoid it, for
the sea came after me like a high mountain, or
a furious enemy; so that my business was to
hold my breath, and by raising myself on the
water, to save myself by swimming. The next
dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep, but at the same time, carried
me with a mighty force and swiftness towards
thoehoro, when raisingmyself, I held out as
well as possible, till, at length, the water, hav-
ing spent itself, began to return, at which I
struck forward, and feeling ground again with
my feet, I took to my heels. Thus being
served twice more, I was at last dashed against
a piece of rock, in such a manner, as left me
senseless, but recovering a little before the re-
turn of the wave, which no doubt would then
overwhelm me, I held fast by the rock till those
succeeding waves abated; and then fetching
another run, was overtaken by a small wave,

'which was soon conquered. But before any
more could overtake me, 1 readied the main-
larfd, where clambering up the clifli of the
shore, tired and almost spent, I sat down on
the grass, free from the danger of the' foaming
No tongue can express the transports that
my soul felt at this happy deliverance. I was
wrapt up in contemplation, and often lifted up
my hands, with the profoundest humility, to
the divine power for saving my life; when the
rest/of my companions were all drowned. And
now Ibegan to cast my eyes around, and to
behold what place 1 was in, and what I had
next to do. I could see no house nor people;
I was wet, yet had, no, clothes to shift me;
hungry and thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or
drink, no weapon to destroy any creature for
my-sustenance, nor defend myself against de-
vouring beasts; in short I had nothing but a
knife, a .tobacco pipe, and a box half filled
with tobacco. The darksome night coming
upon me, increased my fears of being devour-
ed by wild creatures, my mind was plunged
in despair, and having no prospect, as I
thought of life before me, I prepared for ano-
ther kind of death than what I had lately es-
caped. I walked about a furlong to see if I ,
could find any fresh water, which I did to my
great joy; and taking a quid of tobacco to
prevent hunger, I got up into a thick bushy
tree, and seating myself so that could not
fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and for that
night, buried my- sorrows in quiet repose.

I1 was broad day, the next morning, bclbeoe I
awoke, when 1 not only percei.ved tihe toemnpst
was ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as
filr as lthei rock before mentioned, which wias
bount a mile from the place where I was.-
When 1 came down from my apartment in the
tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles dis-
tant on my right hand, lying on shore as the
waves had cast her. I thought to lhae got to
her; but there being an inlet of water about
half a mile's breadth between it and me, I re-
turned again towards the ship, as hoping to
find something for my more innuediate subsist-
ence. About noon, when the sea was so calm
that I could comn within a quarter of a mile of
her, it was to my grief I perceived, that if we
lid kept on board, all oar lives would have
been saved. These thoughts and my solitude
drew tears from my eyes, though all in vain.
So resolving to get to the ship, I stripped and
waded as far as 1 could find depth; after.which,
swimming round her, I was afraid I could not
get any thing to lay hold of; but it was my good
fortune to espy a small piece of rope hanging
down so low, that, by the help of it, though
with great difficulty, 1 got into the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bilged, and had a great
deal of water in her, her stern was lifted u-p
against a bank, and her head almost in the
water. All her quarter, and what was theie,
were free and dry. The provisions I found in
good order, and, losing no time, ate while I
as doing other things. I also found some
13 ~

rum, of which I took a little ; and now I wanted
for nothing except a boat, which indeed was
all, to carry away what was needful for me.
Necessty occasions a quickness of thought.
We had several spare yards, a spare top mast
or two, and two or three large spars of wood.
Witli these I fel! to work, and lung as many
of tlem over board as I could manage, tying
every one of thom with a rope that they might
not drive away. This done, 1 went down the
slip's side, and tied four of them fast together
at hoth ends, in form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I ;founi it would bear me. but not any
considerable weight. Upon which I went to
work again, cutting a spare top-mast into throe
lengths, adding them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. I then, first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could get,
next lowered down three of the seamen:s chests,
after I had filled them with bread, rice, throe
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats Ilecb,
and some European corn, what little the rats
had spared; and for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles, in which were some'cordial
waters, and four or five gallons of arrack. By
this time, the tide beginning to flow, I per-
ceived my coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim
away, which I had left on shore ; as for my
linen, breeches, and stockings, I swam with them
to the ship; but I soon found clothes enough,
though I took no more than 1 wanted for. the
present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to

work with, and after a long search, I found out
the carpenter's chest, which I got safe down
on my raft. I then looked for arms and ammu-
nition, and in the groat cabin, found two good
fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two rusty
swords. I likewise found three barrels of pow-
der, two of which were good, but the third
had taken water, also two or three broken oars.
two saws, an axe, and a hammer. I then put
to sea, and in getting to shore had three ad-
vantages in my favour. I. A smooth calm sea.
2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore.
3. The little wind there was, blowing towards
land. After I had sailed about a mile, I found
the raft driving a little distance from the place
where I first landed, and then I perceived an
opening of the land, with a strong current of
the tide running into it, upon which I kept the
middle of the stream. But great was my con-
cern, when on a'sudden, the forepart of my
raft ran aground. But after some time the ris-
ing of the water caused the raft to float again,
and coming up a little river, with land on both
sides, I laIded in a little cave, as near the
mouth as possible, the better to discover a sail,
if any such providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with smaller hills about it,
and thither I was resolved to go and view the
country, that I might see what part was best
to fix my habitation in. Accordingly, armpg
myself with a pistol, a fowling piece, powder,

and ball, I ascended the mountain. There t
perceived I was in an island, encompassed by
the sea, no distant lands to be seen, but scat-
tering rocks that lay to the west; it seemed
to be a barren place, and as I thought, only
inhabited by wild beasts. I perceived abund-
ance of fowls, but was ignorant of wl. t kind,
or whether good for nourishment. I shot one
of them at my return, which occasioned a con-
fused screaming among the other birds, and I
found it, by its colour and beak, to be a kind of
hawk, but its flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, which work spent that day en-
tirely; and fearing that some cruel beast
might devour me in the night time while I slept,
I made a kind of hut, or barricade, with the
chests and boards I had brought on shore.
That night, I slept very comfortably; and the
next morning my thoughts were employed to
make a further attempt to this ship, and bring
away what necessaries I could find, before ano-
ther storm should break her in pieces. Accord-
ingly, I got on board as before, and prepared a
second raft far more nice than the first; upon
which, I brought away the carpenter's stores,
two or three bags full of nails, a great jack-
screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a grind-
stone. I also took two or three iron crows,
two barrels of musket bullets, another fowling
piece, a small quantity of powder, and a large
bag full of small shot. Besides these, I took
all the men's clothes I could ind, a spare fore-

RocirNsozv Cwvsor on hisLaft.

top-sail, a halnmock, and some bedding; and
thus completing my second cargo, I made all
the haste to shore I could, fearing some wild
beast might destroy what I had there already.
But I only found a little wild cat sitting on one
of the chests, who not seeming to fear me, or
thie gun that I presented at her, I threw her a
piece of biscuit, which she instantly eat and
When I had got these effects on shore, I
went to work in order to make me a little tent
with the sail and some poles, which I had cut
for that purpose, and having finished it, what
things might be damaged by the weather, I
brought in, piling all the empty chests and casks
in a circle, the better t6 fortify it against any
sudden attempt of man or beast. After this, I
blocked up the doors with some boards, and an
empty chest turned the long way out. I then
charged my gun and pistol, and laying my bed
on the ground, slept as comfortably till the
next morning as though I had been in a chris-
lian country.
Now though I had enough to subsist me a
long time;yet despairing of a sudden deliverance,
and fearing that both ammunition and provision
might be spent before such a thing happened,
I saved as much as I could, and so long as the
ship remained in that condition, I daily brought
away one necessary or other: particularly the
rigging, sails, and cordage: some twine, a bar-
rel of wet powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal,
three casks of rum, and indeed what was most
welcome to me,a whole hogshead of bread.

The next time I went, I cut the cables in
pieces, carried off a hawser whole, with a great
deal of iron work, and made another raft; but
this being so unwieldy, by the too heavy bur-
den upon it, and 1 not being able so dexte-
rously to guide it as the former, both my cargo
and myself were overturned. For my part, all
the damage I sustained was a wet skin : and at
low water, after much labour in diving. I got
up most of the cables, and some pieces of Iron.

Fifteen days had I now been on the island,
and eleven times on board, bringing away all
that was possible. As I was going the twelftl
time, the wind began to rise; however 1 ven-
tured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker, I found several razors, scissors, and
some dozens of knives and forks, and in ano-
ther, thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight, silver
and gold. I wrapt the money up in a piece of
canvas, and began to think of ruling another,
raft; but I soon perceived the wind beginning
to rise. a fresh gale blowing from the shore,
and the sky overcast with clouds and darkness.
So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let myself
into the water with what things 1 had about
me; and it was with great difliculty I got
ashore, when soon after it blew a ifarful stoini.

That night I slept very contentedly in my
little tent. uirrouiindd witil ill lmy etlects; Wbut
when I looked out in i,. 9-..., ..11 no more iiii,
was to be seen. This much surprised me for

the present; yet. when I considered that I had
lo-t no time, abated no pains, and had got
eve y thing useful out of her, 1 comforted my-
sell in the best manner, and entirely submitted
to Divine Providence.
My next -i ,,ii1t were, how I should de-
fend and secure myself from savages and wild
beasts, if any s-ich were in the island.
When I considered the ground where I was,
that it was iarshy, and had no fresh water
nearly it, my resolutions were to search for a soil
healthy and well watered, where 1 might not
only he sheltered from the slu's scorching heat,
but be more conveniently situated, as well to le
secured from wild men, and beasts of prey, as
more easily to discover any distant sail, should
it ever so happen.
And indeed it was not long before I had my
desire. I found a little plain near a rising hill,
the front towards which, being as steep as a
house-side, nothing could descend on me from
the top.
,On the side of this rock was a little hollow
place, resembling the entrance or door of a
cave. Just before this place, on the circle of
the green, I resolved my tent should stand;
This plain did not much exceed a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, like a delight-
fil green before my door, with a -pleasing,
though irregular descent every way to the low
grounds by the sea side, sheltered from the
excesivre heat of the sun. After this I drew a
,iniicircle, twenty feet in diameter, driving

down two rows of strong stakes not six inches
from each other. Then, with the pieces of
cables which I had cut on board, I regularly laid
them in a circle between the piles, up to their
tops, which were more than live feet out of tho
earth, and then drove another row of piles look-
ing within side against them, 1letween two and
three feet high, which made ine conclude it a
little castle impregnable by men and beasts.
And for my better security, I would have no
door, hut entered in and came out by the help
of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which
I carried all my riches, ammunition, and stores.
After which, working on the rock, what with
the dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised
my ground two feet, but made a little cellar to
my mansion house ; and this cost me many days
labour and pains. One day, in particular, a
shower of rain falling, thunder and lightning,
ensued, which put me in terror, lest my powder
should take fire, and not only hinder my neces-
sary subsistence, by preventing me from killing
my food, buteven blow up me and myhabitation.
To prevent which, I fell to making boxes and
bags, in order to separate it, ha ing by me near
1O01bs. wvght. And thus being established as
king of the island, every dayl went out with my
gun, to see what I could kill that was fit to eat.
I soon perceived numbers of goats,but very shy;
yet having watched them narrowly, and seeing I
could better shoot them off the rocks, than when

