Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072754/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner who lived twenty-eight years in an uninhabited island, on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great River Oroonoko, with an account of his deliverance, and his after surprising adventures
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 246 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Hedgeland, S ( Printer )
Darton, William, 1781-1854 ( Bookseller )
Darton & Harvey (London, England) ( Bookseller )
Manufacturer: S. Hedgeland, printer
Publication Date: 1823?
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1823   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- Exeter
England -- London
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: On spine: Robinson Crusoe 2s.6d.
General Note: Date from frontispiece: "Published by Harvey & Darton, 24th July, 1823."
General Note: "And sold by Harvey and Darton, Gracechurch-Street; and Wm. Darton, Holborn-Hill, London."
General Note: Parts I and II (p. 204-246) of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072754
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25635616

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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text

' -. .



r- r c ,




tPtf abaituT ~slant,
Coat of America, nearthe Mouth of the great River Oroonoko.






IF ever the story of any private
man's adventures in the world were
worth making public, and were ac-
ceptable when published, the editor of
this account thinks this will be so.
The wonders of this man's life ex-
ceed all that (he thinks) is to be found
extant; the life of one man being
scarce capable of a greater variety.
The story is told with modesty,
with seriousness, and with a religious
application of events, to the uses to
which wise men always apply them,
viz. to the instruction of others by


this example, and to justify and honor
the wisdom of Providence in all the
variety of our circumstances, let them
happen how they will.
The Editor believes this narrative
to be a just history of fact; neither is
there any appearance of fiction in it;
and though he is well aware there are
many, who, on account of the very
singular reservations the Author met
with, will give it the name of romance;
yet, in which ever of these lights it
shall be viewed, he imagines, that the
improvement of it, as well as the di-
version, as to the instruction of the
reader, will be the same, and as such,
he thinks, without further compliment
to the world, he does them great ser-
vice in the publication.




I WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of
a reputable family. My father was a na-
tive of Bremen, who by merchandizing at
Hull for some time, gained a very plentiful
fortune. He married my mother at York,
and as her maiden name was Robinson, I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; which
not being easily pronounced in the English
tongue, we are commonly known by the
name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers.-
No charge or pains were wanting in my
education.-My father designed me for the
law, yet nothing would serve me but I must


go to sea, both against the will of my f'a-
ther, the tears of my mother, and the en-
treaties of friends. One morning my father
expostulated very warmly with me: What
reason, says he, have you to leave your na-
tive country, and enter into a wandering
condition of uneasiness and uncertainty?
He recommended to me Agar's wish, "Nei-
ther to desire poverty nor riches:" told
me that a middle state of life was the most
happy, and that high towering thoughts of
raising our condition by wandering abroad,
often ended in confusion and disappoint-
ment. I entreat you, nay, I command you,
(says he,) to desist from these intentions.
If you will go, (added he,) my prayers shall
be offered for your preservation; but a
time may come, when desolate, oppressed,
or forsaken, you may wish you had taken
your poor father's counsel. He pronounced
these words with such a moving and pater-
nal eloquence, while floods of tears ran
down his aged cheeks, that it seemed to


shake my resolutions. But this soon wore
off, and a little after I informed my mother,
that I could not settle to any business; and
begged she would gain my father's consent
only to go one voyage; which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt
a second. My mother warmly expressed
her dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old,
when one time being at Hull, I met a school
fellow going with his father, who was mas-
ter of a ship, to London; and acquainting
him with my wandering desires, he assured
me of a free passage, and a plentiful share
of what was necessary. Thus, withoutim-
ploring a blessing, or taking farewell of my
parents, I took shipping on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1651. We set sail soon after, and
our ship had scarce left the Humber when
there arose a violent storm, and being ex-
tremely sea-sick, I concluded the judgment
of God deservedly followed me for my dis-
obedience to my dear parents. It was then


I called to mind the good advice of my fa-
ther; and I firmly resolved, if it pleased
God to set me on dry land once more, to
return to my parents, implore their for-
giveness, and bid a final adieu to my wan-
dering inclinations.
Such were my thoughts while the storm
continued; but these good resolutions de-
creased with the danger; and I soon forgot
the vows and promises I made in my distress.
Upon the sixth day we came to anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound
with some Newcastle ships; here the sea-
men forgot their late toil and danger, and
spent their time as merrily as if they had
been on shore. But on the eighth day
there arose a brisk gale of wind, which
prevented our tiding it up the river; and
still increasing, our ship rode forecastle in,
and shipped several large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard the master
exclaim, Lord have mercy upon us, we


shall be all lost and undone!" For my part,
sick unto death, I kept my cabin, till the
universal and terribly dreadful apprehen-
sions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck; and there I was affrighted indeed.
The sea ran mountains high; I could see
nothing but distress around us; two ships
had cut their masts on board, and another
was foundered; two more that had lost
their anchors, were forced out to the mercy
of the ocean: and to save our lives we
were forced to cut our foremast and main-
mast quite away.
I was just ready to expire with fear,
when immediately all hands were called to
the pump; and the men forced me also to
share with them in their labour. While
thus employed, the master espying some
light colliers, fired a gun as a signal of dis-
tress; and I, not understanding what it
meant, and thinking that either the ship
broke, or some dreadful thing happened,
fainted away. However, nobody minded


me, excepting to thrust me aside with their
feet, thinking me dead, and it was a great
while before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when upon the sig-
nal given, they ventured out their boats to
save our lives. All our pumping had been
in vain, had they not come to our ship's
side, with great difficulty we got into their
boat, and we perceived our ship sink within
less than a quarter of an hour.
Strange, after all this, like the prodigal
son, I did not return to my father; who
hearing of the ship's calamity, for a long
time thought me entombed in the deep.
I thought at first I would return home;
but shame opposed that good motion, think-
ing I should be laughed at by my neigh-
bours and acquaintance. So strange is the
nature of youth, who are not ashamed to
sin, but yet are ashamed to repent, and re-
turn to their duty, which is the principal
mark of wisdom. In short, I travelled up
to London, resolving upon a voyage; and


a voyage I soon heard of, to go to the coast
of Guinea. Having some money and ap-
pearing like a gentleman, I went on board
not as a common sailor or foremast man;
nay, the commander agreed I should go
the voyage with him without any expense;
that I should be his messmate and com-
panion, and I was very welcome to carry
any thing with me, and make the best mer-
chandise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for this offer; and ac-
quainting my friends in Yorkshire, forty
pounds were sent me, the greatest part by
my dear father and mother, with which I
bought toys and trifles, as the captain di-
rected me. My captain also taught me
navigation, how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and led
me into the knowledge of several useful
branches of the mathematics. And indeed
this voyage made me both a sailor and a


merchant; for I brought home five pounds
nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which produced at my return to London,
almost three hundred pounds.
But alas my dear friend, the captain
soon departed this life. This was a sensi-
ble grief to me: yet I resolved to go ano-
ther voyage with his mate, who had now
the command of the ship. My misfortunes
in this unhappy voyage were very great;
for our ship sailing towards the Canary
islands, we were chased by a Salee rover;
and in spite of all the haste we could make,
the pirate gained upon us, so that we pre-
pared ourselves to fight. They had 18
guns, and we had but 12. About three in
the afternoon there was a desperate engage-
ment, wherein many were killed and wound-
ed on both sides; but finding ourselves
overpowered by numbers, we were forced
to surrender; and were all carried prisoners
into the port of Salee. Our men were sent


to the emperor's court to be sold there;
but the pirate captain kept me to be his
own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the
most miserable creature upon earth, and
the prophecy of my father came afresh into
my thoughts. Some hopes indeed I had
that my new patron would go to sea again,
where he might be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man of war, and then I should
be set at liberty. But in this I was mis-
taken; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and
do the drudgery of his house.
After some length of time, my patron as
I found, grew so poor that he could not fit
out his ship as usual; and then he used
constantly, once or twice a week, if the
weather was fair, to go out a fishing, taking
me and a young Moresco boy to row the
boat; and so much pleased was he with me
for my dexterity in catching the fish, that
he would often send me with a Moor, who


was one of his kinsmen, and the Moresco
youth, to catch a dish of fish for him.
One morning as we were at the sport,
there arose such a thick fog that we lost
sight of the shore; and rowing we knew not
which way, we laboured all the night, and
in the morning found ourselves in the ocean,
two leagues from land; which however we
at length reached, extremely exhausted by
long fasting; and in order to prevent such
disasters for the future, my patron ordered
a carpenter to build a little state room or
cabin in the middle of the long-boat, with
lockers for provisions.
In this he frequently took us out a fish-
ing; and one time inviting two or three
persons of distinction to go with him, made
provision extraordinary, providing also
three fusees, with powder and shot, that
they might have some sport at fowling
along the sea-coast. The next morning the
boat was made clean, and every thing ready,
but their minds altering, my patron ordered


