Title Page
 Life of the author
 Robinson Crusoe
 The farther adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072749/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: vi, 638 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Walker, J ( Publisher )
Uwins, Thomas, 1782-1857 ( Illustrator )
Fenner, R ( Publisher )
Warren, Charles Turner, 1767-1823 ( Engraver )
Richardson, John ( Publisher )
Robinson, John ( Publisher )
Nunn, James ( Publisher )
Edwards, E ( Publisher )
Scholey, Robert ( Publisher )
Reynolds, B. ( Publisher )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown ( Publisher )
J. Black & Son ( Publisher )
Black, Kingsbury, Parbury, & Allen ( Publisher )
Sherwood, Neely, and Jones ( Publisher )
Law and Whittaker ( Publisher )
Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy ( Publisher )
Cadell & Davies ( Publisher )
A. Newman and Co ( Publisher )
F., C. and J. Rivington (Firm) ( Publisher )
Lackington & Co ( Publisher )
Ellerton and Henderson ( Printer )
Publisher: Printed for J. Walker
Ellerton and Henderson
Place of Publication: London
F.C. and J. Rivington ;
J. Nunn ;
Cadell and Davies ;
Longman Hurst Rees Orme and Brown ;
Law and Whitaker ;
J. Richardson ;
Newman and Co. ;
Lackington and Co. ;
Black Kingsbury Parbury and Allen ;
J. Black and Son ;
Sherwood Neely and Jones ;
R. Scholey ;
Baldwin Cradock and Joy ;
R. Fenner ;
J. Robinson ;
E. Edwards ;
and B. Reynolds
London Johnson's Court)
Manufacturer: Ellerton and Henderson
Publication Date: 1818
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Fore-edge painting -- Specimens   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1818   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Added engraved t.p. with vignette.
General Note: "Life of the author," p. iii-vi.
General Note: Frontispiece drawn by T. Uwins and engraved by C. Warren.
General Note: Double (split) fore-edge.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072749
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22778625

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Page i
        Page ii
    Life of the author
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text

T~ 7 ] r-

L-d-,,'W 1, 11r11- lh, h, h,-'


v~-7 7 e7-i~p

JIlb/ izh by J IYaiW/: ( the ol/ r lDprletels






Printed for J. Walker;
F. C. and J. Rivington; J. Nunn; Cadell and
Davies; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and
Brown; Law and Whitaker; J. Richardson;
Newman and Co.; Lackington and Co.; Black,
Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen; J. Black and
Son; Sherwood, Neely, and Jones; R. Scholey;
Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Fenner; J,
Robinson; E.Edwards; and B.Reynolds,


Ellorton and Henderson, Printers,
Johnson's Court, London.


DANIEL DE FOE was born in London about
the year 1663. His father was a butcher; and the
family name was Foe, until our author, for some
unknown reason, changed it to De Foe. He was
probably intended for trade; but very soon after he
had received such education as a school at Newing-
ton-green afforded, he became a political writer.
He afterwards engaged in business as a hosier, and
then as a pantile-maker; but in both was unsuccess-
ful. His head was frequently employed on pro-
jects, and he even wrote an essay on that subject;
but he was always either unskilful or unfortunate.
It is, however, much to his credit that he continued
satisfying the demands of his creditors, as he was
able, until they were paid the whole amount of
their debts.
The first of his performances which excited much
attention was The True-Born Englishman,' pub-
lished in 1701. This was a poetical satire, in de-
fence of King William, who, at that time, was
blamed for employing foreigners as his friends at
court. During the popularity of this piece, he
wrote another satire, called I Reformation of Man-
ners,' in which, among other topics, appeared one
of the first censures on the slave trade.
As De Foe was a wit, he often employed an iro-
nical way of writing which the age was too dull

to comprehend. In this style, he wrote a pamphlet,
entitled The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,
or Proposals for the Establishment of the Church.'
It was, in fact, a defence of the Dissenters, but so
ill understood, that the House of Commons pro-
nounced it to be a seditious libel; and De Foe suf-
fered fine, imprisonment, and the pillory; the latter
of which punishments he bore with great fortitude,
and amused himself by writing A Hymn to the
Pillory,' during his confinement. In February,
1703-4, while in Newgate, he commenced a periodi-
cal publication, called the Review,' which has
been supposed, and not without some reason, to
have given rise to the Tatler and Spectator. At
length he was liberated, by the interposition of Mr.
Harley, afterwards Lord Oxford, and resumed his
occupation of political writing. Among his prin-
cipal productions of this kind, were Jure Diviuo,'
a poetical satire, in twelve books, against arbitrary
government; and The History of the Union,'which
has lately been reprinted: to promote this, lie was
sent to Scotland, where he wrote a poem,in honour
of the inhabitants of that country, called Caledo-
nia.' He wrote also, The History of Addresses,'
and some pamphlets in favour of the house of Hano-
ver, which, being written in an ironical style, were
unfortunately mistaken for defences of the Pretend-
er, and the author was again prosecuted and im-
prisoned. These misfortunes induced him, about
the year 1715, to relinquish politics altogether, and
employ his pen on subjects of morals or manners.
His performances in this way were chiefly The
Family Instructor,' in dialogues, a work to which
Richardson in his novels owes great obligation. He
wrote also in the same form Religious Courtship,'
and the narratives of Robinson Crusoe,' The Life
of Captain Singleton,' Colonel Jack,' Moll Flan-
ders,' Duncan Campbell,' and The Fortunate
Mistress.' The morality of some of these has been
justly questioned, but they have all the fascinations

of simplicity of style and probability of adventure,
and all enjoyed a considerable share of popularity.
In 1722, lie wrote a Journal of the Plague in 1665,'
which, although a fiction, imposed on Dr. Mead,
who considered it as a book of authority. He pub-
lished also three volumes of Travels through Eng-
land and Scotland,' which have been the foundation
of all the complete tours and otler publications of
that kind since. In this manner, for several years,
he continued to publish treatises, or pieces of fic-
tion, many of which are no longer read; and his
poetry, it must be confessed, is only valuable as in-
cluding hints qf the events and political characters
of tile times.
Hle died at his house at Islington, in 1731, leav-
ing a-daughter, who was married to Mr. H. Baker,
the ingenious naturalist.
Of all his writings, that which is now before the
reader has ever been the most popular. It was first
published in 1719; and, perhaps, few years have
since passed without its being reprinted in some
convenient form. A story has long prevailed that
De Foe defrauded a Scotch seaman, of the name of
Selkirk, of his papers, or journals, and made them
the foundation of this novel. That such a seaman
existed, and was shipwrecked, and afterwards
wrote a journal, is probable enough ; but that lie
contributed more than thle mere suggestion of writ-
ing Robinson Crusoe, it is impossible to believe,
nor have we any authenticated facts in favour of
the supposition. Robinson Crusoe, in all its essen-
tial points, is a pure fiction, and displays a reach
of invention which had never before appeared in
any English work of the kind; a fertility of fancy
and genius which De Foe could have borrowed
from no source, but the inexhaustible fund of his
own mind. In adapting his style to the supposed
situation and rank of Crusoe, he is eminently suc-
cessful ; simplicity and perspicuity being so uni-
formly preserved, that, perhaps, it is impossible to

name a work so fascinating to young and unenw
lightened minds, or so happily adapted to their
comprehension. It has, for nearly a century, been
one of the most popular books in our language, and
translation into most of the European languages
has rendered it the subject of admiration abroad.
It has been well observed, that it breathes through-
out a spirit of piety and benevolence, and sets in a
very striking light the importance of the mechanic
arts: it fixes in the mind a lively idea of the hor-
rors of solitude, and, consequently, of the sweets of
social life, and of the blessings we derive from con-
versation and mutual aid.