in the low grounds, I happened to shoot a she-
goat suckling a young kid; which, not think-
ing its dam slain, stood by'her unconcerned;
and when I took the dead creature up, the
young one followed me even to the enclosUre.
I lifted the kid over the pales, and would wil-
lingly have kept it alive, but finding it could
not he brought to eat, I was forced to slay it
also for my subsistence.
Thus, entered upon a life of solitude, I had
most melancholy apprehensions concerning my
deplorable condition; and many times, the tears
would plentifully run down my face, when I
considered how I was debarred from all com-
munication with human kind. Yet while these
desponding thoughts would seem to hake me,
accuse Providence, other good thoughts would
interpose and reprove me after this manner;
" Well, supposing .you are desolate, is it not
" better to be so than totally perish ? Why
" should you complain, when not only your
' life was preserved, but the ship driven into
" your reach, in order to take what was ne-
" cessary out of her for a subsistence?" But
to pr9cced: It was, by the account I kept, the
30th of September, when I first landed on this
island. About twelve days afterA ftahifg lest
I should loose my reckoning of time. ni even
forget the sabbath days, for want of pen, ink,
a:d paper, I carved with a knife upon a large
1.ct, in great letters. I came n shore, Sept.
10, C; *, and- gict it up in the im:nilide of a

cross, on the sea shore where I landed. Every
day I cut a notch with my knife on the sides of
the square post, and that on the Sallbath was
as long again as the rest, and every first day
of the month, as long again as that long one.
In this manner, I kept my calendar, weekly,
monthly, or yearly reckoning of time. But
had I made a more strict search (as I did af-
terwards,) I need not have set up this mark
For among the parcels belonging to the gun-
ner, carpenter, and captain's mate, I found
those very things I wanted; particularly pens,
ink, and paper; also 1 found two or three
eoupa~es, some mathematical instruments,
dials, p.r 1pelcti. glasses, books of navigation,
three English bibles, ard several other good
books, which I carefully put up. Here I can-
not but call to mind,our having a dog and two
cats on -board, whom I made inhabitants with
me in my castle. Though one might think I
had all the necessaries that were 'lesirable,'yet
still I found several things wanting. My ink
was daily wasting I wanted needles, pins, and
thread to mend or keep my clothes together:
and particularly a spade, pick-axe, or shovel,
to remove the earth. It was a year before I
finished my little bulwark; and having some
intervals of relaxation, after my daily wander-
ing abroad for provision, 1 drew up this plan
alternately, as creditor and debtor, to remind
me of the miseries and blessingT'of my life,
under so many various cireumstances.
C 2S

I am cast upon a
desolate island, having
no prospect of a wel-
come deliverance.
IIowmiserableam I,
singled out from the
enjoyment or company
of all mankind.

Like a hermit (ra-
ther should I say a
lonely anchoret) amn
I forced from human
My clothes, after
some time, will be
worn out, and then I
shall have none to
cover me.

When my ammuni-
tion is wasted, then
shall I remain without
any defence against
wild men and beasts.

I have no creature,
no soul to speak to;
none to beg assistance

But yet I am pre-
served while my com-
panions have perished
in the raging sea.
Yet set apart to
be spared from death.
And He, who has so
preserved me, can de-
liver me from this con-
However, I have
food to eat, and even
a happy prospect of
subsistence whilst life
At present I enjoy
what is absolutely
needful; and the cli-
mate is so hot, that
had I ever so many,
1 should hardly wear
Yet even thus, I see
no danger of any to
hurt me, as in Africa;
and what if I had been
cast away upon that
Is there not God to
converse with, and is
not he able to deliver

from. Some comfort thee?;ilreadyl haheaf-
would it be to resound forded thee sustenance,
my woes where I am and put it in thy power
understood, and beg to provide for thyself,
assistance where I till he sends thee de-
might hope for relief. liverance.

And now, easing my mind a little by these
reflections, I began to render my life as easy
as possible
1 must here add to the description I have
given of my habitation, that having raised a
turf wall against the outside of it, I thatched it
so close as might keep it from the inclemency
of the weather; I also improved it within, en-
larged my cave, and made a passage and a
door in the rock. which came out beyond the
pale of my fortification. I next proceeded to
make a chair and table, and so began to study
such mechanical arts as seemed to me practi-
cable. When I wanted a plank or a board, I
hewed down a tree with my hatchet, making it
us thin with my axe as possible, and thon
smooth enough with an adze, to answer my de-
signs; yet though I could make no more this
way than one board out of a tree, in length of
time I got boards enough to shelter all my
stores, every thing being regularly placed, and
my guns securely hanging against the side of a
rock. This made it a very pleasant sight to
nfe, being the result of vast labour and great
diligence; which leaving for a while, and me
to the enjoyment of it, I shall give the reader an

account of some parts of my journal from the
day of my landing, till the settling of my ha-
bitation, as heretofore shown.

SEPTEMBER. 30th, 1659, I, Robinson
('rusoe, having suffered shipwreck, was driven
on this desolate island, which I named the
Desolate Island of Despair, the rest of my
companions being swallowed up in the tem-
pestuous ocean. That day I spent in consider.
ration of my unhappy circumstances, having
no prospect but of death, either to be starved
with hunger, or devoured by wild beasts or
merciless savages.
Oct. 1. That morning, with great comfort, I
beheld the ship driven ashore. Some hopes I
had, that when the storm was abated. I might
be able to get some food and necessaries out of
her; which I conceived were not damaged,
because the ship remained upright. At this
time, I lamented the loss of my companions.
and our misfortune in leaving the vessel. When
I perceived the ship, as it were, to lie dry, I
waded through the sands, as far as I could find
depth, then sw'am aboard, the weather being
very rainy, and with scarcely any wind.
Oct. ,5, My raft, and all the goods thereon
were overset; yet I recovered most again at
low water.
To the I Ith of this month, my time was em-
pi*.', i. in making vovages every tide, getting

what I could out of the ship. The weather
very wet and uncertain.
Oct. 15. It blew hard, and rained night and
day, when the ship went to pieces, so that no-
thing was seen of her but the wreck at low
water. This day 1 secured my goods from the
inclemency of the weather.
Oct. 16. I wandered to see where I could
find a place convenient for my abode : I fixed
upon a rock in the evening, marked out a half
moon, intending to erect a wall fortified with
piles, lined within with pieces of cables, and
covered with turf.
Nov. 3. I shot two wild-fowl, resembling
ducks, which were good to eat, and in the af-
ternoon began to make me a table.
Nov. 4 I began to live regularly. In the
morning, I allowed myself two or three hours
to walk out with my gun; I then worked till
near eleven o'clock; and afterwards refreshed
myself with what I had to eat. From twelve
to two, I would lie down to sleep. Extreme
sultry weather. In the evening go to work
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog,
shot a wild cat with a soft skin, but her flesh
was good for nothing. The skins of those
killed I preserved. In my return I perceived
many wild birds, and was terrified by sonie
seals which made off to sea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Fair weather. I worked to the
12th, but omitted the lIth, wv.hich according
to my calculation, I supplosud to be Sunday.

Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rock, yet was
obliged to desist for want of a pick-axe, shovel
and wheel-barrow. Iron crows I used to sup-
ply the place of the first, but with all my art
I could not make a wheel-barrow.
Nov. 19. It was a great happiness to me to
find a tree resembling what the Brazilians call
an Iron tree. I had like to spoil my axe with
cutting it, it being very hard, and exceedingly
heavy; yet with much labour and industry I
made a sort of spade out of it.
Nov. 23. These tools being made, I daily
carried on my business; eighteen days I allow-
ed for enlarging my cave, that it might serve
me, not only for a warehouse, but kitchen, par-
lour, and cellar. I commonly lay in the tent,
unless the weather was so rainy that I could
not lie dry. So wet would it be at certain sea-
sons, that I was obliged to cover all within
the pale, with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, aid load them with
flags and large leaves of trees resembling a
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habita-
tion finished, but suddenly a great deal of the
top broke in, so that it was a mercy I was not
buried in the ruins. This occasioned a great
deal of pains and trouble to me, before 1 could
make it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. I nailed up some shelves, and drove
nails and staples in the wall and posts, to hang
every thing out of the way.
Dec. 20. I got every thing into its place,
then inadle a sort of dresser, and another table,

Dec. 27. I chanced to light upon -ome goats,
shot one, wounded another; I led it home in a
string, bound up its leg, and cured it in a little
time; at length, it became so tame and familiar
as to feed before the door, and follow me where
I pleased. This put me in mind to bring up
tame creatures, in order to supply me with food
after my ammunition was spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. The weather being exces-
sively hot, with little air, obliged me for the
most part, to keep within doors.
Jan, 3. to 14. My employment this time
was to finish the wall before described, and
search the island. I discovered a kind of pi-
geons, like our house pigeons, in a nest among
the rocks. I brought them home, nursed them
till they could fly, and then they left me. Af-
ter this, I shot some, which proved excellent
food. Some time 1 spent vainly contriving to
make a cask, I may well say it was in vain,
because I could neither joint the staves, nor
fix the heads, so as to make it tight; so leave.
ing that, I took some goat's tallow I had by
me, and a little oakum for the wicl, and pro-
vided myself with a lamp, which served instead
of candles.
But now a very strange event happened. For
being in the height of my search, what should
come into my hand, but a bag which was used
to hold corn (as I supposed) for the fowls ; so
immediately resolving to put gunpowder into it.
I shook all the husks and dirt upon one side of
a rock, little expecting what the consequence

would be. The rain had fallen plentifully a
few days before; and about a month after, to
my great amazement, something began to look
out very green and flourishing; and when [
came to view it more nicely, every day as it
grew, I found about ten or twelve ears of green
barley of the very same shape and make as that
in England,
I can scarcely express the agitation of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had been used,
like too many in the world, to look with in-
difference upon the marks of God's goodness,
which are every where visible. Indeed sp ig-
norant was I, that I had even thought health,
and food, and clothing to be the mere result'
of our own labour and care and foresight,
without ever reflecting, that the Almighty is
the bestower of every good and perfect gift,
and that it is his blessing alone upon our
efforts which makes them to prosper. The ap-
pearance of the bat ley flourishing so unexpect-
edly in a barren soil, and my ignorance of the
manner in which it came there, led me into a
singular opinion. 1 concluded that miracles
were not ceased, and that God had appointed
the barley to grow there without any seed,
purely for my sustenance in this miserable and
desolate island. And indeed such great effect,
had this upon me, that it often made me melt
into tears through a grateful 'sense of God's
mercies: and the greater still was my thankful-
ness, when I Jerceived about this little field of
barley, some rice stalks, also wonderfully
--ti jtf .. .. ...... .:... '