us to go a fishing, as his guests would cer-
tainly sup with him that night.
And now I began seriously to think of
my deliverance. In order to this, I per-
suaded the Moor to get some provisions on
board, not daring to meddle with our pa-
tron's; and we stored ourselves with rusk
biscuit, and three jars of water. Besides,
I privately conveyed into the boat a bottle
of brandy, some twine, thread, a hammer,
hatchet, and a saw; and, in particular,
some bees' wax, which was a great comfort
to me, and served to make candles. I then
persuaded Muley (for so was the Moor
called) to procure some powder and shot,
pretending to kill sea curlews, which he
innocently and readily agreed to. In short,
being provided with all things necessary,
we sailed out, I resolving to make my es-
cape, though it should cost me my life.
When we had run from shore I gave the
boy the helm, and pretending to stoop for
something, seized Muley by surprise and


threw him overboard. As he was an ex-
cellent swimmer, he soon arose, and made
towards the boat; upon which, I took out
a fusee, and presented at him: Muley,"
said I, I never yet designed to do you
"any harm, and seek nothing now but my
"redemption. I know you are able enough
"to swim to shore, and save your life; but
"if you are resolved to follow me, to the
"endangering of mine, the very moment
"you proceed, I will shoot you through
"the head." The harmless creature at
these words, turned himself from me, and
I make no doubt got safe to land. Then
turning to the boy Xury, I perceived he
trembled at the action; but I put him out
of all fear, telling him, that if he would be
true and faithful to me, I would do well by
him. So innocent did the child then look,
and with such an obliging smile consented,
that I readily believed him, and from that
day forward began to love him entirely.
We then pursued our voyage; and ha-


ving a fresh gale of wind, with a pleasant
smooth sea, by three o'clock next day, I
was one hundred and fifty miles beyond
the Emperor's of Morocco's dominions.
Yet still having the dreadful apprehension
of being retaken, I continued sailing for
five days successively, till the wind shift-
ing to the southward, made me conclude,
that if any vessel was in chase of me, they
would proceed no farther. After so much
fatigue, I anchored at the mouth of a little
river. What I principally wanted was fresh
water; and I was resolved about dusk to
swim ashore. But no sooner did the
gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed
the declining day, than we heard such bark-
ing, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,
that one might have thought the very
strongest monster of nature or infernal
spirits had their residence there.
The next morning I was resolved to go
on shore to get fresh water, and venture
my life among the beasts or savages, should


either attack me. Xury said, he would take
one of the jars and bring me some. I asked
him, why he would go, and not I The
poor boy answered, if wild mans come,
they eat me, you go away." This noble-
ness of mind increased my affection to the
child. Well, dear Xury," said I, we
will both go ashore, both kill wild mans,
and they shall eat neither of us." So giv-
ing Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and
a dram, we waded ashore, carrying nothing
with us but our arms, and two jars of water.
I did not go out of sight of the boat, as
dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes; but the boy seeing a
low descent or vale about a mile in the
country, he wandered to it: and running
back to me with great precipitation, I
thought he was pursued by some savage or
wild beast; upon which I approached, re-
solving to perish or protect him from dan-
ger. As he came nearer to me, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which


was a creature he had shot like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs; how-
ever we were glad of it, for it proved whole-
some and nourishing meat: but what added
to our joy was, my boy assured me there
was plenty of water, and that he see no wild
mans.-In this place I began to consider
that the Canary and Cape de Verde islands
lay not far off. The place I was in was
no doubt that wild country that lies
between the Emperor of Morocco's do-
minions and the Negroes. It is filled
with wild beasts, and the Moors chiefly
use it for hunting.-From this place I
thought I saw the top of the mountain
Teneriffin the Canaries; and twice in vain
I tried to attain it.
Early one morning we anchored under a
little point of land; and the tide beginning
to flow, we lay ready to go further in. But
Xury, whose youthful and penetrating eyes
were sharper than mine, in a soft tone, dQ.
sired me to keep far from land, lest we


should be devoured, For look yonder,
master," said he, and see de dreadful
monster fast asleep on de side of de hill."
-Accordingly looking where he pointed,
I espied a fearful monster indeed. It was
a terrible great lion that lay on shore cover-
ed as it were by a shade of a piece of the
hill. Xury," said I, you shall go on
shore and kill him." But the boy looking
amazed: Me kill him !" says he, he eat
me at one mouth;" meaning one mouthful.
Upon which I bid him lie still, and charg-
ing my biggest gun with two slugs, and a
good charge ofpowder, I took the best aim
I could to shoot him through the head, but
his leg lying over his nose, the slug broke
his knee bone. The lion awaking with the
pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving the
most hideous groan I ever heard: but tak-
ing my second piece, I shot him through
the head, and then he lay struggling for
life. Upon this Xury took heart, and de-
sired my leave to go on shore. Go then,"


said I. Upon which, taking a little gun in
one hand, he swam to shore with the other,
and coming close to the lion, put a period
to his life by shooting him again through
the head.
But this was spending our ammunition
in vain, the flesh not being good to eat.
Xury was like a champion, and came on
board for a hatchet, to cut off the head of
his enemy; but not having strength to per-
form it, he cut off and brought me a foot.
I bethought me, however, that his skin
would be of use. This work costXury and
me a whole day; when spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the hot beams of the sun
effectually dried it in two days' time, and
it afterwards served me fora bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living
sparingly on our provisions, and went no
oftener on shore than we were obliged for
fresh water. My design was to make the
river Gambia or Senegal, or any where
about the Cape de Verde, in hopes to meet


some European ship. If providence did
not so favour me, my next course was to
seek for the islands, or lose my life amongst
the Negroes.
One day as we were sailing along, we
saw people stand on the shore looking at
us; we could also perceive they were black
and stark naked. I was inclined to go on
shore, but Xury cried, "No no;" however,
I approached nearer, and I found they run
along the shore by me a good way. They
had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who held a long stick, which Xury told me
was a lance, with which they could kill at
a great distance. I talked to them by signs,
and made them sensible I wanted some-
thing to eat; they beckoned me to stop my
boat, while two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, which we gladly
accepted; and to prevent any fears on ei-
ther side, they brought the food to the


shore, laid it down, then went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
The Negroes having kindly furnished
me with water, and with what roots and
grains their country afforded, I took my
leave, and after eleven days' sail, came in
sight of the Cape de Verde, and those
islands called by its name; when on a sud-
den, Xury cried out, "Master! Master! a
ship with a sail!" and looked as affrighted
as if it was his master's ship sent in search
of us. But I soon discovered she was a
Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for
life to come up to them. But vain had it
been, if through their perspective glasses
they had not perceived me and shortened
their sail to let me come up. Encouraged
at this, I fired a gun, as a signal of distress;
upon which they very kindly lay to, so
that in three hours time I came up with
them. They spoke to me in Portuguese,
Spanish, and French, but none of these did


I understand; till at length a Scots sailor
called, and then I told him I was an Eng-
lishman, who had escaped from the Moors
at Salee; upon which they took me kindly
on board, with all my effects.
Surely none can express the inconceiva-
ble joy I felt at this happy deliverance!
who from being a late miserable and for-
lorn creature, was not only relieved, but in
favour with the master of the ship, to whom
in return for my deliverance, I offered all
I had. But he nobly refused any recom-
pence, and insisted upon paying for my
boat its full value. He gave me sixty
pieces for my boy Xury. It was with
great reluctance I was prevailed upon to
sell the child's liberty, who had served me
so faithfully; but he was willing himself;
and it was agreed, that after ten years he
should be made free, upon his renouncing
mahometanism, and embracing christianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,


or All Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after;
I cannot forget the generous treatment of
the captain. He would take nothing for
my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's. In
short I made about 220 pieces of my cargo;
and with this stock I entered once more
into the scene of life.
Being recommended to an honestplanter,
I lived with him till I was informed of the
manner of their planting and making sugar;
and seeing how well they lived, and how
suddenly they grew rich, I resolved to get
the money I had left in England remitted
to me, and to purchase a plantation.
I bought a settlement next to an honest
and kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of
English parents, whose plantation joining
mine, we improved it very amicably to-
gether. Both our stocks were low, and
for two years we planted only for food:
but the third we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of


ground the ensuing year for canes. I now
found how much I wanted assistance, and
repented the loss of my dear boy Xury.
I was in some measure settled, before
the captain departed from the Brazils.
One day I went to him, and told him what
stock I had in London, desiring his assis-
tance in getting it remitted; to which he
readily consented, but would only have me
send for half my money, lest it should mis-
carry.-His kindness towards me was great,
for he not only procured the money I had
drawn for, but sent me over a servant with
a cargo proportionable to my condition;
together with tools of all sorts, iron-work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Uncommon success crowning my pros-
perous labours, I might have rested happy
in that middle state of life my father had
so often recommended; but again I left
this happy station from a foolish ambition
of rising; and, once more, castmyself into
the greatest gulph of misery that ever a


poor creature fell into. Having lived four
years in Brazil, I had not only learned the
language, but contracted acquaintance with
the most eminent planters; to whom, once
having given an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, and the manner of
trading there for mere trifles, by which our
plantations were furnished with Negroes,
they gave such attention to what I said,
that three of them came one morning, and
proposed to me a voyage to Guinea, in or-
der to stock the plantation with Negroes,
which, as they could not be publicly sold,
they would divide among them; and if I
would go their super-cargo to manage the
trading part, I should have an equal share
of the Negroes, without providing any
stock. I could not resist the proposal,
but accepted the offer upon condition of
their looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things
ready, we set sail the first of September,
16-59, being the same day eight years I left