WAS born in the year 1632. in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country,
my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. lie got a good estate by merchandise,
and, leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York;
fiom whence he had married my mother, whose re-
lations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words
in England, we are now called, nay, we call our-
selves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers; one of whom was lieu-
'tenant-colonel to an English regimentof foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous colonel
'Lockhart, andi was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
-against the Spaniards. What became of my second
.brother I never knew, any more than my father or
another did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and notbred to
any trade, my head began to he filled very early with
rambling thoughts. ]ly father, who was very an-
'cient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea:
Sand my inclination to'fhis led me so strongly against
.the will, nay, the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mo-
kther and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
-thing fatal in that propension of nature, tending di-
rectly to the life of misery which was to befal me..

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me se-
rious and excellent counsel against what lie foresaw
was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wan-
dering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house, and my native country; where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of|
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of des-
perate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring supe-i
rior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them.
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, orwhat might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found, by long
/experience, was the best state in the world; the
most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings, of
the mechanic partof mankind; and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. Ile told me, I might judgi
of the happiness of this state by this one thing; viz
that this was the state of life which all other peoph
envied; that kings have frequentlylamented the min
oerable consequences of being born to great things,
and wished they had been placed in the middle at
the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as thi
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to havi
neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the up
per and lower part of mankind; but that the midikh
station had the fewest disasters, and was not ei
posed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lowe
part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to 5

mhany distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury,
and extravagancies on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet,
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves
by the natural consequences of their way of living;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that
peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all de-
sirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went si-
lently and smoothly through the world, and comfort-
ably out of it; not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands, or of the head; not sold to a life of
slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob'the soul of peace, and the
body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy,
or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets
of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are
happy, and learning by every day's experience to
know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries, which
nature, and the station of life 1 was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no ne-
cessity of seeking my bread; that lie would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault,
that must hinder it; and that he should have no-
thing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
in warning me against measures which he knew
would be' to my hurt. In a word, that as he would
do very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle

at home as lie directed; so lie would not have an
much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any
encouragement to go away: and to close all, lie told
me, I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars; but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where lie was killed: and
though lie said lie would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me; and
I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon hav-
ing neglected Iis counsel, when there might be none
to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be ao himself; I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully .r..; r,
when he spoke of my brother who was .l'. -.1
that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he
broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was
so full, lie could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as in-
deed who could be otherwise? And I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's farther importunities, in a few
weeks after 1 resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did nottact so hastily neither, as the first'
heat of my resolution prompted ; but I took my mo-
ther at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts were
so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to any thing with resolution enough to,
go through with it; and my father had better give
me his consent, than force me to go without it:
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attor

ey: that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from.
my master before my time was out, and go to sea:
and if she would speak to my father to letme go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by
a double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told
ne, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to
Smy father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing, after the dis-
course I had had with my father, and such kind and
tender expressions, as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself,
there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it: that, for her
part, shell would not have so much hand in my de-
struction; and I should never have it to say, that
my mother was willing, when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my fa.
their, yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the
discourse to him; and that my father, after sewing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That
the boy might be happy, if he would stay at home;
but if lie goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it.'
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the mean time I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at lull, whither I went
:casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement that time; but, I say, being there, and one
of my companions being going by sea to London, in
his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,

with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so
much as sent them word of it: but leaving them to
hear of it, as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing, or my father's, without any consideration of cir*
cumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on
board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no
sooner got out of the Iumber, but the wind began
to blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful man:
ner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon whatI
had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the
judgment of rleaven, for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsel of my parents, my father's tears, and
my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my,
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come
to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea
went very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor what 1 saw a few days
after. But it was enough to affectme then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known any tiring
of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell:
down, as I thought it did,in the trough or hollow of
the sea, we should never rise more. In this agony
of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God to spare my life in this one
voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land
again, 1 would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while I lived: that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into

suchli miseries as these any more. Now I saw plain-
ly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortable, he had
lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
tempests at sea, or troubles on shore: and, in short,
I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodi-
gal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful; looking with won-
der upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good reso-
lutions should continue, my companion, who had in.
deed enticed me away, comes to me: Well, Bob,'
says lie, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wa'u't you,
last night, when it blew but a capfull of wind?' A
capfull d'you call it?' said I, 'twas a terrible storm.'
' A storm, you fool you!' replies he: do you call
that a storm ? Why it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing
of such a squall of wind as that: but, you're but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl
of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'you see what
charming weather 'tis now ?' To make short this
sad part of my story,we went the way of all sailors:
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk
with it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned

all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of
surface, and settled calmness, by the abatement of
that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over,
my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by sea being forgotten, and the current of my for-
mer desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
and promises that I made in my distress. I found
indeed some intervals of reflection, and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again
sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them, as it were from a distemper; and, apply-
ing myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits (for so I called them); and I
had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory
over conscience, as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without excuse: for, if I would not take
this for a deliverance, tile next was to be such a one,
as the worst and most hardened wretch among us
would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into
Yarmouth Roads: the wind having been contrary,
and the weather cahn, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor: and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days:
during which time a great many ships from New.
castle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for
the river.
We had not, however, rid hele so long, but we
should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men

wore unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive
of danger,but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea: but the eighth day in the
morning the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make every
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon, the sea went very high
indeed, and our ship rid fore-castle in, shipped seve-
ral seas, and we thought once or twide our anchor
had come home; upon which ourmaster ordered out
the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. Themaster,though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yetas
lie went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him, softly to himself, say several times, 'Lord
be merciful to us! We shall be all lost: we shall be all
undone!' and the like. During these first hurries I
was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could
ill resume the first penitence, which I had so appa-
rently trampled upon, and hardened myself against.
I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and
that this would be nothing too, like the first. But
when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal siglt.I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes. When I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us. Two ships that rid
near us, we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a
ship, which rid about a mile ahead of us, was foun-
dered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all ad-
ventures, and that not with a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring

in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away, with only their
sprit-sail out, before the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut away
the fore.mast, which he was very unwilling to do;
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, lie consented: and
when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-
mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much,
they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But,
if 1 can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terror of the
storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come
yet: the storm continued with such fury, that the
seamen themselves acknowledged they had never
seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was
deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the sea-
men every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of
the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to
see, cried out we had sprunk a leak; another said,
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
bands were called to the pump. At that very word

my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell
backwards upon the side of the bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another: at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship
had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when every body had
his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what
was become of me: but another man stepped up to
the pump, and, thrusting me aside with his foot, let
me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but, the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet
as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into any port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help use
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near
us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship-side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, olr men cast them a rope over the
stern with buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after much labour and
hazard, took hold of; and we hauled them close
under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the
boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in to-
wards shore as much as we could; and our master

promised them, that if the boat was staved upuo
shore, he would make it good to their master. So
partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went
away to the northward, sloping towards the shore,
almost as far as Wintertonness.
We were notmuch more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead within
me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet la-
bouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people
running along the strand to assist us when we should
come near. But we made but slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being
past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off
to the westward towards Cromer; and so the land
broke off a little the violence of tile wind. Here we
got in; and, though not without much difficulty, got
all safe on shore; and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great ihunmaity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by par-
ticular merchants and owners of ships; and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to Lon-
don, or back to Hull, as we thought fit..
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's pa-
rable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I had
several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no
power to do it. I know not what to call this; nor
will I urge, that it is a secret over ruling decree,
that hur-ries us on to be the instruments of our'own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that
we push upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt
My comrade, wio had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's sou, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which w'as not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did: and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, Young man,' says lie, you
ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token, that you are
not to be a seafaring man.' Why, sir,' said I, ( will
you go to sea no more ?' T That is another case,' said
he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but,
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what
a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to
expect, if you persist: perhaps all this has befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tar.
shish. Pray,' continues he, what are you? and oil
what account did you go to sea?' Upon that I told
him some of my story; at the end of which lie burst
out with a strange kind of passion, What had I

done,' says he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds !'
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and
was further than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to ie,
exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me: 'And, young man,'said
he, depend upon it, if you do not go hack, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and
disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled
upon you.'
We parted soon after; for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more: which way he went,
I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with nmy
self, what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea.
.As to going home, shame opposed the best me
tions that offered to my thoughts ; and it immediate-
ly occurred to me how Ishould be laughed at among
the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my father and mother only, but even every body else.
From whence I have since often observed how in-
congruous and irrational the common temper of
mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason that
ought to guide them in such cases; viz. that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent; not ashamed of the action, for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them esteem-
ed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and, as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore

off: and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last
I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out
for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's l house, which hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands, of my father:
1 say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of allenterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these ad-
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned
the duty and office of a fore-mastman; ani in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,
if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so 1 did here; for, having
money in my pocket, and good clothes on my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gen-
tleman: and so 1 neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned todo any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as 1 then
was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so witl
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved
to go again. This captain, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate, and his

companion; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest
plain-dealing man, went the voyage with him; and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for carried about 401.
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me
to buy. This 401. I had uiustered together by the
assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-
sponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom I also got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics, and the rules of navigation; learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,
as lie took delight to introduce me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both
a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds n'ne ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
3001.; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes
too; particularly that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
heat of the climate, our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees N. even
to the Line itself.
I was now set up for a Quinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again: and