While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be some more corn in the island,
and therefore made a diligent search narrowly
among the rocks; but not being able to find
any, on a sudden it came i.to my mind, how I
had shaken the husks of corn out of the bag.
and then so blind was my understanding, that
my admiration ceased, and w ith it my grati-
tude to the Divine Being, as hi nking it was
but natural. and not to be conceived a mira-
cle: though even the manner of its preserva-
tion might have made me own it as a wonder-
ful event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of this corn ripened, which I laid up very
carefully, together with 20 or 30 stalks of rice,
expecting one day I should reap the fruit of
my labour: yet four years were expired before
I could allow myself to eat any barley bread;
and much longer time, before I had any rice.
afterr this, with indefatigable pains ind industry
for three or four months, at last 1 finished my
house, having no way to go into it, but by a
ladder against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder, and ascend-
ed it; afterwards pulled it up, then let it down
on the other side, and descended into nmy new
habitation, where I had space enough, and was
so fortified, that nothing could attack me with-
out scaling the walls.
But what does all human art and industry
avail, if the blessing of God does not crowr
our labours ? Or who can stand before th'
Alnmighly; whn he strctchcth lIorth his amnt

For, one time, when I was at the entrance of
my cave, there happened such a dreadful earth-
quake, that not only the roof of the cave came
tumbling about my ears, but the posts seemed to
crack terribly at the same time. This put me
in a great amazement; and running to the lad-
der and getting over the wall, I then plainly
knew it was an earthquake, the place I stood on
sustaining three terrible shocks in less than three
minutes. But judge of my terror when I saw
the top of a great rock roll into the sea : I then
expected the island would be swallowed up
every moment: ;nd what made the scene still
more dreadful, was to see the sea thrown into
the most violent agitations and disorders by this
tremendous convulsion of nature.
For my part, I expected every moment to
be swallowed up. At the moving of the earth,
I was, as it were, sea-s:ck; and very much
afraid lost the rock, under which was my fence
and habitation, should overwhelm me and it in
a lasting tomb.
It was only the day after, when a horrible
tempest arose, at the same time attended with a
hurricane of wind. Three hours did this storm
continue, and in so violent a manner as to tear
the very trees up by the roots, which was snc-
ceeded by abundance of rain. When the tem-
pest was over, I went to my tent; but the rain
coming on in a furious manner, I was obliged
to take shelter in the cave, where I was forced
to cut a channel through my fortification, to lot
the water out. It continued raining all that

night, and some time the next day. These ac-
cidents made me resolve, as soon as the wea--
ther cleared up, to build me a little hut in some
open place, walled round to defend me from
wild creatures and savages; not doubting, but,
at the next earthquake, the mountain would
fall on my habitation and me, and swallow up
all in its bowels ; but to resume the thread of
my narration which this mention of the storm
has interrupted.
April 16-20. These days 1 spent, in con-
triving how and in what manner I should fix
my place of abode. All this while, I was un-
der the most dreadful apprehensions. When
1 looked round my habitation, every thing I
found in its proper place. I had several de-
bates whether I should move or not; but at
length resolved to stay where I v as, till I found
out a convenient place where 1 might pitch my
April 22. When I began to put my resolu-
tions in practice, I was stopped for want of
tools and instruments to work with. Most of
my axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me up a full week to make my
grindstone of use to me; but at last I found
out a way to turn it about with my foot, by
help of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed
myself but one biscuit a day.
May 1. As I walked along the sea shore, I
found a barrel of gun powder, and several
pieces of the wreck which the sea had flung

up. Having secured these, I made to the ship,
whose stern was torn off, and washed 'a great
distance ashore; but the rest lay in the sands,
This, I suppose, was occasioned by the earth-
quake, I now resolved to keep my old place
of abode : and also to get to the ship that day,
but found it impossible.
May 3. This day I went on board the wreck,
which still remained upon its bed of rock,
though the waves had cared away allits upper
works and left nothing standing but the part
between decks, and with my saw sawed off one
of the beams, which kept her quarter deck.--
1 thep cleared the sand till flood.
May 4. I caught some fish, but they were
not wholesome. The same day, I also caught
a young dolphin.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the wreck,
and sawed another piece of timber; and when
the flood came, I made a float of three great
planks, which were driven ashore by the tide,
May -6-9. These days, I brought off th
iron bolts, opened the deck with the iron
crow, and carried two planks to land, having
made 4 way into the very middle of the wreck.
May 10--14. All this-time I spent in bring-
ing off gitat quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets on
purpose to cut off some lead from the roll, but
all in vain., for it lay too low under water.
May 24. To this day, I worked on the
wreck, and with great difficulty loosened some
things so much with the crow, that at the first
blo wing tide, several casks floated out, an4d se-

veral of the 'seamen's chests yet that day no-
thing came to land but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead which had some pork in it. I conti-
nued working to the 15th of June, (except
necessary times for food and rest) and hbi. I
known how to build a boat, I had timber and
planks enough ; I had also nearly 100 weight
of sheet lead.
June 16. As I was wandering towards the
sea-side, I found a large tortoise or turtle. being
the first 1 had seen on the island, though, as I
afterwards found, there were many on the othie
side of it.
June 17. This day Ispent in cooking it, found
in her three score eggs. and her flesh the most
savoury and pleasant I ever tasted in my life.
June 18. I staid within this day, there being
a continual rain; and it was somewhat more
chilly and cold than usual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a Lrem-
bling and shivering.
June 20. Awake all night, nm head racked
with pain and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with
dismal apprehensions of my condition. Prayed
to God more frequently, but very confusedly.
June 22. Something better, but still uneasy
in my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a second time.
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours, cold
anrl hot fits, succc~edd by faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but vory wvcok ; yet I
scramblcd out, shot a sei goat, b)roight it home,

and broiied somo of it; I would willingly have
stewed it, and inai. some broth, but had no
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with
an ague: thirsty, yet could not help myself to
water: prayed to God in these words: Lord
in lity, look upon i'ie: Lord have mercy upon
me have mercy upon me .' After this I fell
alcep, which, when 1 awakened, I found had
much refreshed me.
I rose up in a pensive manner, being so
thoughtful that I could not go to sleep ; and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper, it
caused me to remember, that the Brazilians
use tobacco for almost all diseases. I then
went to my chest, in order to find some, where
it was my happiness to find a cure, both for
soul and body; for there I found one of the
Bibles, which till this time, I had neither lei-
sure nor inclination to look into; I took both
the tobacco and that out of my chest, and laid
them on the table. Several experiments did
I try with the tobacco : First, I took a piece of
least, and chewed it; but it being very green and
strong, almost stupified me; next, I steeped it
in some rum an hour or two, resolving when
I went to bed to take a dose of it: and in the
third place, I burnt some over a pan of fire,
holding my nose over it so long as 1 could
endure it without suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though my
head was giddy and disturbed by the tobacco,
I took up the Bible to read. No sooner did I
open it, but there appeared to me these words,

Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.
At first, this sentence made a very deep im-
pression on my heart; but it s on wore off again,
when I considered that the word dcliver was
foreign to me. And as the children of Israel
said, when they were promised flesh to cat,
Can God spread a table in the wilderness ? In
the like manner I began to say, Can God him-
self deliver mle from this desolate island ? How-
ever, the words would still return to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression upon
me. As it now was very late, and the tobacco
had dozed my head, I was inclined to sleep ;
but before I would lie down, I fell on my
knees, and implored the promise that God had.
made to me in the holy Scriptures, that if I
called on him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me. With much difficulty, I afterwards
drank the rum, wherein I had steeped the to-
bacco, which flying into my head, threw me
into such a profound sleep, that it was three
o'clock the next day before 1 awoke; or, rather,
I believe, I slept two days, having certainly lost
a day in my account, as I afterwards disco.
vered, and I could never tell any other way.-
When I got up, my spirits were lively and
cheerful: my stomach much better, being very
hungry; and, in short, no lit returned the next
day, which was the 29th, but I found myself
much altered for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but I was very
weak. In this condition, I often thought of
these words, I will deliver thee : and while at

times I would think of the impossibility of it,
other thoughts would reprehend me, for disre-
garding the deliverances I had received, even
from the most forlorn and distressed condition.
I asked myself, what regard have I had to God
for his abundant mercies? Have I done my
part ? He has delivered me, but I have not
glorified him; as if I had said, I had not
owned and been thankful for these as deli-
verances, and hovw cnid 1 expect greater ? So
much did this senl.ily touch my heart, that L
gave God thanks for my recovery from sickness
in the most humble posture.
July 4. This morning, I began seriously to
ponder on what is written in the New Testa-
ment, resolving to read a chapter every more-
ing and night, as long as my thoughts would
engage me. As soon as I set about this work
seriously, I found my heart deeply affected
with the impiety of my past life. After this
I begged of God to assist me with his holy
Spirit in returning to my duty. One day in pe-
rusing the Scripture, I came to these words,
Him nha/I God e.caled wil/ his right hand o
be a Prince and a Saciour for to give repen-
tance a.tl /orgeiteess q/ sins. Immediately
I laid down the book, and with uplifted hapds
to Heaven, loudly cried. O blessed Jesus, t, 1u
son oJ David I Jesus, thou exalted Prince and
Saviwour, give me repencance : And, now in-
deed, I pray ed with a true sense of my condi-
tion, and a more certain hope, founded on the
word of God, Now, I had a different sense of
these woids, Call on me, ead I wiil deliver thee,

that is, from the dreadful load of guilt, which
oppressed my sinful south, and not from a soli-
tary life : in a word, 1 came to this conclusion,
that a deliverance from sin wa.- a much greater
blessing than a deliverance from affliction.
To the 14th July, I walked about with my
gun, little and little at a time, having been re-
duced to the greatest extremity of weakness.
The applications and experiments I used were
perfectly new: neither could I recommend.
them to any one's practice. For though it car-
ried off the fit, it very much weakened me ; and
I had frequently convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time. From hence I learned,
that going abroad in rainy weather, especially
when it was attended with storms and hurri-
canes of wind, was most pernicious to health.
I had now been above nine months in the
island; and as I had never seen any of the hu-
man kind, I therefore accounted myself as solo
monarch : and as I grew better, having secured
my habitation to my mind, I resolved to make
a tour round my kingdom, in order to make
new discoveries.
The 15th July, I began my journey ; I first
went to the creek where I had brought my
rafts on shore, and travelling farther, found
the tide went no higher than two miles. up,
where there was a little brook of running wa-
ter, on the bank of which were many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, smooth, plain and co-
vered with grass. On the rising parts, where I
supposed the water did not reach, I perceived a
great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong

stalk. Sevial other plants I likewise fou1d,
the virtues of which I did not understand. 1
searched a long time lor the Cassava root, which
1 knew the Indians in that climate made their
bread of; but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not
what they were : likewise I saw several sugal-
c-nes, but imperfect for want of cultivation.
With these few- discoveries, I came back that
night, and slept contentcdl in my little castle.
Tle next day, being e 10th, going tihe
same way, built Irther than the day before, I
found the country more adorned with woods
vnd trees. IHcre I perceived different fruits in
great abundance. Melons in plenty lay on the
grind, and clusters of grapes, ripe and very"
rich spread over the trees. You may imagine
I was glad of this discovery, vet ate %ery spar-
ingly, lest I should throw myself into a flux or
feier. Theo grapes I found of excellent use;
lor when I dried them in the sun, which pre-
served them as dried raisins are kept, they
proved very wholesome and nourishing, and
,'rred nme in thuse seasons when no grapes were
to bie had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended a
tree. and slept iery comfortably, though it was
the first lime I had slept out of my habitation.
And wlien the morning came. I proceeded with
great pleasure oinmy way. travelling about tour
miles, as I imagined, by, the length of the val-
ley. At the end of this valley, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to descend

to the west; there I found a spring of fresh
water, proceeding out of the side of the hill,
with its crystal streams running directly east.-
And indeed here my senses were charmed with
the most beautiful landscape nature could af-
ford; for the country appeared so flourishing,
green and delightful, that to me it seemed like
a planted garden. I then descended on the
side of that delicious vale. when I found abun-
dance of cocoa, orange, lemon, and citron trees,
but very wild and barren at that time. As for
the limes, they were delightful and wholesome,
the juice of which I afterwards used to mix in
water, which made it very cool and refreshing.
And now I was resolved to carry home and lay
up a store of grapes, limes and lemons, against
the approaching wet season. So laying them
up in separate parcels, and then taking a few of
each with me, I returned to my little castle,
after having spent three days in this journey.
Before I got home, the grapes were so bruised
that they were utterly spoiled: the limes in-
deed were good, but of those I could bring
only a few.

July 19. Having prepared two bags, I return-
ed thither again, but to my great surprise, found
all the grapes spread about, trodden to pieces,
and abundance eaten, which made me conclude
there were wild beasts thereabouts. To pre-
vent this happening again, T gathered a large
quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon
the out branches of the troe, both to keep them

lnhurt, and that they might cure and dry in
the sun : and having well loaded myself with
limes and lemons, I returned once more to my
old place of residence.
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of
this valley, the pleasantness of its situation, its
security from storms, and the delightfulness of
the adjacent woods, I concluded I was settled
in the worst part of the country, and therefore
was thinking to remove my habitation.
But when I considered again, that though it
was pleasant, it was off from the sea-side, where
there was a possibility, some time or other, a
ship might either be driven or sail by : and that
to inclose myself among hills and woods must
certainly put an end to my hopes of deliverance;
I resolved to let my castle remain where Pro-
vidence had first placed it. Yet, so delighted
was 1 with this place, that 1 made me a little
kind of bower, surrounding it, with a double
hedge as high as I could reach, well staked and
filled with bulrushes: and having spent a great
part of the month of July, I think it was the
1st of August before I began to enjoy my
Aug. 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I
t.ok them from the trees, and they proved ex-
cellent good raisins of the sun; the most of
which 1 car:.rid to rmy cave ; and happy for me
I did so, by v.i: h I saved the best part of my
v. inter food.
Aug. i 1. This day it began to rain; and
though I had made me a. tent like the other,
\cit Laxig no shelter of a hill to keep me from

storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat to, I
was obliged to return to my old castle; the
rain continued more or less every day, till the
middle of October, and sometimes so violently
that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days. This season I fourd my family to in-
crease; for one of my cats that had run away
from me, and which I thought had been dead,
returned about August, with three kittens at
i~e heels, like herself ; from these cats pro-
ceeded such numbers, that I was forced to kill
and destroy them as I would do wild beasts or
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir
out, it rained incessantly : when beginning to
want food, I was compelled to venture twice,
the first of which times, I shot a goat, and af-
terwards found a very large tortoise. The
manner of regulating my food was thus : a
bunch of raisins served me for my breakfast:
a piece of goat's flesh or turtle boiled for my
dinner, and two or three turtle eggs for my sup-
per. While the rain lasted, I daily worked two
or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by
degrees worked it on towards one side of the
hill, and made a door way out, which came be-
yond my fence or wall, and so I came in and
out this way. But after I had done this, I was
troubled to see myself thus exposed; though I
could not perceive anything to fcar, n goat being
the biggest creature I had seen upon this

Sept. 30. Casting up the notches on my
post, they amounted to 365, I concluded this
to be the anniversary of my landing ; and there-
fore humbly prostrating myself on the ground,
confessing my sins, acknowledging God's righ-
teous judgment upon me, and praying to himn
to have mercy upon me, through Jesus Christ,
I fasted for twelve hours till the going down of
the sun; and then eating a biscuit and a bunch
of grapes, laid me on a bed, and with great
comfort took my night's repose. Till this time,
though I had always put a larger notch than
ordinary for each sabbath day, to my shame, I
confess it. I had seldom observed it in any other
way. My ink failing soon after, I omitted in
my daily memorandum, things of an indifferent
nature, and contented myself tc write down
only the most remarkable events of my life.-
The rainy and dry seasons appeared now re-
gular to me, and experience taught me how to
provide for them: yet in one thing I am going
to relate, my experience very much failed me.
You may call to mind, what I have mentioned
of some barley and rice which I had saved;
about thirty stalks of the former, and twenty
of the latter; and, at that time, the sun being
in its southern position, going from me, toge-
ther with the rains, made me conclude it a very
proper season to sow it. Accordingly I dug
up a piece of ground, with my wooden spade,
and dividing it into two parts, sowed about two
thirds of my seeds, preserving by me a handful
of each. And happy it was I did so; for no

rains falling, it was choked up, and never ap.
peared above the earth till the wet season came
again, and then part of it grew, as if it had
been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground near
my bower, I there sowed the rest of my seed
in February, which, by having the rainy
months of March and April to water it, yielded
a nob!-' crop, and sprung up very pleasantly. I
had still saved part of the seed, not daring to
venture all; and by the time I found out the
proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might
expect every year two seed times and two har-
vests, my stock amounted to above half a peck
of each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes
which I had cut from the trees, shot out like
willows, the first year after lopping their heads.
I was ignorant of the tree I cut them from;
but they grew so regularly beautiful, that they
made a most lively appearance, and so flou-
rished in three years time, that I resolved to
cut more of them; and these soon growing
made a glorious fence, as afterwards I shall
And now I perceived that the seasons of the
year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter, as in Europe, but into wet and
dry seasons, as in this manner:-

From February 15 Rainy, sun coming near
To April 15, the Equinox, 2 months.

From 5 April 15, Dry, sun getting tortA
To J August 15, fr om the line, 4 monthly
From 1 August 15, Wet, the suin being thet
To October 15, come back, 2 months.
From October 1, Dry, sun running south
To February 15 of the line, 4 months.

The wet seasons would continue longer or
shorter, as the wind continued or ceased to blow.
But having found the ill consequences of being
abroad in the rain, I took care before hand to
furnish myself with provisions: and during the
wet months, sat within doors as much as pos-
sible. At this time, I contrived to make many
handy things that I wanted, though it cost me
much labour and pains, before I could accom-
plish them. The first I tried was to make a
asket, but all the twigs I could get, proved so
brittle, that [ could not then perform it. It now
proved of great use to me, that when a boy I
took great delight in standing at a basket-ma-
ker's, in the same town where my father lived,
to view them at work : like other boys, being
curious to see the manner of their working these
things, and very officious to assist. I perfectly
learned the method of it, and wanted nothing
but the tools. And it coming into my mind,
that the twigs of that tree of which I made rmy
stakes, might be as tough as a sallow willow, or
osiers growing in England, I resolved to make
an experiment, and went the next day to my
country seat, and found some fit for my turn;
and after cutting down a quantity with my

hatchet, I dried them in my pale, and, when
fit to work with, carried them to my cave, where
I employed myself in making several sorts of
baskets, insomuch that I could put in what-
soever I pleased. It is true they were not cle-
verly made, yet they served my turn on all oc-
But still 1 wanted two necessary things. I
had no cask to hold my liquor, except two, al-
most full of mrm, a few bottles of an ordinary
size, and some square case bottles; neither had
1 a put t-j boil any thing in, only a large kettle
unfit to make broth, or stew a bit of meat: I
wanted likewise at the beginning of this dry
season a tobacco-pipe ; but for this I afterwards
found an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my se-
cond row of stakes. But remembering that
when I travelled up to the brook 1 had a mind
to see the whole island, I now resumed my in-
tention, and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two
biscuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
I began my journey. Having passed the vale
where my bower stood, I came within view of
the sea lying to the west; when, it being a
clear day, I fairly described land, extending from
the W. to the S. W. about 10 or 15 leagues,
as I concluded: but could not say whether it
was an island or a continent. Neither could I
tell what this place might be: only thought it
was part of America, and where 1 might have
been in a miserable condition had I landed.-
i) -


Again, I considered, that if this was the Spa-
nish coast, certainly, one time o- the :.lli;r, I
should see some ships pass by, and if it was
not, then it must be the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazil, which abbunds
with cannibals or n..:-.-latl:r.
As I proccoded forward, I fund. this side of
the island much morb pleasant than mine ; the
fields-fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers and
verdant grass, together with several very fine
woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made me long for one to be my companion;
but it was with grn'at difficulty I could knock
one down with my sick ; and I kept hin at
home some years, before 1 could get him to call
me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts of
hares and foxes, as I took them to bb, but mhch
different from those in England. Several of
these I killed, but never ate them ; neither in-
deed had I any occasion; for abounding with
goats, pigeons, turtle, ardt grapes, : could'defy
any market to furnish me6 better table. In
this journey, I did not travel above t..-:- 'ihll
a day, because I took several tiuts and wind-
ings, to see what discoveries I cold make, re-
turning weary enough to the place where I de-
signed to rest all nigh+, which was either in a
a tree. or to a place which I surrounded with
stake, that no wild creature might suddenly
surprise me. When I came to the sea-shore, I
was amazed to see the splendor ofit. Its strand
was covered with shells of the most beautiful

