Front Matter
 Title Page
 The life of Daniel Defoe
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072753/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner with an account of his travels round three parts of the globe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Whittingham, Charles, 1767-1840 ( Printer )
Jennings, R. ( Bookseller )
Tegg, Thomas, 1776-1845 ( Bookseller )
Sutherland, James Runcieman, 1900- ( Bookseller )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
A.K. Newman & Co ( Bookseller )
Richard Griffin & Co ( Bookseller )
Publisher: From the Press of C. Whittingham
Place of Publication: Chiswick (College House)
Publication Date: 1822
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1822   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1822   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- Chiswick
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Sold by R. Jennings, Poultry; T. Tegg, Cheapside; A.K. Newman and Co. Leadenhall St. London; J. Sutherland, Edinburgh; and Richard Griffin and Co. Glasgow.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Library's copy imperfect: v. 1, half-title p. lacking. Vol. 2 includes publishers' advertisements (4 p.) at end. P. 4 of advertisement lists this edition in the series: Whittingham's cabinet library.
Funding: Whittingham's cabinet library.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072753
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27691505

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The life of Daniel Defoe
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
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    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
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Full Text





3tiz tratbs rounBi re c Parts of tBe Glober




jFrom tbe ]pre of CQ. WThittingbam,





DANIEL DE FOE was descended from a respectable
family in the county of Northampton, and born ist
London, about the year 1663. His father James
Foe, was a butcher, in the parish of St. Giles s, Crip-
plegate, and a protestant dissenter. Why the subject
of this memoir prefixed the De to his family nwe
cannot now be ascertained, nor did he at any perd
of his life think it necessary to give his reason sjMi
public. The political scribblers of the dayJn
ever, thought proper to remedy this lack oif6
nation, and accused him of possessing so Uttleaftbe
amor patriw, as to inake the addition in order that
he might not be taken for an Englishman; thbgoq
this idea could have had no other foundation than
the circumstance of his having, in consequence ef ti
zeal for King William, attacked the prejudices of his
countrymen in his Trueborn Englishman."
After receiving a good education at an academy at
Newington, young De Foe, before he had attained
his twenty-first year, commenced his career as an
author, by writingoa pamphlet against a very pier
ailing sentiment in favour of the Turks, who were
at that time laying siege to Vienna. This prodi-o
tion, being very inferior to those of his mature yeas,
was verylittle read, and the indignant author des,
pairing of success with hs pen, had recourse to the
*\ *

sword; or, as he termed it, when boasting of the ex-
ploit in his later years, displayed his attachment
to liberty and protestantism, by joining the ill ad-
vised insurrection under the Duke of Monmouth, in
the west. On the failure of that unfortunate enter-
prise, he returned again to the metropolis; and it
is not improbable, but that the circumstance of his
being a native of London, and his person not much
known in that part of the kingdom where the rebel-
lion took place, might facilitate his escape, and be
the means of preventing his being brought to trial
for his share in the transaction. With the professions
of a writer and a soldier, Mr. De Foe, in the year
1685, joined that of a trader; he was first engaged
as a hosier in Cornhill, and afterwards as a maker of
bricks and pantiles, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex;
but, in consequence of spending those hours in the
hilarity of the tavern which he ought to have em-
ployed in the calculations of the counting house, his
commercial schemes proved unsuccessful; and in
1694 he was obliged to abscond from his creditors,
not failing to attribute those misfortunes to the war
and the severity (f the times, which were doubtless
owing to his own misconduct. It is much to his
credit, however, that, after having been freed from
his debts by composition, and being in prosperous
circumstances from King William's favour, he volun-
tarily paid most of his creditors both the principal
and interest of their claims. This is such an example
of honesty as it would be unjust to De Foe and to
the world to conceal. The amount of the sums thus
paid must have been very considerable, as he after-
wards feelingly mentions to Lord Haversham, who
had reproached him with covetousness; With a
numerous family, and no helps but my own industry,
I have forced my way through a sea of misfortunes,
and reduced my debts, exclusive of composition,
from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand
At the beginning of the year 1700, Mr. De Foe
published a satire in verse, which excited very con-
siderable attention, called the The Trueborn Eng-

lishman." Its purpose was to furnish a reply to those
who were continually abusing King William and
some of his friends as foreigners, by showing that the
present race of Englishmen was a mixed and hete-
rogeneous brood, scarcely any of which could lay
claim to native purity of blood. The satire was in
many parts very severe; and, though it gave high
offence, it claimed a considerable share of the public
attention. The reader will perhaps be gratified by
a specimen of this production, wherein he endea-
vours to account for-
What makes this discontented land appear
Less happy now in times of peace than war;
Why civil feuds disturb the nation more
Than all our bloody wars had done before:
Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
And men are always honest in disgrace:
'He court preferments make men knaves in course,
Bat they, who would be in them, would be worse.
'Tis not at foreigners that we repine,
Would foreigners their perquisites resign:
The grand contention's plainly to be seen,
To get some men put out, and some put in.
It will be immediately perceived that De Foe could
have no pretensions to the character of a poet; but
he has, notwithstanding, some nervous and well ver-
sified lines, and in choice of subject and moral he is
in general excellent. The Trueborn Englishman
concludes thus:-
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And openly disown the vile degenerate race.
For fame of families is all a cheat,

For this defence of foreigners, De Foe was amply
rewarded by King William, who not only ordered
him a pension, but, as his opponents denominated it,
appointed him pamphlet writer general to the court;
an office for which he was peculiarly well calculated,
possessing, with a strong mind and a ready wit, that




kind of yielding conscience which allowed him to
support the measures of his benefactors, though con-
vinced they were injurious to his country. De Foe
now retired to Newington with his family, and fora
short time lived at ease; but the death of his royal
patron deprived hiii of a generous protector, and
opened a scene of sorrow which probably embittered
his future life.
He had always discovered a great inclination to
engage in religious controversy, and the furious con-
test, civil and ecclesiastical, which ensued on the
accession of Queen Anne, gave him an opportunity
of gratifying his favourite passion. lHe therefore
published a tract, entitled The shortest Way with
the Dissenters, or Proposals for the Establishment
of the Church," which contained an ironical recom-
mendation of persecution, but written in so serious
a strain that many persons, particularly Dissenters,
at first mistook its real intention. The high church
party, however, sa, and felt the ridicule, and, by
their influence, a prosecution was commenced against
him, and a proclamation publli hed in the Gazette,
offering a reward for his apprehension *. When De
Foe found with how much rigour himself and his
pamphlet were about to he treated, hli at tirst secret-
ed himself; but his printer and bookseller being
taken into custody(, he surrendered, being resolved,as
he expre- es it, to throw hiii6elf upon the favour of
government, rather than that others should be ruined
St. James's, January 10, 1702-3.
Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is ch;aged with
writing a scandaloiis and -editions pamphlet, entitled The
shortest Way with the Dissenters:' he is a miiddle-sized spare
man, about forty ears old, of a brown complexion, and dark
brown colou, ed hair, but wears a wig ; a hooked nose, a sharp
chin, gray eyes, and a large mole near his mouth, was born in
London, and for niany ) ears was a hose-factor in Freeman's
Yard, in Cornhill, and now is owner of the brick and pantile
works near Tilbury Foat, in Essex; whoever shall discover
the said Daniel De Foe. to one of her Majesty's Principal
Secretaries of State, or any of her Majesty's Justices of Peace,
so as he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of fitty
pounds, which her Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid
upon such discovery."-London Ga;. N o. 3879.


for his mistakes." In July, 1703, he was brought to
trial, found guilty, and sentenced to be imprisoned,
to stand in the pillory, and to pay a fine of two
hundred marks. lie underwent the infamous part
of the punishment with great fortitude; and it seems
to have been generally thought that he was treated
with unreasonable severity. So far was he from
being ashamed of his fate himself that he wrote a
h mn to the pillory, which thus ends, alluding to his
Tell them. the men that placed him here
Are scandals to the times;
Are at a loss to find his guilt,
And can't commit his crimes.
Pope, who has thought fit to introduce him in his
Dunciad (probably from no other reason than party
Sdi'llrence), characterises him in the following line:-
I Earless on high stood unabash'd De Foe.
: This is one of those instances of injustice and malig-
nity which so frequently occur in the Dunciad, and
which reflect more dishonour on the author than on
the parties traduced. De Foe lay friendless and
Distressed in Newgate, his family ruined, and himself
without hopes of deliverance, till Sir Robert Harley,
who approved of his principles, and foresaw that
during a factious age such a genius could be con-
verted to many uses, represented his unmerited esuf
ferings to the Queen, and at length procured hi.
release. The treasurer, Lord Godolphin, also sent
a considerable sum to his wife and family, and to
him money to pay his fine and the expense of his
discharge.' Gratitude and fidelity are inseparable
from an honest man; and it was this benevolent act
that prompted De Foe to support Hlarley with his
able and ingenious pen, when Anne lay lifeless, and
his benefactor, in the vicissitude of party, was per-
secuted by faction, and overpowered, though not
conquered, by violence.
The talents and perseverance of De Foe began
now to be properly estimated, and, as a firm sup-
porter of the administration, he was sent by Lord