I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 101. of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 2001. left, and which I lodgedwith my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage: and the first
was this; viz. our ship, making her course towards
the Canary islands, or rather between those islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the gray of
the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but,
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the
logue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two
hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close.
He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but, laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, le entered ninety men upon
our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hack-
.. 'i Ji. i ,. ... Weplied them with small
I. 11 .1 I .. chests, and such like, and
cleared our decks of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield; andwere
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to
the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at

first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the coun-
try, to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his
proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and
now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable, and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to
go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my new patron or master had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would be some time or other his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when lie went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little gar-
den, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, lie ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it; but found no
way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational, for
I had nobody to communicate it to that would em.
bark with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
man, or Scotsman there, but myself; so that for
two years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance pre.
sented itself, which put the old thought of making

some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual,without fit-
ting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
theship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Maresco with
him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inasmuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,one
of his kinsmen, and the youth the Mlaresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing with
him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not halfa league from the shore, we
lost sight of it; and, rowing we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the
shore, and that we were at least two leagues from
the land. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger; for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning:
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and, hav-
ing lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
which he had taken, he resolved he would not go a
fishing any more without a compass, and some pro-
vision: so lie ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
was also an English slave,to build a little state-room
or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it to'steer, and
haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed
withwhatwecall ashoulder-of-mutton-sail; and the
boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,which lay very
snug and low, and had in itroom for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small
lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he

though t fit to drink; particularly his bread, lice, and
We were frequently out with this boat a fishing;
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened one day,
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three BMoors of
some distinction, and for whom he had provided ex-
traordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat over night a larger store of provisions than
usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship;
for that they designed some sport of fowling as well
as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ancient and pendants out, and every thing to
accommodate his guests; when, by and by, my pa-
tron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his h house. le com-
manded me too, that as soon as I had got some fish,
I should bring it home to his house. All which I
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fish-
ing business, but for a voyage: though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I would
steer; for any where to get out of that place was
my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread. IIe said, that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the

boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood,which,it was evident by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat, while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed about half a hundred weight, with a par-
cel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all which were of great use to us after-
wards: especially the wax to make candles. Ano-
ther trick I tried upon him, which lie innocently
came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they
called Muley, or Moley ; so I called to him: Moley,'
said I,' our patron's guns are all on board the boat:
can you not get a little powder and shot? It may
be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our cur-
lieus) for ourselves; for I know he keeps the gunner's
stores in the ship.' Yes,' says he, I'll bring some.'
Accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more; and another with shot, that lad five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat.
At the same time 1 had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one
of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another: and thus
furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us; and we were not above a mile outof the port,
before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N.N.E. which was con-
trary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at
least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing
(for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull

them up, that he might not sec them), I said to the
Moor, This will not do: our master will not be
thusserved. We must stand farther off.' He, think.
ing no harm, agreed; and being in the head of the
boat, sdt the sails, and, as I had the helm, I run the
boat out near a league farther, and then brought her
to, as if 1 would fish ; when,giving the boy the helm,
I stepped forward to where theMoor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him
by surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immedi.
ately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, told me lie would go all over
the world with me. lie swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and, fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and, if he would be quiet, I would
do him none: But,' said I,' you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best
of your way to slhle, and I will do you no harm;
but, if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.' So
le turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
And I make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, Xury,if you will be faithful to me, I'll make
you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me,' that is, swear by Mahomet,
and his father's beard,' I must throw you into the sea
too.' The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so in.
nocently, that I could not mistrust him; and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with
While I was in view of the Moor that was s'wim-

ming,I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do); for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could never once go on snore, but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and, having a
fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that, I believe, by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
laud, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's do-
minions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also,
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
also would now give over; so I ventured to make to
the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a
little river, I knew not what or where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people: the prin-
cipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor

boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,' said I, 'then
I won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions,' Then we may
give them the shoot gun,' says Xury, laughing, make
them run way.' Such English Xury spoke, by con.
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out
of our patron's-case of.bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it: we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I
say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures, we knew not what to
call them, of many sorts, come down to the sea-
shore, and run into the water, wallowing and wash-
ing themselves for the pleasure of cooling them-
selves: and they made such hideous howling atd
yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I
too; but we were both worse frighted when we heard
one of the mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat: we could not sec him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous luge anl fu-
rious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and that it
might be for aught I know. Poor Xury cried out to
me to weigh the anchor, and row away. No,'says I,
Xury, we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go
to sea; they cannot follow us far.' I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it
was) within two oars length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him,
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam
towards the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries anid howling that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a
gun; a thing, I have some reason to believe, those
creaLures had never herd before, This convinced

ile that there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore
in the day, was another question too; for, to have
:fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the .paws of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
Danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had not
a pint left in the boat: when or where to get to it,
was the point. Xury said if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go, why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat. The boy answered with so much affec-
tion that made me love him ever after. Says he,' If
wild mans come, they eat me; you go wey.' 'Well,
SXury,' said I, we will both go; and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them : they shall eat nei.
their of us.' So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread
Sto eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bot-
ties, which I mentioned before, and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
1 did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
tlhe river: but the boy seeing a low place, about
a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and
by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
.,he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with
some wild beast, and I ran forward towards him
to help him; but when I came nearer to him,
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature that ie had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs. However, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat;
:'but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was
to tell mee h had found good water, and seen no
wild mans,

But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up: so we
filled our jars,and feasted on the hare wehad killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the
As 1 had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an I
observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know,or at least not remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise 1 might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood'
along this coast till I came to that part, where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels
vpon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I1
now was must be that country which, lying between
the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Ne.'
groes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, the NBgroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness, and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there, so that
the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they
go like an army,two or three thousand men ata time;
and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing buthowlings andl
roarings of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being tile high top of the

mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out in hopes of reaching thither;
but, having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so 1 resolved to pursue my first design,
and keep along the shore.
Several times we were obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place ; and once in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of water, which was pretty
high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than,it seems,mine.were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore,
'For,' says le, 'look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.' I looked
where lie pointed, and saw a dreadful monster in-
deed; for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill, that hung as it were a little over him.
' Xury,' said I,'you shall go on shore, and kill him.'
Xury looked frighted, and said,' Me kill! He eat
me at one mouth!' one mouthful lie meant. How-
ever, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be
still, and took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ; then
I loaded another gunwith two bullets, and the third
(for we had three pieces) I loaded with live smaller
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece, to have shot him into the head ; but lie lay so
with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the
slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.
lie started up growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and tlen got upon thiee
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. I was a little surprised th;i I had not hit
him on the head: however, I took up the second
piece immediately ; and, though he began to move
off, fired again, and shot him into the head, and had

the pleasure to see him drop, and making but little
noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore.
* Well, go,' said T. So the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, ware
to shore with the other hand, and coming close
to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him into the head again, which dis-
patched him quite.
.Thiswas game indeed to us,but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of pow-
der and shot upon a creature that was good for no-
thing to us. However, Xury said he would have
some of him: so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury?' said I.
'Me cut off his head,' said lie. However, Xury
could not cut off his head; but lie cut off a foot, and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him mightoneway or other be of some value
to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury
was much the better workman at it, for I knew very
ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the
whole day; but at last we got off the hide of him,
and, spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it after-
wards served mle to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener in to tihe shore than we were
obliged to, for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the river Gambia or Senegall, that is to say,
any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to
seek for the islands, or perish there among the Ne-
groes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which

sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brasil, or
to the East Indies, made this cape or those islands,
and, in a word,I put the whole of my fortune upon
this single point, either that I must meetwith some
ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them,but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me,'No go, no go.' However,I
hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim: so 1 kept at
a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as
I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered
the top of my sail, and lay by,and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh,
and some corn, such as is the produce of their coun-
try; but we neither knew what the one or the other
was: however, we were willing to accept it. But
how to come at it, was our next dispute, for I was
not for venturing on shore to them, and they were
as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for
us all, for they brought it to the shore, and laid it
down, and went and stood a great way off, till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had no-
thing to make them amends; but an opportunity of-
fered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully;
for while we were lying by the shore, came two

mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury, from the mountains towards the
sea: whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell any more than we could tell whetherit was
usual or strange; but I believe it was tie latter,
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second
place, we found the people terribly frighted, espe-
cially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did. How-
ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon the
Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and
swam about as if they had come for their diversion:
at last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him,for
I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he
came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him
directly into the head. Immediately he sunk down
into the water, but he rose instantly, and plunged up
and down as if lie was struggling for life; and so in.
deed he was. He immediately made to the shore;
but, between the wound, which was his mortal hurt
and the strangling of the water, he died just before
he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fite ofmy gun:
some of them were ready even to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when
they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart, and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by
his blood staining the water, and by the help of a
rope, which I flung round him,and gave the Negroes
to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to
an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their

hands with admiration, to think what it was I killed
him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire,
and the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and
ran up directly to the mountains, from whence they
came, nor could I at that distance know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me, which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him, and though they had no knife, yet
with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his
skin as readily, nay, much more readily than we
would have done with a knife. They offered me some
of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would
give it them, but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provision, which though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to
them for some water, and held out one of my jars
to them, turning its bottom upward, to shew that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends,
and there came two women, and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in
the sun: this they set down for me, as before, and E
sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. Tile women were as stark naked as the
I was now furnished with roots and corn.such as
it was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, with-
out offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land
run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me, and, the
sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make
this point; at length, doubling the point at about
two leagues from the land, 1 saw plainly land on
the other side to seaward; then I concluded, as it

was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de
Verd, and those the islands, called from thence
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one nor other.
In this dilemma,'as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when on a sudden the boy cried out,' Mas-
ter, master, a ship was a sail!' and the foolish boy
was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw not only the ship, but what she was;
viz, that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes. But
when I observed tie course she steered, T was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and
did not design to go any nearer to the shore, upon
which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal to
them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective-glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which they supposed must be-
long to some ship that was lost; so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this,
and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and
fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the
gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought
to, and lay by for me, and in about three hours
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of

them: but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman, that I had made my escape.out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed
it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition as I was in. I immediately offered all I had
to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deli-
verance; but he generously told me, he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be deli-
vered safe to te when I came to the Brasils. For,'
says he, I have saved your life on no other terms
than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides,' says he, when I carry
you to the Brasils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what little you
have, you will be starved there,and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,' says he,' Sig-
nor Inglese [Mr. Englishman], I will carry you thi-
ther in charity, and these things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
seamen that none should offer to touch any thing I
had: then he took every thing into his own posses-
sion, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might ha e them again, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it.
I told him he had been so generous to me in every
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told
me lie would give me a note of his hand to pay me

sO pieces of eight for it at Brasil, and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would
make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight
more for my boy, Xury, which I was loath to take;
not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted mn so taithfully in procur,
ing my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to he just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation
to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Vpon this, Xury saying lie was willing to go to
him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and
arrived in the Bay de todos los Santos, or All Saints
Bay, in about twenty two days after. And now I
was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself, I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, T
can never enough remember: he would tale nothing
of me for my passage, gave me 20 ducats for the
leopard's skin, and 40 for the lion's skin,which I had
in the boat, and caused every thing I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell, lie bought, such as the case of bot-
tles, two of'my guns, and a piece of the lump of
tees-wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a
word, 1 made about 200 pieces of eight of all my
cargo, and with this stock I went on snore in the
I had not been long here,but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation
and a sugar-house, I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself by that means with the manner
of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they grew
rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get licence to
settle there, I would tumn planter among then; re-

solving, in the mean time, to find out some way to
get my money which I had left in London remitted
to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a
plan for my plantation and settlement, and such a
one as might be suitable to the stock which I pro.
posed to myself to receive fiom England.
1 had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
neighbour, because his plantation lay.next to mine,
and we went on very sociably together: my stock
was but low as well as his, and we rather planted
for food than any thing else for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began
to conm into order, so that the third yearwe planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help; and now I found, more
than before, 1 had done wrong in parting with my
boy, Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on. I was gotten into an employment quite
remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my fa.
other's house, and broke through all his good advice;
nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or
upper degree of low life, which my father advised
me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with,
I might as well have staid at home, and never fia
tigued myself in the world, as I have done: and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this
as well in England among my friends, as have gone
5000 miles off to do it among strangers and savages
in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to
hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition

with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with, but now and then this neighbour: no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used
to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some
desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been, and how should all men
reflect, that, when they compare their present con-
dition with others that are worse, Ileaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity, by their experience! I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on in at island of mere desolation should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it
with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceedingly
prosperous and rich!
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend,
the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there in providing her
loading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: 'Signor I glese,' says he (for
so he always called me), if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders but for 1001. sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first, so that if it come safe, you may order the rest
the same way, and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply.'
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-

pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full ac-
count of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and
how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for
my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over not the order only,
but a full account of my story, to a merchant at Lon-
don, who presented it effectually to her; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 1001. in Eng.
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them
all safe to me to the Brasils; among which, without
my direction (for I was too young in my business to
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts
of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and
my good steward, the captain, had laid out the 51.
which my friend had sent him for a present for him-
self,-to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize, and
things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I may say, I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now in-
finitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I

did, I bought me a Negro slave and an European
servant also : I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation: I raised lifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours, and these fifty
rolls being each of above 100 lb. weight, were well
cured and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon. And now increasing in business and
wealth, my health began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach, such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I
had room for all the happy things to have yet be.
fallen me, for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet retired life, and which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be
full of; but other things attended me, and I was still
to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries: and
particularly to increase my fault, and double the rec
elections upon myself which in my future sorrows I
should have leisure to make; all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering
to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and
plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures
of life, which Nature and Providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now; but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only
to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of tile thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf
of human misery that ever man fell into, or per-

haps could be consistent with life, and a state of
health in the world.
To come then by just degrees to the particulars of
this part of my story: You maysuppose thathaving
now lived almost four years in the Brasils, and be-
ginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my
plantation, I had not only learned the language, but
had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvadore, which was our port, and that, in'
my discourse among them, I had frequently given
them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys,knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold-
dust, Guinea-grains, elephant's teeth, &c. but Ne-
groes for the service of the Brasils,in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade at that Lime not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had bpen carried on by the assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock, so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and
talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they had
been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they tojd me that they had a mind to fit
out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home,
so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring

the Negroes on shore privately, and divide thelr
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea: and they offered me that I should
have my equal share of the Negroes, without pro.
viding any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,lhad
it been made to any one that had not had a settle.
ment and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,
and with a good stock upon it. But for me that was
thus established, and had nothing to do but go on as I
had begun for three or four years more, and (o have
sent for the other 1001. from England, and who in
that time, and with that little addition, could sca ce
have failed of b, ing worth 3 or 40001. sterling, and
that increasing too; fur meto think of such a voyage,
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, 1 told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would under,
take to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so;- and
I made a formal will, disposing of, my plantation
and effects, in case of my death, making the cap-
tain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my
effects as I had directed in my will: one half of the
prod uce being to himself, and the other to be slipped
to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I

ought to have done and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a
thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended witl all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.
But 1 was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy, rather than my reason; and,
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull,in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
with the Negroes; such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking.glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day 1 went on board, we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast,
with design to stretch over for the African coast,
when they came into about tenor twelve degrees of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good wea-
ther, only excessive hot all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino, from whence keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle of Fernand de Norouba, holding our course
N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were, by our last observation, in
7 degrees, 22 minutes, northern latitude, when a
violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of
our knowledge: it began from the south-east, cama

about to the north-west, and then settled into thel
north-east, from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive; and scudding away before it, let
it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds
directed: and during these twelve days, I need not
say that I expected every day to be swallowed up;
nor did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm,one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as lie could, and found
that he was in about 11 degrees of north latitude,
but that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference
west from CaipeSt.Augustino; so that he found lie
was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north
part of Brasil, beyond the river Amazones, towards
that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River: and now lie began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky,
and very much disabled, and lie was for going di-
rectly back to the coast of Brasil,
I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at
sea, to avoid the iondraught of the Bay or Gulf of
Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail: whereas we could not pos-
sibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa, with-
out some assistance both to our ship, and to our-
With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N. W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined: for, being
in the latitude of 12 degrees, 18 minutes, a second

storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages, than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early one morning, cried out,
* Land !' and we had no sooner run out of the cabin.
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and, in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner that we ex-
pected we should all have perished immediately;
and we were even driven into our close quarters,
to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in
the like condition, to describe or conceive the con-
sternation of men in such circumstances. Weknew
nothing where' we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven, whether an island or the main, whe-
ther inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of
the wind was still great, though father less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship
hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless
the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for an-
other world, for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this that which was our present com-
fort, and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary
to our expectation, tie ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a
little abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon
the sand. and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our

lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the
next place she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her.
We had another boat ct\ board; but how to get her
off into the sea, was a doubtful thing, HIowever,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute; and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship's side, and
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might well be'called, Den wild zee,' as
the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now ourcase wasvery dismal indeed; for we
all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the
boat could not escape, and that we should be in-
evitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none;
nor, if we had, could we have done any thing with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for
we all knew, that when the boat came near the
shore, site would be dashed in a thousand pieces,
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and
the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling, as well
as we could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whe-
ther steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope
that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where, by great
chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land,and perhaps made smooth water.

But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace.' In a word, it
took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat
at once, and separating us as well from the boat
as from one another, gave us not time hardly to
say, 0 God for we were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water, for though
1 swam very well, yet I could not deliver ,myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. 1 had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
the laud, as fast as I could, before another wave
should return, and take nme up again. But I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the
sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with; my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so by swiiunltng to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it,
when it gave back towards thle sea.
Thie wave that came upon me again, buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body,and
I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; buti

held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself
rising up. so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time
that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so
long but I held it out, and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet, I stood still a few moments to
recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then I took to my heels, and ran with what
strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again, and
twice inie I was lifted up by the waves, and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been
fatal to me; for the sea having hurried me along as
before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece of a rock, and that with such force as it left
me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my onll
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it wele, quite out of my body,
and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in tile water; but I recovered a
little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I
should be covered again with the water, 1 resolved
to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if, possible, till the wave went back.
Now, as the waves were not so high as at ihst, being
near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run,which brought me so near
the shore, that the next wave, though it went over,
me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry lIe
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up

the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach
of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there was some minutes before
scarce any room to hope.- I believe it is impossible
to express to the life, what tile ecstasies and trans-
ports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave: and 1 do not wonder
now at that custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who
has the. halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a
surgeon with it, to let him blood that very mo-
mnent they tell him of it, that the surprise may not
drive the animal spirits from tile heart, and over-
whelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe, re-
flecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved hut
myself: for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to tile stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of tie sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore !
AfterI had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of place I was in, and what was next
to be done, and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wgt, had no clothes to shift me, nor any

thing either to eat or drink to comfort me, neither
did I see any prospect before me, but that of perish.
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts:
and that which was particularly afflicting to me,
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill
any creature for my sustenance, or to defend my-
self against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, 1 had nothing about
me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box: this was all my provision, and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me,
I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what
would be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, seeing at night they always conie
abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sir all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die; for, as yet, I saw
no prospect of life. 1 walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to
drink, which I did to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth, to pre-
vent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I
should sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defeuce, I took
up my lodging; and having been excessively fa-
tigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition;
and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such occasion.
When [ waked, it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did not
rage and swell as before: but that which surprised
me most, was, that the ship was lifted off, in thei
night, from the sand where she lay, by tile swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as tie

rock, which I first mentioned, where I had been so
bruised by the dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, 1 looked about me again; and the first thing I
found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore, to have got to her, but found a neck or
inlet of water between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found tle sea very calm; and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for 1 saw evidently that
if we had kept on board we had been all safe, that
is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute
of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears from my eyes again ; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off miy clothes, for the weather
,was hot to extremity, and took the water; but,
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was no-
thing within nly reach to lay hold of. I swam round
her twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope,which Iwondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore chains, so low as that with
great difficulty 1 got hold of it, and, by the help of
that rope, got up into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so

on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low almost to the water; by this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry: for you may be sure my first work was to search
and to see what was spoiled, and what was free; and
first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well
disposed to eat, 1 went to the bread-room, and filled
my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found
some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to
spirit me for what was before me. Now 1 wanted
nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
notto be had; and this extremity roused my applica-
tion. We had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage
for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not dive away. When this was done, I
went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me,
I tied four of them fast together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways,
I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light: so I went to work, and, with a car-
penter's saw, 1 cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains; but the hope of furnish-
ing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
beyond'what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it

with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea : but I was not long considering
this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much
upon, and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we
brought to sea with us ; hut the fowls were killed:
there had been some barley and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in
all about five or six gallons of arrack: these I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them into
the chest, nor any room for them. While I was do-
ing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon
the sand,swim away ; as for my breeches, which were
only linen and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them
and my stockings. However, this putme upon rum-
maging for clothes, of which I found enough, but
took no more than I wanted for present use, for
1 had other things which my eye was more upon:
as first, tools to work with on shore, and itwas after
long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were twa very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two

old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gun-
ner had stowed them, but with much searchli found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water: those two I got to my raft, with the
arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail,oar, or rudder,
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset
all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. First, A smooth and
calm sea. Secondly, The tide rising and setting in to
the shore. Thirdly, What little wind there was, blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two
or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-
sides the tools which were in the chist, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I
put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before,
by which I perceived that there was some indraught
of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land. I found a strong
current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as
well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here 1 had like to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft run aground, at one end of it, upon a shoal,
and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water:
I did my utmost by setting my back against the
chests, to keep thlem in their places, but could not
thrust off tlhe raft with all my strength; neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in, but, holding
up the chests with all my might, stood in that man

ner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and
a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current of tide run-
ning up. I looked on both sides for a proper place
to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river, hoping in time to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself
as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which with great pain and difficulty
I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that,
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to
land, but where one end of the float, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower,
as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at
the highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near
a flat piece of ground, which I expected the water
would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough (for my raft drew about a foot of
water), I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my
two broken oars into the ground, one on one side
near one end, and one on tie other side near the
other end; and thus'I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my lhabitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might hap.
pen. Where I was,I yet knew not; whether on the
continent, or on an island; whether inhabited, or
not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or

not. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge
from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of pow-
der, and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up
to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great
labour and difficulty got up, I immediately saw my
fate, to my great affliction: viz. that I was in an
island, environed every way with the sea, no land
to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way
off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a large wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there,
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose
an extraordinary number of fowls, of many sorts,
making a confused screaming and crying, every one
according'to his usual note; but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for that creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common : its flesh was can ion, and fit for
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest or the day. What to do
with myself at night, I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though I afterwards found there was really no need
for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging: as for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.
1 now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
hand, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her all
in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got every thing out of the ship that I could
get: then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only
that'I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard; but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's store I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above
all, that most useful thing called a grindstone: all
these 1 secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of muskiet bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-pirce, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bah full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet lead: but this lastwas
so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothics

that I could find, and a spare fore-top-sail, ham-
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them also all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my ab-
sence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore; but when I came back,
I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a crea-
ture like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away to a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if
she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I pre-
sented my gun at her; but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her
a bit of biscuit, though by the'way I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great. However I
spared her a bit, I say. and she went to it, smelled
of it, and eat it, and looked (as pleased) for more;
but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks), I went to work to make a little tent with the
sail and some poles which I cut.for that purpose;
and into this tent I brought every thing that I
knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round
the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either
from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without, and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my bead, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, being very weary and heavy ; for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard

all day, as well to fetch those things from the ship,
as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever were laid up, I believe, for one man; but I
was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright
in that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could: so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun-pow-
der, In a word, I brought away all the sails first
and last, only that I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voy-
ages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
expect fiom the ship that was worth my meddling
with, I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead
of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a
box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was
surprising to me, because I had given over expect-
ing any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that
bread, and wript it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word,
I got all this safe on shore alno, though at several
The next day I made another voyage; and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable, and
fit to hand out,I began with the cables; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move,
I got two cables and- a haulser on shore, with all
the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spril-sail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing
1 could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all

those heavy goods, and came away. But my good
luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so oveiladen, that after I was entered the little
cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods,
not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm,
for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo it was
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me. HIow-
ever,when the tidewas out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour, for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which' fatigued me very much. After
this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
Ihad been now thirteen dayson shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought
away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on
board; and though I thought I had rummaged the
cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could be
found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers in it,
in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen good
knives and forks; in another, I found about thirty-
six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brasil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
I smiled to myself at tile sight of this money. 0
drug!' said 1, aloud, what art those good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the
ground. One of those knives is worth all this heap.
I have no manner of use for thee: even remain where
thou art, and go to tie bottom as a creature whose
life is not worth saving!' However, upon second

thoughts I took it away, and wrapping all this in a
piece of canvas, I began to think of making another
raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quar-
ter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore:
it presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to
pretend to make a raft, with the wind off shore, and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all: accordingly I let myself
down into the water, and swam cross the channel,
which lay between the ship and the sand, and even
that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight
of the things I had about me, and partly the rough.
ness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I
lay with all my wealth about me very secure: it
blew very hard all that night; and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised,but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection; viz. that I had lost
no time, nor abated any diligence, to get every thing
out of her that could be useful to me; and that
indeed there was little left in hler that 1 was able to
bring.away, if I had had more time. I now gave
over any more thought of the ship, or of any thing
out of her, except what might drive on shore from
her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make; whether
I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon
both; tile manner and description of which it may
not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my

settlement, particularly because it was upon a low
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would
not be wholesome,and more particularly because there
was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me; first, Health, and
fresh water, as I just now mentioned; secondly,
Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, Security
from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast;
fourthly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any
ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, for which I was not willing to banish
all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain.was as steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave, but there was not really any cave
or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door, and at
the end of it descended irregularly every way down
into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the
N.N.W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered
from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by
S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is
near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
inits semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened

on the top; the two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows upon one another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it,
or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by
a door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution from the ene-
mies I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above;
and I made me large tent also, which, to preserve me
from the rains, that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz. one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it; and covered
the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
every thing that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and
repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way

into the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down, out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within-about a foot and a
half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before
all these things were brought to perfection; and
therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that,
a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of
it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning,
as 1 was with the thought which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself: Omy powder!
My very heart sunk within me, when 1 thought,that
at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended: I was no-
thing near so anxious about my own danger; though,
had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me,that after
the storm was over, I1laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes, that
whatever might come, it might not all take fire at
once, and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight, and I think my
powder, which in all was about 1401b. weight, was
divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As
to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen;
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the,

rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very
carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any
thing fit for food, and, as near as could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first
time 1 went out, I presently discovered, that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satis-
faction to me; but then it was attended with this
misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy, so sub-
tle, and so swift of foot, that it was the diflicultest
thing in the world to come at them; but I was not
discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this
manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they
were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded, that by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects that were above them. So after-
wards I took this method: I always climbed the
rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock-still by her till I came and took her up;
and-not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it
over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while; for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions
(my bread especially) as much as possibly 1 could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its place: but
I must first give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which it may well be
supposed were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as t
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face, when I made these reflections;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
Why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so.absolutely miserable,
so without help, abandoned, and so entirely de-
pressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life?
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and par-
ticularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea side, 1 was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
put in, expostulating with me the othet way, thus:
Well, you are in a desolate condition,it is true, but
pray remember,where are the rest of you? Did not
you come eleven of you into tile boat? where are
the ten? why were not they saved, and you lost?
why were you singled out? is it better to be here or
there? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils
are to be considered with the good that is in them,
and with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have

been my case, if it had not happened, which was an
hundred thousand to one, that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her? What would have been my-case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in which
1 at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or any means to supply and procure them? Parti-
cularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what would
I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make any thing, or to work
with ? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any man-
ner of coverings? And that now I had all these to
a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to pro.
vide myself in such a manner, as to live without my
gun when my ammunition was spent, so that I had
a tolerable view of subsisting without any want as
long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning
how I would, provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not
only after my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion
of my ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I
mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and
this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30Lt of September, when,
in the manner as abovesaid, I first set foot upon
this horrid island, when tie sun being, to us, in its
autumnal equinox, was almostjust over my head;
for 1 reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes North of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts, that I should lose my
reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and

ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days from
the working days: but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and,
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed; viz. I came on shore here the
30th of Sept. 1659. Upon the sides of this square
post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among
the many things which I brought off the ship in the
several voyages, which, as above-mentioned, 1 made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not at
all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down
before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, seve-
ral parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and
carpenter's keeping, three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled to.
gether, whether I might want them or no; also I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things: some Portuguese books also, and
among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and
several other books, all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may
have occasion to say something in its place; for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on
shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many
years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me; I
only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he
could not do. As I observed before, I found pen,
ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the ut*
most; and I shall shew, that while my ink lasted, I

kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I
could not; for I could not make any ink, by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed to-
gether; and of these, this of ink was one, as also a
spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily, and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded ha.
bitation: the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cut-
ting and bringing home one of those posts, and a
third day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at
lastbethought myselfofone ofthe iron crows,which
however, though 1 found it, yet made driving those
posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what .need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in ? Nor had I any other em-
ployment, if that lad been over, at least that I
could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew
up tile state of my affairs in writing; not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me,
for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind; and as my reason began now to
master my desuondency, I began to comfort myself
as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed,
against the miseries I suffered, thus:


I am cast upon a hor-
rible desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out, and
separated, as it were,
from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitary, onei ba-
nished from human so-

I have no clothes to
cover me.

I am without any de-
fence or means to resist
any violence of man or

I have no soul to speak
to, or relieve me.

But I am alive, and
not drowned, as all my
ship's company was.

But I am singled out
too, from all the ship's
crew, to be spared from
death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am not starved,
and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no

But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an
island where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of
Africa: and what if I
had been shipwrecked
there ?

But God wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to theshore, that
I have gotten outso many
necessary things as will
either supply my wants,
or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as
1 live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testi-
mony, that there was scarce any condition in the
world so miserable, but there was something nega-
tive, or something positive, to be thankful for in it:
and let this stand as a direction from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of
good and evil, on the credit-side of the accompt.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to
see if I could spy a ship; 1 say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my
way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.
I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables, but I might
now rather call it a wall; for I raised a kind of wall
up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside; and after some time (I think it was a year
and a half) I raised rafters fiom it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of
trees, and such things as 1 could get to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.
1 have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me; but I must observe too, that, at
first, this was a confused heap of goods, which, as
they lay in no order, so they took up all my place:
I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth;
for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily
to tile labour I bestowed on it: and so, when I
found I was petty safe as to the beasts of prey, I
worked sideways to the right hand into the rock;
and, then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the out-
side of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
was a back-way to my tent, and to my store-house,
but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the
world; I could not write or eat, or several things,
with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs ob.
serve, that as reason is the substance and original
of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring every
thing by reason, and by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labour, appli-
cation, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially
if I had had tools: however, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more
tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite
labour. For example; if I wanted a board, I had
no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and lew it flat on either side with
my.axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a
whole tree; but this I had no remedy for, but pa-
tience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board : but my time or labour was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
IHowever, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place, and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship; but when I had wrought out
some boards, as above, I made large shelves of tihe
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all

along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron-work, and, in a word, to separate every
thing at large in their places, that I might easily
come at them: also, I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and
i lad every thing so ready at my hand, that itwas a
great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such
order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal
of every day's employment; for indeed at first I
was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry as to
labour, but in too much discomposure of mind, and
my journal would have been full of many dull
things. For example, I must have said thus: Sep-
tember the 30th, After I got to shore, and had es-
caped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
for my deliverance, having first vomited with the
great quantity of salt water which was gotten into
my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, I was undone! undone! till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but
durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after 1 had been on
board the ship, and had got all I could out of her,
yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of
seeing a ship: then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied
a sail; please myself with the hopes of it; and then,
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and
thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things, in some
measure, and having settled my household-stuff
and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and

all as handsome about me as I could, I began, T say,
to keep my journal, of which I shall here give you
the copy (though in it will be told all these particu-
lars over again), as long as it lasted; for at last
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.


SEPTEMBER 10, 1659. I, poor miserable Ro-
binson Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful
storm in tie offing, came on shore on this dismal
unfortunate island, which I called the Island of
Despair, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself
at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz.
I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place
to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me, either that 1 should be de-
voured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night, I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had tioated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island,
which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for see-
ing her sit upright, and not broken in pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my
grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined,
if we had all staid on board, might have saved tile
ship, or at least that they would not have been all
drowned, as they were; and that, lad the men been
saved,we might perhaps have built us a boat out of
the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. 1 spent great part of this

day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the
sand as near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day also continued raining, though with no
wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to get
all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain
also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy sea-
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the
things being chiefly heavy,I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
October 95. It rained all night, and all day,
with some gusts of wind, during which time the
ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I saved, that the rain might not
spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly
concerned to secure myself from any attack, in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or forti-
fication, made of double piles, lined within with
cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard
in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though some part of the time it rained exceeding
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun, to see for some food, and dis-
cover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her

kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed
also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards,
and the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and
with them formed a fence round me, a little within
the place I had marked out for my fortification.
November 3. I went out with my gun, and
killed two fowls like ducks, which were very good
food. In the afternoon, went to work to make me a
November 4. This morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time of
sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun, for two or three hours, if
it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live
on: and, from twelve to two, I lay down to sleep,
the weather being excessive hot, and then in the
evening to work again. The working part of this
day and the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete na-
tural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do
any one else.
November 5. This day I went abroad with my
gun and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin
pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every
creature I killed, I took off the skins and preserved
them. Coming back, by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or
three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
November 6. After my morning walk, I went to
work with my table again, and finished it, though

not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the
12th (for the 11th was Sunday, according to my
reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a chair,
and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it to pieces several times. Note, I soon neg-
lected keeping my Sundays; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which,
November 13. This day it rained, which re-
freshed me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but
it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to se-
parate my stock of powder into as many little par-
cels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent
in making little square chests or boxes, which might
hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder; and so putting the powder in, I stowed it
in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind
my tent into the rock, to make room for my farther
conveniency. Note, Three things I wanted exceed-
ingly for this work; viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and a
wheelbarrow or basket: so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that
want, and make me some tools. As for the pick-
axe, I made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing
was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely ne-
cessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make, I knew
November 18, The next day, in searching the

woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it,
which, in the Brasils, they call the iron-tree, for its
exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home too with difficulty enough, for it was ex-
ceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having
no other way, made me a long while upon this ma.
chine; for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long: however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to: but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a
wheelbarrow: a basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware, or at least none yet found
out; and, as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel; butthat I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it: besides, I
had no possible way to make iron gudgeons, for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it
over: and so, for carrying away the earth which I
dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod,
which the labourers carry mortal in, when they serve
the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the at-
tempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days: I mean,
always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also
of bringing home something fit to eat.
November 23, My other work having stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on; and, working every day as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days

entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
Note, During all this time, I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me
as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-
room, and a cellar; as for a lodging, I kept to the
tent, except that.sometimes in the wet season of
the year it rained so hard, that I could not keep
myself dry; which caused me afterwards to cover
all my place within my pale, with long poles, in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags, and large leaves of trees, like a
December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when, on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large), a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side, so much that, in
short, it frighted me, and npt without reason too;
for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
gravedigger. Upon this disaster, I had a great
deal of work to do over again: for I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more import-
ance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might
be sule no more would come down.
December 11. This day I went to work with it
accordingly, and got two shores, or posts, pitched
upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across
over each post. This I finished the next day ; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more 1 had the roof secured; and the posts, stand-
ing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
December 17. From this day to the 20th, I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts,
to hang every thing up that could be hung up;
and now I began to be in some order within
December 20. Now I carried every thing into
the cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up
some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my

victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce
with me. Also I made me another table.
December 24. Much rain all night and all day:
no stirring out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26f. No rain, and the earth much
cooler than before, and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I watched it, and led it home in a
string; when I had it home I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke. N. B. I took such
care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well, and
as strong as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew i
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I
entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.
December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening for food. This time I spent in putting all
my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad,
early and late, with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening, going farther into
the valleys, which lay to the centre of the island,
I found there was plenty of goats, though exceed-
ing shy, and hard to come at: however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went
out with my dog, and set him upon thegoats; but I
was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for lie would not
come near them.
January 3. I began my fence or wall, which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by some-
body, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
[N. B. This wall being described before, I pur.
posely omit what was said in the journal: it is suf

ficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being
a half circle, from one place in the rock, to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave
being in the centre behind it.]
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hin-
dering me many days, nay, sometimes, weeks to-
gether; but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished and it is scarce
credible what inexpressible labour every thing was
done with2 especially the bringing piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I
made them much bigger than I needed to have
When this wall was finished, and the outside
double fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to
it, I persuaded myself, that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive any
thing like a habitation: and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very re-
markable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me, and
made frequent discoveries in these walks of some,
thing or other to my advantage; particularly I
found a kind of wild- pigeons, which build not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks: and taking some young
ones, T endeavoured to breed them up tame, and
did so; but when they grew older, they flew all
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them: however, T
frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat.
And now,in the managing mylousehold affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I
thought atfirst it was impossible for me to make, as
indeed as to some of them it was: for instance, I

could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I
could never arrive to the capacity of making one by
them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the beads, or join the staves so true
to one another, as to make them hold water; so I
gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for can-
dles; so that as soon as it was dark, which was ge-
nerally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of bees-wax, with which I
made candles in my African adventure; but I had
none of that now: the only remedy I had, was, that
when I had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in
the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum,
1 made me a lamp: and this gave me light, though
not a clear steady light, like a candle. In the mid- I
die of all my labours it happened, that, rummag-
ing my things, I found a little bag, which, as I
hinted before, had been filled with corn, for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbou:
what little remainder of corn had been in the bag,
was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothingin
the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use (I think it was to
put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of
corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
tile rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now
mentioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no
notice of any tiling, and not so much as remember-
ing that I had thrown any thing there; when, about
a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting up on the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised, and perfectlyastonished,
when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or

twelve ears come out, which were perfect green bar.
ley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion: 1 had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;
indeed I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of any thing
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance,
or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so
much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or his order in governing events in
the world: but, after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that 1 knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely, and I began to suggest, that
God had miraculously caused this grain to grow,
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance in that wild mi-
serable place.
This touched my heart a little, and bought tears
out of my eyes, and 1 began to bless myself, that
such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to
be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had
seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
1 not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support; but, not doubting but
that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
see for more of it; but I could not find any: at last
it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shaken the
bag of chicken's meat out in that place; and then the
wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my re-
ligious thankfulness to God's providence began to
abate too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common, though I ought to
E 2

have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that should
order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled (when the rats had de.
stroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped from
heaven: as also that I should throw it out in that
particular place, where, it being in the shade of a
high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I
had thrown it any where else, at that time, it had
been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you maybe
sure, in lleir season, which was about the end of
June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread: but it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but
sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order; for
I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not ob-
serving the proper time, for I sowed just before
the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at
least.not as it would have done: of which, in its
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the
same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or
to the same purpose; viz. to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also, after some time. But
to return to my journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four
months, to get my wall done; and, the 14th of
April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not
by a door, but over the wall, by aladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder: so I went up
with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
after me, and let it down on the inside. This was
a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room

enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I
had almost had all my labour overthrown at once,
and myself killed. The case was thus: as I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,just in the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down
from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the
hill, over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave, cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared, but thought nothing of what really
was the cause; only thinking that the top of my
cave was falling in, as some of it had done before,
and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forwards
to my ladder; and, not thinking myself safe there
neither, 1 got over my wall, for fear of the pieces of
the hill, which I expected might roll down upon
me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three
times, at about eight minutes distance, with three
such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood upon
the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me next the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise, as I never
heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into a violent motion by it; and, I believe,
the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.
I was so amazd with the thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had,
that I was like one dead or stupified; and the mo-
tion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one
that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling
of the rock awaked me, as it were, and, rousing me
from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with
horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill

falling upon my tent, and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more
for some time, I began to take courage; and yet I
had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive; but still sat upon the
ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the
least serious religious thought, nothing but the com-
mon 'Lord, have mercy upon me and when it was
over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it
grew cloudy, as if it would rain; and, in less than
half an hour, it blew a most dreadful hurricane of
wind. The sea was all on a sudden covered with
foam and froth, the shore was covered with the
breach of the water, the trees were torn up by the
roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and
then in two hours more it was calm, and began to
rain very hard.
All this while, I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came
into my thoughts, that these winds and rain, being
the consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began
to revive, and the rain helping also to persuade me,
I went in, and sat me down in my tent; but the
rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for
fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to
cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink,
to let the water go out, which would else have
drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave
some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed:

and now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store, and took a
small sup of rum, which, however, I did then, and
always, very sparingly, knowing I could have no
more, when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part
of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad;
but, my mind -being more composed, I began to
think of what I had best do; concluding that if
the island was subject to these earthquakes, there
would be no living for me in a cave, but I must con.
sider of building me some little hut, in an open
place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men; but concluded, if I staid where I
was, I should certainly, une time or other, be buried
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent
from the place where it stood,which was just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon
my tent. And I spent the two next days, being the
19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehen-
sion of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost
equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw
how every thing was put in order, how pleasantly
concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove.
In the mean timeit occurred to me, that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to run the venture where
I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had
secured it so as to remove to it. So, with this reso-
lution, I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that 1 would go to wcrk, with all speed, to build me
a wall, with piles and cables, &c. in a circle, as be-
fore, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished;

but that I would venture to stay where I was, till
it wae finished, and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider
of means to put this resolve in execution; but I
was at a great loss about my tools. 1 had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we car-
ried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but,
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though
I had a grindstone, I could not turn it, and grind
my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point
of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a
man. At length, I contrived a wheel, with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty. Note, I had not seen any such
thing in England, or at least not to take notice how
it was done, though since I have observed, it is very
common there; besides that, my grindstone was
very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full
week's work, to bring it to perfection.
April 18,29. These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools; my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, I now took a survey of it, and re-
duced myself to one biscuit cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore, bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
cask; when I came to it, I found asmall barrel, and
two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and,
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it
seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used
to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder,
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked

as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands,
as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to look
for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it
strangely removed: the forecastle, which lay before
buried in the sand,was heaved up at least six feet;
and the stern, which was broken to pieces, and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next the stern, that
whereas there was a great place of water before, so
that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of
tile wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was sur-
prised with this at first, but soon concluded it must
be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence
the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the de-
sign of removing my habitation; and I busied my-
self mightily, that day especially, in searching whe-
ther I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for
that all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learnt not to despair of
any thing, I resolved to pull every thing to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that every
thing I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece
of a beam through, which I thought held some of
the upper part, or quarter-deck, together; and when
I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well
as I could, from the side which lay highest: but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that

May 4. I went a fishing,.but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport,
when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dol-
phin. 1 had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and eat them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir-planks off from
the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on
shore, when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron-work;
worked very hard, and came home very much tired,
and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an
intent not to work; but found the weight of the
wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut,
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose,
and the inside of the hold lay so open, that I could
see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite
clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
May 9. Went to the wreck, and, with the crow,
made way into the body of tle wreck, and felt
several casks, and loosened them with the crow;
but could not break them up. I felt also the roll
of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too
heavy to move.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the
wreck, and got a great deal of pieces of timber, and
boards, or planks, and two or three hundred weight
of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other;

but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and
the wreck appeared more broken by the force of the
water; but I staid so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me going
to the wreck that day.
M;ay 17. 1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown
on shore, at a great distance, two miles off mer but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a
piece of the head; but too heavy for me to bring
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on
the wreck, and, with hard labour, I loosened some
things so much with the crow, that, the first flow.
ing tide, several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day, but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead which had some Brasil
pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food, which
I always appointed, during this part of my employ-
ment, to be when tihe tide was up, that 1 might be
ready when it was ebbed out: and, by this time, I
hab gotten timber and plank, and iron-work enough
to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got at several times, and in several pieces,
near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any
defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found after-
wards; but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs: and her flesh was to me at

that time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life, having had no flesh but of goats
and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18. Rained all the day, and I staid within.
I thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was
something chilly,which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the wea-
ther had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with
the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick,
and no help. Prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why: my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent head-ach.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats
after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak: however
I killed a she.goat, and, with much difficulty, got
it home, and broiled some of it, and eat: I would
fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had
no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay
abed all day, and neither eat nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to
drink: prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say; only I lay, and cried, Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon
me!' I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did

not awake till far in the night. When I awaked, I
found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ingly thirsty: however, as I had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had
this terrible dream:
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire,
and light upon the ground. He was all over as
bright as a lame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him: his countenance was most in-
expressibly dreadful, impossible for words to de-
scribe: when he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake; and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled
with flashes of fire.
Ile was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forward towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance,he spoke to me,
or I heard a voice so terrible, that itis impossible to
express the terror of it; all that I can say I under.
stood was this: Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die.'
At which words, I thoughthelifted up the spear that
was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will ex-
pect that I should be able to describe the horrors of
my soul at this terrible vision; I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those hor-
rors: nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind, when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no Divine knowledge: what I had
received by the good instruction of my father, was
then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight
years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-

versation with none but such as were like myself
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought
that so much as tended either to looking upwards
toward God, or inwards toward a reflection upon
my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, with,
out desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely
overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most har
dened.unthinking, wicked creature among our conm
mon sailors can be supposed to be, not having the[
least sense either of the fear of God in dangers, or!
of thankfulness to God in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when [ shall
add, that, through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as
one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin, my rebellious be.
haviour against my father, or my present sins, which
were great; or so much as a punishment for the
general course of my wicked life. When I was on
the desperate expedition, on the desert shores of;
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what:
would become of me, or one wish to God to direct
me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well
from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was
merely thoughtless of God, or a Providence: I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and
by the dictates of common sense only; and indeed
hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and
honourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the
least thankfulness in my thoughts: when again I
was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drown-
ing on this island, 1 was as far from remorse, or
looking on it as a judgment: I only said to myself
often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.

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