fish, and constantly abounding with innumera.
ble turtles, and fowls of many kinds, which I
was ignorant of, except those called penguins.
1 might have shot as many as I pleased, but
was sparing of my ammunition, rather choos-
ing to kill a she-goat, which I did with much
difficulty, on account of the flatness of the
Now, though this journey produced the most
pleasing satisfaction, yet my habitation was s6>
much to my liking, that I did not repine at my
being seated on the worst part of the island.
I continued my journey, travelling about 12
miles further towards the east, where I set a
great pile on the shore for a mark, concluding
that my next journey should bring me to the
other side of the island, east from my castle,
and so round till I came to my post again.-
As I had a constant view of the country, I
thought I could not miss my way but scarcely
had I travelled three miles, when I descended
into a very large valley, so surrounded with
hills covered with wood, that having no guide
but the sun, and to add to my misfortune, the
weather proving very hazy, I was obliged to
return to my post by the sea side, and so back-
wards the same way I came. In this journey.
my dog surprised a kid, and would have killed
it, had I not prevented him. As I had often
been thinking of getting a kid or two, and so
raising a breed of tame goats to supply me,
after my ammunition was spent, I took thii
opportunity of b~ Zginin:; acn h:;-ing made

a collar for this little creature, with a string
mado.of rope yarn, I brought it to my bower,
and there inclosed and left him: and having
spent a mnnth in this journey, at length I re-
turned to my old habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when
I returned to my little castle, and reposed my-
self in my hammock. After my joiurey I
rested myself a week, which time I employed
in making a cage for my pretty poll. I now
began to recollect the poor kid 1 had left in
the bower, and immediately went to fetch it
home. When I came there, I found the young
creature almost s tared ; T gave it some food,
and tied it as before; lbt there was no occa-
sion, for it followed me like a dog; and as I
constantly fed it, it became so loving, gentle,
and fond, that it commenced one of my domes-
tics. and would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of Septem-
her, in the most solemn manner, as usual, it
being the second year of my abode in the island.
I spent the whole day in acknowledging God's
mercies, in giving thanks for making this soli-
tary life as agreeable, and less sinful, than that
of hunmln society ; and for the communication
of his grace to my soul, in supporting, comfort-
ing, and encouraging me to depend upon his
Providence, and hope for his eternal presence in
the world to come.
Indeed, I often did consider how much more
happy I was, in this state of life, than in that

manner of living I formerly used; sometimes,
however when hunting, or viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul would break out upon
me, and my very heart would sink within me,
to think of the woods, the mountains, the de-
serts I was in; and how I was a prisoner,
locked up within the eternal bars and bolts of
the ocean, in an uninhabited country, without
a hope of escape. In this condition I would
often wring my hands, and weep like a child;
and even sometimes in the middle of my work,
this fit of melancholy would often take me;
and then I would sit down and sigh; looking
on the ground for an hour or two together till
such time as my grief got vent in a flood of
One morning, as I was fully employed in
this manner, I opened my Bible, and began to
read that chapter in which God promises to
Joshua, I will not fail thee nor forsake thee!
Surely, if God does not forsake me, what
matters it, since he can make me more happy
in this state of life, than if I enjoyed the great-
est splendour in the world ? And whenever I
opened or shut the Bible, I blest kind Provi-
dence, that directed my good friend in England
to send it among my goods without my order,
and for assisting me to save it from the power
of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my se-
veral daily employment were these: First,
My duty to Heaven, and diligently reading the
holy Scriptures, which I did twice or thrice

every day: Secondly, Seeking provisions with
my gun, which commonly took me up, when
it did not rain, three hours every morning;
IRirdly, The ordering, curing, preserving, an'l
cooking what I had killed, or catched for my
supply, which took me up a great part of the
day; for in the middle of the day, the sun
being at its height, it whs so hot, that I could
not stir out: so that I had but four hours in
the evening to woik in: and then from the want
of tools, of assistance, and skill, spent a great
deal of time to little purpose: I was no less
than two and forty days, making a board fit
for a long shelf, which two sawyers with their
tools and saw-pit, would have cut out of the
same tree in half a day. It was of a large tree,
as my board was to be broad. I was three
days in cutting it down, and two more in lop-
ping off the boughs, and reducing it to a piece
of timber. Thus I hacked and hewed off each
side, till it became light to move ; then I turned
it, made one side of it smooth' and flat as a
board from end to end, then turned it down-
wards, cutting the other side, till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick; and smooth
on both sides. Any body may judge my great
labour and fatigue in such a piece of work :
but this I went through with patience, as also
many other things, that my circumstances made'
necessary for me to do.
The harvest months, November and Dcccm-
;er, were now at hand, in which I had tho
1l1ea-in, ,r '.-pct f. ~a Nery ~oOd rop. But

here I met with a new misfortune, for the goats
and hare having tasted of the sweetness of
the blade, kept it so short, that it had no
strength to shoot up into a stalk. To prevent
this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and by day
shot some of its devourers ; and my dog, which
I had tied to the field gate, keeping barking
all night, so frightened these creatures, that 1
got entirely rid of them.
But, no sooner did I get rid of these, than
other enemies appeared. to wit whole flocks of
several sorts of birds, who only waited till my
back was turned to ruin me. So much did
this provoke me, that I lot fly, and killed three
of the malefactors ; and afterwards served them
as they do notorious thieves in England and
Ireland, hung them up in chains as a terror
t others. And indeed, so good an effect had
this. that they not only forsook the corn, but
;ll that part of the island, so long as these
criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter
end of December, which was my second har-
vest, I reaped it with a scythe made of one of my
broad swords. I had no fatigue in cutting down
ny first crop, it was so slender,. The ears I
carried home in a basket, rubbing the grain out
with my hands, instead of threshing it; and
when my harvest was over, found my half-peck
of seed had produced nearly two Ihuliels of
rico, and two bushels and a half of barley.-
And now I plainly foresaw, that by God's good-
ness, I should be furnished with broad; but

I t I was concerned because I Luew not how
to grind or make meal of my corn, neither
knew I how to bake it into bread. I would
not, however, taste any of the crop, but re-
solved to preserve it against next season, and in
the mean while, use my best endealours to
provide myself with other food.

But where wore my labours to end ? the
want of a plough to turn up the earth, or shovel
to dig it, I conquered by making me a wooden
spade. The want of a harrow I supplied by
dragging over the corn a great bough of a tree.
When it was growing, I was forced to fence it;
when ripe, to mow it, carry it home, thresh it,
part it from the chaft; and save it. And, after
all, I wanted a mill to grind it, a sieve to dress
it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it. This set my brains to work,
to find some expedient for every one of these
necessaries, against the next harvest.

And now having nore seed, my first care was
to prepare me more land. I pitched upon two
large flat pieces of ground, near my castle, for
that purpose, in which I sowed my seed, and
",,need it with a good hedge. This took me up
three ninth ; by which time the wet season
coming on, and the rain keeping me within
doors, I found several occasions to employ my-
Qelf; ard while at work, used to divert myself
with talking to my parrot, teaching him to
know and speak hi- own name Poll: the first
wp!romc word I Iad ever heard spoken in the

island. I had beer. a long time cr.ntriving ihow
to make earthen vessels, which I wanted ex-
tremely; and when I considered the heat of the
climate, I did not doubt but, if I could find
any such clay, I might botch up a pot, strong
enough, when driedin the si, to bear handling,
-and to hold any thing that was dry, such as
corn, meal, and other things.
To be short, the clay, I found; but it would
occasion the most serious person to smile, to
see what awkward ways 1 took, and what ugly
misshapen things I made; how many either
fell out or cracked, by the violent heat of the
sun, and fell in pieces when they were removed.
so that I think it was two months before I
could perfect any thing; and even then, but
two clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars
These, however, I very gently placed in wicker
baskets, made on purpose for them, and be-
tween the pot and the baskets, stuffed it full
of rice and barley straw; and these I pre-
sumed would hold my dried corn, and per.
haps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
As for the smaller thing., 1 made them with
better success; such as little round pots, fiat
dishes, pitchers, and pipLks, thie sun baking
them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely po-
cessary, and that was an earthen pot, not ofly
to hold my liquid, but also to bear the hre,
which none of these could do. It once hap-
pened, that as I was putting oat iry fire, I
found therein a broken piece ci' one oi my

vessels burnt hard as a rock, and red as a tile,
this made me think of burning some pots ,
and having no notion of a kiln, or of glazing
them v,-ith ltad. I ii:ed three large pipkins, and
two or three pots ii a pile one upon another.
The tire I piled round the outside, and dry
wood on the top, till I saw the pots in the
ins.le red-hot, and found that they did not
crack at all; and when I perceived them per-
fectly red, I let them stand in the fire five or
six hours, till the clay melted by the extremity
of the hoet, and would have run to glass had
SI -,..r...l it: upon which, I slacked my fire
by degrees, till the redness abated ; and watch-
ing them till the morning, I found 1 had three
very good pipkins, and two earthen pots, as
well burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.
The first use to wlich I turned my pipkins,
* Was to make some salt, which I had long
Wanted. For this purpose, I filled them with
sea-water, and kept it slowly boiling over the
fire, till the whole of the water had boiled
away in steam, leaving at the bottom of the
vessel, a thin crust of salt which, I found
very good !br giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a
stone-mortar to beat some corn in instead of
a mill to grind it. Here, indeed, I was at a
greatt loss, as not being-fit for a stone-cutter;
and many days I spent to find out a great
stone big enough to cut hollow and make it
fit for a mortar, and strong enough to bear the
weight uf a pestle, that would break the corn

without filling it with sand. But all the sfone*
of the island being of a mouldering nature,
rendered my search fruitless ; and then I re-
solved to look out for a great block of hard
wood; which having found, I formed it with my
axe and hammer, and then, with infinite labour.
made a hollow in it, just as the Indians of
Brazil maketheir canoes. When I had finished
this, I made a great pestle ot iron-wood, and
then laid th'm up against my succeeding
Mly next Iliness was to make me a sieve,
to sift my meal and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no flue thin canvass to search
the meal through, I could not tell what to do.
What linen I had was reduced to rags : 1 had
g at's hail enough, but neither tools to work it,
nor did I know how to spin it. At length. I
r -menibered I had some neck-cloths of calico
or muslin, of the sailors, which I had brought t
out of the ship, and with these, I made three
small sieves proper enough for the work.
I come now to consider the baking pert.-
The want of an oven I supplied, by making
some earte n pans, very broad, but not deep
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great
Sfie upon my hearth), the tiles of which, 1 had
made myself, and wh1en the wood was tiurit
into live coals. I spread them over it, till it be-
came very hot: then sweeping them away, I
set down my loaves, and whlelming down the
earthen pots upon them drew the ashes and
cuali all round the oiutidei of the pot; tJ