my father End mother in Yorkshire. We
sailed northward upon the coast, in order
to gain Africa, till we made Cape Augus-
tine; from whence going farther into the
ocean out of sight of land, we steered as
though we were bound for the Isle Fernand
de N orenba, leaving the islands on the east;
and then it was that we met with a terrible
tempest, which continued twelve days, the
winds carrying us wherever they pleased.
In this perplexity one of our men died,
and another and a boy were washed over-
board. When the weather cleared up a
little, we found ourselves in eleven degrees
north latitude, upon the coast of Guinea.
Upon this the captain gave reasons for re-
turning; which I opposed, counselling
him to stand away for Barbadoes, which,
as I supposed, might be attained in fifteen
days. So altering our course, we sailed
north-west and by west, in order to reach
the Leeward Islands; but a second storm
succeeding, drove us to the westward; so


that we were afraid of falling into the
hands of cruel savages, or the paws of de-
vouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress one of our men,
early in the morning, cried out, "Land,
land!" which he had no sooner said, -but
our ship struck upon a sand-bank, and in
a moment the sea broke over her in such a
manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately. We knew not
where we were, or upon what land we were
driven; and we could not so much as hope
that the ship would hold out manyminutes,
without breaking in pieces, except the
wind, by a miracle, should change imme-
diately. While we stood looking at one
another, expecting death every moment,
the mate laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest flung her over the ship's
side, and getting all into her, being eleven
of us, committed ourselves to God's mercy
and the wild sea. When we had rowed, or
rather were driven about a league and a


half, a raging wave, like a lofty mountain,
came rolling a-stern of us, and took us with
such fury, that at once it overset the boat.
Men are generally counted insensible
when struggling in the pangs of death; but
while I was overwhelmed with water, I had
the most dreadful apprehensions imagi-
nable. For the joys of heaven and the tor-
ments of hell seemed to present themselves
before me in these dying agonies. I was
going I thoughtI knew not whither, into a
dismal gulph unknown, never to behold my
friends, nor the light of this world any
more I strove, however, to the last ex-
tremity, while all my companions were
overpowered and entombed in the deep:
and it was with great difficulty I kept my
breath till the wave spent itself, and retir-
ing back, left me on the shore half dead.
As soon as I got on my feet, I ran as fast
as I could, lest another wave should pursue
me, and carry me back again. The sea
came after me like a high mountain, or


furious enemy. The next dreadful wave
buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep, but at the same time carried me with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore; when raising myself, I held out till
the water having spent itself, began to re-
turn, at which I struck forward, and feel-
ing ground with my feet, I took to my heels
again. I was at length dashed against a
piece of rock, in such a manner as left me
senseless; but recovering a little before the
return of the wave, which, no doubt, would
have overwhelmed me, I pushed hastily for-
ward and reached the main land, when
clambering up the clifts of the shore, tired
and almost spent, I sat down on the grass,
free from the dangers of the foaming ocean.
No tongue can express the ecstasies and
transports that my soul felt at the happy
deliverance. I was wrapt in contemplation,
and often lifted up my hands, with the pro-
foundest humility, to the Divine Powers,


for saving my life, when the rest of my
companions were all drowned. I cast my
eyes around, to behold what place I was
in, and what I had next to do. I could
see no house nor people; I was wet, yet
had no clothes; hungry and thirsty, yet
had nothing to eat or drink; no weapon to
destroy any creatures for my sustenance,
nordefend myself against devouring beasts;
in short, I had nothing but a knife, a to-
bacco pipe, and a box half filled with
tobacco. The darksome night coming
upon me, increased my fears of being de-
voured by wild creatures; my mind was
plunged in despair, and having no pros-
pect, as I thought, of life before me, I pre-
pared for another kind of death than what
I had lately escaped. I walked about a
furlong to see if I could find any fresh
water, which I did to my great joy; and
taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger,
I got up into a thick bushy tree, and seat-


ing myself so that I could not fall, a deep
sleep overtook me, and for that night buri-
ed my sorrows in quiet repose.
It was broad day the next morning be-
fore I awaked; when I not only perceived
the tempest had ceased, but saw the ship
driven almost as far as the rock which the
waves had dashed me against, and which
was about a mile from the place where I
was. When I came down from my apart-
ment in the tree, I perceived the ship's
boat two miles distant on my right hand,
lying on shore, as the waves had cast her.
I thought to have got to her; but there be-
ing an inlet of water of about half a mile's
breadth between it and me, I returned
again towards the ship, as hoping to find
something for my immediate subsistence.
About noon, when the sea was calm, re-
solving to get to the ship, I stripped and
leapt into the water; it was my good for-
tune to espy a small piece of rope hanging
so low, that by the help of it, though with


great difficulty, I got into the ship. The
provisions I found in good order, with
which I crammed my pockets, and losing
no time, ate while I was doing other things;
I also found some rum, of which I took a
hearty dram; and now I wanted for no-
thing except a boat to carry away what
was needful for me.
Necessity quickens invention. We had
several spare yards, a spare topmast or
two, and two or three large spars of wood.
With these I fell to work, and flung as
many of them overboard as I could manage,
tying every one of them with a rope, that
they might not drive away. This done, I
went down to the ship's side, and tied four
of them fast together at both ends, in form
of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them crossways, I
found it would bear me, but not any con-
siderable weight. Upon which 1 went to
work again, cutting a spare topmast into
three lengths, adding them to my raft with


a great deal of labour and pains, I then
considered what I should load it with, it
being not able to bear a ponderous burden.
And this I soon thought of; first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could
get, next I lowered down three of the
seamen's chests, after I had filled them
with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, and some Eu-
ropean corn; and for liquors, I found se-
veral cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and four or five gallons of rack, which I
stowed by themselves. By this time the
tide beginning to flow, I perceived my
coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim away,
which I left on the shore; as for my linen
breeches and stockings, I swam with them
to the ship; but I soon found clothes
enough, though I took no more than I
wanted for the present. My eyes were
chiefly on tools to work with; and, after
a long search, I found out the carpenter's


chest, which I got safe down on my raft.
I then looked for arms and ammunition,
and in the great cabin found two good
fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I likewise found three
barrels of powder, two of which were good;
also two or three broken oars, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer. I then put to sea,
and in getting to shore had three encourage-
ments. 1. A smooth calm sea. 2. The
tide rising and setting in to shore. 3.
The little wind there was blew towards
the land. After I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft drive a little distance from
the place where I first landed; and then I
perceived a little opening of the land, with
a strong current of the tide running into
it: upon which I kept the middle of the
stream. But great was my concern, when
on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran
aground, so that had I not, with great dif-
ficulty, for near half an hour, kept my back


straining against the chests to keep my ef-
fects in their places, all I had would have
gone into the sea. But after some time,
the rising of the water caused the raft to
float again, and coming up a little river
with land on both sides, I landed ina cave,
as near the mouth as possible, the better to
discover a sail, if any providentially passed
that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with lesser hills, and
thither I was resolved to go and view the
country, that I might see what part was
best to fix my habitation. Accordingly,
arming myself with a pistol, a fowling-piece,
powder and ball, I ascended the mountain.
There I perceived I was in an island, en-
compassed by the sea, no distant lands to
be seen but scattering rocks that lay to
the west: it seemed to be a barren place,
inhabited only by wild beasts. I perceived
abundance of fowls, but ignorant of what
kind, or whether good for nourishment;


I shot one of them at my return, which oc-
casioned a confused screaming among the
other birds, and I found it, by its colour
and beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its
flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, and fearing that some
cruel beasts might devour me in the night
time, I made a kind of hut or barricade
with the chests and boards. I slept very
comfortably; and the next morning got on
board as before, and prepared a second
raft far nicer than the first, upon which I
brought away the carpenter's stores, two
or three bags full of nails, a great jack-
screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a
grind-stone. Two or three iron crows, two
barrels of musket-bullets, another fowling
piece, a small quantity of powder, and a
large bag full of small shot. Besides these,
I took all the men's clothes I could find, a
spare fore top-sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and thus completing my second


cargo, I made all the haste to shore 1 could,
fearing some wild beast might destroy what
I had there already. But I only found a
little wild cat sitting on one of the chests,
which seeming not to fear me or the gun
that I presented at her, I threw her a piece
of biscuit, which she instantly eat and
When I had got these effects on shore,
I went to work, in order to make me a little
tent with the sail and some poles which I
had cut for that purpose; and having fi-
nished it, what things might be damaged by
the weather I brought in, piling all the
empty chests and casks in a circle, the bet-
ter to fortify it against any sudden attempt
of man or beast. After this I blocked up
the doors with some boards, charged my
gun and pistol, and laying my bed on the
ground, slept comfortably till next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me
a long time, yet despairing of a sudden de-
liverance, I coveted as much as I could;


and so long as the ship remained in that
condition, I daily brought away one ne-
cessary or other; particularly the rigging,
sails, and cordage, some twine, a barrel
of wet powder, some sugar, a barrel of
meal, three casks of rum, and, what indeed
was most welcome to me, a whole hogs-
head of bread.
Thirteen days I had now been in the
island, and eleven times on board, bringing
away all that was possible. As I was going
the twelfth time, the wind began to rise;
however I ventured at low water, and rum-
maging the cabin, in a locker I found se-
veral razors, scissors, and some dozens of
knives and forks; and in another thirty-
six pounds of pieces of eight, silver and
gold. "Al! simple vanity," said I, whom
" this world so much dotes on, where is
"now thy virtue, thy excellency to me?
" You cannot procure me one thing need-
"ful, nor remove me from this desolate
"island to a place of plenty. One of these