Godolphin to Scotland, on an errand which, as he
says, was far from being unfit for a sovereign to
direct, or an honest man to perform. His know-
ledge of commerce and revenue, his powers of in-
sinuation, and, above all, his readiness of pen, were
deemed of no small utility in promoting the union
of the two kingdoms; of which he wrote an able
history in 1709, with two dedications, one to the
Queen, and another to the Duke of Queensbury.
Soon afterwards he unhappily, by some equivocal
writings, rendered himself suspected by both parties,
so that he once more retired to Newington, in hopes
of spending the remainder of his days in peace.
His pension being withdrawn, and wearied with
politics, he began to compose works of a different
kind.-The xear 1715 may therefore he regarded as
the period of De Foe's political life. Faction hence-
forth found other advocates, and parties procured
other writers to disseminate their suggestions, and to
propagate their falsehoods.
In 1715 De Foe published the Family Instruc-
tor;" a work inculcating the domestic duties in a
lively manner, by narration and dialogue, and dis-
playing much knowledge of life in the middle ranks
of society. "Religious Courtship" also appeared
soon after, which, like the Family Instructor, is
eminently religious and moral in its tendency, and
strongly impresses on the mind that spirit of sobriety
and private devotion, for which the dissenters have
generally been distinguished. The most celebrated
of all his works, The Life and Adventures of Ro-
binson Crusoe," appeared in 1719. This work has
passed through numerous editions, and been trans-
ated into almost all modern languages. The great
invention which is displayed in it, the variety of in-
cidents and circumstances which it contains, related
in the most easy and natural manner, together with
the excellence of the moral and religious reflections,
render it a performance of very superior and uncom-
mon merit, and one of the most interesting works
that ever appeared. It is strongly recommended,
by Rousseau, as a book admirably calculated to pro-

nole the purposes of natural education; and Dr.
lair says, No fiction in any language was ever
titer supported than the Adventures of Robinson
rusoe. While it is carried on with that appear-
nce of truth and simplicity which takes a strong
iold of the imagination of all readers, it suggests, at
he same time, very useful instruction; by showing
ow much the native powers of man may be exerted
or surmounting the difficulties of any external situ-
ahion." It has been pretended, that De Foe sur-
reptitiously appropriated the papers of Alexander
Selkirk, a Scotch mariner, who lived four years alone
-on the island of Juan Fernandez, and a sketch of
Whose story had before appeared in the voyage of
jCaptaiu Woodes Rogers. But this charge, though
repeatedly and confidently brought, appears to be
,totally destitute of any foundation. De Foe pro-
j bably took some general hints for his work from the
'stor of Selkirk, but there exists no proof whatever,
inor is it reasonable to suppose that he possessed
iany of his papers or memoirs, which had been
Published seven years before the appearance of
0tRobinson Crusoe. As a farther proof of De Foe's
innocence, Captain Rogers's Account of Selkirk may
4be produced, in which it is said that the latter had
Neither preserved pen, ink, or paper, and had, in a
great measure, lost his language; consequently De
-'oe could not have received any written assistance,
tnd we have only the assertion of his enemies to
prove that he had any verbal.
The great success of Robinson Crusoe induced its
uthor to write a number of other lives and adven-
ures, some of which were popular in their times,
hough at present nearly forgotten. One of his latest
publications was A Tour through the Island of
rent Britain," a performance of very inferior merit;
ut De Foe was now the garrulous old man, and his
spirit (to use the words of an ingenious biographer)
like a candle struggling in the socket, blazed and
unk, blazed and sunk, till it disappeared at length
n total darkness." His laborious and unfortunate
fe was finished on the 26th of April, 1731, in the
arish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate.

Daniel De Foe possessed very extraordinary ta-
lents; as a commercial writer, he is fairly entitled
to stand in the foremost rank among his contempo-
raries, whatever may he their performances or their
fame. His distinguishing characteristics are origi-
nality, spirit, and a profound knowledge of his sub-
ject; and in these particulars he has seldom been
surpassed. As the author of Robinson Crusoe, he
has a claim not only to the admiration, but to the
gratitude of his countrymen; and so long as we
have a regard for supereminent merit, and take an
interest in the welfare of the rising generation, that
gratitude will not cease to exist. But the opinion
of the learned and ingenious Dr. Beattie will be
the best eulogium that can be pronounced on that
celebrated romance: Robinson Crusoe," says the
Doctor, must be allowed, by the most rigid mo-
ralist, to be one of those novels which one may
read, not only with pleasure, but also with profit.
It breathes throughout a spirit of piety and benevo-
lence; it sets in a very striking light the importance
of the mechanic arts, which they, who know not
what it is to be without them, are so apt to under-
value; it fixes in the mind a lively idea of the hor-
rors of solitude, and, consequently, of the sweets
of social life, and of thie blessings we derive from
conversation and mutual aid: and it shows how, by
labouring with one's own hands, one may secure in-
dependence, and open for one's self many sources
of health and amusement. I agree, therefore, with
Rousseau, that it is one of the best books that can
be put into the hands of children."






I wAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Half: be
got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York ; from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named Ro-
binson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now call-
ed, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
olonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for-
merly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart,
and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never
knew, any more than my father and mother did know
what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with ramb-
ling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient, had
given me a competent share of learning, as far as hbose
education and a country free-school generally go, and
designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with

nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led
me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions
of my mother and oilier friends, that there seemed to
be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to thle life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave rme serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where lie was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons more than a mere wandering inclination
I had for leaving my father's house and mny native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and in-
dustry, with a life of ease and pleasure. Ile told me
it was for men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of
aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and
make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all
either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low lile, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to tlie miseries
and hardships, tlie labours and sut'erings, of the mecha-
nic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part
of mankind. He told me, 1 might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was the
state of life which all other people envied ; that kings
have frequently lamented the miserable consequences
of being born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in tlie middle of the two extremes, between tlie
mean and the great; that the wise man gave his test -
mony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bid me observe it, and 1 should always find, that
the calamities of life were shared among the upper and
lower part of mankind; but that the middle station had
the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many

vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind
niav, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
utneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were,
whlo, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances, on
r:-one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
minan and insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring dis-
Wtemnpers upon themselves by the natural consequences of
their way of Jiving: that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoy-
nients; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
Middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ncess, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all
Desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
Sof it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or
of the head, nor sold to the life of slavery for daily
bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
Srob the soul of peace, and the body of rest ; not enraged
w\ith the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of am-
bition for great things; but, in easy circumstances,
*.sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
-thel sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that
thlie are happy, and learning, by every day's experience
!to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
"al'eetionate manner, not to play the young man, not to
ireLcipilate myself into miseries which nature, and the
Station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
againIt ; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
.bread ; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
ist recommending to me; and that, if 1 was not very
asv and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate
r iull that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
n naring me against measures which he knew would
e to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very
ind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
e directed, so he would not have so much hand in my
isfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go
way: and to close all, he told me I had my elder bro-

other for an example, to whom he had used the same
earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though he said he would not cease to
pray for me, yet lie would venture to say to me, that if
Sdid take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon hav-
ing neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not
know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears
run down his face very plentifully, and especially when
lie spoke of my brother who was killed: and that when
he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to
assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full he could say
no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according
to my father's desire. But alas! a few days wore it all
off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further
importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run
quite away from him. However, I did not act so has-
tily neither, as my first heat of resolution prompted, but
I took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to any thing with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that I
was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I
was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time,
and I should certainly run away from my master before
my time was out, and go to sea ; and if she would speak
to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover
that time I had lost.