continue the heat; and in this manner, I baked
my barley loaves, as well as if I had been a
complete pastry.cook, and also made of the
rice, several cakes and puddings.
It is no wonder that all these things look me
up the best part of the year, since what inter-
mediate time I had, was bestowed in managing
my new harvest and husbandry; for in the
proper season, I reaped my corn, carried it
home and laid it up in the ear, in my large bas-
kets, till I had time to rub, instead of threshing
it. And now indeed, ny corn increased so
much, that it produced me twenty bushels of
barley, and as much of rice, so that I not only
began to use it freely, hut was thinking how to
enlarge my barns, and resolved to sow as much
at a time as would be sufficient for a whole
All this while, the prospect of land, which I
had seen from the other side of the island, ran
in my mind. I still meditated a deliverance
from this place, though the fear of greater mis-
fortunes right have deterred me from it. For,
allowing that I l;ad attained that place, I ran
the hazard ot being killed and eaten by the de-
vouring cannibals; and if they were not so,
yet I might he slain, as other Europeans had
been, who fell into their hands. Notwith-
standing all this, my thoughts ran continually
nion tlat share. 1 now wished for the long
boat with the shoulder of mutton sail. I went
to the ship's boat, that had been cast a great
way on tie shore in the late storm. She was

removed but a little; but her bottom being
turned up by the impetuosity and surge of the
waves and wind, I fell to work with all the
strength I had, and with levers and rollers
which I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and
repair the damages she had sustained. This
work took me up three or four weeks, when
finding my little strength all in vain, I fell to
undermining it, by digging away the sand, and
so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it in the fall. But after
this was done, I was still unable to stir it up,
or to get under it, much less to move it for.
wards towards the water, and so 1 was forced
to give it over.
This disappointment, however, 'did not
frighten me. I began to think, whether it was
not possible for me to make a canoe or Perigua,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a
tree. But here I lay under particular inconve-
niences; want of tools to make it, and want of
hands to move it into the water when it was
made. However to work I went upon it, stop-
ping all the inquiries I could make, with this
tery simple answer I made to myself, let's first
make it, I'll warrant I'll find someway or other
to get it along when ii is done.
I first cut down a cedar-tree, which was five
Feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next
the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a space, and then parted into
branches. Twenty days was I hacking and

hewing it at the bottom, fourteen more in ent-
ting off the branches and limbs, and a whole
month in shaping it like the bottom of a boat.
As for the inside, I was three weeks within
mallet and chisel, clearing it in such a manner
as that it was big enough to carry 26 men,
munch bigger than any canoe I ever saw in my
life, and consequently sufficient to transport
me and all my effects to tlat wished for shore,
I so ardently desired.
Nothing remained now, but, indeed, the
greatest difficulty, to get it into the water, it
lying about 100 yards from it. To remedy the
first inconvenience, which was a rising hill bo-
tween this boat and the creek, with wonderful
pains and labour I dug into the surface of the
earth, and made a declivity. But when this
was done, all the -i-. -.1, I had was as insuf-
ficient to move it, as it was when I first made
the attempt. I then proceeded to measure the
distance of ground, resolving to make a cana',
in order to bring the water to the canoe, since t
could not bring the canoe to the water. Bilt
as this seemed to be impracticable by myself
alone, under the space of eleven or twelve years,
it brought me into some sort of consideration;
so that I concluded this also to be impossible,
and the attempt vain. I now saw, and not be-
fore, what stupidity it is to begin work before
we reckon its cost, or judge r.li) our own
abilities to go through with its performance.
In the height of this work, my fourth year
expired from the time I was cast on this island.

At this time I did not forget my anniversary,
but kept it with rather greater devotion than
before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had nothing
to do with; and very well might I say, as fa-
ther Abraham said unto Dives, Between me
and thee there is a gulph fixed. And indeed
I was separated from its wickednms too, having
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, nor the pride of life; I had nothing to co-
vet, being lord, king and emperor over the
whole country 1 had in possession, without dis-
pute and without control; I had loadings of
corn, plenty of turtles, timber in abundance,
and grapes above measure. What was all the
rest to me? the money I had, lay by me as
despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a g:oss of tobacco pipes, or a hand-
mill to grind my corn; in a word, the nature
and experience of these things dictated to me
this just reflection; that the good things of
this world are no further good to us, than as
they are for our use; and that whatever we
may heap up, we can but enjoy as much as we
use, and no more.
IThese thoughts rendered my mind more easy
than usual. Every time I sat down to meat, I
did it with thankfulness, admiring the provi-
dential hand of God, who in this wilderness
had spread a table to me. And now I consi-
dered what I enjoyed, rather than what I want-
ed; compared my present condition with what
1 at first expected it should be; how I should
E 3


Lave done,'if I had got nothing out of the ship;
that I must have perished before I had caught
fish ,.r f'irl, l-; or lived, had I found them. like
* ,mere savage, by eating them raw, and pulling
tlheiu to pieces with my claws, like a beast.-
I pext compared my station to that which I
de o d ; how undutiful I had been to bny pa-
rg; Ilow destitute of the fearof God; how
i .4 avery thing that was good; and how
ungrateful for those abundant mercies I had
received from heaven, being fed, as it were, by
a 'jhiracle, even as great Elijah was fed by
ravens; and cast on a place where there are no
venomous creatures to poison or devour me; in
slhort, making God's tender mercies matter of
great consolation, I relinquished all sadness,
ard gave way to contentment.
As long as my inl continued, which with
water I made last along as I could, I used to
minute down the days of the month on which
auy remarkable thing happened.
The next thing tliat wasted after my ink,
was the biscuit, which I had brought out of
tile ship; and though I allowed myself but one
cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet I was
quite out of bread for nearly-a year, before I
got any corn of my own.
Il the next place my clothes began to de-
cay, and my linen had been gone long before,
However, I had preserved about three dozen
of the sailors' chequered shirts, which proved
a graat refreshment to me, when the violent
' b~,.-ni of tihe sun would not suffer me to bear

I 79

nyv of the seamen's heavy watch-coats; which
made iae turn tailor, and, after a imisrahlA
notching manner, convert them into jackets. To
preserve my head, I made a cap of goat-skins,
with the hair outwards to keep out the rain 1
which indeed served me so well, that afterwards
1 made a waistcoat and open kneed breeches
of the same: And then I contrived a sortpf'
umbrella, covering it with skins, which not
only Lept out the heat of the sun, but the rain
also. Thus being easy and settled in my mind,
my chief happiness was to converse with God,
in the most heavenly and comfortable ejacula-
For five years after this. I cannot say any
extraordinary thing occurred to me. My chief
employment was to cure my raisins, and plant
my barley and rice, of both which I had a
year's provision before hand. But though I
was disappointed in my first canoe, I made it
at intermediate times, my business to make a
second of much inferior size; and it was two
years before I had finished it. But as I per-
ceived it would in no wise answer my design of
sailing to the other shore, my thoughts were
confined to take a tour round the island, to see
what further discoveries I could make. To
this intent, after having moved her to the water
and tried how she would sail, I fitted up a
little mast to my boat, and made a sail of the
ship's sails that lay by me, I then made lockers
or boxes at the end of it, to put in necessaries

provision and anmnullition, which wouCld pre-
serve them dry either from the rainl. or the
spray ot the sea; and in the inside of the boat,
I cut me a long hollow place to lay my gun,
and to keep it dry, made a cover for it. My
umbrella, I fixed in a step in the stern, like a
mast, to keep off the heat of the sun. And.
now resolving to see the circumference of my
little kingdom, I victualled my ship bfr the
voyage, putting in two dozen of my barley
bread loaves, an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a little bottle of run, half a goat, powder
and shot, and two watch-coats. It was the 6th
of November, in the 6th year of my reign, or
captivity, that I set out on this voyage ; which
was much longer than.I expected, being obliged
to put farther out, by reason of the rocks that
lay a great way in the sea.
And indeed, so much did these rocks sur-
prise me, that I was for putting back, fearing
that if 1 ventured farther, it would be out of
my power to return; in this uncertainty 1 came
to anchor just off the shore, to which I waded
with my gun on my shoulder, and then climb-
ing up a hill, which overlooked that point, I
saw the full extent of it, and so resolved to run
all hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a
violent current running to the east, coming very
close to the point; which I the more carefully
observed, thinking it dangerous, and that when
I came to it, I might be driven into the sea by

its force, and not able to return to the island;
and certainly it must have been so, had 1 not
made this observation; for on the other side
was the like current, with this difference, that
it set offat a greater distance; and I perceived
there was a strong eddy under the land: so
that my chief business was to work out of the
tirst current, and conveniently get into the eddy.
Two days I staid here, the wind blowing very
lbiskly S. E. which being contrary to the
current, leaves a great breach of the sea upon
the point; so it "was neither fit for me to keep
too near the shore, on account of the breach ;
nor stand at too great a distance for fear of the
streams. That night the wind abating, it grew
so calm, that I eniiured out; and here I may
be a monument to all rash and ignorant pilots;
tor I was no sooner come to the point, and not
above the boat's lel;gth from shore, buf 1 was
got into a deep water, with a current like a
riill-race, which drove my boat along so vio-
lently, that it was impossibl- for me to keep
near the edge of it, being forced more and
more out from the eddy to the left of me ; and
all I could do with my paddles was useless,
there being no wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite
lost, since as the current ran on both sides of
the island, I was very certain they must join
again, and then I had no hopes but of perish-
ing for want in the sea, after .what provision I

bad was spent, or before, if a storm should
happen to arise.
Who can conceive the present anguish of my
mind at this calamity ? with longing eyes did
I look upon my little kingdom, and thought the
island the pleasantest place in the universe.-
Happy, thrice happy desert, said I, shall I
never see thee more ? Wretched creature'.
whither am I going ? Why did I murmur
at my lonesome condition, when now I would
give the whole world to be thither again ?
While I was thus complaining, I found myself
to be driven about two leagues into the sea:
however, I labored till my strength was far
spent, to keep my boat as far north as pos-
sibly I could, to that side of the current, where
the eddy lay. About noon I perceived a lit-
tle breeze of wind spring up from the S. S. E.
which overjoyed my heart; and was still more
elated, when in about half an hour, it blew
a gentle fine gale. Had any thick weather
sprung up, I had been lost another way; for
having no compass on board, I should never
have found the way to steer towards the island,
if once it had disappeared; but it proving
the contrary, I set up my mast again, spread
my sail, and stood away northward, as much
as I could, to get rid of the current. And
no sooner did the boat begin to stretch away,
but I perceived, by the clearness of the water,
a change of the current was near; for, where
it was strong, the water wa.s foul, and where
it was clear. ;il current albated.

