Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072748/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 177 p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Tute, L ( Printer )
Publisher: Printed by L. Tute
Place of Publication: Dublin
Publication Date: ca. 1818?
Edition: 3rd ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1818   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Ireland -- Dublin
Citation/Reference: Boston Public Library. Defoe collection
Citation/Reference: Gumuchian
General Note: Abridged.
General Note: Date from Boston Public Library, cited below.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072748
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13528909

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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text
-fro I* It a' ii




2nto ttto res










I WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of a
reputable family. My father was a native of
Bremen, who, by merchandizing at Hull for
some time, gained a very plentiful fortune.
He married my mother at York, who received
her first breath in that country : and as her
maiden name was Robinson, I was called
Robinson Kreutrnaer, which not being easily
pronounced in the English tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. The
eldesA was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's
regiment, but slain by the Spaniards; what
became of the other I could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my
education. My father designed me for the
Jaw, yet nothing could serve me but I must go
_to sea, both against the will of my father, the

tears of my mother, and the intrcntics of my
friends. One morning, my father expostuLt;ird
very warmly with me. What reason, says he,
have you to leave your native country, w here
there must be a more certain prospect of coi-
tent and happiness, to enter into a wandering
condition of uneasiness and uncertainty? lHe
recommended to me Agur's wish, either to
desire poverty, nor riches ; that a middle state
of life was the most happy; and that the high
towering thoughts of raising our condition by
wandering abroad, were surrounded with mi-
sery and danger, and often ended with conl'r-
sion and disappointment. I entreat yon, v y,
I command you, (says be,) to desist froni these
intentions. If you will go, (added he) my
prayers shall however be oftered for your pre-
servation ; but a time may corner, when, deso-
late, oppressed, or forsaken, you may wish
you had taken your poor despised father's
counsel. He pronounced those words with
such a moving and paternal eloquence, whi'e
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that
it seemed to stem the torrentt of my resolutions.
But this soon wore off, and a little flicr, 1 in-
formed my mother that I could not settle at
any business, my resolution was so string to
see the world, and begged she would gain my
either's consent only to go one voyage; which
if it did not prove prosperous, I would never
attempt a second. But my desire was as vain
as my follyin asking. My mother passionately
expressed her dislike of tiis proposal, telling

me, That as she saw I was bent on my own
destruction, contrary t; their will and my duty,
she would say no more, but leave me to myself,
to do whatsoever I pleased.
1 was then, think, nineteen years old,
when 9ne time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow of mine going along with his father, who
was master of a ship, to London, and acquaint-
ing him with my wandering desires, he assured
me ef a free passage, and a plentiful share ol'
what was necessary. Thus, without imploring
a blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, 1
took shipping on the first of September 1651.
Upon the sixth day we came to an anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcastle ships; and there being a good
anchorage, and our cables sound, the seamen
forgot their late toil and danger, and speut
the time as merrily as it' they had been on
shore. But an the eighth day, there arose a
brisk gale of wind, which prevented our
tiding it up the river; and it still increasing,
our ship rode forecastle in, and shipped se-
veral large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard th master
ex press this melancholy ejaculation, Lord have
ter:y upon us, we shall be all lost and undone!
For my part, sick unto death, I kept my cabin,
till the universal and terribly dreadful appre-
hensions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck, and there I was affrighted indeed. The
sea went mountains high: I could see nothing

but distress around us: two ships had cut
away their masts, and another had foundered :
two more that had lost their anchors, were
forced out to the mercy of the ocean; and, to
save our lives, we were forced to cut our fore.
mast and mainmast quite away.
Who is thert: so ignorant as not to judge of
my dreadful condition ? I was but a fresh
water sailor, and therefore seemed more ter-
rified. Our ship was very good, but over-
oaded ; which made the sailors often cry out,
She will founder: words I then was ignorant
of. All this while, the storm continuing, and
rather increasing, the master and the more
sober part of the men went to prayers, ex-
pecting death every moment. In the middle
of the night, one cried out, We had sprung a
leak : another, That there was four feet water
in the hold. I was just ready to expire with
fear, when immediately all hands were called
to the pump; and the men forced me also in
that extremity to share with them in their la.
hour. While thus employed, the master espy.
ing some colliers, fired a gun as a signal of dis-
tress; and I not understanding what it meant,
and thinking that either the ship broke, or
some dreadful thing happened, fell into a
swoon. Even in that condition of wo, no-
body minded me, excepting to thrust me aside
with their feet, thinking me dead ; and I was
a great while before 1 recovered.
Happy it was for us, when, upon the signal
given, they ventured out their boat to save our

lives. All our pumping had been in vain, and
vain hltd all our attempts been, had they not
come Io our ship's side, and our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
which itfter great difficulty theycaught hold of,
and vyv hauling them to us got into their boat,
and left our ship, which we perceived sink
within less than a quarter of an hour: and
thus I learned what was meant by foundering
at sea. And now the men incessantly la-
boured to recover their own ship; but the
sea rati so high, and the wind blew so hard,
that they thought it convenient to haul in
shore, which with great difficulty and danger
at last we happily effected, landing at a place
called Cromer, not far from Wintcvton light.
house; fromn whence we all walked to Yar-
mouth, where, as objects of pity, many good
people furnished us with the necessaries to
carry uis either to Hull or London.
Strange! that after all this, like the pro-
digal son, I did not return to my father; who,
hearing of tle ship's calamity, for a long time
thought me entombed in the deep. No doubt
but I should have shared in his fatted calf, as
the Scripture expresseth it; but my wayward
disposition still pushed me on, in spite of the
powerful convictions of reason and conscience.
When we had been at Yarmouth three days,
I met my old companion who had given me
the invitation to go on board along with his
father. His behaviour and speech was altered,
A 5

and, in a melancholy manner, he a-k d nm how
I did? telling his father who I was, and how I
had made this voyage for a trial only to pro-
ceed farther abroad. Upon which the old
gentleman turning to me, said, Young man, I
recommend you to chuse another line o/'l/fe; the
sea is an uncertain element to trust to, and you
have lately experienced some of the hardships to
which sailors are exposed. Sir, answered I,
will you take the same resolution ?. It is a dif-
ferent case, said he, it is my calling, and, coti-
sequently my duty to remain contented with it;
but as you have made this voyage for a trial
merely, and have every other line open to you,
Think you might chuse one less liable to hard-
ship and reverses. But pray what nre you, and
on what account did you go to sea. Upon which
I very freely declared my whole story ; at the
end of which he said, in a tone of seriousness,
which I shall never forget, Young man, you
ought to thank God, that you did not perish
whilstyou were committing this act of disobedi-
ence to your Father; had I known these cir-
cumstances, you may be assured I never should
have suffered you to sail along with us; thank
God, however, that you may still atone for the
pas'. Return to your Parents, they will for-
give you, but if you do not, recollect your 'a-
ther's words, and beware lest his warning should
be realized. And so we parted.
I thought at first to return home; but shame
opposed that good notion, as thinking I should

be laughed at by my neighbours and acquaint-
ances. So strange is the nature of youth, who
are not ashamed to sin, but yet ashamed to re-
pent; and so far from being ashamed of those
actions for which they may be accounted fools,
they think it folly to return to their duty, which
is the principal mark of wisdom. In short, I
travelled up to London, resolving upon a
voyage, and a voyage I soon heard of, by my
acquaintance with a captain who took a rancy
to me, to go to the cost of Guinea. Having
some money, and appearing like a gentleman,
I went on board, not as a common sailor or
foremast-man ; nay, the connmander agreed I
should go that voyage with him without any
expense; that I should be his messmate and
companion, and that I was welcome to carry
any thing with me, and make the best mer-
chandise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for his offer, and acquaint-
ing my friends in Yorkshire, forty pounds were
sent me, the greatest part of which, my dear
father and mother contributed, with which I
bought toys and trifles, as the captain directed
me. My captain also taught me aviationo,
so that I soon knew how to keep an aoeount
of the ship's course, and to take an observa-
tion, and also became acquainted with several
useful branches of (the mathematics. And
indeed this voyagQmade me both a sailor and
a merchant; for Ibrought home live pounds
nine ounces of gold dust, for my adventure,

which produced, at my return to London, al-
most three hundred pounds; but in this voyage
I was extremely sick, being thrown into a very
violent fever through excessive heat, trading
upon the coast from the latitude of fifteen de-
grees north, even to the line itself.
But, alas! my dear friend the captarn, de-
parted this life soon after his arrival. This was
a sensible grief to me; yet I resolved to gq
another voyage with his mate, who had now
got command of the ship. This provetU
very unsuccessful one; for though I did not
carry a hundred pounds of my late acquired
wealth, (so that I had two hundred pounds
l]ft, which I reposed with the Captain's widow,
who was an honest gentlewoman,) yet my mis-
fortunes in this voyage were very great. For
our ship sailing towards the Canary Iblands,
we wei e chased by aSalce rover; and in spite
of all the haste we could make, by crowding
as much canvas as our yards could spread, or
our masts carry, the pirate gained upon us,
so that we prcpalred ourselves to fight. They
had eighteen guns, and we had but twelve.
A bolt threc in the afternoon, there was a des-
perate ctnggement, wherein many were killed
and wounded on both sides: but finding our-
selves overpowered with numbers, our ship
disabled, and ourselves too impotent to have
the least hopes of success, we were forced to
surrender; and accordingly we were all carried
prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men
were zent to the Emperor's court to be sold

there; but the pirate captain taking notice of
me, kept me to be his own.slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most
miserable creature on earth; and the warning
of my father came afresh 4nto my thoughts.
However, my condiion'was better than I
thought it to be, as will soon appear. Some
hopes, indeed, I had that my new patron would
go to sea again, where he might be taken by a
Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and then
I should be set at liberty, But in this I was
mistaken; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and do
the drudgery of his house, and when he re-
turned from sea, would make me lie in the
cabin, and look after the ship. Ihad no one
that I could communicate my thoughts to,
which were continually meditating my escape,
No Englisliman, Irishman, or Scotchman,
amongst his slaves but myself; and for two
years I could see nothing practicable, but only
pleased myself with devising plans vlhich I
was always obliged to relinquish.
After some length of time,'my patron, as I
found, grew so poor, that he could not fit out
his ship as usual; and then he used constantly
once or twice a week, if the weather was fair,
to go out a fishing, taking me and a young
Moorish boy to row the boat; and so much
pleased was he with me for my dexterity in
catching the fish, that he would often send me
with a Moor, who was one of his kinsmen, and
the youth before-tuentioned, to catch a dish
of fish for hihm.

One morning, as we were fishing, there
arose such a thick fog, that we lost sight of the
shore; and rowing, we knew not which way,
we laboured all the night, and in the morning
we found ourselves in the ocean, two leagues
from land. However, we attained there at
length, and made the greatest haste, because
our stomachs were exceedingly sharp and hun-
gry. In order to prevent such disasters for
the future, my patron ordered a carpenter to
build a little state-room or cabin in the middle
of the long boat, with a place behind it to
steer and haul home the main sheet, with other
conveniences to keep him from the weather,
as also lockers to put in all manner of provi-
sions; with a handsome shoulder-of-mutton
sail, gibing over the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fishing;
and one time, inviting two or three persons of
distinction to go with him, laid in provisions
extraordinary; providing also three fusees,
with powder and shot, that they might kill
some sea fowl along the coast. The next
morning, the boat was made clean, her ancients
and pendants out, and every thing ready : but
their minds altering, my patron ordered us to
go a-fishing, for that his guests would certainly
sup with him that night.
And now I began to think of my deliverance
indeed. In order to this, I persuaded the
Moor to get some provisions on board, and to
procure some powder and shot, pretending to
kill sea-curlews, which he innocently and rea-

daily ,nrced to. In short, being provided with
all things necessary, we sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to
fishing; but though I knew there was a bite, I
dissembled the matter, in order to put farther
out to sea. Accordingly we ran a league far-
ther, when, giving the boy the helm, andpre-
tending tostoop lor something, I seized Mulcy
by surprise, and threw him overboard. As
lie was an excellent swimmer, he soon arose,
and made towards the boat; upon which I
took out a fusee, and presented it at him:
" Muley," said I, I never yet designed to
" do you any harm, and seek nothing now but
" my freedom. I know you are able enough
" to swim to shore, and save your life; but if
"' you are resolved to follow me to the en-
" dangering of mine, the very moment you
" proceed, I will shoot you through thehead."
The harmless creature, at these words, turned
himself from me, and, I make no doubt, got
safe to land Then turning to the boy Xury,
I perceived he trembled at the action; but 1
put him out of all fear, telling him, that if
le would be true and faithful to me, I would
do well by him, and not hurt him.
We then pursued our voyage, I kept to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast; but
in the dark oftheevening I changed my course,
that I might keep near the shore; and having
a fresh gale of wind, with a very pleasant
smooth sea, by three o'clock next day, I was
150 miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco's

dominions. I continued sailing for tive dLavs
successively, till such time as rhe wind shiit-
iIg to the southward, made me conclude, that
if any vessel was in chace of me, they would
proceed no further.
After so much fatigue and thought, I an-
chored at the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, or where, neither did I then sec any
people. What I principally wanted was fresh
water; and I was resolved about the dusk of
the evening to swim ashore: but no sooner
did the gloomy clouds of night begin to suc-
ceed the declining day, than we heard
such barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, that one might have thought
the very strongest monsters of nature had
their residence there. Poor Xury, who was
almost dead with fear, entreated me not to go
on shore that night. Suppose Idon't, Xary."
said I, and in the morning we should see
" men whoare worse than those we fear, what
" then?" 0 den we may give dem de shoot
" gun," said he, laughing, and de gun
( make dem ail run away." The wit, and
broken English which the boy had learned
from myself, for we had passed a great deal
of our time together, pleased me entirely,
and made me still fonder of him than be-
fore. We could get but little sleep all the
night for the terrible howlings they made;
and indeed we were very much affrighted.
The next morning, I was resolved to go on
shore to get in fresh water, and venture mv-
slfamonlg the beasts oravages, should either

attack me. Xury said he would take one of the
jars, and bring me some. I asked him why he
would go and not I? The poor boy answered,
" If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
" away." This, indeed increased my affec-
tion for the child. Well, dear Xury," said I,
9' we will both go ashore, both kill wild mans,
" and they shall eat neither of us." So giving
Xury apiece of bread to eat, we wadedashore,
carrying nothing with us but our arms, and two
jars for water. I did not go out of sightof the
boat, as dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes: but the boy seeing a low
descent or vale about a mile in thecountry, he
wandered to it: and then running back to me,
with great precipitation, I thought he was pur-
sued by some savages or wild beasts; upon
which I approached, resolving to perish, or
protect him from danger. As he came nearer
to me, Isaw something hanging over his shoul-
ders, which was a creature he had shot like a
hare, but different in colour, and with longer
legs; however, we wereglad of it, for it proved
wholesome and nourishing meat; but what
added to our joy was, my boy assured me
there was plenty of water, and that he saw
4' no wild mans." And greater still! was our
comfort, when we found fresh water in the
creek where we were, when the tide was out,
without going so far up into the country.
In this place I began to hope that I should
meet some of the English trading vessels, who
would relieve and take us in,

The place I was in was, nao Jubt, that wild
country, inhabited only by a few, that lies
between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the negroes. It is filled with wild beasts,
and the Moors use it for hunting chiefly.
From this place, I thought I saw the top of the
mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, which
made me try twice to attain it, but as often
was I driven back, and so forced to pursue
my fortune along shore.
Early one morning uwc came to an anchor
under a little point of land, but pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay ready
to go further in; butXury, whoce youthful and
penetrating eyes were sharper than mine, in a
soft tone, desired me to keep far from land,
lest weshould be devoured; For look you.
Sder, master, and see de dieadful monster
" fast asleep on de side of de hill." A ccord-
ingly looking where ie pointed, I espied a
fearful monster indeed. It was a terrible great
lion that lay on shore, covered a?, it were by a
shade of a piece of the hill. Xuiy ," said I,
" you shall go on shore and kill hlim." lut
the boy looked amazed. Mi; kill himl!" says
he, lie eat me at one mouth." meaning one
mouthful. Upon which I bid him lie still, and
charging my biggest gun with two slugs, and
a good charge of powder, and pulling in shore
till we had come within musket shot of the
place where he lay, I took the best aim I
could to shoot him through the head, but his
leg lying over his nose, the slug broke his
knee-bone. The lion awaking with the pain,

got up, but soon fell down, giving the most
hideous groan I ever heard; but taking my
second piece, I shot him through the head,
and then he lay struggling for life. Upon this
Xury took heart, and desired my leave to go
on shore. Go then," said I. Upon which,
taking a little gun in one hand, he swam to
shore with the other, and coming close to the
lion, put a period to his life, by shooting him
again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not being good to eat. Xury
was like a champion, and comes on board for
a hatchet to cut off the head of his enemy;
but wanting strength to perform it, he cut off
and brought me a foot. I bethought me, how-
ever, that his skin would be of use. This cost
Xuty and me a whole day: when spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the hot beams of the
sun effectually dried it in two days time, and
it afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living spar-
ingly on our provisions, and went no oftener
on shore than we were obliged for fresh water,
in hopes to meet some European ship. If
Providence did not favour me, my next course
was to seek for the islands, or lose my life
among the negroes; in a word, either, I must
meet with some ship, or certainly perish.
One day as we were sailing along, we saw
people stand on the shore looking at us; we
could also perceive they were black, and stark
naked. I was inclined to go on shore; but

Xury cried, No, no; however, I approached
nearer, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a long way. They had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who held a long
stick, which Xury told me was a lance, with
which they could kill at a great distance. I
talked to them by signs, and made tiem sen.
sible I wanted something to eat; they beckon.
ed to me to stop my boat, while two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half
an hour came back, and brought with tlhmn
two pieces of dry flesh, and some corn, which
we kindly accepted; and to prevent any fears
on either side, they brought the food to the
shore, laid it down, then went and stood a
great way off, till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to
them, being all we could afford, two mighty
creatures came from the mountains, one as it
were pursuing the other rith great fury. which
we were the rather inclined to believe, as they
seldom appear but in the night, and both these
swiftly passing by the negroes, jumped into
the sea, wantonly swimming about, as though
the diversion of the waters had put a stop to
their fierceness. At last one of them coming
nearer to my boat than I expected,6r desired,
1 shot him directly through the head, upon
which he sunk immediately, yet rising again,
he would have willingly made to the shore,
but between the wound and the struggling of
the water, he died before he could reach it.

It is impossible to express the consternation
the peor negrocs were in at tire firing of my
-un; much less cnn I mention their surprise,
when they perceived the creature to be slain by
it. I made signs to them to draw it near with
a rope, and then gave it to them to haul on
shore. It was a beautiful leopard, which made
me desire its skin; and the negroes seeming
to covet the carcase, I freely gave it to them.
As for the other leopard, it made to shore,
and ran with a prodigious swiftness out of
sight. The negroes having kindly furnished
ime with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave, and
ai'ter eleven days sail, came in sight of the
Capc de Verd. But the great distance I was
from it, and fearing contrary winds would
prevent my reaching them, I began to grow
melancholvand dejected, when upon sudden,
Xury cricd out, Master, master," looking as
affrighted as if it was his master's ship sent in
search of us. But I soon discovered she was
a Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for
life to come up to them. But in vain had it
been, if through theirperspective glasses, they
had not perceived us, and shortened their sail
to let us come in. Encouraged at this, I set
up my patron's ancient, and fired a gun, both,
as signals of distress; upon which they very
kindly lay to, so that in three hours time I came
up with them. They spoke to me in Portu-
guese, Spanish, and French, but none of tlesc
did I understand, till at length a Scots sailor

called, and then I told him I was an English-
nan, who had escaped from the Moors at
Salec, upon which they took me kindly on
board, with all my effects.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or, All Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after.
And here I cannot forget the generous treat-
ment of the captain. He would take nothing
fbr my passage, gave me twenty ducats for
the leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's.
Every thing he caused to be delivered, and
what I would sell he bought. In short, I
made 220 pieces of my cargo, and with this
stock I entered once more, as I may say,
into the scene of life.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next
door to an honest and kind neighbour, born
at Lisbon, of English parents, whose planta-
tion joining to mine, we improved very ami-
cably together. Both our stocks were low;
and for two years we planted only for food;
but the third year we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of ground,
the ensuing year, for planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the
captain who took me up departed from the Bra-
zils. One daylwent to him, and told him what
stock I had in London, desiring his assistance
in getting it sent out to me; to which the good
gentleman readily consented, but would only
have me send for half my money, lest it should
miscarry, which, if it did, I might still have the

remainder to support me; and so taking let-
ters of procuration from me, bid me trouble
myself no further about it.
And indeed, he not only procured the
money I had drawn for upon my captain's
widow, but sent me over a servant, with a
cargo proportionable to my condition. He
also sent me over tools of all sorts, iron work
and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncom-
mon success crowning my prosperous labours,
I might have rested happy in that middle state
of life mv father so often recommended ; yet
nothing would content me. Having lived four
years in Brazil, I had not only learned the
language, but contracted acquaintance with
the most eminent planters, and even with the
merchants of St. Salvadore, three of whom
came one morning to me, saying they had
a secret proposal to make. After enjoining
me to secrecy, they told me they had a mind
to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, in order to
stock the plantation with negroes, which, as
they could not be publicly sold, they would
divide among them; and if I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part, I should have an equal share of the
negroes; without providing any stock. The
thing indeed was fair enough, had I been in
another condition: however, I could not re-
sist the proposal, but accepted the offer,
ppon condition of their looking after my plan-

The ship being fittod out, and all things
ready, we set sail thle first of September 1659.
We sailed northward upon the coast, from
whence going farther into the ocean out of the
sight of landL we steered as though we were
bound for the island Fernand de Norenba,
leaving the islands on the east, and then it
was we met with a terrible tempest, which
continued for twelve days successively, so
that the winds carried us wheresoever they
pleased. In this perplexity, one of our men
died, and a man and a boy were washed over-
board. When the weather cleared up a little,
we found ourselves upon the coast of Guiana.
Upon this the captain gave reasons for return.
ing, which I opposed, counselling him to
stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I sup-
posed, might be attained in fifteen days. So
altering our course, we sailed north-west and
by west, in order to reach the Leeward
Islands; buta second storm succeeding, drove
us to the westward, so that we were justly
afraid of falling into the hands of cruel sa-
vages, or the paws of devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in
the morning, cried out, Land! Land! which
he had no sooner said, than our ship struck
upon a sand bank, and, in a moment, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we ex-
pected we should perish immediately. We
knew not where we were, or upon what land
we were driven, whether it was an island or
the main, inhabited or not inhabited, and we

could not so much as hope, that tle ship
would hold out many minutes, without break-
ing in pieces, unless the wind by a miracle
should turn about immediately. While we
stood looking at one another, expecting death
every moment, the mate lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest got her flung
over the ship's side; in this we all got, being
eleven in number and committed ourselves to,
God's mercy, and the wild sea. And now we
saw that this last effort would not be a suffi-
cient protection from death; so high did the
sea rise, that it was impossible the boat should
live. As to making a sail we had none, nei-
ther if we had, could we make use of any. So
that when we had rowed, or rather were driven
about a league and a half, a raging wave, like
a lofty mountain, came rolling a-stern of us,
and took us with such fury, that at once it
overset the boat. Thus being swallowed up
in a moment, we had only time to call upon
the awful name of God, and to implore,, in
dying ejaculations, his infinite mercy to re-
ceive our departing souls.
Men are generally counted insensible, when
struggling in the pangs of death; but while I
was overwhelmed with water, I had the most
dreadful apprehensions imaginable, for the
thoughts of every thing which I had done.
amiss came crowding to my -mind. I had dis-
obeyed my parents, I had slighted their ad-'
vice, I had left them to follow yj own way-
ward inclination, and I was now about to ap-

~-~- -zi ----J I

EI~~- =ri-- -

RoBINsoN CRUSOE clinging to the rocks.

pear before that Being whom I had offended.
I was going I thought I knew not whither, in a
dismalgulph unknown, and asyet unperceived,
never to behold myfriends,nor the light of this
world any more I strove however to the last
extremity, while all my companions were over-
powered and entombed in the deep; and it was
with great difficulty I kept my breath till the
wave spent itself, and, retiring back, left me
on the shore half dead with the water I had
taken in. As soon as I got on my feet, I ran
as fast as I could, lest another wave should
pursue me, and carry me back again. But for
all the haste I made, I could not avoid it, for
the sea came after me like a high mountain, or
a furious enemy; so that my business was to
hold my breath, and by raisingmyself on the
water, to save myself by swimming. The next
dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep, but, at the same time, carried
me with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore, when raising myself, I held out as
well as possible, till, at length, the water, hav-
ing spent itself, began to return, at which I
struck forward, and feeling ground again with
my feet, I took to my heels. Thus being
served twice more, I was at last dashed against
a piece of rock, in such a manner, as left me
senseless, but recovering a little before the re-
turn of the wave, which no doubt would then
overwhelm me, Iheld fast by the rock till those
succeeding waves abated; and then fetching
another' run, was overtaken by a small wave,
s 2

which was soon conquered. But before any
more could overtake me, I reached thie main,
land, where clambering up the cliffs of the
shore, tired and almost spent, I sat down on
the grass, free from the danger of the foam-
ing occal.
No tongue can express the transports that
my soul felt at this happy deliverance. I was
wrapt up in contemplation, and often lifted up
my hands, with the profoundest humility, to
the divine power for saving my life; when the
rest of my companions were all drowned. And
now I began to cast my eyes around, and ,to
behold what place I was in, and what I had
next to do. I could see no house nor people;
I was wet, yet had no clothes to shift me;
hungry and thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or
drink, no weapon to destroy any creature for
my sustenance, nor defend myself against de-
vouring beasts; in short I had nothing but a
knife, a tobacco pipe, and a box half filed
with tobacco. The darksome night coming
upon me, increased my fears of being devour-
ed by wild creatures, my mind was plunged
in despair, and having no prospect, as I
thought, of life before me, I prepared for ano-
ther kind of death than what I had lately es-
caped. I walked about a furlong to see if I
could find any fresh water, which I did to my
great joy ; and taking a quid of tobacco to
prevent hunger, I got up into a thick bushy
tree, and seating myself so that I could not
fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and for that
night, buried nmy sorrows in quiet repose.

It was broad day, the next morning,before I
awoke, when I not only perceived the tempest
was ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as
far as the rock before mentioned, which was
about a mile from the place where I was.-
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles dis-
tant on my right hand, lying on shore as the
waves had cast her. I thought to have got to
her; but there being an inlet of water about
half a mile's breadth between it and me, I re-
turned again towards the ship, as hoping to
find something for my more immediate subsist-
ence. About noon, when the sea was so calm
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
her, it was to my grief I perceived, that if we
had kept on board, all our lives would have
been saved. These thoughts and my solitude
drew tears from my eyes, though all in vain.
So resolving to get to the ship, I stripped and
waded as faras I could find depth; afterwhich,
swimming round her, I was afraid I could not
get any thing to lay hold of; but itwas my good
fortune to espy a small piece of rope hanging
down so low, that, by the help of it, though
with great difficulty, I got into the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bilged, and had a great
deal of water in her, her stern was lifted up
against a bank, and her head almost in the
water. All her quarter, and what was there,
were free and dry. The provisions I found in
good order, and, losing no time, ate while I
was doing other things. I also found some

rum, of which I took a little; and now I
wanted for nothing except a boat, which indeed
was all, to carry away what was needful for me.
Necessity occasions a quickness of thought.
We had several spare yards, a spare top mast
or twe, and two or three large spars of wood.
With these I fell to work, and slung as many
of them over board as I could manage, tying
every one of them with a rope that they might
not drive away. This done, I went down the
ship's side, and tied four of them fast together
at both ends, in form of a raft, and layingtwo
or three short piec"sof plank upon them cross-
ways, I found it would bear me, but not any
considerable weight, Upon which I went to
work again, cutting a spare top-mast into three
lengths, adding them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains. I then, first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could get,
next lowered down three of theseamen's chests,
after I had filled them with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats flesh,
and some European corn, what little the rats
had spared; and for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles, in which were some cordial
waters, and four or five gallons of arrack. By
this time, the tide beginning to flow, I per-
ceived my coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim
away, which I had left on shore; as for my
linen breeches and stockings, I wamwith them
to the ship; but I soon found clothes enough,
though I took no more than I wanted for the
present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to

work with, and after a long search, I found out
the carpenter's chest, which I got safe down
on my raft. I then looked for arms and ammu-
nition, and in the great cabin, found two good
fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two rusty
swords. I likewise found three barrelsof pow-
der, two of which were good, but the third
had taken water, also two or three broken oars,
two saws, an axe, and a hammer. I then put
to sea, and in getting to shore had three ad-
vantages in my favour. 1. A smooth calm sea.
2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore.
3. The little wikd there was, blowing towards
land. After I hadsailed about a mile, I found
the raft driving a little distance from the place
where I first landed, and then I perceived an
opening of the land, with a strong current of
the tide running into it, upon which I kept the
middle of the stream. But great was my con-
cern, when on a sudden, the forepart of my
raft ran aground. But after some time the ris-
ing of the water caused the raft to float again,
and coming up a little river, with land on both
sides, I landed in a little cave, as near the
mouth as possible, the better to discover a sail,
if any such providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with smaller hills about it,
and thither I was resolved to go and view the
country, that I might see what part was best
to fix my habitation in. Accordingly, araiing
myself with a pistol, a fowling piece, powder,

and ball, I ascended the mountain. ThereI
perceived I was in an island, encompassed by
the sea, no distant lands to be seen, but scat-
tering rocks that lay to the west; that it seemed
to oe a barren place, and as I thought; only
inhabited by wild beasts. I perceived abund-
a:ice of fowls, but was ignorant of what kind,
o: whether good for nourishment. I shot one
o" them at my return, which occasioned a con-
fused screaming among the other birds, and I
found it, by its colour and beak, to be a kind
of h:uwk, but its flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
Sffccts on shore, which work spent that dayen-
lirely; and fearing that some cruel beast
night devourme in the night timewhlile I slept,
1 made a kind of hut, or barricade, with the
clhcsts and boards I had brought on shore.
T'i't night, I slept very comfortably; and the
.xrt Lorning my thoughts were employed to
"ik. a finther attempt to the ship,and bring
.I: Lt neccessaries I could find, before ano-
Sf' l~ n, itr hoiil break lher in pieces. Accord-
n~ y, I gt ou board as before, and prepared a
st:.i,):l rtf'l t ir rxure nice than thefirst; upon
S":icl, I brought awaythe carpenter's stores,
vwo or liri-ce b~ags full of nails, a great jack-
screw, a doztle or two of hatchets, and a grind-
itoue. I also took two or three iron crows,
.v barrels of musket bullets, another fowling
piec-, a small quantity of powder, and a large
b.,g full of small shot. Besides these, I took
all the means clothes I could find, a spare fore-



RnOrWNsoN CRUSOE On bis Raft.

top-sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and
thus completing my second cargo, I made all
the haste to shore I could, fearing some wild
beast might destroy what I had there already.
But I only found a little wild cat siting on
one of the chests, who not seeming- to ftar
me, or the gun that I presented at her, I
threw her a piece of biscuit, which she i:.-
stantly eat and departed.
When I had.got these effects on shore, I
went to work in order to make me a little ttnt
with the sail and some poles, which had cut
for that purpose, and having finished it, what
things might be damaged by the weather, I
brought in, piling all the empty chests and
casks in a circle, the better to fortify it
against any sudden attempt of man or beast.
After this, I blocked up the doors with some
boards, and an empty chest turned the long
way out. I then charged my gun and pistol,
and laying my bed on the ground, slept as
comfortably till the next morning as though I
had been in a christian country.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me along
time, yet despairing of a sudden deliverance,
and feat ing that both ammunition and provision
might be spent before such a thing happened,
I saved as much as I cbuld, and so long as the
s' ip remained in that condition, I daily brought
away one necessary or other; particularly the
rigging, sails, and cordage; some twine, a bar.
rel of wet powder, some sugar, a.barrel of
meal, three casks of runm, and indeed what

was most welcome to me, a whole hogshead
of bread.
The next time I went, I cut the cables in
pieces, carried off a hawser whole, with a great
deal of iron work, and made another rift;
but this being so unwieldy, by the ooo heavy
burden upon it, and 1 not being able so dexte-
rously to guide it as the forner,both my ;ar1go
and myself were overturned. For my part, all
the damage I sustained was a wet skin: and at
low water, after much labour in diving, I got
up most of the cables, and some piecesof iroa.
Fifteen days had I now been on the island,
and clevenrtimes on board, bringing away all
that was possible. As I was going the twelfth
time, the wind began to rise; however I ven-
tiered at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker, I found several razors, scissors, and
some dozens of knives and fork., and in ano-
ther, thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight, silver
and gold. 1 wrapt the money up in a piece of
canvas, and began to think of making another
raft; but I soon perceived the wind beginning
to rise, a fresh gale blowing from the shore,
and the sky overcast with clouds and darkness.
So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let myself
into the water with what things I had about
me; and it was with great difficulty I got
ashore, when soon after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my
little tent, surrounded with all my effects; but
when I looked outip the morning, no more ship
was to be seen. This much surprised me for

the present; yet, when I considered that I
had lost no time, abated no pains, and ha.l
got every thing useful out of her, I com-
forted myself in the best manner, and entirely
submitted to Divine Providence.
My next thoughts were, how I should de-
fend and secure myself from savages and wild
beasts, if any such were in the island.
When I considered the ground where I was,
that it was marshy, and had no fresh water
near it, my resolutions were to search for a
soil healthy and well watered, where I might
not only be sheltered from the sun's scorchin?
heat, but be more conveniently situated, as
wcll to be secured from wild men, and beasts
.f prey, as more easily to discover any dis-
tant sail, should it ever so happen.
And indeed it was not long beforeI had my
desire. I found a little plain near a rising
hill, the front towards which, being as steep
as a house side, n, t.ing could descend on me
fiom the top.
On the side of this rock was a little hollow
place, resembling the entrance or door of a
cave. Just before this place, on the circle of
the green, I resolved my tent should stand.
This plain did not much exceed a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, like a
delightful green before my door, with a pleas-
ing, though irregular descent every way to the
low grounds by the sea side, sheltered from the
excessive heat of the sun. After this I drew a
semicircle, twenty feet in diameter, driving

down two rows of strong stakes not six inches
fioml each other. Then, with the pieces cf
cable which I had cut on board, I regularly lUiO
them in a circle between thc pies, Up In their
tops, which were more than five feet out of the
earth, and then drove another row of piles
looking within side against them, between two
or three feet high, which made me conclude it
a little castle impregnable by men and beasts.
And for my better security, I would have no
door, but entered in and came out by the help
of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which
I carried all my riches,ammunition, and stores.
After which, working on the rock, what with
the dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised
my ground two feet, but made a little cellar to
my mansion-house; and this cost me many days
labour and pains. One day, in particular, a
shower of rain falling, thunder and lightning
ensued, which put me in terror lest my powder
should take fire, and not only hinder my neces-
sary subsistence, by killing my food, but even
blow up me and my habitation. To prevent
which, I fell to making boxes and bags, in
order to separate it, having by men near 1501b.
weight. And thus being established as king of
the island, every day I went out with my gun,
to see what I could kill that was fit to cat. I
soon perceived numbers of goats, but very shy;
yet having watcl ed them narrowly, and seeing I
could better shoot them off the rocks, than when

in the low grounds, I happened to shoot a she-
gvat suckling a young kid; which, not think-
ing its dam slain, stood by her unconcerned;
and when I took the dead creature up, the
young one followed me even to the enclosure.
I lifted the kid over the pales, and would will-
ingly have kept it alive, but finding it could
not be brought to eat, I was forced to slay it
also for my subsistence.
Thus, entered upon a life of solitude, I had
most melancholy apprehensions concerning my
deplorable condition; and many times, the tears
would plentifully run down my face, when I
considered how I was debarred from all com-
munication with human kind. Yet while these
dt.sponding thoughts would seem to make me
accuse Providence, other good thoughts would
interpose and reprove me after this manner :
S\Vell, supposing you are desolate, is it not
better to be so than totally perish? Why
should you complain, when not only your
life was preserved, but the ship driven into
vour reach, in order to take what was ne-
cessary out of her for a subsistence?" But
to proceed: It was, by the account I kept, the
Sthli of September, when I first landed on this
island. About twelve days after, fearing lest
I should lose my reckoning of time, nay even
forget the sabbath days, for want of pen, ink,
and paper, I carved with a knife upon a large
post, in great letters, I came on shore, Sept.
30, 1659, and set it up in the similitude of a

cross, on the sea shore where I landed. Every
day I cut a notch with my knife on the sides of
the square post, and that on the Sabbath was
as long again as the rest, and every first day
oif thr month, as long again as that long one.
In this manner, I kept my calendar, weekly,
monthly, or yearly reckoning oF time. But
had I made a more strict search (as I did af-
t rewards ) I need not have set up this mark.
For among the parcels belonging to the gun-
Iir, carpenter, and captain's mate, I found
those very things I wanted; particularly pens,
iik, and paper; also I found two or three-
cm1passes, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspective glasses, books of navigation,
thr e English bibles, and several other good
books, which I carefully put up. Here I can-
not but call to mind our having a dog and two
cats on board, whom I made inhabitants with
mne in my castle. Though one might think I
had all the necessaries that were desirable, yet
still I found several things wanting. My ink
.vas daily wasting: I wanted needles, pins, and
thread to mend or keep my clothes together:
:Id1 particularly a spade, pick-axe, or shovel,
to remove the earth. It was a year before I
finished my little bulwark; and having some
intervals of relaxation, after my daily wander-
ing abroad for provision, I drew up this plan
alternately, as creditor and debtor, to remind
me of the miseries and blessings of my life,
under so many various circumstances.


I am cast upon a
desolate island, having
no prospect of a wel-
come deliverance.
How miserable am I,
singled out from the
enjoyment or company
of all mankind.

Like a hermit (ra-
ther should I say a
lonely anchoret) am
I forced from human
My clothes, after
some time, will be
worn out, and then I
shall have none to
cover me.

When my ammuni-
tion is wasted, then
shall I remain without
any defence against
wild men and beasts.

I have no creature,
no soul to speak to;
none to beg assistance


But yet I am pre-
served while my com-
panions have perished
in the raging sea.
Yet set apart to
be spared from death.
And He, who has so
preserved me, can de-
liver me from this con-
However, I have
food to eat, and even
a happy prospect of
subsistence whilst life
At present, I enjoy
what is absolutely
needful; and the cli-
mate is so hot, that
had I ever so many,
I should hardly wear
Yet even thus, I see
no danger of any to
hurt me, as in Africa;
and what if I had been
cast away upon that
Is there not God to
converse with, and is
not he able to deliver

from. Some comfort thee? already has he af-
would it be to resound forded theesustenance,
my woes where I am and put it in thy power
understood, and beg to provide for thyself,
assistance where I till he sends thee a de-
might hope for relief. liverance.

And now, easing my mind a little by these
reflections, I began to render my life as easy
as possible.
I must here add to the description I have
given of my habitation, that having raised a
turf wall against the outside of it, I thatched it
so close as might keep it from the inclemency
of the weather; I also improved it within, en-
larged my cave, and made a passage and a
door in the rock, which came out beyond the
pale of my fortification. I next proceeded to
make a chair and table, and so began to study
such mechanical arts as seemed to me practi-
cable. When I wanted a plank or a board, I
hewed down a tree with my hatchet, making it
as thin with my axe as possible, and then
smooth enough with an adze, to answer my de-
signs; yet though I could make no more this
way than one board out of a tree, in length of
time I got boards enough to shelter all my
stores, every tiing being regularly placed, and
my guns securely hanging against the side of a
rock. This made it a very pleasant sight to
me, being the result of vast labour and great
diligence; which leaving for a while, and me
to the enjoyment of it, I shall give the reader an

account of some parts of' my journal from the
day of my landing, till tile settling of my ha-
bitation, as heretofore shlwn.

SEPTEMBER 3011,, 1659, I, Robinson
Crusoe, having suffer d shipwreck, was drivcia
on this des'.ite iMland, which I namcd the
)Desolate Island of Desp)ir, the rest of nwy
companions being swallowed up in the tenm-
pestuous ocean. That day I spent in conside-
ration of my unhappy circumstances, having
no prospect but of death, either to be .tarvcd
with hunger, or devoured by wild beasts or
merciless savages.
Oct. 1. That morning, with great comfort, I
beheld the ship driven ashore. Some hopes I
had, that when the storm was abated, I might
be able to get some food and necessaries out .f
her; which I conceived were not damage d,
because the ship remained upright. At this
time, I lamented the loss of my compaiiois,
and our mistfrtune in leaving the vessel. Whtn
I perceived the ship, as it were. to lie dry, I
wadled through the sands, as far as I could find
depth, then swam aboard, the weatlhr beri
very rainy, and with scarcely any wiid.
Oct. 5. My raft, and all the goods thereon
were oversct; yet 1 recovered most again at
low water.
To the 1-1.th of this month, my time was iemi-
ployed in making voyage.- every tide, g-tting

what I could out of the ship. The weather very
wet and uncertain.
Oct. 15. It blew hard, and rained night and
day, when the ship went to pieces, so that no-
thing was seen of her but the wreck at low
water. This day I secured my goods fi om the
inclemency of the weather.
Oct. 16. I wandered to see where I could
find a place convenient for my abodet: I fixed
upon a rock in the evening, marked out a half
moon, intending to erect a wall fortified with
piles, lined within with pieces of cables, and
covered with turf.
Nov. 3. I shot two wild-fowl, resembling
ducks, which were good to eat, and in the af-
telnoon began to make me a table
Nov. 4. i began to live regularly. In the
morning, I allowed myself two or three hours
to walk out with my gun; I then worked till
near eleven o'clock; and afterwards refreshed
myself with what I had to eat. From twelve
to two, I would lie down to sleep. Extreme
sultry weather. In the evening go to work
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog,
shot a wild cat with a soft skin, but her fle-h
was good for nothing. The skins of those
killed I preserved. In my return, I perceived
many wild birds, and was terrified by some
seals which made off to sea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Fair weather. 1 worked to the
12th, but omitted the Ilth, which according
to my calculation, I supposed to be Sunday.

Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rock, yet was
obliged to desist for want of a pick-axe, shovel
and wheel-barrow. Iron crows I used to sup-
ply the place of the first, but with all my art I
could not make a wheel-barrow.
Nov. 19. It was a great happiness to me to
find a iwe resuembling what the Brazilians call
an iron tree. I had like to spoil my axe with
cutting it, it being very hard, and exceedingly
ihe;vy; vet with much labour and industry I
made ; sort of spade out of' it.
Nov. '2. TIhese tools being made, I daily
carried on my business; eighteen days I allow-
ed f1r cnaiging nmy care, that it might serve
me, not only for a warehouse, but kitchen, par-
lour, and collar. I cormorly lay in the tent,
unless the weather was so rainy that I could
not lie dry. So wet would it be at certain sea-
sons, that I was obliged to cover all within
the pale, with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with
flags and large leaves of trees resembling a
Dic. 10. No sooner did I think my habita-
tion "inisicd, but suddenly a great deal of the
top broke in, so that it wae a mercy I was not
buri~ d in th ruin .. This occaSincLed a great
dical zo:' p:i: ai trouble to me, before I could
in:, .'kc it liniii ;iin diurab'e.
AD. 7. 1 Hn ol 1)d up some shelves, and drove
nait:s tld ;.i!pli in thn: wall and poss., to hang

DIcc. s0. I got every thing into its place,
then maii a out u of dresser, and another table.

Dec. 27. I chanced to light on some goats,
shot one, wounded another; I led it home in a
si ring, bound up its leg, and cured it in a little
time ; at length, it became so tame and thmiliar
as to feed before the door, and follow me where
I pleased. This put me in mind to bring up
tame creatures, in order to supply me with
food after my ammunition was spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. The weather being exces-
sively hot, with little air, obliged me for the
most part, to keep within doors.
Jan. S, to 14. My employment this time
was to finish the wall before described, and
search the island. I discovered a kiad of pi-
geone, like our house pigeons, in a nest among
the rocks. I brought them home, nursed them
till they could fly, and then they left me. Af-
ier this, I shot some, which proved excellent
food. Some time I spent vainly contriving to
make a cask, I may well say it was in vain,
because I could neither joint the staves, nor
fix the heads, so as to make it tight: so leav-
ing that, I took some goat's tallow I had by
me, and a little oakum for the wick, and pro-
vided myself with a lamp, which served instead
of candles.
But now a very strange event happened. For
being in the height of my search, what should
come into my hand, but a bag which was used
to hold corn (as I supposed) for the fowls; so
immediately resolving to put gunpowder into it,
I shook all the husks and dirt upon one side of
a rock, little expecting what the consequence
c 5

would be. The rain had lallcn plh n!ifully a
few days before; and about a monit aftcr, o1
nmy great amazement, something began to look
out very green and flourishing; and when I
came to view it more nicely, very day as it
grew, I found about ten or twelve earb of
green barley of the very same shape and make
as that in England.
I can scarcely express the agitation of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto 1 had been used,
like too many in the world, to look with indif'-
fcrence upon the marks of God's goodnc,
which are every where visible. Indeed so
ignorant was I, that I had even thought health,
and food, and clothing to be the mere result
of our own labour and care, and foresight,
without ever reflecting, that the Almighty is
the bestower of every good and perfect gilt,
and that it is his blessing alone upon our
efforts which makes them to prosper. The ap-
pearance of the barley flourishing so unexpect-
edly in a barren soil, and my ignorance of the
manner in which it came there, led me into a
singular opinion. I concluded that miracles
were not ceased, and that God had appointed
the barley to grow there without any'seed,
purely for my sustenance in this miserable and
desolate island. And indeed such great effect
had this upon me, that it often made me melt
into tears through a grateful sense of God's
mercies; and the greater still was my thankful-
ness, when I perceived about this little field of
barley, some rice stalks, also wonderfully

While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be aome more corn in the isLimld;
and therefore made a diligent search narroT ly
among the rocks; but not being able to find
any, on a sudden it came into my inid, how I
had shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,
and then so blind was my understanding, that
my admiration ceased, and with it uiy grati-
tude to the Divine Being, as thinking it was
but natural, and not to be conceived a mira-
cle: though even the manner of its preserva-
tion might have made me own it as a wonder-
ful event of God's kild providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of this corn ripened, which I laid up vcry
carefully, together with 20 or 30 stalks of
rice: expecting one day I should reap the fruit
of my labour: yet four years were expired be-
fore I could altow myself to eat any barley
bread, and much longer time, before I had any
rice. After this, with indefatigable pains and
industry for three or four months, at last I finish-
ed my house, having no way to go into it, but
by a ladder against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder, and a-cend-
ed it; afterwards pulled it up, then let it down
on the other side, and descended into my new
habitation, where I had space enough, and so
foi tified, that nothing could attack me without
scaling the walls.
But what does all human art and industry
avail, if the blessing of- God does not crown
our labours? Or who can stand before the Al-
mighty, when he stretcheth forth hisi armn? 'or,

one tim Ps I was at the entrance of m cave,
there hiapp' nd -uch a dreadful eariihqiia.lk that
not oniv thl rooi of the cave came tumbling
about my ears, but the posts seemed to crack
terribly at the hanme thne. This put me in a
grrat amazcmint; and running to tlie ladder
ad getting 'over the wall, I then plainly knew
it wis anl cr.ftihquiakc, the place I stood on su.s-
taioina.t three tc irible sliocks in less tlh n tlhrce
minutes. BIut j ldge of my terror whenll I saw
tice iop )if a gr!, t rock roll into the sia: I
then cxptected the island woull be swallowred
up cV(,v moinment: and what made the scene
still ,more dIreadfuil, was to see the sea thrown
ijtl. tlie uIost violent agitations and disorders
by tlhi' It It'ous convulsion of Nature.
For imy pal I expected e very moment
ti o.' slowedd up. At the moving of the
cn',I, I was, as it were, sea-,ick; and very
i:n;Ch afraid lect the rock, under which was
uny Lence and liihiatuion, should overwhehli
ime and it in a It:tin'- tomb.
hI ','i.s, only (he day after, when a horrible
teunpiest aiir at the same time attended with a
hurricaile oF 0 i'.d. Tlree hours did this storm
cotlirmi, and in so violent a manner as to tear
tlih very trees up by the roots, which was suc-
ceeded Ly abundance of rain. When the tem-
pest vwas over, I went to my tent; but the rain
coming on in a furious manner, I was obliged
to take .heltler in ihe cave, where I was forced
to cit a !;niiml ihronughl my fortitication, to
let the water out. It continued raiinng all that

night. and some time the next day. These ac-
cideits made ec resolve, as soon as the wea-
ther cleared up, to build me a little hut in some
opien place, walled round to defend me from
wild creatures and savages; not doubting, but,
at the, next earthquake, the mountain would
fall on my habitation and me, and swallow up
all in its bowels; but to resume the thread of
nmy narraliol) which this mention of tile storm
ihas interruilpted.
April 16-20. These days I spent, in con-
triving how and in what manner I should fix
1my place of abode. All this while, I was
under the most dreadful apprehensions. When
1 looked round my habitation, every thing I
find in its proper place. I had several de-
bates whether I should move or not; but at
length resolved to stay where I was, till I
fond out a convenient place where I might
pitch my tent.
April 22. When I began to put my resolu-
tions in practice, I was stopped for want of
tools and instruments to work with. Most of
my axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me up a full week to make my
grindstone of use to me; and at last I found
out a way to turn it about with my foot, by
help of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed
myself but one biscuit a day.
May 1. As I walked along the sea shore, I
found a barrel of gunpowder, and several
pieces of the wreck which the sea had flung

up. HIi:ving secured these, I nade to tie ship,
hose stcrni was tom l off, and washed a great
distance ashore; but the rest lay in the sands.
This, I suppose, was occasioned by the earth-
quake. I 1noi resolved to keep my old place
ot abode: and also to get to the ship that day,
but found it impossible.
:May 3. This day I went on board the
wreck, which still remained upon its bed of
rock, thotigli tih waves had carried away all
its upper works, and Lift nothing standing but
the part between decks, and with my saw
saweCd off one of the beams, which kept her
quarter-deck. I then cleared the sand till flood.
May 4. 1 caught some fish, but they were
not wholesome. The same day, I also caught
a young dolphin.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the
wreck, and sawed another piece of timber;
and when the flood came, I made a float of
three great planks, which were driven ashore
by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brought off the
iron bolts, opened the deck with the iron
crow, and carried two planks to land, having
made a way into the very middle of the wreck.
May 10-1 !.. All this time I spent in bring-
ing off great quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets on
purpose to cut off some lead from the roll,
but all in vain, for it lay too low under water.
May24. To this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with great difficulty loosened some things
su i.ucil with the crow, that at the first blowing

tide, several casks floated out, and several of
the seamen's chests; yet that day nothing came
to land but pieces of timber, and a hogshead
which had some pork in it. I continued work-
ing to the 15th of June, (except necessary
times for food and rest) and had I known howto
build a boat, I had timber and planks enough;
I had also nearly 100 weight of sheet lead.
June 16. As 1 was wandering towards the
sea-side, I found a large tortoise or turtle,
being the first I had seen on the island, though,
as 1 afterwards found, there were many on the
other side of it.
June 17. This day I spent in cooking it, found
in her three score eggs, and her flesh the most
savoury and pleasant I ever tasted in my life.
.,une 18. I staid within this day, there
being a continual rain: and it was somewhat
more chilly and cold than usual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a
trembling and shivering.
June 20. Awake all night, my head racked
with pain, and feverish.
.June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with
dismal apprehensions of my condition. Prayed
to God more frequently, but very confusedly.
June 22. Something better, butstill uneasy
in my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a second time.
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours,
cold and hot fits, succeeded [by faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak; yet I
scrauibled our, shot a she goat, brought it

home, and broiled sonie of it: I would wil-
lingly have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with
aniague; thirsty, yet could not help myself to
water: prayed to God in these words: Lord
in pity, look upon me: Lord have werey upon
me! have mercy upon me! After this I fell
asleep, which, when I awaked, I found had
much refreshed me.
I rose up in a pensive manner, being so
thoughtful that I could not go to sleep; and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper,
it caused me to remember, that the Brazilians
use tobacco for almost all diseases. I then
went to my chest, in order to find some,
where it was my happiness to find a cure,
both for soul and body; for there I found one
of the bibles, which, till this time, I had nei-
ther leisure nor inclination to look into; I
took both the tobacco and that out of my chest,
and laid them on the table. Several experi-
ments did I try with the tobacco: First, I took
a piece of leaf, and chewed it; but it being
very green and strong, almost stupified me:
Next, I steeped it in some rum an hour or two,
resolving when I went to bed to take a dose of
it: and, in the third place, I burnt some over
a pan of fire, holding my nose over it so long
as I could endure it without suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though my
head was giddy and disturbed by the tobacco,
I took up the bible to read. No sooner did I
open it, but there appeared to me these words,

Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.
At first, this sentence made a very deep im-
pression on my heart: but it soon wore off again,
when I considered that the word deliver was
foreign to me. And as the children of Israel
said, when they were promised flesh to eat,
Can God spread a table in the wilderness? In
the like manner I began to say, Can God him-
self deliver me from this desolate island? How-
ever, the words would still return to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression upon
me. As it now was very late, and the tobacco
had dozed my head, I was inclined to sleep;
but before I would lie down, I fell on my
knees, and implored the promise that God had
made to me in the holy Scriptures, that if I
called on him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me. With much difficulty, I afterwards
drank the rum, wherein I hod steeped the to-
bacco, which flying into my head, threw me into
such a profound sleep, that it was three o'clock
the next day before 1 awoke; or, rather, I
believe, I slept two days, having certainly lost
a dlay in my account, as I afterwards discovered,
and I could never tell any other way. When
I got up, my spirits were lively and cheerful;
my stomach much better, being very hungry;
and, in short, no fit returned the next day,
which was the 29th, but I found myself much
alter red for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but I was very
weak. In this condition, I often thought of
these words, I will deliver thee: and while at

times I would think of the impossibility of
it, other thoughts would reprehend me, for
disregarding tihe deliverances 1 had received,
even from the most forlorn and distressed con-
dition. I asked myself, what regard have I
had to God for his abund-nt mercies? Have I
done my part? He has delivered me, but Ihave
not glorified him; as if I had said, I had not
owned and been thankful for these as deli-
verances, and how could I expect greater?
So much did this sensibly touch my heart,
that I gave God thanks for my recovery from
sickness in the most humble posture.
July 4. This morning, I began seriously to
ponder on what is written in the New Testa-
ment, resolving to read a chapter every morn-
ing and iigjht, as long as my thoughts would
engage me. As soon as I set about this work
seriously, I found my heart deeply affected
with the impiety of nm~ past liti. After this I
begged of God to assist me with his holy Spirit
in returning to my duty. One diay, in perus-
ing the Scripture, I came to these words, Him
hath God exalt;'d with his right hand to be a
Prince and a Saviour for to give repentance,
and for.2iveness of sins. Immediately I laid
down the book, and, with uplifted hands to
Heaven, loudly cried, 0 blessed Jesus, thou
son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and
Saviour, give me repentance: And, now indeed,
I prayed wi;h a triie sense of my condition, and
a more certain hope, founded on the word of
God. Now I had a different sense of these
words, Cull on me, and I will deliver thee,

that is, from the dreadful load of guilt, which
oppressed my sinful soul, and not from a soli-
tary life: in a word, I came to this conclusion,
that a deliverance from sin was a much greater
blessing than a deliverance from affliction.
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my
gun, little and little at a time, having been re-
duced to the greatest extremity of weakness.
The applications and experiments I used were
perfectly new: neither could I recommend
them to any one's practice. For though it car-
ried off the fit, it very much weakened me; and
I had frequently convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time. From hence I learned,
that going abroad in rainy weather, especially
when it was attended with storms and hurri-
canes of wind, was most pernicious to health.
I had now been above nine months in the
island; and as I had never seen any of the hu-
man kind, I therefore accounted myself as sole
monarch: and as I grew better, having se-
cured my habitation to my mind, I resolved
to make a tour .jund my kingdom, in order to
make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey; I first
went to the creek where I had brought my
rafts on shore, and travelling farther, found
the tide went no higher than two miles up,
where there was a little brook of running water,
on the bank of which were many pleasant sa-
vannahs or meadows, smooth, plain and covered
with grass. On the rising parts, where I sup-
posed the water did not reach, 1 perceived a
great deal of tobacco growing to a very sirouig

stalk. Several other plants I likewise found,
the virtues of which I did not understand. I
searched a Icng time for the Cassava root, which
I knew the Indians in that climate m:de their
bread of; but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not
what they were ; like ise I saw several sugar-
canes, but impcrfict for want of cultivation.
With these few discoveries, I came back that
night, and slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the
same way, but further than the day before, I
found the country more adorned with woods
and trees. Here I perceived different fruits in
great abundance. Melons in plenty lay on the
ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe and very
rich spread over the trees. You may imagine
I was glad of this discovery, yet ate very spar-
ingly, lest I should throw myself into a flux or
fever. The grapes I found of excellent use;
for when I dried them in the sun, which prc-
served them as dried raisins are kept, they
proved very wholesome and nourishing, and
served me in those seasons Vhien no grapes
were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended
a tree, and slept very comfortably, though
it was the first time I had slept out of my ha-
bitation. And when the morning came, 1 pro-
ceeded with great pleasure on my way, travel-
ling about four miles, as 1 imagined, by the
length of the valley. At the end of this valley,
I came to an opening, where the county

seemed to descend to the west; there I found
a spring of i'sh water, proceeding out of the
side of the hill, with its crystal streams running
directly east. And indeed here my senses
were charmed with the most beautiful land-
scape nature could afford ; for the country ap-
peared so flourishing, green and delightful,
that to me it seemed like a planted garden. I
then descended on the side of that delicious
vale, when I found abundance ofcocoa, orange,
lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and
barren at that time. As for the limes, they
uere delightful and wholesome, the juice of
which I afterwards used to mix in water, which
made it very cool and refreshing. And now I
was resolved, to carry home and lay up a store
of grapes, limes and lemons, against the ap-
proaching wet season. So laying them up in
w'paratc parcels, and then taking a few of each
with me, I returned to my little castle, after
having spent three days in this journey. Be-
fore I got home, the grapes were so bruised
that they were utterly spoiled; the limes in-
deed were good, but of those, I could bring
c.ily a few.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I re-
turned thither again, but'to my great surprise,
found all the grapes spread about, trodden to
pieces, and abundance eaten, which made me
conclude there were wild beasts thereabouts.
To prevent this happening again, I gathered
a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the tree, both to

kcep them unhurt, and that they might cure
and dry in the sun: and having well loaded
mysLlf with limes and lemons, I returned
once more to my old place of residence.
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of
this valley, the pleasantness of its situation, its
security from storms, and the delightfulness of
the adjacent woods, I concluded I was settled
in the worst part of the country, and there-
fore was thinking to remove my habitation.
But when I considered again, that though
it was pleasant, it was off from the sea-side,
where there was a possibility, some time or
other, a ship might either be driven or sail by;
and that to inclose myself among hills and
woods must certainly put an end to my hopes
of deliverance; I resolved to let my castle re-
main where Providence had first placed it.
Yet, so delighted was I with this place, that I
made me a little kind of bower, surrounding it
vith a double hedge, as high as I could reach,
well staked and filled with bulrushes: and
having spent a great part of the month of July,
I think it was the 1st of August before I
began to enjoy my labour.
Aug. 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I
took them from the trees, and they proved ex-
cellent good raisins of the sun: the most of
which I carried to my cave; and happy for me
I did so, by which I saved the best part of my
winter food.
Aug. 14. This day it began to rain; and
though I had made me a tent like the other,
yet having no shelter of a hill to keep me front

storm?, nor a cave behind me to retreat to, I
was obliged to return to my old castle; the
rain continued more or less every day, till the
middle of October, and sometimes so violently
that 1 could not stir out of my cave for several
daN s. This season I found my family to in-
crease; for one of my cats that had run away
from me, and which I thought had been dead,
returned about August, with three kittens at
her heels, like herself; from these cats pro.
ceded such numbers, that I was forced to kill
and destroy them as I would do wild beasts or
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir
out, it rained incessantly : when beginning to
want food, I was compelled to venture twice,
the first of which times, I shot a goat, and
afterwards found a very large tortoise. The
manner of regulating my food was thus: a
bunch of raisins served me for my breakfast:
a piece of goat's flesh or turtle boiled for my
dinner, and two or three turtle eggs for my
supper. While the rain lasted, I daily worked
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and
by degrees worked it on towards one side of
the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall, and so I came
in and out this way. But after I had done
this, I was troubled to see myself thus ex-
posed; though I could not perceive any thing
to fear, a goat being the biggest creature I
had seen upon this Island.
Sept. 30. Casting up the notches on my

post. they amounted to 365, I concluded this
to be the anniversary of my landing; and there-
fore, hiumblv prostrating myself on the ground,
confessing my sins, acknowledging God's righ-
teous judgment upon me, and praying to biin
to have mercy upon me through Jesus Christ,
I fasted for twelve hours till the going down of
the sun; and then eating a biscuit and a bunch
of grapes, laid me on a bed, and with great
comfort took my night's repose. Till this
time, though ] had always put a larger notch
than ordinary for each sabbath day, to my
shame I confess it, I had seldom observed it
in any other way. My ink failing soon after, I
omitted in my daily memorandum, things of an
indifferent nature, and contented myself to
write down only the most remarkable events
of my life. The rainy and dry seasons appeared
now regular to me, and experience taught me
how to provide for them: yet in one thing I
am going to relate, my experience very much
failed me. You may call to mind, what I
have mentioned of some barley and rice which
I had saved ; about thirty stalks of the former,
and twenty of the latter; and, at that time, the
sun's being in its southern position, going from
me, together with the rains, made me con-
clude it a very proper season to sow it. Ac-
cordingly I dug up a piece of ground, with my
wooden spade, and dividing it in two parts,
sowed about two thirds of my seeds, preserving
by me a handful of each. And happy it was
I did so; for no rains falling, it was choked

up, and never appeared above the earth till the
wet season came again, and then part of it
grew, as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground near
my bower, I there sowed tile rest of my seed
in February, which, by having the rainy months
of March and April to water it, yielded a no-
ble crop, and sprung up very pleasantly. I
had still saved part of the seed, not daring to
venture ail; and by the time I found out the
proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might
expect every year two seed times and two har-
vests, my stock amounted to above half a peck
of each sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes
which I had cut from the trees, shot out like
willows, the first year after lopping their heads.
I was ignorant of the tree I cut them from; but
they grew so regular beautiful, that they
made a most lively appearance and so
flourished in three years time, that I resolved
to cut more of them; and these soon grow-
ing made a glorious fence, as afterwards I shall
And now I perceived that the seasons of the
year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter, as in Europe, but into wet
and dry seasons, as in this manner :

From Februtary, 15,1 Rainy, sun coming near
To April 15, J the Equinox, 2 months.

From April 15, Dry, sun getting north
To August 15, from the line, 4 months.
From JAugust 15, Wet, the sun being then
To October 15, come back, 2 months.
From JOctober 15, Dry, sun running south
To FFebruary 15, of the line, 4 months.

The wet seasons would continue longer or
shorter, as the wind continued or ceased to blow.
But having found the ill consequences of being
abroad in the rain, I took care before hand to
furnish myself with provisions: and, during
the wet months, sat within doors as much as
possible. At this time, I contrived to make
many handy things that I wanted, though it
cost me much labour and pains, before I could
accomplish them. The first I tried was to
make a basket, but all the twigs I could get,
proved so brittle, that I could not then per-
form it. It now proved of great use to me,
that when a boy I took great delight in stand-
ing at a basket-maker's, in the same town
where my father lived, to view them at work:
like other boys, being curious to see the manner
of their working these things, and very officious
to assist, I perfectly learned the method of it,
and wanted nothing but the tools. And it
coming into my mind, that the twigs of that
tree of which I made my stakes, might be as
tough as a sallow willow, or osiers growing in
England, I resolved to make an experiment,
and went the next day to my country seat,
and found some fit for my turn; and after cut-

ting down a quantity with my hatchet, I dried
them in my pale, and, when fit to work with,
carried them to my cave, where I employed
myself in making several sorts of baskets, in-
somuch that I could put in whatsoever I pleased.
It is true they were not clevery-made, yet
they served my turn on all occasions.
- But still I wanted two necessary things. I
had no cask to hold my liquor, except two, al-
most full of rum, a few bottles of an ordinary
size, and some square case bottles; neither had
I a pot to boil any thing in, only a large kettle,
unfit to make broth, or stew a bit of meat: I
wanted likewise at the beginning of this dry
season a tobacco-pipe; but for this I afterwards
found an expedient.
1 kept myself employed in planting my se-
cond row of shakes. But remembering that
when I travelled up te the brook I had a mind
to see the whole island, I now resumed my in-
tention, and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two
biscuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
I began my journey. Having passed the vale
where my bower stood, I came within view of
the sea lying to the west; when, it being a
clear day, I fairly described land, extending
from the W. to the S.W. about 10 or 15 leagues,
as I concluded; but could not say whether it
was an island or a continent. Neither could I
tell what this place might be ; only thought it
was part of America, and where I might have
been in a miserable condition had I landed.

Again I considered, that if this was the Spa-
nish coast, certainly, one time or the other, I
should see some ships pass by, and if it was
not, then it must be the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazil, which abounds
with cannibals or man-eaters.
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of
the island much more pleasant than mine; the
fields fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers and
verdant grass, together with several very fine
woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made me long for one to be my companion;
but it was with great difficulty I could knock
one down with my stick ; and I kept him at
home some years, before I could get him to call
me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts of
hares and foxes, as I took them to be, but much
different from those in England. Several of
these I killed, but never ate them; neither in-
deed had I any occasion: for abounding with
goats, pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I could defy
any market to furnish me a better table. In
this journey, I did not travel above two miles a
day, because I took several turns and wind-
ings, to see what discoveries I could make, re-
turning weary enough to the place were I de-
signed to rest all night, which was either in a
tree, or to a place which I surrounded with
stakes, that no wild creature might suddenly
surprise me. When I came to the sea-shore, I
was amazed to see the splendour of it. Its strand
was covered with shells of the most beautiful

fish, and constantly abounding with innumera-
ble turtles, and fowls of many kinds, which I
was ignorant of, except those called penguins.
I might have shot as many as I pleased, but
was sparing of my ammunition, rather choos-
ing to kill a she-goat, which I did with much
difficulty, on account of the flatness of the
Now, though this journey produced the most
pleating satisfaction, yet my habitation was so
much to my liking, that I did not repine at my
being seated on the worst part of the island.
I continued my journey, travellingabout twelve
miles further towards the east, where I set a
great pile oi the shore for a mark, concluding
that my next journey should bring me to the
other side of the island, east from my castle,
and so round till I came to my post again.
As I had a constant v;cw of the country, I
thought 1 could not miss my way; but scarcely
had I travelled three miles, when I descended
into a very large valley, so surrounded with
hills covered with wood, that having no guide
but the sun, and to add to my misfortune, the
weather proving very hazy, I was obliged to
return to my post by the sea side, and so back-
wards the same way I came. In this journey,
my dog surprised a kid, and would have killed
it, had I not prevented him. As I had often
been thinking of getting a kid or two, and so
raising a breed of tame goats to supply me,
after my ammunition was spent, I took this
opportunity of beginning; and, having.maod

a collar for this little creature, with a string
made of rope yarn, I brought it to my bower,
and there inc;osed and left him; and having
spent a month in this journey, at length I re-
turned to my old habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when
I returned to my little castle, and reposed my-
self in my hammock. After my journey I
rested myself a week, which time I employed
in making a cage for my pretty poll. I now
began to recollect the poor Lid I had left in
thie hbover, and immediately went to fetch it
home. When I came there, I found the young
creature alniost starved ; I gave it some food,
and tied it as before; but there was no occa-
sion, for it followed me like a dog ; and as I
constantly fed it, it became so loving, gentle,
and fond, that it commenced one of my do-
mestics, and would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 50th of Septem-
her in tS;e most solemn manner, as usual, it
being the second year of my abode in the island.
i speut tlhe whole day in acknowledging God's
mercies, in giving thanks for making this soli-
tary life as agreeable, and less sinful, than that
of human society; and for the communication
of his grace to my soul, in supporting, comfort-
ing, and encouraging me to depend upon his
Providence, and hope for his eternal presence
in the world to come.
Indeed, I often did consider how much more
Happy I was, in this state of life, than in that

manner of living I formerly used ; sometimes
however when hunting, or viewing the coulnty,-
the anguish of my soul would break out upon
me, and my very heart would sink within me,
to think of the woods, the mountains, tile
deserts I was in ; and how I was a prisoner,
locked up within the eternal bars and boids
of the ocean, in an uninhabited country, with-
out a hope of escape. In this condition I
would often wring my hands, and weep like
a child: and even sometimes in the middle of
my work, this fit of melancholy would ol'en
take me ; and then I would sit down and -igh,
looking on the ground for an hour or two
together, till such time as my grief got ve;.t
in a flood of tears.
One morning, as I was fully employed in
this manner, I opened my bible, and began
to read that chapter in which God promises to
Joshua, I will not foil thee, nor frsake Ihee!
Surely, if God does not forsake me, what
matters it, since he can make me more
happy in this state of Lfe, than if I enjoyed
the greatest splendour in the world ? And
whenever I opened or shut the bible, I blest
kind Providence, that directed my good friend
in England to send it among my goods without
my order, and for assisting me to save it from
the power of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my se-
veral daily employment were these: First,
My duty to Heaven, and diligently reading the
holy Scriptures, which I did twice or thrice

every day : Secondly, Seeking provisions with
my gun, which commonly took me up, when
it did not rain, three hours every morning;
Thirdly, The ordering, curing, preserving, and
cooking what I had killed, or catched for my
supply, which took me up a great part of the
day; for in the middle of the day, the sun
being in its height, it was so hot, that I could
not stir out: so that I had but four hours in
the evening to work in: and then the want o(
tools, of assistance, and skill, spent a great
deal of time to little purpose, I was no less
than two and forty days, making a board fit for
a long shelf, which two sawyers with their tools
and saw-pit, would have cut out of tle same
tree in halfta day. It was of a large tree, as
my board was to be broad. I was three days
in cutting it down, and two more in lopping
off the boughs, and reducing it to a piece of
timber. Thus I hacked and hewed off each
side, till it became light to move; then I turned
it, m Lde one side of it smooth and flat as a
board from end to end, then turned it down-
ward, cutting the other side, till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth
on both sides. Any body may judge my great
labour and fatigue in such a piece of work;
but this I went through with patience, as also
many other things, that my circumstances made
necessary for me to do.
The harvest months, November and Decem-
bpr, v.'-re now at hand, in which I had the
pieadiinl prpfcvt of' a very ;iod oip. But

here I met with a new misfortune, for the goats
and hares, having tasted of the sweetness of
the blade, kept it so short, that it bad no
strength to shoot up into a stalk. To prevent
this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and by day
shot some of its devourers: and my dog, which
I had tied to the field gate, keeping barking all
night, so frightened these creatures that I got
entirely rid of them.
But, no sooner did I get rid of these, than
other enemies appeared, to wit whole flocks of
several sorts of birds, who only waited till my
back was turned, to ruin me. So much did
this provoke me, that I let fly, and killed three
of the malefactors; and afterwards served them
as they do notorious thieves in England and
Ireland, hung them up in chains as a terror to
others. And indeed, so good an effect had
this, that they not only forsook the corn, but
all that part of the island, so long as these
criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end
of December, which was my second harvest, I
reaped it with a scythe made of one of my
broad swords. I had no fatigue in cutting down
my first crop, it was so slender. The ears I
carried home in a basket, rubbing the grain out
with my hands, instead of threshing it; and
wi;en my harvest was over, found my half peck
oftseed had produced nearly two bushels of rice
and two bushels and a half of barley. And
now I plainly foresaw, that, by God's good-
ves, I should be furnished with bread; but

yet I was, concerned, because I knew not how
to grind or make meal of my corn, neither
knew I how to bake it into bread. I would
not, however, taste any of the crop, butiresolved
to preserve it against next season, and, in the
mean while, use my best endeavours to provide
myself with other food.
But where were my labours to end ? the want
of a plough to turn up the earth, or shovel to
dig it, I conquered by making me a wooden
spade. The want of a harrow I supplied
by dragging over the corn a great bough of
a tree. When it was growing, I was forced
to fence it; when ripe, to mow it, carry it
home, thresh it, part it from the chaff, and
save it. And, after all,, I wanted a mill to
grind it, a sieve to diess it, yeast and salt to
make it into bread, and an oven to bake it.
This set my brains to work, to find some expe-
dient for every one of these necessaries, against
the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was
to prepare me more land. I pitched upon two
large flat pieces of ground, near my castle, for
that purpose, in which I sowed my seed, and
fenced it with a good hedge. This took me up
three months; by which time, the wet season
coming on, and the rain keeping me within
doors, I found several occasions to employ my-
self; and, while at work, used to divert myself
with talking to my parrot, teaching him to know
and speak his own name Poll, the first welcome
word I had evcr heard spoken in the island. I

had been a long time contriving, how to make
earthen vessels, which I wanted extremely;
and when I considered the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but, if I could find any such
clay, I might botch up a pot, strong enough,
when dried in the sun, to bear handling, and
to hold any thing that was dry, as corn, meal,
and other things.
To be short, the clay I found; but it would
occasion the most serious person to smile, to
see what awkward ways I took, and what ugly
misshapen things I made; how many either fell
out or cracked, by the violent heat of the sun,
and fell in pieces when they were removed; so
that I think it was two months before I could
perfect any thing; and even then, but two
clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars.-
These, however, I very gently placed in wicker
baskets, made, on purpose for them, and be-
tween the pot and the baskets, stuffed it full of
rice and barley straw; and these I presumed
would hold my dried corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised. As for the
smaller things, I made them with better suc-
cess'; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, the sun baking them
very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely neces-
sary, and that was an earthen pot, not only to
hold my liquid, but also to bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It once happened,
that as I was putting out my fire, I found
therein 4 broken piece of one of my vessels

bornt hard is a rock, and red as a tile, this
nmaie me think of burning some pots; and
having no notion of a kiln, or of glazing them
with lead, I fixed three large pipkins, and two
or three pots in a pile one upon another. The
file I piled round the outside, anddry wood on
the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot, and found that they did not crack at all:
and when I perceived them perfectly red, I
let them stand in the fire about five or six
huirs, till the clay melted by the extremity of
the heat, and would have run to glass had I
suftired it; upon which, I slacked my fire by
d, rees, till the redness abated; and watching
tli:iii till the morning, I found I had three very
.good pipkins, and two earthen pots, as well
burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.
''le first use to which I turned my pipkins,
was to make some salt, which I had long
wanted. For this purpose, I filled them with
sta-: aiter, and kept it slowly boiling over the
!ire, till the whole of the water had boiled
cwv:iy in steam, leaving, at the bottom of the
' ',~el, a thin crust of salt, which I found very
,,ood for giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a stone-
inortar to beat some corn in, instead of a mill
to grind it. Here, indeed, I was at a greatloss,
as not being fit for a stone-cutter; and many
days I spent to find out a great stone big enough
to cut hollow and make it fit for a mortar, and
strong enough to bear the weight of a pestle;
that would break the corn without filling it with

sand. But all the stones of the island being
of a mouldering nature, rendered my search
fruitless; and then I resolved to look out a
great block of hard wood; which having found,
I formed it, by my axe and hammer, and then,
with infinite labour, made a hollow in it, just as
the Indians of Brazil make their canoes. When
I had finished this, I made a great pestle of
ironwood, and then laid them up against my
succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve, to
sift my meal and part it from the bran and husk.
Having no fine thin canvass to search the meal
through, I could not tell what ;to do. What
linen I had was reduced to rags'; I had goat's
hair enough, but neither tools to work it, nor
did I know Irw to spinr it. At length, I re-
membered 1 had some neck-cloths of calico or
muslin, of the sailors, which I had brought out
of the ship, and with these, I made three small
sieves proper enough for the work.
I come now to consider the baking part.
The want of an oven I supplied,' by making
some earthen pans, very broad, but not deep.
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great
fire upon my hearth the tiles of which, I had
made myself, and when the wood was burnt
into live coals; I spiead them'bver it, till it be-
came very hot; then sweeping thetr away I
set down my loaves, and wiAlming aotn the
earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all around thloutsides of th6 pots to con-
tinue the heat; and in this manner, I baked my

bailey loaves, as well as if I had been a com.
plete, pastry-cook, and also made of the rice,
several Iakcs a dpuddings.
It is no wonAer that all these things took me
up the best part of the year, since what inter-
mediate time I had, was bestowed in managing
my new harvest and husbandry; for in the
proper season, I reaped my corn, carried it
home, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub, instead ,of
threshing it. And now indeed, my corn tn-
creased so much, that it produced me twenty
bushels of bailey, and as much of rice, so that
I inot only began to use it freely, but was think-
img how to enlarge my harns, and resolved to
sow as much at a time as world be sufficient for
a whole year.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I
had seen from the other side of the island, ran
in my mind. I still meditated a deliverance
from this place, though the fear of greater mis-
fortunes might have deterred me from it, For,
allowing that I had attained that place, I ran
the hazard of being killed and eaten by the
devouring cannibals; and if they werenot so,
yet I might be slain, as other Europeans had
been, who fell into their hands. Notwith-
standing all this, my thoughts ran continually
upon that shore. I now wished for the long
boat with the shoulder of mutton sail. I went
to the ship's boat, that had been cast a great
way on the shore, in the late storm. She was
removed but a little; but her bottom being

turned up by the impetuosity and surge of the
waves and wind, I fell to work with all the
strength I had, and with levers and rollers which
I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and repair
the damages she had sustained. This work
took me up three or four weeks, when finding
my little strength all in vain, I fell to under-
mining it, by digging away the sand, and so to
make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to
thrust and guide it in the fall. But after this
was done, I was still unable to stir it up, or to
get under it, much less to move it forwards
towards the water, and so I was forced to give
it over.
This disappointment, however, did not
frighten me. I began to think, whether it
was not possible for me to make a canoe or
Perigua, such as the Indians make of the
trunk of a tree. But here I lay under particular
inconveniences; want of tools to make it, and
want of hands to move it into the water when
it was made. However, to work I went upon it,
stopping all the enquiries I could make, with
this very simple answer I made to myself, let's
first make it, I'll warrant I'll find some way or
other to get it along when it is done.
I first cut down a cedar-tree, which was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next
the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a space, and then parted into
branches. Twenty days was I hacking and
hewing it at the bottom, fourteen more in
E 2

cutting off the branches and limbs, and a
whole month in shaping it like the bottom of
a boat. As for the inside, I was three weeks
with a mallet and chissel, clearing it in such
a manner, as that it was big enough to carry
26 men, much bigger than any canoe I- ever
saw in my life, and consequently sufficient to
transport me and all my effects to that wished-
for shore I so ardently desired.
Nothing remained now, but, indeed, the
greatest difficulty, to get it into the water, it
lying about 100yards from it. To remedy the
first inconvenience, which was a rising hill be-
tween this boat and the creek, with wonderful
pains and labour I dug into the surface of the
earth, and made a declivity. But when this
was done, all the strength I had was as in-
sufficient to move it, as it was when I firt
made the attempt. I then proceeded to mea-
suie the distance of ground, resolving to make
a canal, in order to bring the water to the ca-
uoe, since I could not bring the canoe to the
water. But as this seemed to be impracticable
to myself alone, under the space of eleven or
twelve years, it brought me into some sort of
consideration; so that I concluded this also to
be impossible, and the attempt vain. I now
saw, and not before, what stupidity it is to
begin work before we reckon its costs, or
judge rightly our own abilities to go through
with its performance.
In the height of this work, my fourth year ex-
pired from the time I was cast on this islahid.

At this time I did not forget my anniversary;
but kept it with rather greater devotion than
before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had no-
thing to do with; and very well might I say,
as father Abraham said unto Dives, Between
me amd thee there is a gulphfixed. And indeed
I was separated from its wickedness too, having
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, nor the pride of life; I had nothing to
covet, being lord, king and emperor over the
whole country I had in possession, without
dispute and without control; I had loadings
of corn, plenty of turtles, timber in abun-
dance, and grapes above measure. What was
all the rest to me? the money I'had, lay by
me as despicable dross, which I would.freely
have given for a gross of tobacco pipes or a
hand-mill to grind my corn: in a word, the
nature and experience of these things dictated
to me this just reflection. That the good
things of this world are no further good to usi
than as they are for our use; and that what-
ever we may heap up, we can but enjoy- as
much as we use, and no more.
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy
than usual. Every time I: satdown to meat, I
did it with thankfulness, admiring the provi-
dential hand of God, who in this wilderness
had spread a table to me. And now I con
sidered what I enjoyed, rather than. what L
wanted; compared my present condition with
wlat I at fisst expected it should be; how I

abould have done, if I had got nothing out of
the ship; that I must have perished before I
had caught fish or turtles; or lived, had I
fund them, like a mere savage, by eating
them raw, and pulling them to pieces with my
claws, like a beast. I next compared my sta-
tion to that which I deserved; how undutiful
I had been to my parents; how destitute of
the fear of God; how void of every thing that
was good; and how ungrateful for those
abundant mercies I had received from heaven,
being fed, as it were, by a miracle, even as
great as Elijah's being fed by ravens; and
cast on a place where there are no venomous
creatures to poison or devour me; in short,
making God's tender mercies matter of great
consolation, I relinquished all sadness, and
gave way to contentment.
As long as my ink continued, which with
water I made last as long as I could, I used
to minute down the days of the month on which
any remarkable thing happened.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,
was the biscuit, which I had brought out of
the ship; and though I allowed myself but one
cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet I
was quite out of bread for nearly a year,
before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long before.
However, I had preserved about three dozen
of the sailors' chequered shirts, which proved a
great refreshment to me, when the violent

beams of the sun would not suffer me to bear
any of the seamen's heavy watch-coats; which
made me turn tailor, and, after a miserable
botching manner, convert them to jackets. To
preserve my head, I made a cap of goatskins,
with the hair outwards to keep out the rain;
which indeed served me so well, that after-
wards I made a waistcoat and open kneed
breccles of the same: And then I contived
a sort of umbrella, covering it with skins,
which not oIly kept out the heat of the sun,
but the rain also. Thus being easy and settled
in my mind, my chief happiness was to con
verse with God, in most heavenly and corn
fortablh ejaculations.
For five years after this, I cannot say any ex-
traordinary thing occurred to me. My chief
employment was to cure my raisins, and plant
my barley and rice, of both which I had a
year's provision before-hand. But though I
was disappointed in my first canoe, I made it.
at intermediate times, my business to make a
second of much inferior size: and it was two
years before I had finished it. But as I per-
ceived it would in no wise answer my design of
sailing to the other shore, my thoughts were
confined to take a tour round the island, to see
\lhat further discoveries I could make. To.
this intent, after having moved her.to the wa-
ter, and tried how she would sail, I fit-ted up
a little mast to my boat, and made a sail of the
ship's sails that lay by me. I then made lock-
era or boxes at the end of1 it, to put in neces.
t, *,

series, provision and ammunition, which would
preserve them dry either from the rain, or the
spray of the sea.; and in the inside of the
boat, I cut me a long hollow place to lay my
gun, and to keep it dry, made a cover for
it. My umbrella, I fixed in a step in the
stern, like a mast, to keep off the heat of the
sun. And now resolving to see the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I victualled my
ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of
my barley bread loaves, an earthen pot full of
parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half a
goat, powdlcr and shot, and two watch-coats.
It was the Gth of November, in the 6th year
of my reign, or captivity, that I set out on this
voyage; which was much longer than I ex-
pected, being obliged to put farther out, by
reason of the rocL~s that lay a great way in tlhe
And indeed, so much did these rocks sur-
prise me, that I was for putting back, fearing
tliht if I ventured farther, it would be out of my
power to return: in this uncertainty I came to
anchor just off the shore, to which I waded
with my gun on.roy shoulder, and then climb-
ing up a iill, which over-looked that point, I
saw the full extent of it, and so resolved to run
ail hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a
violent current running to the east, coming
very close to the point; which I the more care-
fully observed, thinking it dangerous, and that
when I came to it, I might be driven into the

sea hv its force, and not able to return to the
island: and certainly it must have been so,
had I not made this observation ; for on the
other side was the like current, with this dif-
ference, that it set off at a greater distance ;
and I perceived there was a strong eddy under
the land: so that my chief business was to
work out of the first current, and conveniently
get into the eddy. Two dayr I staid here,
the wind blowing very briskly E. S E. which
being contrary to the current, leaves a great
breach of the sea upon the point; so it was
neither fit for me to keep too near the shore,
on account of the breach; nor stand at too
great a distance for fear of the streams. That
night the wind abating, it grew so calm, that
I ventured out : and here I may be a monu-
ment to all rash and ignorant pilots: for I
was no sooner come to the point, and not
above the boat's length from shore, but I was
got into a deep water, with a current like a
mill-race, which drove my boat along so vio-
lently, that it was impossible for me to keep
near the edge of it, being forced more and
more out from the eddy to the left of me ; and
all I could do with my paddles was useless,
there being no wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite
lost, since, as the current ran on both sides of
the island, I was very certain they must join
again, and then I had no hopes but of perish-
ing for want in the sea, after what provision I

had was spent, or before, if a storm should
happen to arise.
Who can conceive the present anguish of
my mind at this calamity ? with::longing eyes
did I look upon.my little kingdom, and thought
the island the pleasantest place in the uni-
verse. Happy, thrice happy desert, said I,
shall I never see thee more ? Wretched crea-
ture whither am I going? Why did I mur-
mur at my lonesome condition, when now I
would give the whole world to be thither
again ? While I was thus complaining, I
found myself to be driven about two leagues
into the sea: however, I laboured till my
strength was far spent, to keep my boat as far
north as possibly I could, to that side of the
current where the eddy. lay. About noon
I perceived a little breeze of wind spring up
from the S. S. E., which overjoyed my heart;
and I was still more elated, when, in about
half an hour, it blew a gentle fine gale. Had
any thick weather sprung up, I had been lost
another way : for having no compass on board,
I should never have found the way to steer
towards the island, if once it had disappeared;
but it proving the contrary, I set up my mast
again, spread my sail, and stood away north-
ward, as much as I could, to get rid of the
current. And no sooner did the boat begin
to stretch away, but I perceived, by the clear-
ness of the water, a change of the current was
near; for, where it was strong, the water wa&

foul; and where it was clear, the current
Those who have been in the like calamities
with my own, may guess my present excess of
joy, how heartily I ran my boat in the stream
of this eddy, and how joyfully I spread my sail
to the refreshing wind, standing cheerfully be-
fore it, with a smart tide under foot. By the
assistance of this eddy, I was carried above
a league home again, when, being in the wake
of the island, betwixt the two currents, I
found the water to be in a sort of a stand.
About four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached
within a league of the island, and perceived
the points of the rock, which caused this dis-
aster, stretching out; as I observed before, to
the southward, which throwing off the cur-
rent more southerly, had occasioned another
eddy to the north. But having a fair brisk
gale, I stretched across this eddy, and in an
hour, came within a mile of the shore, where I
soon landed, to my unspeakable comfort: and
after an humble prostration, thanking God for
my deliverance, with a resolution to lay all
thoughts of escaping aside, I brought my boat
safe to a little cove, and laid me down to take
a welcome repose. When I a*oke, I wasoon-
sidering how I might get my boat home; and
coasting along the shore, I came to a good bay,
which ran up to a rivulet or brook,-where,
finding a harbour, I stowed her as safe as
ifshe had been in a dry dock, made on purpose
for her.

I now perceived myself not far from the
place, where before I had travelled oi foot; ,o
taking nothing with me, except my gun and
umbrella, I began my journey, and in the
evening came to my bower, where I again laid
me down to rest. I had not slept long before
I wakened in great surprise, by a strange
voice that called me several times, Robin,
Robin, Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin Where
are you, Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you ?
Where have you been ?
So fast was I asleep, that at first I did not
awake thoroughly; but half asleep and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice repeated,
Robinson Crusoe, several times, being terribly
frightened, I started up in the utmost confusion;
and, no sooner were my eyes fully open,
but I beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge, and soon knew that it
was lie that called me: for just in such be-
wailing language, I used to talk and teach
him; which he so exactly learned, that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, Poor Robinson
Crusoe, where are you ? where have you been, ?
how came you here ? and such like prattle I
had constantly taught him. But even though
I knew it to be the parrot, it was a long time
before I could adjust myself: being amazed
how the creature got thither, and that he
should fix about that place, and no where else.
But now, being assured it could be no other

than my honest Poll, my wonder ceased, and
reaching out my band, aid calling Poll, the
creature came to me familiarly, and perched
upon my thumb, as he was wont, constantly
prating to me with Poor Robinson Cr, soe, and
how did I come here, and where had I been?
as if the bird was overjoyed to see me; and
so I took him home along with me. 1 was
now pretty well cured, of rambling to sea;
yet I could wish my boat, which had cost me
so much trouble and pains, on this side the
island once more, but this, indeed, was im-
practicable. I therefore began to lead a very
retired life, living nearly a twelvemonth in a
very contented manner, wanting for nothing
but conversation. As to mechanic labours,
which my necessities obliged me to, I fancied I
could, upon occasion, make a tolerable carpen-
ter, were the poor tools I had to work withal, but
good. Besides, as 1 improved in my earthen
ware, I contrived to make them with a wheel,
which I found much easier and better, making
lmy work shapely, which before was rude and
ugly. But, I think I never was so elevated
with my, own performance or project, as when
able to make a tobacco pipe, which, though
it proved an awkward clumsy thing, yet it was
very sound, and carried the smoke perfectly
well, to my great satisfaction.
I also improved my wicker ware, made me
abomdance of necessary baskets, which, though
not very handsome, were very handy and con-
venient to fetch things home in, as also for hold-
ing my stores, barley, rise, and other provisions.

-My powder beginning to fail, midc me
examine after what manner I should kill the
goats or birds, to live on, after it was all gone.
Upon which, I contrived many ways to ensii re
the goats, and see if 1 could catch then alive,
particularly a she-goat with young.
At last I had my desire; for, making pit-
tfills and traps, baited with barhy and rice, I
found, one morning, in one of them, an old
Iw-goat, and in the other, three kids, one
male, the other two, females.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could
not bring him away. But I forgot the old
proverb, That hunger will tame a lion: For,
had I kept him three or four days without
provisions, and then given him some water,
with a little corn, he would have been as tame
as a young kid. The other creatures I bound
with strings together; but I had great diffi-
culty before I could bring them to my habi-
tation. It was some time before they would
feed; but, throwing them sweet cor., it so
much tempted them, that they began to be
tamer. From hence I concluded, that if I
designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh,
when my ammunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up, like a flock of sheep, about
my settlement, was the only method I could
take. I concluded also I must separate the
wild from the tame, or else they would always
run wild as they grew up; and the best way
for this, was to have some enclosed piece of
ground, well fenced, either with a hedge or
pale, to keep them so effectually, that'those

within might not break-out, nor those without
break in. Such an undertaking was very
great for one pair of hands; but as there was
an absolute necessity for doing.it, lpy first
care was to find a convenient piece.of ground,
where there was likely to be herbage.for them
to eat, water to drink, and cover to keep them
from the sun.
Here again, I gave another instance of my
ignorance and inexperience, pitching upon a
piece of meadow-land so large, that had I
enclosed it, the hedge or pale.must have been
at least two miles about. This thought came
into my head, after I had carried it on, I
believe, about fifty yards: I therefore altered
my scheme, and resolved to enclose a piece of
ground, about 150 yards in length, and 100 in
breadth, large enough 'for as many as would
maintain me, till such time as my flock in-
creased, and then I could add more ground.
I now vigorously prosecuted my work, and it
took me about three months in hedging the
first piece ; in which time, I tethered the three
kids in the best part of it; feeding them as
near me as possible, to make them. familiar;
and, indeed, I very often would carry some
ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed
them out of my hand; by which they grew so
tame, that when my enclosure.was finished,.
and I had let them loose, they would run after
me for a handful of corp. This indeed an-
swered my end: and in a year, and a half's
time, I 'had a rock of about twelve, goats, kids
and all; and in two.years after, they amounted

to forty-three, besides what I had taken and
killed for my sustenance.
Alier which, I inclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to drive them
into, that I might take then as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which in tie beginning, I
did not so much as think of. And, indeed,
though I had never milked a cow, much less
a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, yet,
after some essays and miscarriages, I made me
both, and never afterwards wanted.
How mercif'ully can the Almighty comfort
his creatures, even in the midst of their greatest
calamities ? How can he sweeten the bitterest
evils, and give us reason to magnify him in dun-
geons and prisons; what a bounteous table was
here spread in a wilderness for me, where I ex-
pected nothing at first, but to perish for hunger.
Certainly any one would have smiled to see
me at dinner. There sat my royal majesty,
an absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom,
attended by my dutiful subjects, whom, if I
pleased, I could either punish or reward,
give them liberty, or take it away. When I
dined, I. seemed a kihg, eating alone, none
daring to presume to do so till I had done.
Poll, as if he had been my principal court
favourite, was the only person permitted to talk
with me. My old but faithful dog, now grown
exceedingly crazy, continually sat on my right
hand; while my two cats sat on each side of
the table, expecting a bit from my hand, as a

principal mark of my royal favour. These were
not the cats I had brought from the ship; they
had been dead long before, and interred near
my habitation by mine own hand. But a couple
of their young I had made tarme; the rest ran
wild into the woods, and in time grew so
impudent, as to return and plunder me of my
stores, tilt such time as I shot a great many,
and the rest left me without troubling me any
more. In this plentiful manner did I live,
wanting for nothing but conversation. One
thing indeed concerned me, the want of my
boat; 1 knew not which way to get her round
the island. One time 1 resolved to go along
the shore by land to her; but had any one at
home met such a figure, it would either have
affrighted them, or made them burst into
laughter; nay, I could not but smile myself
at my habit, which I think in this place will
be very proper to describe.
The cap I wore upon my head, was great,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin,
with a flap or pent-house hanging down be-
hind, not only to keep the sun from me, but
to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck, nothing being more pernicious than the
rain falling upon the flesh in these climates.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, whose hair
hung down such a length on each side, that it
reached down to the calves of my legs. As
for shoes and stockings, I had none, but made
a resemblance of something, I knew not what
to call them; they were made like buskins,
and acedd on the side like spatterdashles, bar-

barously shaped, like the rest of my habit. I
had a broad belt of goat's skin dried, girt
round me with a couple of thongs, instead of
buckles; on each of which, to supply the
deficiency of sword and dagger, hung my
hatchet and saw. I had another belt, not so
broad, yet fastened in the same manner, whicli
hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it,
under my left arm, hung two pouches, made
of goat's skin, to hold my powder and shot.
My basket I carried on my back, and my gun
on my shoulder; and over my head, a great
clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella, which, how.
ever, next to my gun, was the most necessary
thing about tue. As for my face, the colour
was not so swarthy as the Mulattoes, or as
might have been expected fiom one who took
so little care of it, in a climate within nine or
ten degrees of the Line. At one time, my
beard grew so long that it hung down above
a quarter of a yard : but as I had both razors
and scissars in store, I cut it all off, and suft
ifred none to grow, except a large pair of
whiskers, the like of which I had seen worn by
some Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed
to hang a hIt upon, but of such a- Ilonstrous
size, as completely to alter my appearance.
But all this was of no consequence here,
there being none to observe my behaviour or
habit. And so, without fear and without con-
troul, I proceeded on my journey, the prosecu-
tion of which took me up five or six days. I
travelled along the sea shore, directly to

the place where I first brought my boat to an
anchor, to get upon the rocks; but now hav-
ing no boat to take care of, I went, over-land,
a nearer way to the same height that I was
before upon; when looking forward to the
point of the rock, which lay out, and which I
was forced to double with my boat, I was
amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet,
there being no rippling motion, nor current,
any more than in other places. And now I
was convinced, that by observing the ebb and
flow of the tide, I might easily bring my boat
round the island again. But when I began to
think of putting it in practice, the remem-
brance of the late danger, struck me with
such horror, that I took another resolution,
though more laborious; and this was to make
a second canoe, and so have one for one side
of the island, and one for the other.
I had now two plantationsin the island; the
first, my little fortification, fort, or castle, with
many large and spacious improvements: for
by this time, I had enlarged the cave behind
me with several little caves, one within ano-
ther, to hold my baskets, corn, and straw.
The piles with which I made my wall were
grown so lofty and great, as to obscure myhabi-
tation. And near this commodious and plea.
sant settlement, lay my well cultivated and
improved corn fields, which kindly yielded me
their fruit in the proper season. My second
piantation was that near my country-seat, or
little bower, where my grapes nourished, ahd
where, having planted my stakes, I made in-

rclkurcs for my goats, so strongly fortified by
labour and time, that it w~as much stronger
than a wall,, and, consequently, impossible for
them to break through. As for my bower
itself, I kept it constantly in repair, and cut
the trees in such a manner, as made them
grow wild, and fori a most delightful shade.
In the centre of this, stood my tent, thus
erected. 1 had driven four piles in the ground,
spreading over it a piece of the ship's sail;
beneath which, I made me a sort of couch
with the skins of the creatures I had slain,
and other things; and having laid thereon one
of the sailor's blankets, which I had saved
from the wreck of the ship. and covering my-
telf with a grcat watch -coat, I took up this
place for my country retreat.
SVery frequently, from this settlement, did I
use to visit my boat, and keep her in very good
order. And, sometimes, would I venture in her
a cast or two from shore, but no farther. But
now, I entreat your attention, whilst 1 pro-
seed to inform you of a new, but most sur,
prising scene of life which here befel me.
You may easily suppose, that, after having
been here so long, nothing could be more
amazing than to see a human creature. One
day it happened, that going to niy boat, I saw
the print of a man's naked foot on the shore,
very evident on the sand, as the toes, heels,
and every part of it. Had I seen a monster of
the most frightful shape, I could not have been
more confounded. My willing ears gave the
strictest attention. I cast my eyes around, but

Ro13INsoN CacsciE startled at tih pril't of a
m ap. jJot mn the:;~d

could satisfy neither the one nor the other,
1 proceeded, alternately to every part of the
shore, but with equal effect; neither could I
see any other mark, though the sand about it
was as susceptible to take impression, as that
which was so plainly stamped. Thus, struck
with confusion and horror, I returned to my
habitation, frightened at every bush and tree,
taking every thing for men; and possessed with
the wildest ideas! That night my eyes never
closed. I formed nothing but the most dismal
imaginations. In a word, all my religious
hopes vanished, as though I thought God
would not now protect me by his power, who
had wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various chains of events are there in
the life of man? How changeable are our affec-
tions, according to different circumstanceI?
We love to day, what we hate to-morrow: we
shun one hour what we seek the next. This
was evident in me in the most conspicuous
manner: for I, who before had so much la-
mented my condition, in being banished from
all human kind, was now ready to expire, when
I considered that a man had set his foot on this
desolate island. But when I considered my
station of life, tlht it was allotted to me by the
infinitely wise and good providence of God,
that I ought not to dispute my Creator's so-
vereignty, who had an undoubted right to
' govern ard dispose of his creatures as he thinks
convenient; and .that his justice and mercy
could either punish or deliver me: I say,

when I considered all third, I comfortably
tbund it my duty to trust sincerely in him,
pray ardently to him, and humbly resign my-
self to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words
of the sacred writings came into my mind,
Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me. Upon
this untence, rising more cheerfully from my
hed, I offered up my prayers in the most de-
vout manner: and when I had done, taking
up my bible to read, these words appeared
in my sight: Wait on the Lord, and be of
good cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart:
Wait, I say, on the Lord. Such divine com-
fort did ibis give me, as to remove all cause
of sadness upon that occasion.
Thus, aft.r a world of apprehensions and
fears, for three days and nights, I at last ven-
ttured out of my castle, and milked my goats,
one of which was almost spoiled for want of
it. I next, (though in great fear,) visited my
bower, and milked ny flocks there also: when,
growing bolder, I went down to the shore
again, and measuring the print of the foot to
mine, to see perhaps whether I myself had not
occasioned that mark, I found it much supe-
rior in largeness; and so returned home,
absolutely convinced, that either some men had
been ashore, or that the island must be inha-
bited; and therefore that I might be surprised
before I was aware.
I now began to think of providing for my

security, and revolved in my mind many dif-
ferent sclemes for that purpose. I first pro-
posed to cut dowi my enclosures, and turn my
tame cattle wiid into tie woods, that the,
enemy might not find them, and frequent the
island in hopes of killing the same. Secondly,
I was for digging up my corn fields for the
very same reason. And, lastly, I concluded
to demolish my bower, lest, seeing a pluce of
human contrivance, they might come farther,
and find out, and attack me in my castle.
Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that
night; yet nature, spent and tired, submitted
to a silent repose the next morning, and then
joining reason with fear, I considered, that
this delightful and pleasant island might not be.
so entirely forsaken as I might think; but that
the inhabitants from the other shore might sail,
either with design, or from necessity, by cross
winds ; and, if the latter circumstance, I had
reason to believe, they would depart the first
opportunity. However, my fear made me
think of a place of rctrt'at upon an attack.
I now repented that I nad made my door to
come out beyond my fortification; to remedy
which, I resolved to make me a second one;
I fell to work, therefore, and drove betwixt
that double row- f ti ees, which I planted above
twelve years bti'.re, several strong piles, thick-
ening it with pieces of timber and old cables,
and strengthening the foot of it with earth
which I dug out of my cave; I alo made me
seven holes, wherein I planild my muskets

like cannon, fitting them into frames resembling
carriages. This being finished with indeaiti-
,galle industry, for a great way every where,
I planted sticks of osier like a wood, about
twenty thousand of them, leaving a large space
between them and my wall, that I might have
room to see an enemy, amn that they might
not be sheltered among. the young treee, if
thty offered to approach the outer wall. And
indeed, scarcely two years had passed over my
head, when there appeared a lovely shady
grove, and in six years, it becsne a thick wood,
perfectly impassable. I or my safety, I left no
;,venue to go in or out; instead of which, I set
two leaders, one to a part of the rock which
was low, and then broke in, leaving room to
police another ladder upon that ; so that when
I took those down. it was impossible for any
n;ma to descend without hurting Irmself; and
it they ha 1, they would still be at the outside
of inm outer wall. But while I tookcall these
measures of human prtmdelice for my own pre-
servation, I was not altogether unraindful of
otlwr altkirs. To preserve my stock of taam
gnats, tiat the enemy should not take all at
once, I.looked outl fa the: most retirepar4t o,
the island, which was the plaae whaue I hai
lost myself before mrtntiooed, andtherfituing
a clear piece of land, containing threat acres,
surrounded with thick woods, I wrough*t so
hard, that in lessathan a.nqnth's time, I fenced
it so well round, that my flocka were very well.

secmircd in it, and I put therein two he-goats,
and ten she ones.
All this labour was occasioned purely by
fearful apprehensions, on account of seeing the
print of a man's foot. And not contented yet
with what I had done, I searched for another
place towards the west part of the island,
where I might also retain another flock. Then
wandering on tis errand more to the west of
the island than ever I had yet done, and cast-
ing my eyes towards the sea, methouht I per-
ceived a boat at a great distance; but coukl
not possibly tell what it was for want of my
spy-glass. I considered then, it was no
strange thing to see the print of a man's foot;
and, concluding them cannibals, blessed God
for being cast on the other side of the island,
where none of the savages, as I thought, ever
came. But when I came down the hill to the
shore, which was the S. W. point of the island,
I was soon confirmed in my -opinion; nor can
any one describe my horror and amazement,
when I saw the ground spread with sculls,
hands, feet, and bones of human bodies ;and
particularly, I perceived a space like a circle,
in the midst of which had been a fire, about
which I conjectured those wretches sat,' and
unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their fellow
The horror and loathsomeness of this dread-
ful spectacle, both confounded my senses, and
made me discharge from my stomach in an ex-
cessive manner. I then returned towards my

habitation; and in my way thither, sledding
floods of tears, and falling down on my bended
knees, gave God thanks for making my nature
contrary to those wretches, and delivering me
so long out of their hands.
Though season and my long residence here
had assured me, that the savages never came
up to tie thick woody part of the country,
and that I had no reason to be apprehensive of
a discovery, yet such an abhorrence did I still
retain, that, for two years after, I confined
myself only to my three plantations; I mean
my castle, country seat, and enclosure in the
woods, though in process of time, my dread-
ful apprehensions began to wear away.
Thus my circumstances for some time remain-
ed very calrii and undisturbed: though indeed,
the terror which the savages had put me in,
spoiled some inventions for nmy own conveni-
ence. One of my projects was to brew me
some beer; a very whimsical one indeed, when
it is considered, that I had neither casks suf-
ficient, nor could I make any to preserve it in;
neither had I hops to make it keep; yeast to
make it work, nor a copper or kettle to make
it boil. Perhaps, indeed, after some years, I
might bring this to bear, as I had done other
things. But now my inventions were placed
another way : and day and night I could think
of nothing but-how I might destroy some of
these cannibals, when proceeding to their
bloody entertainments: and so saving a victims

from being sacrificed, tllt l!e might afteriwards
become. my servant. lM.wi were my contri-
vances tor this purpose, and many more ohjc-
tions occurred, after I hud hatchedthenm. I conce
contrived to dig a hole niider the place where
they made their fire, and put therein five or -ix
pounds of gunpowder, which would consc-
quently blow up all those that were near it;
but then I was loth to spend *o much upon
, them, lest it should not do that certain execu-
tion I desired, and only affright and not
kill them. Having laid this deign aside,
I again proposed to myself to lie plivately in
ambush in .soce convenlient I.lac, wihi Itmy
three gtlns double loaded, and let fly at them
in the midst of their dreadful ceremony : and
having killed two or three of their at every
shot, thll upon the relt suddenly with my three
pistols, anl let Iot one of them escape. This
plan appeared to me so practicable that I
aised to dream of it in the night time. To
Iut mny de,(iln in execution, I was not long
seeking for a place convenient for my purpose,
where unsenc I might behold every action of
the savagts. Here I pIlced lmy two inmukeis,
each of i iich was loaded with a brace ofllugs,
and four or five srndller bullet about the .,ze
of pistol bulletin ; the tfiwling piece waI.chlarge d
with nearly a handful of the largest swan shot,
and, in every pislol about four bullets. And
thus all things being prepared, no sooner did
lthe welcome liitit t-pread over the ercuiint, but,
I would issue forth from miy caslti, and I'iru

a lofty hill, three miles distant, try if I could
see any invaders approach unlawfully to my
'kingdom. But having waited in vain.two or
three months, it grew very tiresome to me.
I' now argued with myself, it was better for
me never to attack, but to remain undiscovered
as long as I possibly could; that an opposite
conduct would certainly prove destructive;
for as it was scarcely to be supposed I could
kill them all, I might eitlier be overpowered
by the remaining, or that some escaping might
bring thousands to my certain destruction.
And, indeed, religion took their part so mucl
as to convince me how contrary it was to my
duty, to be guilty of shedding human blood,
innocent blood, innocent as to me in particular,
whatever they are to one another; that I had
nothing to do with it, but leave it to the God
of all power and dominion, as I said before, to
do'therein what seemed convenient to his hea-.
\'enly wisdom. And, theLefore, on my knees
I thanked the Almighty for delivering me from
blood-guiltiness, and begged his protection
that I might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I had
rashly begun, 1 never ascended the hill on that
occasion afterwards; I only removed my boat,
vlhich lav on the other side of the island, and
every thing that belonged to her, towards the
cast, into a little cove, that there might not
be the least shadow of any boat near, or hali-
tioin up)on the islAnd. My castle tlen be-
came my cell, keeping always retired in it,
F :;

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