This put my mother into a great passion: she told me,
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my fa-
ther upon any such subject; that ie knew too well what
was my interest to give his consent to any such thing
so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing after such a discourse as
I had had with my father, and such kind and tender ex-
pressions as she knew my father had used to me; and
that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it: that for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction; and I should never have
it to say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the
discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That boy
might be happy if he would stay at home; but if be
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that
was ever born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any

purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I
say, being there, and one of my companions then going
by sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting
me to go with them, with the common allurement of
seafaring men, viz. that it should cost me nothing for
my passage, I consulted neither father or mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of
circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, 1 went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or conti-
nued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten
out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and
the waves to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I
bad never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now se-
riously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for wick-
edly leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears
and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which
I had never been upon before, went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no,
nor like what I saw a few days after: but it was enough
to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had
never known any thing of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
and in this agony of mind I made many vows and reso-
lutions, that if it would please God here to spare my
life this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father,
and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into such

miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the
goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably lie had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea,
or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like
a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the
storm, and indeed some time after; but the next day,
as the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to
be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also still a little seasick ; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over,
and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was no more sea-
sick, very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before, and conid
be so calm and so pleasant in a little time after. And
now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my com-
panion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me
and said, Well, Bob," clapping me on the shoulder,
how do you do after it? 1 warrant you were fright-
ened, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-foll
of wind?"-" A cap-full, do you call it?" said, 1 > it
was a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," re-
plied he, do you call that a storm ? why it was nothing
at all; give us but a good ship and sea room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; do you
see what charming weather it is now ?" To make short
this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all
sailors ; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned
all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past con-
duct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-

tensions of being swallowed up by the sea being for-
gotten, and the current of my former desires returned,
Entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in
my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour
to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon
mastered the return of those fits; for so I called them ;
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young fellow, that resolved not
to be troubled with it, could desire: but I was to have
another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse: for if 1 would not take this for a deli-
verance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth Roads, the wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at south
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a
great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the River.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good,and our ground tackle
very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the
least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day in the morning the wind increased, and we had all
hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make every
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet

anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and
the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him
softly say to himself several times, Lord, be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone!" and
the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot
describe my temper: I could ill reassume the first pe-
nitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been passed, and that this would be nothing
like the first: but when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frighted: I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes: when I could look about, I
could see 'nothing but distress around us: two ships
that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that
a ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was founder-
ed. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two
or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do: but the boatswain
protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away
the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook
the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, asu make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition 1 must be in at
all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been
in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can ex-

press at this distance the thoughts that I had about me
at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having re-
turned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me in such a con-
dition, that 1 can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
furv, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they
had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that I
did not know what they meant byfounder, till I inquir-
ed. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung
a leak; another said, there was four foot water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very word my heart, as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I
sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that 1, that was able to do nothing before, was
as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up,
and went to the pump and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to
slip and run away to sea, and would not come near us,
ordered us to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I
thought the :ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had
happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell
down in a swoon. As this was a time when every body
had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stepped up
to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let
me lie, thinking I had been dead, and it was a great
while before 1 came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder; and
though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was
not possible she could swim till we might run into a
port, so the master continued firing guns for help; and
a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us, ven-
tured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for
us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
Side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and ven-
turing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a
rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, wlich they, after great labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no
Purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to their own ship ; so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as
much as we could; and our master promised them,
that if the boat was staved upon shore he would make
it good to their master: so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of ourship before we saw her sink, and then I under-
stood for the first time what was meant by a ship foun-
dering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly
eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sink-
ing; for fiom that moment they rather put me into the
boat, than that I might be said to go in; my heart was,
as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labour-
ing at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we
could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people running
along the strand to assist us when we should come
near; but we made but slow way towards the shore;
nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Croiner, and so the land broke off a little the

violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as un-
fortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as
well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us
good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners
of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I
went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was
a great while before he had any assurance that 1 was
not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason, and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet 1 had no power to do
it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it
is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be
the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes
open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed una-
voidable misery attending, and which it was impossible
for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against
the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to i;e after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for
we were separated in the town to several quarters; I
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was
altered, and looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial,
in order to go farther abroad ; his father turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, Young man,"
says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you

are not to be a seafaring man.-" Why, Sir," said I,
Go will you go to sea no more?" "That is another case,"
said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect
if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, what are you; and on what account did
you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out in a strange
kind of passion; What had I done," says he, "that
such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I
would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again
for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
Authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
Gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Provideuce to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me. And young
man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disas-
ters and disappointments, till your father's words are
fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went, I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I
traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself, what course
of life I should take, and whether I should go home, or
Sgo to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best notions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately oc-
curred to me how I should be laughed at among the
neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even every body else; from
whence I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is, espe-
cially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide
them in such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,

but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home ; and as I sltaed a while, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore ofl; and as that
abated, the little notion I lad in myv desires to a return
wore ofl'with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a vo age.
That evil influence which carried me first away from
my father's house, that hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune ; and that im-
pressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and
even the commands of my father: I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortu-
nate of all enterprises to my view; and 1 went on board
a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adven-
tures 1 did not ship myself as a sailor ; whereby, though
I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordi-
nary, yet at the same time I had learned the duty and
office of a foremast-man ; and in time might have qua-
litied mnn sel' for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master.
But as it was al\\avs my fate to choose for the worse, so
I did here ; for having money in my pocket, and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in
the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any bu-
siness in the ship, or learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
loose and unguided ioung fellows as 1 then was; the
devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early : but it was not so with me. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship who had.been on the
coast of Guinea ; and who, having had very good suc-
cess there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disa-
greeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to
see the world, told me if 1 would go the voyage with

jimrn I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
#nate and his companion; and if I could carry any
lliniii with me, I should have all the advantage of it
.li;ht the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
Sifth so~ne encouragement.
4I e1 l)braced the offer; and entering into a strict
i icrllr.lip with this captain, who was an honest and
S)laiit-dealing man, I went tlie voyage with him, and
Carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disin-
eie.tcd honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
,-cr considerably ; for I carried about .40 in such
%(,is aind trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
l'iiis '10 I lad mustered together by the assistance of
iiol" (o,' iln relations whom I corresponded with, and
sho, I believe ot iny father, or at least mvy mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
A This was the only voyage in which I may say I was
.iiccsfiul in all nmy adventures, and which I owe to
Ilhe integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
ilder i horn also I got a competent knowledge of the
itnal lrnmicsand the rules of naavigation, learned how to
tep an account of the ship's course, take an observa-
i(,n, andl, in short, to understand some things that were
'edfll' to be understood by a sailor: for, as ie took
iclight to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in
wi rdl, thiis voyage made me both a sailor and a mer-
bhant : ,for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
ihl-ldust for imy adventure, which "ielded me in Lon-
1aii at my return almost ;300, and this filled me with
i ,-ec aspiring thoughts which have so completed my

SYet iecn in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
arlicularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown
Into a violentt calenture by the excessive heat of the
linalte ; our principal trading being upon the coast,
m (n the latitude of 15 degrees north even to the line

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
l iend, to my great misfortune, d)ing soon after bis ar-
ival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I
nrbarked in the same vessel with one who was bis mate
his former voyage, and had now got the command of

'the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever
man made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and
which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage; and the first was this, viz. our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the gray of the morning by a Turkish rover, of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.
We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry to have got clear; but find-
ing the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us iu a few hours, we prepared to fight;
our ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, in-
stead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small
shot from near 200 men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to de-
fend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the
sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot,
half pikes, powder chests, and such like, and cleared
our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,
and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his business. At this surprising change of my circum-
stances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon

my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse; that now the band of Heaven had ov6r-
taken me, and I was undone without redemption: but,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to
his house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with
him when he went to sea again, believing that it would
some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish
or Portugal man of war; and that then I should be set
at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when be went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drud-
gery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from the cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it: nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody
to communicate it to that would embark with me, no
fellow slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some at-
tempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron
lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his
ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if
the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me
and ayonng Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and 1 proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth of
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish
for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark

calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore we lost sight of it;
and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we
laboured all day, and all the next night, and when the
morning came we found we had pulled off to sea in-
stead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore: however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour and some
danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the
morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having
lying by him the long-boat of our English ship he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so le ordered
the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the mid-
dle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-
sheet: and room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails; she sailed with what we call a shoulder
of mutton sail ; and the boom gibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to
eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of
such liquor as he thought lit to drink; and particularly
his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction in that
place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had or-
dered me to get ready three fuzees with powder and
shot, which were on board his ship ; for that they de-
signed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and every thing to accommo-
date his guests; when by and by my patron came on
board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,

upon some business that fell out, and ordered me with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house; and commanded that as soon as I got
some fish I should bring it home to his house; all which
I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I should steer; for any
where, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of
our patron's bread ; he said, that was true: so he
brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind,
and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and 1 conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for
our master: I conveyed also a great lamp of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use to us
afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Ano-
ther trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also; his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley,
or Moley; so I called him: Moley," said I, our
patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a
little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamnies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." Yes,"
says he, "* Ill bring some ;" and accordingly he brought
a great leather pouch which held about a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat: at the same time I had found some
powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I
filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was al-

most empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out
of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us: and we were not above a mile out of the port be-
fore we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N.N.E. which was contrary to
my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which
way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catclied nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them
up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor,
'' This will not do; our master will not be thus served ;
we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed, and being in the head of the boat set the sails;
and as I had the helm I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish;
when giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
-where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surlpise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like
a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all over the world with me. He swain
so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I
had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none : "( But," said I, you swim well
enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you
no harm; but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty;"
so lie turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no

venturing to trust him. When he was gone I turned
to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, "1 must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming,
I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretch-
ing to windward, that they might think me gone
towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had
been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for
who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts,
or more merciless savages of humankind!
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little toward the east, that I might
keep in with the shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail that I
believe by the next day at three o'clock in the after-
noon, when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Em-
peror of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other
king thereabout, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till 1 had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any
of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and
come to anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, or where; neither what latitude, what coun-
try, what nation, or what river: I neither saw, nor de-
sired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted

was fresh water. We came into this creek in the even-
ing, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country ; but, as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with
fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
" Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may be
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as
those lions."-'' Then we give them the shoot gun,"
says Xury, laughing, "* make them run wey." Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and
I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night; 1 say still, for we slept none; for in two or three
hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the seashore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous cowlings and yelling, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I
too; but we were both more frightened when we heard
one of these mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast; Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for
aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away: No," says I, Xury; we
can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea;
they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so,
but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within
two oars' length, which something surprised me; how-
ever, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and tak-
ing up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immedi-
ately turned about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises,
and hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I

have some reason to believe those creatures had never
heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast, and
how to venture on shore in the day was another ques-
tion too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages had been as bad as to havelfallen into the hands
of lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehen-
sive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left
in the boat; when or where to get it, was the point:
Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go?
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love
him ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go wey."-"* Well, Xury," said I, we will
both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them,
they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece
of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case
of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and so waded to shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river: but
the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I run for-
ward towards him to help him, but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs; however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where
we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was
out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our

jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of
any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the
Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far offfrom the coast.
But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and not exactly know-
ing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were
in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, 1 should find some of
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that
would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was, must be that country, which, Iing between the
emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies
waste, and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Ne-
groes having abandoned it, and gone farther south for
fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and indeed
both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of
tigers, lions, and leopards, and other furious creatures
which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed for near an hundred
miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a
waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but cowlings and roaring of wild heasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-lime 1 thought 1 saw the
Pico ofTeneril'e, being the high top of the Mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to ven-
ture out, in the hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under

a-little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xurv, whose eyes were more about him than it seems
mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had
best go farther off' the shore; for," says he, "( look
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hil-
lock fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw
a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade
of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little over
him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill!
he eat me at one month ;" one mouthful he meant: how-
ever, I said no more to the boy, hut bad him lie still,
and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets ; and the third (for we had three
pieces), I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the
best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in
the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above
his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the hone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up
upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head; however I took up the second
picce immediately, and, though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the plea-
sure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore ; Well, go," said I; so
the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun
in one hand, swam to shore with the other, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him in the head again, which dispatched
him quite.
'lThis was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and
shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so
he comes on board, and asked me to give him the bat-

chet. For what, Xury ?" said 1, Me cut off his
head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and
it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of
him might one way or other be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and 1 went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it.
Indeed it took us both up the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward conti-
nually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on
our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged
to for fresh water: my design in this was, to make the
river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any where about
the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the
ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this
Cape, or those islands; and in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by,
we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we
could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them ; but Xurv was my better counsellor, and said to
me, No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer
the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they
run along the shore by me a good way: I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who
had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with a
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them

by signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs
for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other
was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ven-
turing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and
stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends: but au opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we
were lying by the shore came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury
from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was
the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in
sport or rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it
was the latter; because, in the first place, those ra-
venous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and
in the second place, we found the people terribly fright-
ened, especially the women. The man that had the
lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about, as if they had come for their diversion: at last,
one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at
first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head:
immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose in-
stantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was strug-
gling for life, and so indeed be was: he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound, which was

his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun ; some
of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down
as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the
creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and
came to the shore, and began to search for the creature.
I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the
help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to
an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire
and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up di-
rectly to the mountains from whence they came; nor
could I, at that distance, know what it was. 1 found
quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this
creature, so 1 was willing to have them take it as a fa-
vour from me ; which, when 1 made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Im-
mediately they fell to work with him ; and though they
had no knife, vet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we could have done with a knife. They offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me iery freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not un-
derstand, yet I accepted. 1 then made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it tilled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burned, as I suppose, in the sun ; this they set down to
me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,
and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes,-I
made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out
a great length into the sea, at about the distance of four
or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm,
I kept a large ofling, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land,
I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward : then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was
the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd islands. However, they were at
a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for if I should be taken with a gale of wind,
1 might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as 1 was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship with a sail! and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jurnmed out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese
ship, and, as 1 thought, was bound to the coast of Gui-
nea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she
steered, 1 was soon convinced they were bound some
other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail 1 could make, I found I should not
be able to come in their way, but that they would be
gone by before I could make any signal to them: but
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair,
they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective
glasses, and that it was some European boat, which,
they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost;
so they shortened sail, to let me come up. I was en-
couraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on
board, 1 made a waft of it to them, for a signal of dis-
tress, and fi ed a gun, both which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear

the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought
to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours time I
came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them ; but, at
last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me,
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman,
that 1 had made my escape out of slavery from the
Moors, at Sallee: they then bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable, and almost hopeless condition as I
was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the cap-
tain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he
generously told me, he would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when
I came to the Brazils. For," says he, "( I have saved
your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot
to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," con-
tinued he, "w when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a
way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior
Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), says he; I will carry
you thither in charity, and these things will help to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just
in the performance, to a tittle; for he ordered the sea-
men, that none should offer to touch any thing I had :
then he took every thing into his own possession, and
gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
have them, even so much as my three earthern jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use; and asked me what I would have for it? I told
him, he had been so generous to me in every thing, that
I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left
it entirely to him: upon which, he told me be would
give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight

for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one of-
fered to give more, he would make it up. He offered
me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to
let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the
poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this me-
dium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set
him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, 1 let the
captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and ar-
rived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now 1 was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I
was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember he would take nothing of me
for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and forty for the lion's skin which 1 had in my
boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be
punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to
sell he bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for
I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here before 1 was recommended
to the house of a good honest man, like himself, who
had an ingeino, as they call it (that is, a plantation and
a sugar house). I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
planting and making of sugar: and seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I re-
solved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them: endeavouring in the mean
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased
as much land that was uncored as my money would

reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settle-
ment ; such a one as might be suitable to the stock which
I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much
such circumstances as 1 was. I call him my neighbour,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food than any thing
else, for about two years. However, we began to in-
crease, and our land began to come into order; so that
the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each
of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come: but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in
parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on:
I had got into an employment quite remote to my genius,
and directly contrary to ,he life 1 delighted in, and for
which I forsook my father's house, and broke through
all his good advice: nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved
to go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done:
and I used often to say to myself, 1 could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone
live thousand miles off to do it among strangers and sa-
vages in a wilderness, and at such a distance, as never
to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with,
but now and then this neighbour; no work to be done,
but by the labour of my hands: and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself. But how
just has it been and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others
that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by

their experience: I say, how just has it been, that thb
truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere
desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which,
had 1 continued, I had in all probability, been exceed-
ing prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing his lading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months ; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
" Seignior Inglese," says he, for so he always called
me, if ou will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of
them, God willing, at my return; but, since human af-
fairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders for but one hundred pounds ster-
ling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the ha-
zard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I left my money, and a procu-
ration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of
all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had
met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of
his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply ; and when
this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story to a mer-
chant at London, who represented it effectually to her:
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out


of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods. such as the captain had wrote for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them
all safe to me at the Brazils: among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think
of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools,
iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made.
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for himself,
to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond
for six years' service, and would not accept of any con-
sideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English
manufacture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say, I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plan-
tation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro
slave, and an European servant also; I mean another,
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on
the next year with great success in my plantation: I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours ; and these fifty rolls, being each of above
a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against
the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now, increasing
in business and in wealth, my head began to be fill of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as
are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had 1 continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy thingsto have yet befallen me, for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired

life, and which lie had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of: but other things attended
me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which In my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate ad-
hering to my foolish inclination of wandering about,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which nature and providence concurred to present me
with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go
and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus 1 cast myself
down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story:-You may suppt:se, that having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and begin-
ning to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion, I had not only learned the language, but had
contracted an acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the
manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how
easy it was to purchase on the coast for trifles-such as
beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c. but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils,
in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes; which was a
trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,

as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and en-
grossed from the public; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and,
after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they had
a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for no-
thing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes
on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations: and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have an equal share of the Negroes,
without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must he confessed, had
it been made to any one that had not a settlement and
plantation of his own to look alter, which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent
for the other hundred pounds from England; and who,
in that time, with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such
a voyage was the most preposterous thing that a man,
in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer than I could restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them 1 would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to

such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants
to do so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my universal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my
effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and to keep up my plantation: bad I used half
as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done, and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common ha-
zards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect par-
ticular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason: and accordingly,
the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and
all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st
of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that
I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the
master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissars, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast. When they came
to about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude,
which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days, we had very good weather, only excessive hot all
the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height


of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle of Fernando de Noronha, hold-
ing our course N E. by N. and leaving those isles on
the east. In this course we passed the Line in about
twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in
7 degrees 22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge: it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scud-
ding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the furv of the winds directed ; and, during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day
to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was
in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22
degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape St. Au-
gustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazons, toward that of the river Oroonoque, com-
monly called th. Great River; and began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was for going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
1 was positively against that ; and looking over the
charts of the seacoast of America with him,, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Carib-
bee islands, and therefore resolved .to stand away for
Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid the
indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily
perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail ; where-
as we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and

With this design, we changed our course, and steer-
ed away N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief: but our
voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the
latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of
all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being de-
voured by savages, than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men early in the morning cried out, Land! and
we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but
the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her
motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances; we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether inha-
bited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was
still great, though rather less than at first, we could not
so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind
of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word,
we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as
preparing for another world; for there was little or no-
thing more for us to do in this: that which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet,
and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for ns to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing

to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away,
antd either sunk or was driven oil' to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we hadl another boat on board, but
how to get her oil' into the sea was a doubtful thing:
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied
tihe ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of
the boat, and with tile help of the rest of the men, they
got iher flung o% er tlie ship's side ; and getting all into
her, let her go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadful high upon the sliore, and miight be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we
all saw plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat
could not live, anmi that we should be inevitably drown-
ed. As to makiiag sail, we liad none ; nor, if we had,
could we have done any thing with it; so we worked
at ltle oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that
when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, wve hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal-we knew not ; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow ot expectation was,
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have
run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of
this appeared; and as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-

like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us ex-
pect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the Iboat at once; and separating
us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
not time hardly to say, 0 God !" for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves
so as to draw my breath, till that wave having driven
me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as
breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land
than I expected, I got upon mny feet, and endeavoured
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again ; but
1 soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength
to contend with: my business was to hold my breath,
and raise myself ulon the water, if 1 could ; and so, by
swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern
now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great
way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back towards
the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I
could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so,
to my immediate relief, 1 found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water ; and though
it was not two seconds of time that 1 could keep myself
so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good
while, but not so long but 1 held it out; and finding

the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. 1 stood still a few moments, to
recover breath, aud till the water went from me, and
then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again ; and twice more 1 was lifted
up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
lshore heing very ilat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal
to ime; for the sea having hurried me along, as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me against a piece of a
rock, and that with suchi force, that it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the
blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body ; and had it returned again
immediately, 1 must have been strangled in the water:
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and seeing I should again be covered with water, 1 re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now
as the waves were not so high as the first, being nearer
land, 1 held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ; and the
next run I took, I got to the main land ; where, to my
great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a
case wherein there were, some minutes before, scarce
any room to hope. 1 believe it is impossible to ex-
press, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of
the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the grave: and 1 did not wonder now at the custom,
viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about
his neck, is tied up, and just going Jo be turned off,
and has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not
wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him

blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the sur-
prise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
nnd my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the
contemplation of may deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon my comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as
for them, 1 never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not follows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly
see it, it lay so far offl-and considered, Lord! how
was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, 1 began to look round me, to see
w hat kind of a place I was in, and what was next to be
done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in
a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet,
had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either to eat
or drink, to comfort me ; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but.that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me was, that 1 had no weapon, either
to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little to-
bacco in a box. This was all my provision, and this
threw me into such terrible agonies of mind, that, for a
while I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what
would be may lot if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that
time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir,

*141 1. FI A N 1) A DVI' ENT''URI.S
but thorny-whiclh grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all niiiht-and consider the next day what death
I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of lift. I
waal ked about a furlong fr'om the shore, to see if I could
ti ml any fresh water to drink, which I (lid, to my great
joy ; antd having drank, and put a little tobacco into
mi month to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting 11 into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as
that if I should all asleep, I might not fall ; 'and having
cut Ine a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
1 took up iny loddging: and ha -,ing been excessively fa-
tig ued, I fell fa..t a ,sleep, 1and slept as comflorttably, as, I
believe, few could h;ve done ill my condition ; and
found mysel Ihlie most refreshed with it that I think I
ever was oi su(ch anil occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
anit the storm abIated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as beltre; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted oil in the iiight from the saud
where shi law, by the swellitn of tile tide, and was dri-
ven up almost as far as the rock which I at first men-
tioned, where I had been so bruised by the waves
dashing me ag';inst it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stan' upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I light save some necessary things for my use.
When i came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again, and( the first thing 1 found
was the boat ; which lav, as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on lly
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon tlie shore
to have got to her ; but found a neck or inlt I of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad so 1 came back for the present, being more in-
tent upon getting: at the ship, where I hoped to find
sonlethiing for lmy present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of' a mile of the ship : and here I found a fresh
renewing of myi grire; for 1 saw evidently, that if we
had kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say,

we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so mi-
serable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eves again ; but as there was little relief in that, I re-
solved, if possible, to get to tile ship; so 1 pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water; but when I came to the ship, imy dif-
ficulty was still greater to know how to get on board ;
for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
liece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
IHia down by the fore chains so low, as that with great
dillicilty I got hold of it, and bv tie help of that rope
got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in
her hold ; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water.
By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was
in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search "and to see what was spoiled and
what was free: and first, I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and,
being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-
room, and filled mty pockets with biscuit, and cat it as
I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now
I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had, and this extremity roused my application:
we had several spare yards, and two or three large
spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship;
I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many
overboard as 1 could manage for their weight, tying
every one with a rope that they might not drive away.
When this was done, 1 went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together

at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon
them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light: so I went to work, and with
the carpenter's saw 1 cut a spare topmast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries encouraged me to go beyonId what
I should have been able to have done upon another
Ny raft was now strong enough to bear any reason-
able weight. My next care was what to load it with,
and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf
of the sea ; but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all tihe planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what 1 most wanted, I got
three of the seamen's chests, Nwhich 1 had broken ople:
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft;
these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which
we lived much up on), and a little remainder of Euro-
pean corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we had brought to sea with us, bui the fowls were killed.
There had been some barlcv and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I
found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper,
in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chests,
nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm ; and
I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-
coat, which I had left on shore, upon the sand, swim
away ; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open knee'd, 1 swain on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
which my eve was more upon; as, first, tools to work
with on shore: and it was after long searching that I

found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for 1 knew in general what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowlingpieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder horns and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of pow-
der in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had
stowed them; but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now
1 thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how 1 should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capfull of
wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm
sea: 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore:
3dly, What little wind there was blew me towards the
land. And thus, having found two or three broken
oars belonging to the boat, and besides-the tools which
were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a ham-
mer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or
thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was
some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me
a little opening of the land, and I found a strong current
of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as
I could, to get into the middle of the stream. But
here 1 had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have broken my
heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all
my cargo had slipped off towards that end that was

afloat, and so fallen into the water. 1 did my utmost,
by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in
their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in, but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood
in that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a le-
vel; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off' with the oar 1 had
into the channel, and then driving uip higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current or tide running uip. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore,
for I was not willing to I)e driven too high up the river;
hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore re-
solved to place himself as near the coast as 1 could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I
guided nv raft, and at last got so near, as that reaching
ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in ; but
here 1 had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again; for that shore lyingr pretty steep, that is to
say, slopinrg,, there was no place to land but where one
end of my lioat, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower, as before, that it would en-
danger my cargo again. All that I could do was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the ralt
with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to
the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over ; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of
water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground ; one on one side, near one
end, and one on the other side, near the other end:
and tlhus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all im cargo safe on shore. .
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow nmy
goods; to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not: whether on the continent,
or on an island ; whether inhabited, or not inhabited ;

whether in danger of wild beasts, or not There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and wlych seemed to overtop some other hills
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowlingpieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had
with great labour and ditliculty got up to the top, I saw
my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an
island, environed every way with the sea, no land to be
seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way off,
and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of whom, however, 1 saw none; yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but fiom all the parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls, of nmauv sorts,
making a confused screaming and crying, every one ac-
cording to his usual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind ol'a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but had no talons or claws more than common. Its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I -came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring mry cargo on shore, which
took me up the rest of that day: what to .do with my-
self at night, I knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for
I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me; though, as I
afterwards found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that 1 bad brought on
shore, and made a kind of abut for that night's lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,

except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to land ; and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as 1 knew that the first storm that blew must ne-
cessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart, till I got every thing out of the ship
that I could get. Then 1 called a council, that is to
say, in my thoughts, whether 1 should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to
go as before, when the tide was down; and 1 did so,
only that I stripped before I went from my hut ; having
nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.
1 got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me: as first, in the carpenter's stores, 1 found two or
three bags of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a do-
zen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner ; particu-
larly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowlingpiece, with
some small quantity of powder more; a large bagfull of
small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last
was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that
I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and
some bedding; and with this 1 loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comn fort.
1 was under some apprehensions, during my absence
from the land, that at least niy provisions might be de-
1oured on shore: but when 1 came back, 1 found no
sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild
tat, lupon one of the chests, which, when I came towards

it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She
sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in
my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did
she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though by the way, I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great: however, I spared her a
bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it,
and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her,
and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks-
1 went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail,
and some poles, which I cut for that purpose; and into
this tent I brought every thing that I knew would spoil
either with rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and
my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary
and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those
things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not sa-
tisfied still: for while the ship sat upright in that pos-
ture, 1 thought I ought to get every thing out of her
that I could: so every day, at low water, I went on
board, and brought away something or olier; but par-
ticularly the third time I went, I brought away as much
of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away
all the sails, tirst and last; only that I was fain to cut
them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;

for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more, was, that
last of all, after I had made five or six such vor ages as
these, and thought 1 had nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my meddling with ; I say, after
all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and three
large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the
hogshead (I that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in
a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, hav-
ing plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to
hand out, 1 began with the cables, and cutting the great
cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work 1 could
get, and having cut down the spritsail-yard and the mi-
zen-yard, and every thing I could, to make a large raft,
I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away ;
but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was en-
tered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into
the water; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was a great
part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected
would have been of great use to me: however, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite la-
bour; for I was lain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.
1 had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time 1 had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, 1 should have brought away
the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the

twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise: however, at low water I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effec-
tually as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found
two or three razors, and one pair of large scissars, with
some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in ano-
ther, I found about thirty-six pounds value in money,
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of cight,
some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "O,
drug!" said 1, aloud, "( what art thou golo for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of can-
vass, I began to think of making another raft; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast,
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour
it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently oc-
curred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft, with the wind off shore; and that it was my busi-
ness to be gone before the tide of flood began, or
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay,
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
bard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory
reflection, viz. that I had lost no time, and abated no
diligence, to get every thing out of her that could be
useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in
her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or or
any thing out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her after-
wards did ; hut those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about se-
curing myself against either savages, if any should ap-
pear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind ofdwelling to make, whether I should make
me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth : and in
short, I resolved upon both; the manner and descrip-
tion of which it may not be improper to give an ac-
count of.
I soon found the place 1 was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low, moorish,
ground, near the sea, and I believed it would not be
wholesome; and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it: so I resolved to find a more
healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I
found would be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter from the
heat of the sun: 3dly, Security from ravenous creatures,
whether men or beasts: 4thly, A view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any ad-
vantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was steep as a house side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top. On the side
of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way
in, like the entrance or door of cave; but there was
not really any cave, or way intdthe rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above
a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, de-
scended irregularly every way down intothe low ground
by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill;
so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it

came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in
those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its
semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its
diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground
about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top.
The two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, within
the circle between these two rows of stakes, up to the
top, placing other stakes in the inside leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor
beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a great
deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in
the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I
was completely fenced in and fortified, as 1 thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though,
as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the
rains that in one part of the year are very violent there,
I made double, viz. one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a
large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was

indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of
the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus en-
closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till
now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made
me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house. It cost me much labour and many
days, before all these things were brought to perfection;
and therefore 1 must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of light-
ning happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning, as I was with a thought,
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself: O my powder! My very heart sunk within me
when I thought, that at one blast, all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I
was nothing near so anxious about my own danger,
though, had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my build-
ing and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and
boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little
and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might
come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it
so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
and I think my powder, which in all was about 2401b.
weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend

any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave,
which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no
wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out at least once every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself, as to see if I could kill any ii... lit for
food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint ... iI with
what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats upon the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me ; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz, that
they were so shv, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it
was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them : but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting
but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they
were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks,
they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their -:rht was so
directed downward, that they did not i. .1t1) see ob-
jects that were above them: so, afterwards, I took this
method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above

them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The first
shot 1 made among these creatures, 1 killed a she-goai,

which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily ; but when the old one fell,
the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her
up; and not only so, but wlen I carried the old one
with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite
to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam,
and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would
not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and cat it nmself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially? ), as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, as also how I
enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of in its proper place : but I
must first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of
our intended voyage ; and a great way, viz. some hun-
dreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade
of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a deter-
mination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in
this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate with
myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
abandoned without help, so entirely depressed, that it
could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me : and particu-
larly, one day, walking with my gun in my hand, by the
seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject of my pre-
sent condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated
with me the other way, thus : Well, you are in a de-
solate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where
are the rest of you ? Did not you come eleven of 3ou
into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were nut

they saved, and yon lost ? Why were you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I pointed
to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the
good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was fur-
nished for my subsistence, and what would have been
my case if it had not happened (which was a hundred
thousand to one), that the ship floated from the place
where she first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her:
what would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them Particularly, said I aloud (though
to myself), what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make any
thing, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering ?" and that now I had
all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had
a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as
long as I lived; for I considered, from the beginning,
how I should provide for the accidents that might hap-
pen, and for the time that was to come, not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my
health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my pow-
der being blown up by lightning; and this made the
thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard
ofin the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account,
the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above
said, I first se, foot upon this horrid island; when the
sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head : for I reckoned myself, by observa-
tion, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes
uorth of the Line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of hooks, and pen and ink, and should
even forget the sabbath days from the working days:
but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters; and making it into a great
cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.
" I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one: and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which,
as above mentioned, 1 made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I
found, some time after, in rummaging the chests; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them
or no: also I found three very good bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I had
packed up among my things; some Portuguese books
also, and, among them, two or three popish prayer
books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the
ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I
may iave occasion to say something, in its place: for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him
talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed be-
fore, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone

I could not; for I could not make any ink, by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together ;. and
of these, this of ink was one; as also a spade, pick-
axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread : as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools nade every work I did go on hea-
vily ; and it was near a whole year before I had entirely
finished my little pale, or surrounded my habitation.
The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could
well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in
the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy
piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found
it, yet it made driving these posts or piles very labori-
ous and tedious work. But what need I to have been
concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to do,
seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any
other employment, if that had been over, at least that I
could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for
food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the
state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me (for I was like to
have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from
daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind: and
as my reason began now to master my despondency, I
began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse; aud I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I en-
joyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:
I am cast upon a horri- But I am alive; and not
ble, desolate island, void drowned, as all my ship's
of all hope of recovery, company were.


I am singled out and se-
parated, as it were, from
all the world, to be miser-

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire; one ba-
nished from h uman society.

I have no clothes to co-
ver me.

I ain without
foelce, or mIicails
an lv %iolclice of*

I have r1io soull
to, ori reiele [tiUc.

any de-
to resist
mian or

to speak

But I am singled out too
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death ; and
lie that miraculously saved
me from death can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved,
andi perishing in a barren
place, affording no suste-

But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But 1 am cast on an
island where I see no wild
beast to hurt mie, as I saw
on the coast of Ai-ica: and
what if I had been ship-
wi wrecked there ?
But o(d wonderfully
sent the ship in near enough
to the shore, that I have
got out so many necessary
things as will eiller supply
my wanlts, or enable i e ti
supply m sell, evenas long
as 1 live.

Upon thle whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the w-orld so
miserable, but there was something negative, or some-
thing positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something. to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Leaving now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if
I could spy a ship ; I say, giving over these things, I
began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living,
aud to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described mv habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it
a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside: and alter some
time (I think it was a vear and a half), I raised rafters
from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to
keep out the rain; which I found, at some times of the
year, very violent.
1 have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made be-
hind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was
a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn
myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and work
farther into the earth ; for it was a loose, sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it:
and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sidewaRs, to the right hand, into the
rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out in the outside of
my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were,
a back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necep-
sary things as I found I most wanted, particularl- a
chair and a table; for without these I was notable to
enjoy the few comforts 1 had in the world ; I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much plea-
sure, without a table: so I went to work. And here I
must needs observe, that as reason is the substance and
original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring
every thing by reason, and by.making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in
my life ; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and
contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but
I could have made, especially if I had had tools. How-
ever, I made abundance of things, even without tools ;
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
fhich perhaps were never made that way before, and

that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it
on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
Imn ax', till I had brou2 lt it to be as thin as a plank,
antd then dub it -rmootli will my adze. It is true, Iby
this nimtliod I couldd make but one board 1f a i whole
ree ; but tilis 1 had no remedy ifor )but patience, any
more than I hlid for a prodigious deal of tiI im and labour
~llich it took nme uip to make a pIlank or board ; but my
lime or labour was little worth, and so it was as well
emp1lo ed t ai way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in tlie first place; and this 1 did out of
the short picres of boards that I brought on my raft from
the ship. But when 1 wrought out solime loards, as
above, I ,iade large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a hall, one over another, all along one side of imy
cave, to lay all mv tools, nails, and iron work on ; aid',
in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I )milht easily coime at them. I knocked
pieces into tile wall of tlie rock, to hang my guns, and
all things that would hun up : so that had my cave been
seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary
things ; and I had every thiimn so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in
such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment ; for, indeed, at first, 1 was in too
much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in
much discomposure of mind: aind my journal would,
too, have been full of many dull things : for example, 1
must have said thus--" Sept. 30th. After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God form deliverance, havinii first vomited,
with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten
into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my, misery, and crying out,
I was undone, undone!' till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground to repose but durst
not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, aud after 1 had been on board

the ship and got all that I could out of her, I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy
that, at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with
the hopes of it, and, after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some mea-
sure, and having settled my household stuff and habi-
tation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began to keep my journal: of
which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will
be told all these particulars over again), as long as it
lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

September 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in
the ofling, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate
island, which I called the IsLAND OF DESPAIR ; all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances 1 was brought to, viz. I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to:
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death be-
fore me; that I should either be devoured by wild
beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for
want of food. At the approach of night 1 slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island; which,
as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and
neces:-..-ies out of her for my relief), so on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,

who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have bniltus a boat,
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board. This day
also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these da\%
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship ; which 1 brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather: but, it seems, this
was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. 1 overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in
pieces (the wind blowing a little harder than before)
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in cover-
ing and securing the goods which I had saved, that the
rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to tix my habitation; greatly concern-
ed to secure myself from any attack in the night, either
from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon
a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-
circle for my encampment; which I resolved to strength-
en with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, 1 worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun to see for some food, and discover the
country, when I killed a she goat, and her kid followed

me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. 1 set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts; and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon I went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion; viz. every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
ate what I had to live on ; and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and
then in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next was wholly employed in mak-
ing my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman:
though time and necessity made me a complete na-
tural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any
one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing: of every creature that I
killed I took off the skins, and preserved them. Coming
back by the sea shore, I saw many sorts of sea fowl
which I did not understand: but was surprised, and
almost frightened, with two or three seals; which,
while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what
they were), got into the sea, and escaped me for that
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking: nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.


Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the
11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me ;
and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which
was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over I resolved to separate my stock of
powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pounds at most, of powder: and so, put-
ting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
as remote from one another as possible. On one of
these three days I killed a large bird that was good to
eat; but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent,
into the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note. Three things 1 wanted exceedingly for this
work, viz, a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or

basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply these wants, and make me some
tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy: but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so abso-
lutely necessary that indeed I could do nothing effec-
tually without it; but what kind of one to make I
knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Bra-
zils they call the iron tree, from its exceeding hardness:
of this, with great labour and almost spoiling my axe,
I cut a piece, and brought it home too, with difficulty
enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way,
made me a long while upon this machine; for I worked
it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a sho-
vel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long: how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient: for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, hav-
ing no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker ware, at least none yet found out: and as to the
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to
go about it: besides, I had no possible way to make
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in; so I gave it over: and for carrying away the
earth which 1 dug out of the cave, 1 made me a thing
like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in for the
bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the mak-
ing the shovel: and yet this and the shovel, and the
attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days; I mean, always ex-
cepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing homo
something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stoo4 still, be-

cause of my making these tools, when they were finished
I went on; and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widen-
ing and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining room, and
a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent; except
that sometimes in the wet season of the year, it rained
so hard, that I could not keep myself dry; which caused
me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with
long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems 1 had made it too
large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side: so much that, in short, it frightened me,
and not without reason too; for if I had been under it,
I should never have wanted a gravedigger. Upon this
disaster, I had a great deal of work to do over again,
for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was
of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so
that 1 might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly; and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of board across over each post;
this I finished the next day, and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof se-
cured; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every thing
up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in
some order within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried every thing into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me: also I made
me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirr-
ing out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that 1 catched it, and led it home in a string: when
I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the
leg grew well and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it
so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at
my door, and would not go away. This was the first
time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot were all.spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so
that there was no stirring abroad except in the evening,
for food: this time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, 1 found there was
plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come
at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my
dog to hunt them down. Accordingly, the next day I
went out with my dog, and set him upon the goats: but
I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog;
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3. 1 began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved
to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of Ja-
nuary to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and per-
fecting this wall; though it was no more than about 25
yards in length, being a half circle, from one place in
the rock to another place, about twelve yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the centre, behind it.
All this time I worked very hard ; the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but

I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this
wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-
pressible labour every thing was done with, especially
the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them
into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuad-
ed myself that if any people were to come on shore
there they would not perceive anything like a habita-
tion: and it was very well I did so, as may be observed
hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries, in these walks, of something or
other to my advantage; particularly, 1 found a kind of
wild pigeons, who build, not as wood pigeons, in a tree,
but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks:
and, taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older
they flew all away, which, perhaps, was at first for want
of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them: how-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the ma-
naging my household affairs, 1 found myself wanting in
many things, which I thought at first it was impossible
for me to make; as indeed, as to some of them it was:
for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
1 had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; bnt
I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by
them, though I spent many weeks about it: I could
neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to
one another as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of beeswax with which I made
candles in my African adventure; but I had none of
that now; the only remedy 1 had was, that when I had
killed a goat, 1 saved the tallow; and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and

this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like
a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened,
that in rummaging my things I found a little bag; which
as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry; not for this voyage, but before, as I
suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little
remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured
by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some
other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I di-
vided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my
fortification under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mention-
ed, that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of
anything, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown any thing there: when about a month after, I
saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of
the ground, which I fancied might be some plant 1 had
not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished,
when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley
of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed I had
very few notions of religion in my head, nor had enter-
tained any sense of any thing that had befallen me,
otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or his order in governing
events in the world. But after 1 saw barley grow there,
in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely; and 1 began to suggest, that God had mi-
raculously caused this grain to grow without any help
of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my
sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out
of my eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a
prodigy of nature should happen upon my account: and

this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other strag-
gling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.
1 not only thought these the pure productions of Pro-
vidence for my support, but, not doubting that there
was more in the place, I went over all that part of the
island where I had been before, searching in every cor-
ner, and under every rock, for more of it; but I could
not lind any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that
I had shook out a bag of chicken's meat in that place,
and then the wonder began to cease: and I must con-
fess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence
began to abate too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common ; though I ought to
have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
a providence, as if it had been miraculous: for it was
really the work of Providence, as to me, that should
order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also,
that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang
up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere
else, at that time, it would have been burned up and
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, which was about the end of June ;
and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again; hoping, in time to have some quantity sufficient
to supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth
year that I could allow myself the least grain of this
corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall show
afterwards, in its order; for 1 lost all that 1 sowed the
first season, by not observing the proper time; as I
sowed just before the dry season, so that it never came
up at all, at least not as it would have done; of which
in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same
care; and whose use was of the same kind, or to the

same purpose, viz. to make me bread, or rather food;
for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though
I did that also after some time.-But to return to my
I worked excessively hard these three or four months,
to get my wall done; and on the 14th of April I closed
it up, contriving to get into it, not by a door, but over
the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on
the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me,
and let it down in the inside: this was a complete en-
closure to me; for within I had room enough, and no-
thing could come at me from without, unless it could
first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost all my labour overthrown at once, and myself
killed; the case was thus:-As I was busy in the in-
side of it, behind my tent just at the entrance into my
cave, I was terribly frightened with a most dreadful
surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden, I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts 1 had set up in the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done
before: and for fear I should be buried in it, 1 ran for-
ward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the
hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I had
no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground than I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake: for the ground
I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes dis-
tance, with three such shocks as would have overturned
the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the
sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as 1 never
heard in all my life. I perceived also that the very sea
was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having
never felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that
had), that I was like one dead or stupified; and the mo-
tion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that
was tossed at sea: but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the
stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent
and my household goods, and burying all at once; this
sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage ; yet I had not heart
enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being bu-
ried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while 1 had not the least serious religious thought,
nothing but the common Lord have mercy upon me! and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; and soon after the wind
rose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour
it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was all on a
sudden covered with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with a breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This
held about three hours, and then began to abate; and
in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very
much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came
into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the
consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself
was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again. With this thought my spirits began to revive;
,. d the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and
sat down in my tent; but the rain was so violent that
my tent was ready to be beaten down with it, and I was
forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found

no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be
more composed. And now to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store
and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did
then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more when that was gone. It continued raining all
that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad: but my mind being more com-
posed, I began to think of what I had best do; conclud-
ing, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must
consider of building me some little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall as I had done here,
and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men:
for if I staid where I was, I should certainly one time
or other be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it now stood, being just under the
hanging precipice of the hill, and which, ifit should be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent
the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
SThe fear of being swallowed alive affected me so that
I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it:
but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing
was put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed, and
how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this; and that I
must be contented to run the risk where I was till I bad
formed a convenient camp, and secured it so as to re-
move to it. With this conclusion I composed myself
for a time; and resolved that I would go to work with
all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &o.
in a circle as before, and set up my tent in it when it
was finished; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this measure into execution; but I was at
a great loss about the tools. I had three large axes,

and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets
for traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping
and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches, and dull: and though I had a grindstone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools too. This caused
me as much thought as a statesman would have bestow-
ed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death of a man. At length 1 contrived a wheel
with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty.
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since
1 have observed it is very common there: besides that,
my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine
cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days 1 took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been
low a great while, I now took a survey of it, and re-
duced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask:
when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or
three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were dri-
ven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking to-
wards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher
out of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was
a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and
the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I
rolled it farther on the shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.
When 1 came down to the ship I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was healed up at least six feet: and the stern
(which was broke to pieces and parted from the rest by
the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging
of her), was tossed as it were up, and cast on one side:

and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out; whereas there was a great piece of water
before. so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done
by the earthquake; and as by this violence the ship
was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily,
that day especially, in searching whether I could make
any way into the ship: but I found nothing was to be
expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not
to despair of anything, I resolved to pull every thing
to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every
thing I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter deck together; and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could
from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming
in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May 4. 1 went a fishing, but caught not one fish that
I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when just
going to leave off I caught a young dolphin. I had
made me a long line of some ropeyarn, but I had no
hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks; which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron work; work-
ed very hard, and came home very much tired, and had
thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an
intent to work: but found the weight of the wreck had
broke itself down, the beams being cut; that several
pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose; and the inside
of the hold lay so open that I could see into it; but al-
most full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of
the water and sand. 1 wrenched up two planks, and
brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the
iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not
break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and
could stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14. Went every day to the wreck; and
got a great many pieces of timber and boards, or plank,
and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of
one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it
lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not
make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water;
but I staid so long in the woods, to get pigeons for
food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck
that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of tie wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolv-
ed to see what they were, and found it was a piece of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck ; and with hard labour 1 loosened some things so
much with the crow, that the first blowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests: but
the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which
had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get

food ; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might
be ready when it was ebbed out: and by this time I
had gotten timber, and plank, and iron-work, enough
to have built a good boat, if I had known how: and I
also got at several times, and in several pieces, near one
hundred weight of the sheet lead.
June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.
June 17. 1 spent in cooking the turtle. I found in
her threescore eggs: and her flesh was to me, at that
time, the most savoury and pleasant that I ever tasted
in my life ; having ha no flesh but of goats and fowls,
since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and 1 staid within
I thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was
somewhat chilly, which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with
the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and
no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the
storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why,
my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better ; but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and
then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak: however I killed
a she goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and

broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed
it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed
all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to
perish for thirst; but so weak I had not strength to
stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed
to God again, but was lightheaded: and when I was not,
I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only lay
and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing
else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off, 1
fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no
water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till
morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep
I had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting
on the ground on the outside of my wall, where I sat
when the storm blew after the earthquake; and that I
saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright
flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him: his countenance was most inex-
pressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe:
when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, 1
thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He
had no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved for-
ward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to arising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it:
all that I can say I understood was this: Seeing all
these things have not brought thee to repentance, now
thou shalt die ;" at which words I thought he lifted up
the spear thit was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my
soul at this terrible vision; 1 mean, that even while it
was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is
it any more possible to describe the impression that re-

mained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was
but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had re-
ceived by the good instruction of my father was then
worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of
seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with
none but such as were, like myself, wicked and pro-
fane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had,
in all that time, one thought that so much as tended
either to looking upward towards God, or inward to-
wards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscious-
ness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was
all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature
among our common sailors, can be supposed to be; not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dan-
ger, or of thankfulness to him in deliverances.
In the relating what is already passed of my story, this
will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that
through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of its
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment
for my sin; either my rebellious behaviour against my
father, or my present sins, which were great, or even as
a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert
shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of
what would become of me; or one wish to God to di-
rect me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from
voracious creatures as cruel savages: but I was quite
thoughtless of a God or a Providence; acted like a
mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the
dictates of common sense only; and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Por-
tuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly and
honourably, as well as charitably, 1 had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on
this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it
as a judgment: I only said to myself often, that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found
all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was
surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of
soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it
began, iu a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad 1 was alive, without the least reflection upon
the distinguished goodness of the hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved,
when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally have,
alter they are got safe ashore from a shipwreck ; which
they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget
almost as soon as it is over: and all the rest of my life
was like it. Even when 1 was afterwards, on due con-
sideration, made sensible of my condition,-how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human
kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
senFe of my aflliction wore onl, and I began to be very
easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preser-
vation and supply, and was far enough from being al-
flicted at my condition as a judgment from Heaven, or
as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Jour-
nal, had, at first, some little influence upon me, and
began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought
it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as that
part of the thought was removed, all the impression
which was raised from it wore off'also, as 1 have noted
already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could
be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately di-
recting to the invisible Power which alone directs such
things, yet, no sooner was the fright over, but the im-
pression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or his judgments, much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from his hand, than
if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view

of the miseries of death came to place itself before me;
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a
strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the
violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with
my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon
wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me
under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so
vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me
for the second or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence as well of the fever as of the dreadful re-
proaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God: though I cannot say it was
a prayer attended either with desires or with hopes; it
was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My
thoughts were confused ; the convictions great upon my
mind; and the horror of dying in such a miserable con-
dition raised vapours in my head with the mere appre-
hension: and in these hurries of my soul, I knew not
what my tongue might express: but it was rather ex-
clamation, such as, Lord, what a miserable creature
am 1! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want
of help ; and what will become of me?" Then the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a
good while. In this interval, the good advice of my
father came to my mind, and presently his prediction,
which I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz.
that if 1 did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery. Now," said I, aloud,
" my dear father's words are come to pass; God's jus-
tice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear
me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a station of life wherein I might
have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it
myself, nor learn from my parents to know the blessing
of it. I left them to mourn over my folly; and now I
am left to mourn under the consequences of it: I re-
fused their help and assistance who would have pushed
me in the world, and would have made every thing
easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle
with too great for even nature itself to support; and

no assistance, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress."
This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had
made for many years. But I return to my Journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again the next day, and now was my time to get
something to refresh and support ', .. i' when I should
be ill. The first thing I did was i a large square
case-bottle with water; and set it upon my table, in
reach of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish
disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little. I walked about; but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heav)-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made
my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell: and this
was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's bless-
ing to, as I could remember, in my whole life. After I
had eaten, I tried to walk ; but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out
without that); so I went but a little way, and sat down

upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was
just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat

here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me:
What is this earth and sea, of which 1 have seen so
much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal? Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by
some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the
air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed most
naturally,-It is God that has made all. Well, but
then, it came on strangely, if God has made all these
things, he guides and governs them all, and all things
that concern them; for the power that could make all
things must certainly have power to guide and direct
them : if so, nothing can happen, in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appoint-
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition:
and if nothing happens without his appointment, he has
appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to
my thought to contradict any of these conclusions: and
therefore it rested upon me with the greatest force,
that it must needs be that God had appointed all this to
befall me ; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by his direction, be having the sole power, not
of me only, but of every thing that happens in the world.
Immediately it followed, Why hasGod done this to me ?
What have 1 done to be thus used? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blas-
phemed; and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look
back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself,
what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert
not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned
in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man of war ; devoured by the
wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here,
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask
what thou hast done ?" 1 was struck dumb with these
reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to
say; no, not to answer to myself; and, rising up pen-
sive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed : but my thoughts

were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep;
so I sat down in the chair and lighted my lamp, for it
began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the
return of my distemper terrified me very much, it oc-
curred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no phy-
sic but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and I
had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
which was quite cured; and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt: for in this
chest I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened
the chest, and found what I looked for, viz. the to-
bacco; and as the few books 1 had saved lay there too,
I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before,
and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so
much as inclination, to look into. I say, I took it out,
and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the
table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not,
as to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or
iot; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I
was resolved it should 4iit one way or other. 1 first
took a piece of the leaf, and chewed it in my mouth;
which, indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain; the
tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had not
been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it
an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose
of it when I lay down: and, lastly, I burned some upon
a pan of-coals, and held my nose close over the smoke
of it-as long as 1 could bear it; as well for the heat as
almost for suffocation. In the interval of this opera-
tion, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my
head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear
reading, at least at that time; only having opened the
book casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these: Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words
were very apt to my case; and made some impression
upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though
not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to me;
the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehen-
sion of things, that, as the children of Israel said when

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