Thjos who have been in the like calamitius
with my own, may guess my present excess of
joy, how heartily I ran my boat in the stream
uf this eddy, and how joyfully t spread my
sail to the refreshing wind, standing cheerfully
before it, with a smart tide under foot. lv the
assistance of this eddy, I was carried above a
league home again, when being in the wake of
the island, between the two currents, I found
the water to be in a sort of stand. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within
a league of the island, and perceived the
points of the rock, which caused this disaster,
stretching out, as I observed beifre, tu the
southward, which ,,...g eg off the current
more southerly, had occasioned another eddy
to the north. But having a fair brisk gale,
I stretched across this eddy, and in an hour
came within a mile of the shore, where I soon
landed, to my unspeakable comfort; and af-
ter an humble prostration, thanking God for
my deliverance, with a resolution to lay all
thoughts of escaping aside, I brought my boat
safe to a little cove, and laid me down to take
a welcome repose. When I awoke, I was
considering how I might get my boat home;
and coasting along the shore, I came to a good
bay, which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where.
finding a harbour, I stowed her as safe as
if she had been in a dry dock, made on pur-
pose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the
place, where before I had ltavellcd on foot; so

in.'aig nothing with me, except my gun and mm-
tbella, I began my journey, and in the voil-
ilg came to myI bower, where 1 again laid me
down to rest. I had not slept long before I
walkentd in great surprize, by a strange voice
that called me several times, Rotin, Robin,
Robi'n son C(r.ooe. poor Robin W here are
yr. Robi.-iso/i (O'raoe / WVhere arre you ?
f/WherTe hiae you been ?
So fast wa.s .1 aT-lep. that at first I did not
wake tihorolgly ; but half asleep and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice repeated, Ro-
hi,,nai Crusoe, several times, being terribly
frightened, I started up in the utmost confusion;
and, no sooner wv.re my eyes fully open, but I
beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of thl
hedge, auid soon knew that it was he that call-d
nie; for ju;;t in snuch bewailing language, I
used to t al and tect h him ; whichli he so exact-
ly learned, that lihe would sit upon my finger,
and lay hiis bill close to nmy face, and cry
Poor Rol.i', r a COutsoe. where are you /-
wlhice hare y'io bcii / how came you here ?
and suith like prattle I had constantly taught
Ihim. But even tlhoiugh 1 knew it to be the
parrot, it was, long time before I could ad.
just myself; being amazed how the creature
got thithr, and that he should fix about that
place, and io 1 iere else. But now, being
assured it could be no other than my honest
Poll, my wonder ceased, ond reaching out my
hand, and calling Poll, the creature came to

in 'minliarly, and perched upon my thumlb,
as he was wont, constantly prating to me with
Poor RobUinso Crusoe, aid how did I come
here, and where had I been ? as if the bird
was overjoyed to see me; and so I took him
home along with me. I was now pretty well
cured of rambling to sea; yet I could wish
my boat which had cost me so much trouble
and pains, on this side of the island once more,
but this, indeed, was impracticable. I there-
fore began to lead a very retired life, living
nearly a twelvemonth in a very contented man-
ner, wanting for nothing but conversation.-
As to mechanic labours, which my necessi-
ties obliged me to, I fancied I could, upon oc-
casion, make a tolerable carpenter, were the
poor tools I had to work withal, but good.-
Besides, as I improved in my earthen ware, I
contrived to make them with a wheel, which I
found much easier and better, making my work
shapely, which before was rude and ugly.-
But, 1 think I never wa. so elevated with my
oivn performance or project, as when able to
make a tobacco pipe, which though it proved
an awkward clumsy thing, yet it was very
sound, and carried the smoko perfectly well,
to my great satisfaction.
I also improved my wicker ware, made me
abundance of necessary baskets, which, though
not very handsome, were very handy and con-
venient to fetch things home in, as also for
holding my stores, barley, rice, a d other pro-

My powder beginning to fail, made me
exaniine after what matter I should kill the
goats or birds, to live on, after it was all gone.
Upon which, I contrived many ways to ensnare
tile goats, and see if I could catch them alive,
particularly a she-goat with young.
At last I had my desire; for making pit-
falls and traps, baited with bailey and rice, I
found one morning in one of them, an old he-
goat, and in the other, three kids, one male,
the other two, females.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could
not bring him away. But I forgot the old
proverb, That hunger will tame, a lion : For,
had I kept him three or four days without pro.
visions, and then given him some water, with
a little corn, he would have been as tame, as a
young kid. The other creatures I bound with
strings together; but I had great difficulty be-
fore I could bring them to my habitation. It
was some time before they would feed; but
throwing them sweet corn, it so much tempted
them, that they began to be tamer. From
hence I concluded, that if I designed to furnish
myself with goat's flesh, when my ammunition
wa spent, the tamely breeding them up, like
a flock of sheep, about my settlement, was the
only method I could take. I concluded also
I must separate the wild from the tame, or
else they would always run ild as they
grew up; and the best way for this, was to
have some. enclosed piece of ground, well
fenced, either with a hedge or pale, to keep

thFem so I.11. :LI, ,ily), that those within might
not Ireak out, nor those without break in.-
Such an undertaking was very,great for one,
pair of hands; hut as there was an absolute
necessity for doing it, my first care was to find
a convenient piece of ground, where there was
likely to be herbage for them to eat, water to
drilk, and cover to keep them from the sun.,
Ifere again, 1 gave another instance of my
ignorance and inexperiem:e, pitching upo6 a
piece of meadow-land so large, that had I
enciosed it, the hedg3 or pale must have been
at least two miles about. T''is thought came
ioto noy head; after I had carried it on, I be-
lfeve, about fifty yards; I therefore altered my
scheme, and resolved to enclose a piece of
ground, about 150 yards in length, and 100 in
breadlh, large enough for as' many as would
maitainai me, till such time as my flock in-
creased, and then I could add more ground.
I1 now vigorously prosecuted my work, and it
took me about three months in hedging the
first piece; in which time, I tethered the three
kids in the best part ot it;, feeding them as
near me as possible, to make them familiar;
andl, indeed, I very qften would carry some
ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed
thiem out of my hand, by which they grew
so tame, that when my enclosure was finished,
and i' had let them loose, they would run
ilter ne f6r a handful of corn. This indeed
,m1 'wered my end ; and, in a year and a half's
tune, I had 'a flock of about twelve goats,

kids and all; and in two years after, they
amounted to iorty-three, be.idei what I had
killed for my sustenance.
After which, I inclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to drive theii
into, that I might take ihem as I had occasion.
In this project 1 likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which in tbe beginning, I
did not so much as think of. And, indeed',
though I haud neIver I. .' a cow, much l es a
gont, or seen batter or cheese made, yet after
some essays and imi-carriagies, I made me bou.,
and never afterwards wanted.
flow micrcifilly can tie Almighty con;':,
his creatures, \en in the midst of their gr e,.i,.t
calamities? Hiow can he sweeten the bittereo!
evils, and give us reason to magnify him in dun-
geous and prisons ; what a bonltuou.3 table was
here spreaol in a wilderness for me, where I ex-
pected nothing t' first, Iut to perii h f)r humner.
Certainly any one would have smiled to see
me at dinner. iThere sat my royal majesty, oas
absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom, at-
tended by my dutiful subjects, whom, if I
pleased, I could either punish or reward, give
them liberty or take it away. When I dined,
I seemed a king, eating alone, none daring to
presume to do so till I had done. Poll, as if he
had been my principal court favourite, was thl
only person permittedl to talk with me. My old
but faithful dog, now grown exceedingly crazy,
continually sat on mny right hand; while umy

two elata sat on each side of th table, exwpct-
ing a bit from my baud, as a principal mark of
my royal favour. These were not tlhe cats I
had brought from the ship ; they had been dead
long before, and interred near nmy habitation bv
mine own hand. But a couple of their young I
had made tame; the rest ian wild into the woods,
and in time grew so impudent, as to return and
plunder me of my stores, till such time as I shot
a great many, and the rest left mue without trouib
ling me any more. In this plentiful manner did
1 live, wanting for i...tlIr bit conversation.-
One thing indeed concerned Im, the want ot my
boat; I knew not which way to get her round the
island. One time I resolved to go along the shore
by, land to Ler; but had any one at home met
tuch a figure, it would either have atrighted them
ur made them burst into laughter;. nay, I could
not but smile i.,. -ilf at my habit, which I think
in this place it will be very proper to describe.
The cup I wore upon my head, was gicat,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, wit:-
a flap or pent-house hanging down behind, not
only to keep the sun from the, but to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck, nothing
being more pernicious than the rain falling upon
the ilesh in these climates. I had a short jacket
of goat's skin, whose hair hung down such a
length on each side, that it reached down to
the calves of my legs. As for shoes and stock-
ings, I had none, but made a resemblance of
something, I knew not what to call them ; they
were made like buskins, and laced on the side

lil'pV teri i. r sl shlnped, like the
re-: o' myv habit. I had a broad belt of goat's
skin dried. girt round ne with couple of thongs,
instead of buckle,; on .-ach of which, to sup-
ply tile deficiency of' sword and dagger, hung
my hatchet and saw. I had another belt not
Iso broad, yet fateiind in the same nlumer, which
hung over mlv s.,oidder. and at the ond of it,
under my left a nl, hunsg two pouches made oA
goat's skin, to hold my powder and shot. 1My
basket, I carried on nmy back, and my gun on
my shoulder; and over my head, a great clum-
sy ugly goat's skin unibrela, which, however,
next to my gl., was tlhe inot necessary thing
about me. As ibr mnv tace, the colour was not
so swarthy as the 31ulattoes. or as might have
been expected from one who took so little care
of it, in a climate within nine or ten degrees of
the Line. At one time, my biard grew so long
that it hung down above a quarter of a yard ;
but as I had both raxor and scissars in store, I
cut it all o0t. and so'l 'I'. lid none to grow, except
a large pair of whiskers, the like of which I had
seen worn by some Turks at Salee. not long
enough indeed to hang a hat upon, but of such
a monstrous size, as completely to alter my ap-
But all this was of no consequence here, there
being none to observe my behaviour or habit.
And so, without fear and without control, I
proceeded on my journey, the prosecution of
which took me up live or six days. I travelled
along the sea shore, directly to the place where

T fr.t lirirougt mY v lio;t l an anchor. to get
uponi the rocks; but now having no bI at to
take care of, 1 went over-land, a i, earr w ay to
tihe same height that I was hetore upon ; when
looking forward to the point of the rock, ;which
lay out, and which I was forced to double with
uvy boat, I was amazed to see the sea so smooth
and quiet, there tbing no rilpling motion, nor
cunent, any more than in other place,. And
now I was convinced, that by observing the
ebb and flow of the tide, 1 might easily bring
my boat round the island again. But when I
began to tlhik of putting it in practice, the re-
rmembrance of the late danger, struck me with
such horror, that I took another resolution,
though more laborious and this was to make
a second canoe, and so have one for one side of
the island, and one for the other.
I had now two plantations in the island ; the
fir-t, my little fortification, fort, or castle, with
iiany large and spacious improvements ; for by
tlis time I had enlarged the cave behind imn
with several little caves, one within another, to
hold my baslkets, corn and straw. The piles
with which I made my wall were grown so
lofty aitd great, as to obscure my habitation.-
And Iear Ihis clon mmdiois and pleasant settle-
ment, lay y- well cultivated and improved corn
lie!ds, which kindly viclded me their fruit in the
proper .eason. yv secolid plantation was that
lita my counitryv- at, or little bower, where my
gr;ipep" iirii -d, aind where hating planted
t r,, aie-, I imadu icl.rr t, rei for miny moat., so


st.ng!v ftortified by labour and time, that it w' a
inlch stronger than a wall, and, consequently,
impossible tor them to break through. As for
my bower itself, 1 kept it constantly in repair,
iand cut tle trees in such a ianninc, as made
thle gro w \ ild, and form a most delightful
shade. In the centre of this, stood imy tent,
thus erected I had driven four piles in the
groiun. spreadinij over it a 1piece L the shii's
sai : beneiatii which, I mad e m a sort of coach
with the skins of the creatures 1 had slain, aln
other things; and ihaiing laid thereon one of
the sailor's blanket., which I had saved from
ihe wir,.ck of the ship, and cotering myself with
a great watch coat, I took up this place for my
country retreat.
Very frequently, from this settlement, did I
use to visit my boat, and keep her in very good
order. And, sometimes, would I venture in her
a cast or two from shore but no farther. But
now, I entreat your attention, whilst I proceed
to inform you of a new, but most surIpriing
scene of life which here befel me.
You may easily suppose, that, after having
bl~n here so loig, nothing oulid be moole
amiazin than to siec a human crteamCr. One
day it happened, that going to my boat, 1 saw
the print of a human's naked foot ou the slior,
very evident on the sand. as the toes, heels, and
every part of it. 11ad I seen a monster of the
most frightful shape, I could not have been mote
confounded. My willing ears gave the strictest
attention. I caot my eyci around, but could