"knives, so meanly esteemed, is to me
"preferable to all this heap. E'en, there-
"fore, remain where thou art, to sink in
" the deep as unregarded, even as a crea-
" ture whose life is not worth preserving."
Yet, after all, I wrapt it up in a piece of
canvas, and began to think of making ano-
ther raft: but I soon perceived the wind
began to rise, a fresh gale blowing from the
shore, and the sky overcast with clouds
and darkness; so thinking a raft to be in
vain, I let myselfinto the water, with what
things I had about me, and it was with
much difficulty I got ashore, when soon
after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in
my little tent, surrounded with all my ef-
fects; but when I looked out in the morn-
ing, no more ship was to be seen.-My
next thoughts were, how I should secure
myself from savages and wild beasts, if any
such were in the island. At one time I
thought of digging a cave; at another I was


for erecting a tent; and, at length I re-
solved to do both.
I found a little plain near a rising hill,
the front towards which being as steep as
a house-side, nothing could descend on me
from the top. On the side of this rock
was a little hollow place, resembling tha
entrance or door of a cave. Just before
this place, on the circle of the green, I re-
solved my tent should stand. This plain
did not much exceed a hundred yards broad,
and about twice as long, like a delightful
green before my door, with a pleasing tho'
an irregular descent every way to the low
grounds by the sea-side, lying on the N. W.
side of the hill; so that it was sheltered
from the excessive heat of the sun. After
this, I drew a semi-circle, containing ten
yards in a semi-diameter and twenty yards
in the whole, driving down two rows of
strong stakes, not six inches from each
other. Then with a piece of cable which
I had cut on board, I regularly laid them


in a circle between the piles up to their
tops, which were more than five feet out
of the earth, and after drove another row
of piles looking within side against them,
between two or three feet high, which
made me conclude it a little impregnable
castle against men and beasts. And for
my better security I would have no door,
but entered in and came out by the help
of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into
which I carried all my riches, ammunition
and stores. After which, working on the
rock, what with dirt and stones I dug out,
I not only raised my ground two feet, but
made a little cellar to my mansion-house;
and this cost me many days labour and
pains. One day, in particular, a shower
of rain falling, thunder and lightning en-
sued, which put me in terror lest my pow-
der should take fire. To prevent which,
I fell to making boxes and bags, in order
to separate it, having by me near 150lbs.


weight. And thus being established as
king of the island, every day I went out
with my gun to see what I could kill that
was fit to eat. I soon perceived numbers
of goats, and shot one suckling a young
kid; which not thinking its dam slain,
stood by her unconcerned; and when I
took the dead creature up, the young one
followed me even to the inclosure. I lifted
the kid over the pales, and would willingly
have kept it alive; but finding it would
not eat, I killed that also.
It was by the account I kept, the 30th
of September, when I first landed on this
island. About twelve days after, fearing
lest I should lose my reckoning of time,
nay, even forget the sabbath days, for
want of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with
a knife upon a large post, in great letters,
these words, I came on shore, Sept. 30,.
1659. Every day I cut a notch with my
knife on the sides of this square post, and
that on the sabbath was as long again as


the rest; and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one. Had I
made a more strict search I need not have
set up this mark; for among my parcels I
found the very things I wanted; particu-
larly pens, ink, and paper: also two or three
compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspective glasses, books of navi-
gation, three English bibles, and several
other good books, which I carefully put
up.-A dog and two cats on board, I made
inhabitants with me in my castle. Though
one might think I had all the necessaries
that were desirable, yet still I found several
things wanting. My ink was daily wasting;
I wanted needles, pins, and thread, to
mend my clothes; and particularly a spade,
pickaxe, or shovel, to remove the earth.
It was a year before I finished my little
Having raised a turf wall against the
outside of my habitation, I thatched it so
close as might keep it from the inclemency


of the weather; I also improved it within,
enlarged my cave, and made a passage and
door in the rock, which came out beyond
the pale of my fortification. I next pro-
ceeded to make a chair and a table. When
I wanted a plank or board, I hewed down
a tree with my hatchet, making it as thin
with my axe as possible, and then smooth
enough with an adze to answer my designs:
thus in time I got boards enough to shelter
all my stores.
But now a very strange event happened.
For one day finding a bag, which used to
hold corn for the fowls, I resolved to put
gunpowder in it, and shook all the husks
and dirt upon one side of the rock, little
expecting what the consequence would be.
The rain had fallen plentifully a few days
before; and about a month after, to my
great amazement, something began to look
very green and flourishing; and when I
came to view it more nicely every day as
it grew, I found about ten or twelve ears


of green barley appearing in the very same
shape and make as that in England.
I can scarce express the agitations of
my mind at this sight. Hitherto I had
looked upon the actions of this life only as
the events of blind chance. But now the
appearance of this barley, flourishing in
a barren soil, and my ignorance in not con-
ceiving how it should come there, made
me conclude, that miracles were not yet
ceased: nay I even thought that God had
appointed it to grow there without any
seed, purely for my sustenance in this
miserable and desolate island. And in-
deed such great effect this had upon me,
that it often made me melt into tears,
through a grateful sense of God's mercies;
and the greater still was my thankfulness,
when I perceived about this little field of
barley some rice stalks also, wonderfully
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be more corn in the island; and


therefore made a diligent search among the
rocks; but not being able to find any, on
a sudden it came into my mind, how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,
and then my admiration ceased, with my
gratitude to the Divine being, as thinking
it was but natural, and not to be conceived
a miracle; though even the manner of its
preservation might have made me own it
was a wonderfid event of God's kind Pro-
It was about the latter end of June when
the ears of this corn ripened, which I laid
up very carefully, together with twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, expecting one day I
should reap the fruit of my labour; yet
four years were expired before I could al-
low myself to eat any barley bread, and
much longer time before I had any rice.
After this, with indefatigable pains and in-
dustry, for three or four months, at last I
finished my wall on the 14th of April, ha-
ving no way to go into it, but by a ladder,


against the wall.-Aprill7th I finished my
ladder and ascended it; afterwards pulled it
up, then let it down on the other side, and
descended into my new habitation, where
I had space enough and so fortified, that
nothing could attack me without scaling
the walls.
But what does all human pains and in-
dustry avail, if the blessing of God does
not crown our labours ? Or who can stand
before the Almighty, when he stretcheth
forth his arm 1 For one time as I was at
the entrance of my cave, there happened
such a dreadful earthquake, that not only
the roof of the cave came tumbling about
my ears, but the posts seemed to crack
terribly at the same time. This put me
in great amazement; and running to the
ladder, and getting over the wall, I then
plainly knew it was an earthquake; the
place I stood on sustained three terrible
shocks in less than three minutes. But
judge of my terror when I saw the top of a


great rock roll into the sea! I then ex-
pected the island would be swallowed up
every moment: and what made the scene
still more dreadful, was to see the sea
thrown in the most violent agitation and
disorder by this tremendous accident.
For my part, I stood like a criminal at
the place of execution, ready to expire.
At the moving of the earth I was, as it
were, sea-sick; and very much afraid lest
the rock, under which was my defence and
habitation, should overwhelm it and myself
in a lasting tomb.
When the third dreadful shock had spent
itself, my spirits began to revive: yet still
I would not venture to ascend the ladder,
but continued sitting, not knowing what I
should do. So little grace had I then, as
only to say, Lord have mercy upon me! and
no sooner was the earthquake over, but
that pathetic prayer left me.
It was not long after, when a horrible
tempest arose, at the same time attended


with a hurricane of wind. The sea seemed
mountains high, and the waves rolled so
impetuously, that nothing could be per-
ceived but froth and foam. Three hours
did this storm continue, and in so violent
a manner, as to tear the very trees up by
the roots, which was succeeded by abun-
dance of rain. When the tempest was over, I
went to my tent: but the rain coming on
in a furious manner, I was obliged to take
shelter in the cave, where I was forced to
cut a channel through my fortification to
let the water out. It continued raining all
that night, and some time the next day.
These accidents made me resolve, as soon
as the weather cleared up, to build me a
little hut in some open place, walled round
to defend me from wild creatures and sa-
vages; not doubting but at the next earth-
quake, the mountain would fall upon my
habitation and me, and swallow up all in
-its bowels.
When I began to put my resolutions in


practice, I was stopt for want of tools and
instruments to work with. Most of my
axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on
the island. It took me up a full week to
make my grindstone of use.
As I walked along the sea-shore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces
of the wreck, the sea had flung up. Ha-
ving secured these, I made to the ship,
whose stern was torn off, and washed a
great distance ashore; but the rest lay in
the sands.
At this time I was afflicted with an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myself to water:
Prayed to God in these words: Lord in
" pity look upon me: Lord have mercy
"upon me: have mercy upon me!" After
this I fell asleep, and dreamt.
Something refreshed with sleep, I arose;
and, after eating some turtle's eggs, I at-
tempted to walk again out of doors with
my gun; but was so weak, that I sat down,


and looked at the sea, which was smooth
and calm. While I continued here, these
thoughts came into my mind.
In what manner is the production of the
earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? From whence came myself, and
all other creatures living, and of what are
they made ?
Our beings were assuredly created by
some almighty invisible Power, who framed
the earth, the sea, the air, and all therein.
But what is that Power ?
Certainly it must follow, that God has
created all. Yet, said I, if God has made
all this, he must be the Ruler of all, for
certainly the Power that makes must in-
disputably be able to guide and direct
them. And if so, nothing can happen
without his knowledge and appointment.
Then certainly God has appointed these
my sufferings. I then proceeded to en-
quire, why should God deal with me in


this manner? Or what had I done to de-
serve his indignation ?
Here conscience cried with a loud and
piercing voice, Unworthy wretch! how
" darest thou ask what thou hast done?
" Look on thy past life and see what thou
" hast left undone! Ask thyself, why thou
" wert not long ago in the merciless hands
"of death? Why not drowned in Yar-
" mouth roads, or killed in the fight, when
" the ship was taken by the Salee man of
" war? Why not entombed in the bowels
" of the wild beasts on the African coast, or
" drowned here when all thy companions
" suffered shipwreck in the ocean?"
Struck dumb with these reflections, I
rose, being so thoughtful that I could not
sleep; and fearing the dreadful return of
my distemper. I recollected that the
Brazilians use tobacco for almost all dis-
cases, and going to my chest in order to
find some, Heaven, no doubt, directed me


to a cure for both soul and body; for there
I found one of the bibles, which, till this
time, I had neither leisure nor inclination
to look into. And no sooner did I open
it, but there appeared to me these words,
" Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
" deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
At first, this sentence made a very deep
impression on my heart, but it soon wore
off again, when I considered the word
deliver was foreign to me. And as the
children of Israel said, when they were
promised flesh to eat, Can God spread
" a table in the wilderness ?" In like man-
ner I began to say, Can God himself
" deliver me from this desolate island ?"
However, the words still returned to my
mind, and afterwards made a greater im-
pression upon me.
As it was now very late, I felt inclined
to sleep; but before I would lie down I fell
on my knees, and implored the promise
that God had made me in the Holy Scrip-


ture, that "if I called upon him in the day
"of trouble, he would deliver me." With
much difficulty, I afterwards drank the
rum; wherein I had steeped the tobacco,
which flying into my head, threw me into
such a profound sleep, that it was three
o'clock the next day before I awoke; in-
deed I believe I slept two days, having
lost a day in my account. When I got up,
my spirits were lively and cheerful; I was
very hungry; and, in short, no fit returned
the next day, but I found myself much
altered for the better.
I had now been about ten months in the
island; and, as I never had seen any of
the human kind, I accounted myself as
sole monarch; and as I grew better, ha-
ving secured my habitation to my mind, I
resolved to make a tour round my king-
dom, in order to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey;
I first went to the creek, where I had
brought my rafts on shore; and travelling


farther, found that the tide went no higher
than two miles up, where there was little
brook of running water, on the banks of
which were many pleasant savannahs or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass. On the rising parts, where I sup-
posed the water did not reach, I perceived
a great deal of tobacco growing to a very
strong stalk. Several other plants I like-
wise found, the virtues of which I did not
understand. I searched a long time for
the Cavassa root, which I knew the Indians
in that climate made their bread of, but
all in vain. There were several plants of
aloes, though at that time I knew not what
they were; I saw also several sugar canes,
but imperfect for want of cultivation. With
these few discoveries, I came back that
night and slept contentedly in my little
The next day, going the same way. but
farther than the day before, I found the
country more adorned with woods and


trees. Here I perceived different fruits
in great abundance. Melons in plenty lay
on the ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe
and very rich, spread over the trees. You
may imagine I was glad of the discovery,
yet eat very sparingly. The grapes I
found of excellent use; for when I had
dried them in the sun, which preserved
them as dried raisins are kept, they proved
very wholesome and nourishing, and served
me in those seasons when no grapes were
to be had. The night drawing on apace,
I ascended a tree, and slept very com-
fortably, though it was the first time I had
lain out of my habitation. And when the
morning came, I proceeded with great
pleasure on my way, travelling about four
miles, as I imagined, by the length of the
valley, directing my course northward.
At the end of the valley, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to de-
scend to the west: there I found a little
spring of fresh water, proceeding out of


the side of the hill, with its crystal streams
running directly east. And indeed, here
my senses were charmed with the most
beautiful landscape nature could afford;
for the country appeared flourishing, green
and delightfid. I then descended on the
side of that delicious vale, when I found
abundance of cocoa, orange, lemon, and
citron trees, but very wild and barren at
that time. The limes were delightful and
wholesome, and the juice, mixed in water,
was very cooling and refreshing. I re-
solved to carry home a store of grapes,
limes, and lemons, against the approach-
ing wet season; and returned to my little
castle, after having spent three days in
this journey.
And now contemplating the fruitfulness
of this valley, its security from storms,
and the delightfulness of the adjacent
woods, I resolved to make a little kind of
bower, surrounding it with a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked and


filled with bulrushes: and having spent a
great part of the month of July, I think it
was the first of August before I began to
enjoy my labour.
On the 30th September, casting up the
notches on my post, which amounted to
365, I concluded this to be the anniversary
of my landing; and, therefore, humbly
prostrating myself on the ground, confes-
sing my sins, acknowledging God's righ-
teous judgments upon me, and praying to
Jesus Christ to have mercy upon me, I
fasted for twelve hours till the going down
of the sun; and then eating a biscuit and
a bunch of grapes, laid me on the bed, and
with great comfort took my night's repose.
You may call to mind what I have men-
tioned of some barley and rice which I had
saved, about thirty stalks of the former,
and twenty of the latter; and, at that time,
the sun being in its southern position, go-
ing from me, together with the rains, made
me conclude it a very proper season to sow


it. Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground
with my wooden spade, and dividing it
into two parts, sowed about two-thirds of
my seed, preserving by me about a hand-
ful of each. And happy it was I did so;
for no rains falling, it was choaked up,
and never appeared above the earth till the
wet season came again; and then part of
it grew as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another
trial; and seeking for a moister piece of
ground near my bower, I sowed the rest
of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; which having the 'ainy
months of March and April to water it,
yielded a noble crop. I had still saved part
of the seed, not daring to venture all; and
by the time I found out the proper seasons
to sow it in, and that I might expect every
year two seed-times and two harvests, my
stock amounted to above half a peck of
each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the


stakes which I had cut from the trees, shot
out like willows, the first year after lop-
ping their heads. I was ignorant of the
tree I cut then from: but they grew so re-
gularly beautiful, that they made a most
lively appearance, and so flourished in
three years time, that I resolved to cut
more of them; and these soon growing,
made a glorious fence.
And now I perceived that the seasons of
the year might generally be divided not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but
into wet and dry seasons.
The wet season continued longer or
shorter as the winds happened to blow.
But having found the ill consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care be-
forehand to furnish myself with provisions;
and during the wet months, sat within
doors as much as possible. At this time
I contrived to make many things I wanted.
The first I tried was a basket; but all the
twigs proved so brittle, that I could not


perform it. When a boy, I took great de-
light in standing at a basket-maker's in the
same town where my father lived, to view
them work; and like other boys, curious
and very officious to assist, I perfectly
learned the method, and wanted nothing
but tools. And recollecting that the twigs
of the tree of which I made my stakes,
might be as tough as osiers, growing in
England, I resolved to make an experiment,
went the next day to my country seat, and
after cutting down a quantity, I dried
them, and when fit to work, carried them
to my cave, where I employed myself in
making several sorts of baskets. It is true,
they were not cleverly made, yet they
served my turn upon all occasions.
Still I had no cask to hold my liquor:
neither had I a pot to boil any thing in.
I wanted likewise at the beginning of this
dry season, a tobacco pipe.
I now resumed my intention of explor-
ing the island; and taking my dog, gun,


hatchet, two biscuit cakes, a great bunch
of raisins, with a larger quantity of powder
and shot than usual, I began my journey.
Having passed the vale where my bower
stood, I came within view of the sea, lying
to the west; when it being a clear day, I
described land, extending from the W. to
the S. W. about ten or fifteen leagues, but
could not say whether it was an island or
As I proceeded forward, I found this
side of the island much more pleasant than
mine; the fields fragrant, adorned with
sweet flowers and verdant grass, together
with several very fine woods. There were
parrots in plenty, which made me long for
one to be my companion; but it was with
great difficulty I could knock one down;
and I kept him some years before I could
get him to call me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts
of hares and foxes, but different from those
in England. Several of these I killed, but


never eat them; neither, indeed, had I
any occasion, for abounding with goats,
pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I could defy
Leadenball market to furnish me a better
table. When I came to the sea-shore, I
was amazed at the splendour. The strand
was covered with shells of the most beauti-
ful fish, and abounding with innumerable
turtles, and fowls of many kinds. I might
have shot as many as I pleased, but was
sparing of my ammunition, rather choosing
to kill a she-goat, which I did with much
difficulty, on account of the flatness of
the country.
I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east,
where I set a great pile on the shore for a
mark.-In this journey my dog surprised
a kid, and would have killed it, had I not
prevented him. As I had often been think-
ing of getting a kid or two, and so raising
a breed of tame goats to supply me after
my ammunition was spent, I took this op-
F 3


portunity of beginning: and having made
a collar for this little creature, with a
string of rope-yarn, I brought it to my
bower, and there inclosed and left him;
and having spent a month in this journey,
at length I returned to my own habitation,
and rested myself a week, which time I
employed in making a cage for my pretty
Poll. I now recollected my poor kid I had
left in the bower, and immediately went to
fetch it home. When I came there, I found
it almost starved: I gave it some food, and
it followed me like a dog; and as I con-
stantly fed it, it became so loving, gentle,
and fond, that it would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equi-
nox being now come, I kept the 30th of
September in the most solemn manner, as
usual: it being the third year of my abode
in the island. I spent the whole day in
acknowledging God's mercies, in giving
him thanks for making this solitary life as
agreeable and less sinful, than that of hnt


man society; and for the communications
of his grace to my soul, in supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon his Providence, and hope for his eter-
nal presence in the world to come,
One morning, opening my bible, I im-
mediately fixed my eyes upon these words,
" I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, thought I, these words are directed
to me; and if God does not forsake, what
matter is it, since he can make me more
happy in this state of life, than if I enjoyed
the greatest splendour in the world I
shut the bible and blessed kind Providence,
that directed my good friend in England
to send it without any order, and for as-
sisting me to save it from the power of the
raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my
several daily employment were these:-
First, My duty to Heaven, and diligently
reading the Holy Scriptures; which I did
twice or thrice every day: Secondly, Seek-


ing provisions with my gun, which com-
monly employed me, when it did not rain,
three hours every morning: Thirdly, The
ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking
what I killed, for my supply, which took
me up great part of the day. I was no
less than two and forty days making a
board fit for a long shelf, which two saw-
yers, with their tools and saw-pit, would
have cut off the same tree in half a day.
It was a large tree, as my board was to be
broad. I was three days in cutting it down,
and two more in lopping off the boughs,
and reducing it to a piece of timber. This
I hacked and hewed off each side, till it
became light to move: and then I turned
it, made one side of it smooth and flat as
a board from end to end, then turned it
downwards, cutting the other side, till I
brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides.
The harvest months, November and
December, were now at hand, in which I


had the pleasing prospect of a very good
crop. But here I met with a new misfor-
tune; for the goats and hares having tasted
the sweetness of the blade, kept it so short,
that it had not strength to shoot up into a
stalk. To prevent this, I enclosed it with
a hedge, and by day shot some of its de-
vourers; and my dog, which I tied to the
field gate, barking all night, so frightened
those creatures, that I got entirely rid
of them.
But no sooner did I get rid of these,
than other enemies appeared, whole flocks
of several sorts of birds only waited till
my back was turned to ruin me. So much
did this provoke me, that I let fly, and
killed three of the malefactors; and after-
wards served them as they do notorious
thieves in England, hung them up in chains,
as a terror to others. And so good an ef-
fct had this, that they not only forsook
tle corn, but all that part of the island,
sqlong as these criminals hung there.


My corn having ripened apace, the lat-
ter end of December, which was my second
harvest, I reaped it with a scithe, made of
one of my broad swords. I had no fatigue
in cutting down my first crop, it was so
slender. The ears I carried home in a
basket, rubbing it with my hands, instead
of threshing it; and when the harvest was
over, found my half peck of seed produced
near two bushels of rice, and two bushels
and a half of barley. I knew not how to
grind my corn, neither how to bake the
The want of a plough to turn up the
earth, or shovel to dig it, I conquered by
making a wooden spade. The want of a
harrow I supplied by dragging over the
corn a great bough of a tree. When it
was growing I was forced to fence it;
when ripe to mow it, carry it home, threh
it, and part it from the chaff. And, afler
all, I wanted a mill to grind it, sieve to
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into brcid,


and an oven to bake it. This set my brains
to work to find some expedient for every
one of these necessaries against the next
And now having more seed, my first
care was to prepare moreland. I pitched
upon two large flat pieces of ground near
my castle, for that purpose, in which I
sowed my seed, and fenced it with a good
hedge. This took me up three months:
by which time the wet season coming on,
and the rain keeping me within doors, I
found several occasions to employ myself;
and, while at work, used to divert myself
in talking to my parrot, learning him to
know and speak his own name Poll, the
first welcome word I ever heard spoke in
the island. I had been a long time con-
triving how to make earthen vessels, which
I wanted extremely, and when I considered
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt
but if I could find any such clay, I might
make a pot, strong enough when dried in


the sun, to bear handling, and to hold any
thing that was dry, as corn, meal, and
other things.
The clay I found; but it would make
the most serious person smile, to see what
awkward, ugly, mishapen things I made;
how many cracked by the violent beat of
the sun, and fell in pieces when they were
removed: so that I think it was two months
before I could perfect any thing; and even
then but two clumsy things in imitation of
earthen jars. As for the smaller things, I
made them with better success; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and
pipkins, the sun baking them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely
necessary, and that was an earthen pot,
not only to hold my liquid, but also to bear
the fire, which none of these could do. It
once happened, that as I was putting out
my fire, I found therein a broken piece of
one of my vessels burnt as hard as a rock,
and red as a tile. This made me think of


burning some'pots, and having no notion
of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead, I
fixed three large pipkins, and two or thee
pots in a pile one upon another. The fire
I piled round the outside, and dry wood
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the in-
side red hot, and found that they were not
cracked at all: and when I perceived them
perfectly red, I let one of them stand in
the fire about five or six hours, till the
clay melted by the extremity of the heat,
and would have run to glass had I suffered
it: upon which I slackened my fire by de-
grees, till the redness abated; and watch-
ing them till morning, I found I had three
very good pipkins, and two earthen pots,
as well burnt as I could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at
this discovery. I filled one of my pipkins
with water to boil me some meat.
The next concern I had, was to get me
a stone mortar to beat some corn in, in-
stead of a mill to grind it. But all the


stones of the island being of a mouldering
nature, I resolved to look out for a great
block of hard wood, which having found,
I formed it with my axe and hammer, and
then, with infinite labour, made a hollow
in it, just as the Indians of Brazil make
their canoes. When I had finished this,
I made a great pestle of iron wood, and
then laid them up against my succeeding
My next business was to make a sieve to
sift my meal, and part it from the bran
and husk. Having no fine thin canvas, I
could not tell what to do. What linen
I had was reduced to rags: At length I
remembered I had some neckeloths of
cai.co or muslin of the sailors, which I had
brought out of the ship, and with these I
made three small sieves, proper enough
for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by mak-
ing some earthen ans very broad but not
deep. When I hli a mind to bake, I made


A great fire upon the hearth, the tiles of
which I had made myself; and when the
wood was burnt into live coals, I spread
them over it, till it became very hot; then
sweeping them away, I set down my loaves,
and turning down the earthen pots upon
them, drew the ashes and coals all round
the outsides of the pots to continue the
heat; and in this manner I baked my bar-
ley loaves, as well as if I had been a com-
plete pastry-cook, and also made of the
rice several cakes and puddings.
These things took me up the best part
of a year, and what intermediate time I
had was bestowed in managing my new
harvest and husbandry; for in the proper
season I reaped my corn, carried it home,
and laid it up in the ear in my large bas-
kets, till I had time to rub, instead of
threshing it.
All this while, the prospect of land,
which I had seen from the other side of
the island, ran in myWudd. I still medi-


tated a deliverance from this place, though
the fear of greater misfortunes might have
deterred me from it. For allowing that I
had attained that place, I ran the hazard
of being killed and eaten by the devouring
cannibals; and if they were not so, yet I
might be slain, as other Europeans had
been, who fell into their hands. Notwith-
standing all this, my thoughts ran con-
tinually upon that shore. I wished for my
boy Xury, and the long boat: the ship's
boat had been cast a great way on the
shore in the late storm. Her bottom being
turned up by the impetuosity and fury of
the waves and wind, I fell to work with all
the strength I had, with levers and rollers
I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and
repair the damages she had sustained. This
work took me up three or four w eeks, when
finding my little strength in vain, I fell to
undermining it by digging away the sand,
and so to lake it fali down, setting pieces
of wood to thrust and guide it in the fall.


But after this was done, I was still unable
to move it towards the water, and so was
forced to give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not
frighten me. I began to think whether it
was not possible for me to make a canoe,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a
tree. But here I lay under particular in-
conveniences; want of tools to make it,
and want of hands to move it in the water
when it was made. However, to work I
went.-I first cut down a cedar tree, which
was five feet ten inches diameter at the
lower part next the stump, and four feet
eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-
two feet, after which it lessened for a space,
and then parted into branches. Twenty
days was I a hacking and hewing this tree
at the bottom, fourteen more in cutting off
the branches and limbs, and a whole month
in shaping it like the bottom of a boat.
As for the inside, I was three weeks with
a mallet and chissel clearing it, till it was


big enough to carry twenty-six men, much
bigger than any canoe I ever saw in my
life, and consequently sufficient to trans-
port me and all my effects to that wished-
for shore.
Nothing remained now, but to get it
into the water, it lying about one hundred
yards from it. I proceeded to measure the
distance of ground, resolving to make a,
canal in order to bring the water to the
canoe, since I could not bring the canoe
to the water. But as this seemed to be
impracticable, under the space of eleven
or twelve years, I concluded the attempt
altogether vain. I now saw what stupidity
it is to begin work before we reckon its
cost, or judge rightly our own abilities to
go through with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year
expired, from the time I was cast on this
island. At this time I did not forget my
anniversary; but kept it with rather greater
devotion than before. For now my hopes


being frustrated, I looked upon this world
as a thing I had nothing to do with; and
well might I say, as father Abraham said
unto Dives, Between thee and me there
" is a gulph fixed." I was separated from
its wickedness too, having neither the lust
of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the
pride of life; I had nothing to covet, be-
ing lord, king, and emperor over the whole
country, without dispute and without con-
trol: Corn, plenty of turtles, timber in
abundance, and grapes above measure.
What was all the rest to me? The money
I had, lay by me as despicable dross,
which I would freely have given for a
gross of tobacco pipes, or a hand-mill to
grind my corn; in a word, the nature and
experience of these things dictated to me
this just reflection: That the good things
of this world are no further good to us,
than they are for our use; and that what-
soever we may heap up to give to others,
we can but enjoy as much as we use.


These thoughts rendered my mind more
easy than usual. Every time I sat down
to meat, I did it with thankfulness, admir-
ing the providential hand of God, who, in
this wilderness, had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with
water, I made last as long as I could, I
used to minute down the days of the month
on which any remarkable event happened.
First, I observed, that the same day I
forsook my parents and friends, and ran
away to Hull, in order to go to sea: the
same day in the next year, I was taken and
made a slave by the Salee rovers.
That the very day I escaped out of the
wreck of the ship in Yarmouth roads, a
year after on the same day, I made my es-
cape from Salee in my patron's fishing boat.
And, on the 30th of September, being
my birth-day, was I miraculously saved,
and cast ashore on this island.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,


was the biscuits which I had brought out
of the ship; and though I allowed myself
but one cake a day for above a twelve-
month, yet I was quite out of bread for
near a year, before I got any corn of
my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long
before. However, I had preserved about
three dozen of the sailors' chequered shirts,
which proved a great refreshment to me,
wIheu the violent beams of the sun would
not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's
heavy watch-coats; which made me turn
tailor, and after a miserable botching man-
ner, convert them into jackets. To pre-
serve my head, I made a cap of goat's skin,
with the hair outwards to keep out the
rain; and afterwards, a waistcoat and
open-kneed breeches of the same: I con-
trived a sort of umbrella, covering it with
skins, which not only kept out the heat of
the sun, but rain also. Thus being easy


and settled in my mind, my chief happiness
was to converse with God, in prayer.
For five years after this nothing ex-
traordinary occurred to me. My chief
employment was to cure my raisins, and
plant my barley and rice, of both which I
had a year's provision beforehand. Though
I was disappointed in my first canoe, I
made, at intermediate times, a second, of
much inferior size; and it was two years
before I had finished it. But as I perceived
it would no wise answer my design of sail-
ing to the other shore, my thoughts were
confined to take a tour round the island,
to see what further discoveries I could
make. To this intent, after having moved
her to the water, and tried how she would
sail, I fitted up a little mast to my boat,
and made a sail of the ship's sail that lay
by me. I then made lockers or boxes at
the end of it, to put in necessaries, pro-
vision, and ammunition, which would pre-
serve them dry, either from rain or the


spray of the sea; and in the inside of the
boat, I cut a long hollow place to lay my
gun in; and to keep it dry, made a flag
to hang over it. My umbrella I fixed in a
step in the stern, like a mast, to keep the
heat of the sunoff me. Andnowresolving
to see the circumference of my little king-
dom, I victualled my ship for the voyage,
putting in two, dozen of my barley-bread
loaves, an earthen pot full of parched rice,
a little bottle of rum, half goat, powder
and shot, and two watch coats. It was
the 6th of November, in the 6th year of
my captivity, thatI set out in this voyage;
which was much longer than I expected,
being obliged to put farther out, on ac-
count of the rocks. And indeed so much
did these rocks surprise me, that I was for
putting back, fearing that if I vAtured
farther it would be out of my power to re-
turn. In this uncertainty I came to anchor
just on shore, to which I waded with my
gun on my shoulder and then climbing a


hill, which overlooked that point, I saw the
full extent of it, and resolved to run all
hazards.-That night it grew so calm that
I ventured out; and here I may be a monu-
ment to all rash and ignorant pilots; for
I was no sooner come to the point, and
not above the boat's length from shore,
but I was got into deep water, with a cur-
rent like a mill, which drove my boat along
so violently, that it was impossible for me
to keep near the edge of it, but forced me
more and more out from the eddy to the
left of me; and all I could do with my
paddles was useless, there being no wind
to help me.
Who can conceive the present anguish
of my mind at this calamity? With long-
ing eyes did I look upon my little kingdom,
and thought the island the pleasantest
place in the universe. Happy, thrice
happy desert, said I, shall I never see thee
more? Wretched creature! whither am I
going? Why did I murmur at my lone-


some condition, when now I would give
the whole world to be thither again?
While I was thus complaining, I found
myself driven about two leagues into the
sea; however, I laboured till my strength
was far spent, to keep my boat as far north
as possible. About noon I perceived a
little breeze of wind spring up from the
S. S. E. which overjoyed my heart; and
was still more elated, when in about half
an hour, it blew a gentle fine gale. I set
up my mast again, spread my sail, and
stood away northward as much as I could,
to get rid of the current. And no sooner
did the boat begin to stretch away, but I
perceived, by the clearness of the water,
a change of the current was near. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached
within a league of the island, and in an
hour came within a mile of the shore,
where I soon landed to my unspeakable
comfort; and after an humble prostration,
thanking God for my deliverance, with


resolution to lay all thoughts of escaping
aside, I brought my boat safe to a little
cove, and laid down to take a welcome
repose. A-When I awoke, I considered how
I mir-ht get my boat home; and coasting
along the shore, I came to a good bay
which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where
finding a good harbour, I stowed her as
safe as if she had been in a dry dock made
on purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the
pace where before I had travelled on foot;
so taking nothing with me, except my gun,
and umbrella, I began my journey; and
in the evening came to my bower, where
I again laid me down to rest. I had not
slept long before I was awakened in great
surprise, by a strange voice that called me
several times, Robin, Robin, Robinson
" Crusoe, poor Robin! Where are you,
" Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you?
" Where have you been ?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did


not awake thoroughly: but half asleep and
half awake, I thought I dreamed that some-
body spoke to me. But as the voice re-
peated Robinson Crusoe several times, be-
ing terribly affAighted, I started up; and
no sooner were my eyes fully open, but I
beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of
the hedge, and soon knew that it was he
that called me; for just in such bewailing
language I used to talk and teach him;
which he so exactly learned, that he would
sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close
to my face, and cry, "Poor Robinson
" Crusoe, where are you? where have you
"been? how came you here?" and such
like prattle, I had constantly taught him.
But even though I knew it to be the parrot,
it was a great while before I could adjust
myself; being amazed how the creature
got thither. But now being assured it
could be no other than my honest Poll,
my wonder ceased, and reaching out my
hand, and calling familiarly Poll, the crea-


ture came to me, and perched upon my
thumb as he was wont, constantly prating
to me with Poor Robinson Crusoe, and
" how did I come here, and where had I
" been ?" as if the bird was overjoyed to
see me; so I took him home with me.
I was now pretty well cured of my
rambling to sea, and began to lead a very
retired life, living near a twelvemonth in
a very contented manner wanting for no-
thing except conversation. As to mechanic
labours, which my necessities obliged me
to, I fancied I could, upon occasion, make
a tolerable carpenter, were the poor tools
I had to work with, but good. Besides,
as I improved in my earthenware, I con-
trived to make them with a wheel, which
I found much easier and better, making
my work shapely, which before was rude
and ugly. But I think, I was never so
elated with my own performance, as for
being able to make a tobacco-pipe, which,
though it was an awkward clumsy thing,


yet it was very sound, and carried the
smoke perfectly well.-I also improved my
Wicker ware, making abundance of baskets,
which were very handy and convenient
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived
many ways to ensnare the goats, and see
if I could catch them alive, particularly a
she-goat with young. At last I had my de-
sire; for, making pitfalls and traps baited
with barley and rice, I found one morning,
in one of them, an old he-goat, and in the
other, three kids, one male, the other two,
females.-It was some time before they
would feed; but throwing them sweet corn,
it so much tempted them that they began
to be tamer. I concluded, that if I de-
signed to furnish myself with goat's flesh,
when my ammunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up, like a flock of sheep,
about my settlement, was the only method
I could take. I resolved to separate the
wild from the tame; and the best way for
this, was to have some inclosed piece of


ground well fenced, that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.
Such an undertaking was very great for
one pair of hands; but as there was an ab-
solute necessity for it, my first care was to
find a convenient piece of ground where
there was likely to be herbage for them to
eat, water to drink, and shelter to keep
them from the sun.-I resolved to inclose
a piece of ground about one hundred and
fifty yards in length, and one hundred in
breadth, sufficient for as many as would
maintain me till my flock increased, and
then I could add more ground. I now
vigorously prosecuted my work, and it
took me about three months to hedge in
the first piece. I tethered the three kids
in the best part of it, feeding them as near
me as possible, to make them fantiliar; and
indeed I very often carried some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and fed them
out of my hand; by which they grew so
tame, that when my enclosure was finished,


and I let them loose, they would run after
me for a handful of corn. In a year and
a half's time, I had a flock of about twelve
goats, kids and all; and in two years after,
they amounted to forty-three, besides what
I had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which I enclosed five pieces ofground
to feed them in, with pens to drive them
into, that I might take them as I had
In this project I likewise found addi-
tional blessings; for I not only had plenty
of goat's flesh, but milk too, which at first
I did not think of. And indeed, though I
had never milked, or seen butter or cheese
made, yet after some essays and miscar-
riages, I made both, and never afterwards
How mercifully can the omnipotent
Power comfort his creatures, even in the
midst of their greatest calamities? He
can sweeten the bitterest providence, and
give us reason to magnify him in dungeons


and prisons! what a bounteous table was
here spread in a wilderness for me, where
I expected nothing at first but to perish
with hunger!-When I dined, I seemed a
king, eating alone, none daring to pre-
sume to do so till I had done. Poll, as if
he had been my principal court favourite,
was the only person permitted to talk with
me. My old, but faithful dog, continually
sat on my right hand; while my two cats
sat on each side of the table expecting a
bit from my hand, as a mark of my royal
favour. In this manner did I live, wanting
for nothing but conversation. One thing
indeed concerned me, the want of my boat;
I knew not which way to get her round
the island. One time I resolved to go
along the shore by land to her; but had
any one in England met with such a figure,
it would either have affrighted them, or
made them burst into laughter.
The cap I wore on my head, was great,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin,


with a flap or pent-house hanging down
behind, not only to keep the sun from me,
but to shoot the rain off, nothing being
more pernicious than the rain falling upon
the flesh in these climates. I had a short
jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung
down such a length on each side, that it
reached to the calves of my legs. As for
my shoes and stockings, they were made
like buskins, and laced on the sides like
spatterdashes, barbarously shaped like the
rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of
goat's skin dried, girt round me with a
couple of thongs, instead of buckles; on
each of which, to supply the deficiency of
sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. Another belt, not so broad, yet
fastened in the same manner, hung over
my shoulder, and at the end of it, under
my left arm, two pouches, made of goat's
skin, to hold my powder and shot. My
basket I carried on my back, and my gun
on my shoulder; and over my head a great


clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella, which
however, next to my gun, was the most
necessary thing about me. As for my face,
the colour was not so swarthy as the
Mulattoes, as might have been expected
from one who took so little care of it, in
a climate within nine or ten degrees of the
equator. At one time my beard grew so
long that it hung down about a quarter of
a yard; but as I had both razors and scis-
sors in store, I cut it all off, and suffered
none to grow, except a large pair of Ma-
hometan whiskers, like what I had seen
worn by some Turks at Salee, not long
enough indeed to hang a hat upon, but of
such a monstrous size, as would have
amazed any Englishman.
I had now two plantations in the island;
the first my little fortification, with many
large and spacious improvements. The
piles with which I made my wall were
grown so lofty and great, as secured my
habitation. And near this commodious


and pleasant settlement, lay my well-culti-
vated and improved corn fields, which
yielded me their fruit in proper season.
My second plantation was that near my
country seat, or little bower, where uly
grapes flourished, and where, havingplant-
ed many stakes, I made enclosures for my
goats, so strongly fortified by labour and
time, that it was much stronger than a
wall, and consequently impossible for them
to break through. As for my bower itself,
I kept it constantly in repair, and cut the
trees in such a manner, as made them grow
thick and wild, and form a most delightful
shade. In the centre of this, stood my
tent: I had driven four piles in the ground,
spreading over it a piece of the ship's sail;
beneath which I made a sort of a couch
with the skins of the creatures I had slain,
and other things; and having laid thereon
one of the sailor's blankets, which I had
saved from the wreck of the ship, and
covering myself with a great watch coat, I


took up this place for my country retreat.
-Very frequently from this settlement did
I visit my boat, and keep her in good order.
You may easily suppose, that after ha-
ving been here so long, nothing could be
more amazing than to see a human crea-
ture. One day it happened, that going to
my boat, I saw the print of a man's naked
foot on the shore, very evident on the
sand, as the toes, heels, and every part of
it.-Had I seen an apparition of the most
frightful shape, I could not have been more
confounded. My willing ears gave the
strictest attention. I cast my eyes around,
but could satisfy neither the one nor the
other. I proceeded alternately to every
part of the shore, but with equal effect;
neither could I see any other mark, though
the sand about it was as susceptible to
take impression, as that which was so
plainly stamped. Thus, struck with con-
fusion and horror, I returned to my habi-
tation, frightened at every bush and tree,


taking every thing for men; and possessed
with the wildest ideas: that night my eyes
never closed. I formed nothing but the
most dismal imaginations, all my religious
hopes vanished, as though I thought God
would not now protect me by his power,
Sho had wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various changes of Providence are
there in the life of man? How changeable
are our affections, according to different
circumstances? We love to-day, what we
hate to-morrow; we shun one hour what
we seek the next. This was evident in
me in the most conspicuous manner: for
I, who before had so much lamented my
condition, in being banished from all hu-
man kind, was now even ready to expire,
when I considered that a man had set his
foot on this desolate island. But when I
considered my station of life, decreed by
the infinitely wise and good providence of
God, I found it my duty to trust sincerely


in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly
resign myself to his divine will.
One morning lying on my bed, these
words of the sacred writings came into my
mind, Call upon me in the day of trou-
" ble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
" shalt glorify me." Upon this sentence,
rising more cheerfully from my bed, I of-
fered up my prayers in the most heavenly
manner: and when I had done, taking up
my bible to read, these words appeared
first in my sight:-" Wait on the Lord,
(' and be of good cheer, and he shall
(' strengthen thy heart: Wait I say on the
" Lord." Such divine comfort did this
give me, as to remove all cause of sadness
upon that occasion.
I ventured out of my castle and milked
my goats, one of which was almost spoiled
for want of it. I next (though in great
fear) visited my bower, and milked my
flocks there also; when growing bolder, I


went down to the shore again, and mea-
suring the print of the foot to mine, to
see perhaps, whether I myself had not oc-
casioned that mark, I found it much su-
perior in largeness: and so returned home,
now absolutely convinced, that either some
men had been ashore, or that the island
must be inhabited, and therefore that I
might be surprised before I was aware.
I began to think of providing for my se-
curity, and resolved in my mind many
different schemes for that purpose. I first
proposed to cut down my inclosures, and
turn my tame cattle wild into the woods,
that the enemy might not find them, and
frequent the island in hopes of killing the
same. Secondly, I was for digging up my
corn fields for the very same reason. And
lastly, I concluded to demolish my bower,
lest, seeing a place of human contrivance,
they might come farther, and find out, and
attack me in my little castle.
Such notions did the fear of danger sug-


gest to me: and I looked, I thought, like
the unfortunate king Saul, when not only
oppressed by the Philistines, but also for-
saken by God. And, it is strange, that a
little before, having entirely resigned my-
self to the will of God, I should now have
little confidence in him, fearing those more
who could kill this fading body, than him
who could destroy my immortal soul.
Wandering one day more to the west of
the island than ever I had yet done, and
casting my eyes towards the sea, methought
I perceived a boat at a great distance, but
could not possibly tell what it was for want
of my perspective glass. I considered then
it was no strange thing to see the print of
a man's foot; and concluding them canni-
bals, blessed God for being cast on the
other side of the island, where none of the
savages, as I thought, ever came. But
when I came down the hill to the shore,
which was the S. W. point of the island, I
was confirmed in my opinion; nor can

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