RonrNqo', CRL9soE SIOrtlCd at the print
of a inan's foot in the sat-d.

saiifyv iditiir ilie mon nor the other. I pro-
co'ded aliernatelv to every part of the shore,
hut with equal etllct; neither could I see aly
other mark. though tile sand about it was as
susceptible to take impression, as that which wx.s
so plainly stamped. 'Th, struck with cont'-
sion and honor, I returned to my habitation,
frightened at every hibh ian tree, taking every
thing for menII; anid pj)essed with the wildest
ideas! That night my eyes n1o'er closed. I
formed nothing but the most dismal imagina-
tions. In a word. all my religions hopes va-
nished, a; though I tlioughlt God would not
now protect me by his power, who had won-
derfully preserved Imne s, long.
\hat varionis ihziins of events are there in
the life of man' ll.ow changeable are our af-
fections, according to ditlfreni circuintances?
We love to day, what we hlite to-morrow : we
shun one hour what we seek the next. ''lhis was
e\ident in me in the most conspicuous manner;
for I, who before had so much lamented my
condition, ii; beIing banished from all human
kind, was now ready to expire when I consi-
dered that a man had set his foot on this d .o-
late island. But when 1 considered my station
of life, that it was allotted to me by the infinitely
wise and good providence of God, that I ought
not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty, who
had an undoubted right to govern and dispose of
his creatures as he thinks convenient; and that
his justice and mercy could either punish or de-
lior nme: I say, w hen I considered all this, I

oomfortalyl found it my duty to trust sincerely
in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly re-
sign myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, those words
of the sacred writings came into my mind, Call
upon me in the dayi of trouble, and I will de-
liver thee, and thou lsn/t glorify me. Upon
this sentence, rising more cheerfully from my
bed, 1 offered up my prayers in the most devout
manner: and when i had done, taking up my
hible to read, these words appeared in my sight;
Wait oa the Lord, and br of good cheer, and
he shall strengthen thy heart; Wait, I say,
on the Lord. Such divine comfort did this give
me, as to remove all cause of sadness upui that
Thus, after a world of apprehensions and
fears, for three days and night>, I at last ven.
toured out of my castle, and milked my goats,
one of which was almost soiled for want of it.
I next (though in great fear,) visited my bower,
and milked'my flocks there also; when, grow-
ing bolder, I went down to the shore again, and
measuring the print of the foot to mine, to see
perhaps whether I myself had not occasioned
that mark, I found it much superior in large-
ness; and so returned home, absolutely con-
vinced, that either some men had been ashore,
or that the island must be inhabited ; and, there-
fore, that I might be surprised before I was
L are.
I now began to think of providing for my
security, and revolved in my mind many

ill. r. schicmrs for that purm-po-. I frt pro-
po1ed to cut down my\ encl osres, aInd turn imy
tame cattle wild into the woods, tlIhat tlh enemlly
might not lind them, and frequent the island in
hopes of killing the same. Secondi/i, I \as for
digi' 'lLn uI)p my corn fi elds for the %lry same
reason. And, /as/y, I 1 concluded to demolish
lily hower, loet seeing a plact, of' htliiuin coll-
trivaillCo tlhey liighit comne Ialthelr. aml lilnd out,
umi attack me in my castle.
Nic'tp \wl anl iItter .trLauger to my eyes that
liihlt; yet Ilature, spenlt and tired, siubmlitted
to a silent repo1(s tile next Imorning, and thel
Ijininlg reason with fear, I considered, that this
dolilghtful and pleasant island miihlt not he *o,
entirely tfor.akten as I might think l; Ihlt that the
inhabitants from the utiler shore might Sal,
tilher w\ithl dIesign, 0or i'oni lleeLsity', lyV 'cro '
Ninlds; and, ii the latter cirTLlanltanc, I had
rl('las to believe, they would depart the ir, t
oj)iortlunity. I However, lly fear mllade nli think
of a place of retreat upon an attack. I now
repented that I had made lny door to coLme out
Ivyond iy fortiicatition ; to remedy whiih, I
Tresol.ed to 1 llak ml e a second 0llone; I fell to,
work, therefore, and drove betwixt that double
ri.w of trees, which I planted above twelve yenar
Iehitre., '.\eral striolg piles, thickening it with
piele of timber and old cables, Mnd strengthen-
ingl the foot of it I ith earth which I dug out of
lty cave; I tulo Inuade ime ,evIen holes, whi teiIl
I planted my inuskets like canyon, fitting thetil

into frames rescmbling carriages. This being
finished with indefatigable industry, for a great
way every where, 1 planted sticks of osier like
a wood about twenty thousand of them, leaving
a large space between them and my wall, that
I might have room to see an enemy, and that
they might not be sheltered among the young
trees, if they offered to approach the outer wall.
And indeed, scarcely two years had passed over
my head, when there appeared a lovely shady
grove, and in six years, it became a thick wood,
perfectly impassable. For my safety, I left no
av enue to go in or out; instead of which. 1 set
two ladders, one to a part of the rock which
was low, and then broke in, leaving room to
place another ladder upon that; so that when
I took those down, it was impossible for any
man to descend without hurting himself ; and
if they had, they would still be at the outside
of my outer wall, But while I took all these
measures of human prudence for my own pre-
servation, I was not altogether unmindful of
other affairs. To preserve my stock of tame
goats, that the enemy should not take all at
once, I looked out for the most retired part of
the island, which was the place where I had
lost myself before mentioned, and there find-
ing a clear piece of land, containing three
acres, surrounded with thick woods, I wrought
so hard, that in less than a month's time, [
fenced it w well round, that my flocks were

veryv well scnurci in it. and I put therein tw"
Le-goats. ;idl It'e silo ones.
All this labour was occasioned purely by
fearful apprehensions, on account of seeing the
print of a man's foot. And not contented yet
with what I had doiwe. I searched for another
place towards the west part of the island, where
I might also retain another flock. Then wan.
during on this errand more to the west of the
island than ever I had yet done, and casting my
eyes towards the sea, methonght. perceived a
boat at a great distance : bnt could not possibly
tell what it was for want of Imy spy-glass. I
considered then, it was no strange thing to see
the print of a man's foot; and concluding them
cannibals, blessed God for being cast on the
other side of the island, where none of the
savages, as I thought ever came. But when I
came down the hill to the shore, which was the
S. W. point of the island, I was soon confirm-
ed in my opinion; nor can any one describe
my horror and anmzement, when I saw the
ground spread with sculls, hands, feet, and
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I
perceived a space like a circle, in the midst of
which had been a fire, about which I conjec-
tured those wretches sat, and unnaturally sa-
crificed and devoured their fellow creatures.
The horror and loathsomeness of this dread-
ful spectacle, both confounded my senses, and
made me discharge from my stomach in an ex-
juesive rnnuer. I thou returned towa.Lsi i a

hnlitation ; rarld in my way thither, shedding
I'oods of tears, and falling down on my bended
knees, gave God thanks. for making my nature
contrary to those wreichet, and delivering me
so long out of their hands.
Thiogh reason and my long residence here,
had assured me, that the saxwag.s never came
up to the thick woody o:'art of the country, and
that I lad no reason to oe apprehensive of a,
discovery, vet such an abhoirnri.ce did I still
remain, tliat. for two cars after. I confined mv-
self only i, my tihre plantations; I mean my
castle, country seat, and enclosure in the woods,
though in process of time, my dreadful appre-
hensions began to wear away.
Thus ny circumstances for some time re-
mained very calm and undisturbed ; though in-
deed, the terror which the savages had put me
in, spoiled some imention> for my own cione-
nience. One of my projects was to brew me
sonme beer; a very Awimnsical one indeed, when
it was considered, that I had neither casks suf-
ficient, nor conild I rnake any to preserve it in ;
neither had I hops to make it kec p : yeast to
InDil it work, nor a copper nor kettle to make
it boil. Pcrhiaps, indeed, alter sonic years, I
mlig!t brini this t, lhear. as I had done other
things. But now mny inventions were placed
another way ; and day and night I could think
of .. .tri, but how I might destroy some of
1thse cannibals, when proceeding to their bloody
entertainnments and so saving a victim; from
F '

being sacriliced. that lie might afterwards behomna
my servant. Many were my contrivances for
this purpose. anrd mniny more objections occur-
red, after 1 had hatched them. I once contrived
to dig a hole under the place where they mado
their lire, and put therein live or six pounds of
powder, which would consequentlv blow up
all tllhse that were neiar it; but then I was loth
to spend so nu111 upon thelm, lest it should not
do that certain execution I ilsired, and only
alli-ight and not kill them. 1la\ing laid this de-
sig'n ittide, 1 again proposed to myself to lie pri-
vately in ambush in some convenient place, with
iy three guns double loaded, and let fly at them
in the midst of their dreadful ceremony : and
having killed two or three of them at every shot,
fall upon the rest sudIdenly with my three pis-
to.,l, and let not one of thmn escape. This plan
appeared to nm so praclaicble that I used to
dream of it in the night tiio. To put ray de-
sign in execution. I was not long seeking for a
place convenient for my purpose, whero unseen
1 might behold ei'ey action of the savages.-
Here I placed Inmy tuwo wuskets, each of which
was loaded with a race of slugs, and four or
five smaller bulloti abo)t the size i f pistol bul-
lets; the fowling piece was charged with nearly
a handful of the largest swan shot, and in every
pistol about four bullets. And thus all things
being prepared, no sooner did the inelcome light
spread over the element, but I would issue forth
from my castle, iad from a lofty hill, three
miles distant, try if I could see any invaders

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs