Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 The further adventures of Robinson...
 Vision of the Angelic world

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072747/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner who lived eight and twenty years in an unihabited island, on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river Oroonque. With an account of his deliverance thence; and his after surprising adventures
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: v i.e. iv, 5-264 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Thomas Wilson and Son
Publisher: Published and sold by the booksellers
Thomas Wilson and Son, Printers
Place of Publication: London
York (High-Ousegate)
Publication Date: 1811
Edition: New ed., complete in one volume; -- with plates, descriptive of the subject.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1811   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- York
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R. W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Caption title, p. 145: Further adventures of Robinson Crusoe; p.248: Vision of the angelic world.
General Note: Described in Lovett citation below as a reissue of an edition originally published in 1805 (Lovett 156).
General Note: "From the Office of Thomas Wilson and Son, High-Ousegate, York."--P. 264.
General Note: Page iv printed as v.
General Note: Parts I-III of Robinson Crusoe, pt.III abridged (p. 248-264). Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe; pt. III: Serious reflections during the life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072747
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25561786

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 16a
        Page 16b
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        Unnumbered ( 113 )
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        Page 144
    The further adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 145
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    Vision of the Angelic world
        Page 248
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Full Text


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A Ke' Edition, complete in One Volume;


The Baldwin Library


IF ever the story of any private man's ad-
ventures in the world were worth making
public, and were acceptable when published,
the Editor of this account thinks this will
be so.

The wonders of this man's life exceed all
that (he thinks) is to be found extant ;the
life of one man being scarce capable of a
greater variety.

The story is told with modesty, with seri-
ousness, and with a religious application of
events, to the uses to which wise men always
apply them, viz. to the instruction of others
by this example, and to justify and honour
the wisdom of Providence in all the variety
of our circumstances, let them happen -ow'-..
they will.
Ai 2 -~ i .: ':


The Editor believes this narrative to be a
just history of: fact; neither is there any ap-
pearance of fiction in it; and though he is
well aware there are many who, on account
of the very singular reservations the Author
met with, will give it the name of romance;
yet, in which ever of these lights it shall be
viewed, he imagines, that the improvement
of it, as well as the diversion, as to the in-
struction of the reader, will be the same,
and as such, he thinks, without farther
compliment to the world, he does them a
great service in the publication.





I WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of a reputable fa-
mily. My father was a native of Bremen, who by mer-
chandizing at Hull for fome time, gained a very plentiful
fortune. He married my mother at York, who received
her firfi breath in that country; and as her maiden name
was Robinfon, I was called Robinfen Krinutxaer; which not -
being eafily pronounced in the Englilh tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crufoe.
S.was the youngest of three brothers. The eldefi was a
lieutenant-tolonel in Lockhart's regiment, but flin by thb
Spaniards : what became of the.other I could never learn. .
No charge or pains were wanting in my education.- .
My father designed me for the law, yet nothing would
ferve me but I muft go to fea, beth against the will of my
father, the tears of my mother, and the entreaties of friends.
One"morning my father expoflulated very wimly with me
What reason, fays hey have you to leave your native ceun-.
try, where there muf be a more certain profpedt of con-
tent and happinefs, to enter into a wandering condition ot
uneafinefs and oncertainry? He recommended to .me-
Augur's ailh, *'Neither to defire poverty ior richer' *
that a middle late of life was the moil happy, and that
the high towering thoughts of railing our ccndiioo by wan- .
during abroad, were forrounded with miTery and dantr,
nd often ended with confusion and diflppointmet. L .
entriet you, nay, I'command you, fayss he,) to delif4iAr
Sthefe.inte,-tions. Confider- your elder Lr.'i er, ho aidl
down hit life for his hooo-r, or rather lofl it for-his difobe-'
Sdiencet6 my will: If you will go, (added he,) my prayeff .
lhall however be offered for your preservation;' but a time '
may coze,- when defolate, oppreffedy or forfakel yo.- L
A.-3 .-

may wifh you had taken your poor defpifed father's counsel.
He pronounced thefe words with fach a moving and pater-
naleloquence, while floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks,
that it f.emed to frem the torrent of my resolutions. But
this fo-on wore off, and a little after I informed my mother,
that I could not fettle ;o any bufinefs, my'refolutions were
to firong-to fee the world; and begged fhe would gain my
father's conient only to go one voyage; which if it did n.t
-prove profperojs, I would never attempt a second. But'my
cefire was as vain as my fo'iy in aikfiny Mv mother p.f-
lionately exprefi'fd her di;Lke of this prop-fal, telling me
Tha as. le faw I was -e-: upon my own dcRfruCtion, con-
"rrary to their will and mny Uuty, the w-uid fay no more,
Sb-it ieave me to ans flr to do whatever I pleaded."
1 was then, I think, nineteen years old, whsn one time be-
ing at Hail, I met a fc-ool-fei,w of mine goi.g along wi.h
his fa:!thr, who ras ma:er of a fnip, to London; and ac-
quainting him wVit:i my wanderilig deir, s, he asfured me of
a free paIfftg, and a plenti!ui fi.,rt of 'vhit w Tiuh, wi!it.h.it inp'oring a b'effin., or taki- g farewell. of my
parents. I tl;,k ;.ip:ing on the firit of Septe Tnber, 165 1., We
felzail : .~,-.fter, anJ our i:p had fcarce-left the IIumaer
a-ilern, when there arofe to viAleit a ftorm, that- bei'g ex-
tremely fea-fick, I concluded the judgment of God deferv.
edly fol!o:.ed me fr my d:fobedience to nmy-4ar parents.
i was then I called to mind the good advice of my father
ho-w eafy and comfortable was a iiiddle tlaie of life ; and
I firmly refclved, if it pleaded God to fet me on dry land:
once more, I vwold return to.my parents, imn.plore thir f-r-.
givenefs, and b:d -a fiial adieu to nw wandering irclinations,
Such were r.y though ts while the form c intina-d; btt
thefe g -od' refolu:ions decreafed with the danger ; more
efpecially when m) comp-sn on came to me, clapping me on
the'lhoulder : What, Bob!" faid he, "fure you.waP not
, frightened laft n-,ht with scarce capful of wind ?"-
".And do you," cried I, "call fuch a violent ttor.m a capful
Sof wipd?" A iLrm, you fool you !" (aid he, this is.ng-
'*thitng: a good ihip and fea-.room always baffle. fuch a .
"-fooliih q~all of wind as that: But you're a fr.eth-water.
S"failor: Cese boy, turn out, fee what fine weather-we have
"now, and a good bowl of punch will drown allyourrpat- ,
" orrows." In. h.rt, the punch was made, I was drouk, oaaD
in one Aight's time drowned both my repentance and ma

good refolutionsi forgetting entirely the tows and promises
I made in my diftrefs : and whenever any refleaions would
return on me, what by company, and what by drinking, I
foon mastered thole fits, as I der;dingly called them. But
this only made way for another trial, whereby I could not
but fee how much I was beholden to kind Providence.
Upon the fixth day-we came to a1 anchor in Harwich
road, where we lay wind-bound with fome Newcafle (hips;
Sagd there being good anchorage, and our cables found, the
feamen forgot their late toil and danger, and fpent-the time
as merry as if they had been on there. But on the eighth day
there arofe a brifk gale of wind, which prevented our tidirg
itup the river; and fiill increasing, our fhip rode forecaflle
in, and fliipped several large feas.
It was net long before horror feiz'd the feamen them-
felves, and I heard the mafter.e\prefs this melancholy
ejaculation, "Lord have mercy upon us, we (hall be all !oft
and unidore!" Fur my part,fick unto death, I keptmy cabin,
till the universal and terribly dreadful apprehensions of our
fpeedy fate made me ge: upon deck; and there I was af-
frighted indeed. The fea went mountains high; I could
fee nothing but diirefs around us; two fhips had cut their
mafts cn b ard, and another was foundered ; two more that
had loft their anchors, were forced cut to the mercy of the
ocean: and to fave tur lives we were forced to cut our -
foremalf and mainmai quite away.
Who is theie fo ignorant as not to judge of my dreadful
condition I was but a frefh-waer sailor, and therefore it
seemed more terrible. Our thip was very good, but over-
loaded ; which made the failcrs often cry out, She would
founder !" Words I then was ignorant of. All this while
the flormn coninuirg, apd rather increasing, the mzfler and
the moft tober panr of his men went to prayers, expeaing
death every moment. In the middle of the night one cried
out, "We had fprung a leak 1" another, That their were
four, feet water in the hold !" I was juft ready to expire"
w th fear, when immediately all hands were called to the
pamp; and the men forced me alfo in that exrenmiy to.
Share with them in their labour. While thus er. pl.yed,.*e e
mailer efpying fome fight colliers, fired a gun as a fig!al'if
diflrefs; and I, not understanding what it meant,.and animkt
ing that either the ihip broke, or fome dreadful thinaigkx
opened, fell into g fvwon. Even in that c.mniofomroapi
..- ,. x

of wee, nobody minded me, excepting to thruRl me afide
with their feet, thik:ng me dead, and it was a great while
before I recov red.
Happy it was for us, when unon the fig-al given, they
yen ured out their boats to five our lives. All o-r pumping
had been in va n,ard vainhad all our attempts been, had they
not come to our fhip's lide, and our men call then a rope over
the flern wi-h a buoy o it, wh:ch after great labour they got
hold of, and we hauling them up to us, got into their boat,
ard left oor fhip, which we perceived link within lels than a
quart-r of an hur ; and ihus I learned what was meant by
foun-ier. at jea. Ani now the men inceffa.tly laboured to
recover their o-n fhio; but the fea ran f-1 high, and the wind
blew fa hard, that they thought it covenient to hale within
ihore; which, with great difficulty a-d danger, at lafl we
happivl effected, landing at a place called Cromer, not facr
from Wi tertn :git-houfe; from r hence we all waked to
.Ynr,rou:h, where as objets of pity, many good people fur-
n;fhed 1us with nec.fferies to ca ry us either to Hull or London.
Strange, afier all the's, 1-ke t.:e pro.i,.al fo.-, I did not re-
turn to my father; who hearing of the (hip's calamity, for a
long tine thought me rn.ombed in the deep. No doubt
but I fhouid have fJared on his fated calf, as the Scripture
expreffeth i:; b-; my ill fate fill pushed me on, in fpite of
the powerful cot visions of reason and confidence.
When we LPd been at Yarmnuth three days, I met my
old companion, who had given me the invitation to go on
board a'ong wita his father. His behaviour and speech
were altered, and in a melancholy manner walked me how I
did, telling his father who I was, and how i had made this
voyage, oiiry for a trial to pr; ceed further abroad. Upon
wh ch the cld gietiemnan turning to me gravely, faid,
'" Young man, you touht never to ga tofea any more, but to
"take this for acett iin ign that you never will pro'fper in
" a feafaring ccn-i;ion." *' sir," anol-.erd I, *i' you
" take the fame refolu:ion ?" "It is a dilfe.ent cafe," faid
he; "it ismy .-.1--, and confequendy my dutv ; hut as
" you have made this voyage tor a trial, you fee what ill
"fuccefs Heaven has fet before ycur ey.i ;,aid perhaps
"our miftries have been on your account, like Jo-iah in the
'- fl p of Tr, i/b. But pray what are you ? and on wha;
"account did you go to fea ?" Upon wnich I very freely
declaid mrj ihoi ilory : at the end of which he made this

,, ... C .


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--. .... ..--.- 'S *" '

..*.. *, .* \" ,
:-, : *...-."'.^-.':'/""i".". .,


exclamation, Yea faced Powers, what hid I committed,.
th.t fuch a wretch should enter into my Ihip to heap upon
"me fuch a deluge cf miseries!" But, foon recolleaing
his pallion, Young man," faid he, "if you.do.not go back,
,"depend upon ii, wherever you go, you will meet- with
difafters and disappointments till your father's words are
fulfilled upon you." A.nd fo we patted.
I thought at firft to return home; but flime opposed that
good motion, as thinking I should be laughed at by my neigh-
b urs and acquaintance. Sj firange is the nature of youth,.
who are not alhamej to fin, but yet ashamed to repent; and.
fo far frJm bring alhamed of thofe a ions for which they
may be accounted fools, they think it folly to return to their
duty, which is the principal mark of wisdom. In thort, I
travelled up to London, refolving upon a.voyage and a
voyage I foon heard of, by my acquaintance wit a captain
who took a fancy to me, to go to tne coaft cf Guinea. Hav-
ing fome money, and appearing like a gentleman, I went
on board, not as a common failor cr foremafl min ; nay,
the commander ageed I shouldd go that voyage with ,im
without any expen'e; that I should be his mefsmate and
companion, and I was very welcome, to carry any thing.
wih. me, afd make the b.ft me, chardife I could..
I blefled my happy fortune, ard humbly ttianked niy cap-
tan for this offer; and acquainting my friends in Yorikih:re,..
forty pounds were fent me, the greatest part of which my
dear father and mother contributed to, with whichI hlcught
t.lys and trifles, as the captain direaed me. My captain-
alfo taught me navigation, how. to keep an account of the.
Thip's course, take an observation, and led meinto the know-
ledge of feveral useful branches of the mathematics. And
indeeJ this voyage made me both.a fai!or'and.a merchant;.
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dun foi-
my adventure, wh;ch produced at. my return.to London,
almost three hundred pounds. But in this voyage 1 was ex-
tremely fick, being thrown into a violent calenture.through
the exceffive eat, trading upon the coaft from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself,
Bat alas! !my dear friend, the captain, foon departed this
lifeafter his arrival. This was a fedible grief tome: yet.
I resolved to go another voyage with his. mae, who had-
now got command of the fh;p. This proved a very unfue,-
cessful one; for though I did, not carry qui:e a handed*.
*'A& "

pounds of my late acquired wealth, (fo that I had two hun-
dred pounds left, which I repofed with the Captain's widow,
who was an honest gentlewoman,) yet my misfortunes in
this unhappy voyage were very grea'. For our (hip failing
towards the Canary iflards, we were chafed by a Salke
rover; and in fpite cf Ail the -afle we could make, by crowd-
ing as much canvas as our yards could spread, or our malls
carry, t e pirate gained upon us, fo that we prepared our-
ie!ves to figh. They had eighteen guns, and we had but
twe ve- About three in the afternoon there was a desperate
engagement, wherein many were killed and wounded on
both fides; but finding curfelves overpowered with num-
bers, cur Ih;p difablei, ard ourfelves to3 impotent to have
the leaft hcpes of fuccefs, we were forced to surrender; ard
accordingly were all carried prisoners in'o the port of S lee.
Our men were fent to the Emperor's ccutt to be fold there;
but the pirate cap:a:n taking notice of me, kept me to be
his own flave.
In thi3 condition, I thought myfelf the mof miserable
creature on earth, ard the prophecy of my father came afrefh
into my thcuhts. However, my condition was better than
I thought t it o e, as will Coon appear. Some hopes indeed
I had that my nrw patron would go to fea again, where he
might be taken cy a Spanifh or Portuguere man of war, and
then I should be fet at liberty. But in this I was m'flaken;
for lie never took me with him, but left me to look after his
little garden, and do the irudgery of his houfe; and when he
returned from fee, r'.ouid m::ke ee lie in 'he cabin, and
lock after the ftip. I had no one that I could communicate
my thoughts to, which ,*ere continually meditating. my
efcape; no Erglifima.n, Iri(hm.n, or Sectchman here, but
mryfef; and for t-o years I cold fee nothing pracicable,
but cniy pleaf:;d myft l with the i:rainat on.
After fome 1-ng h of ti-te, m, patron, a, I find, grew fo
.poor that he couid not fit oct his thip as ufual ; and then he
ufed ccnrtintly, once or :.icec a week, if tne weather was
fair, to go o:t a fifting, tak i r meand a Noung Morefcoboy
to row the boat ; ;an. ft ,mch pieafed was he -i'i.h .ie for
my dexterity in catching the ith 'iha: ne would often fend
me with a Modr, vwho w. s one of his kinf;en, and the Mo-
relco ycut'; to catca a di;h of fi' for him.
One morning, as we were at the fport, there arofe fuich
a thick fog, that we !oil fight or the fho;e; and rowing we

knew not which way, we laboured all.the night,'andin t0e
morning fou-d curfelves in the ocean, two leagues from
land.- However, we.att.ir.ed there at 'ergth, and made the
greater hafte, because our flomachs were exceedingly fnarp
and hungry. In erder to prevent fich difafters for the
future, my patron ordered a carpenter to buidd a little flate-
room or cabin in the middle of the lon,-boat, vith a place
behind it to fleer an. hale home the main feet, with other
conveniences to keep in from the weather ; as alfo lockers to
put in all manner of provificns, tith a handfdme fculder
of mutton fail, gibing ever the cabin.
In this he frequeijly toek us out a ifiting; and onetime
inviting twoor three peifons of di!ii action to go with him,
made provisions extraordinary, providing alfo ihree fufkes,
with powder and tho:, that they might have fore port at
fowling along the. fea-coail. The next morning the boat
was- made clean, her ancient and pendants out, and every
thing ready ; but their minds alterio my paron ordered
us to go a fithing, for that his guests would certainly fup
with him that night.
And now I began to think of my deliverance indeed. In
order to this I persuaded the Moor to get forne provisions
on board, as not daring to meddle with our patron's; ard
he taking my advice, we flored ourfeives with rufl bifcuit,
and three jars of water. Besides, I privately conveyed
into the boat a bottle of brandy, fome twir.e, thread, a ham-
mer, hatchet, and a faw ; and, in particular, fome b-es-wax,.
which was a gre t comfort to me, and served to make can-
dles. Ithen pe fuaded Muley (for fo was the Mtor called)-
to procure f. me powder and (hot, pretending to kill fea cur-
lews, which he innocently an. readily agreed to. l1I fort,
being provided with ail ti-ings nccefikr,, we failed out, re-
folving f.r my own par, to make my escape, though it Ih~ould
colt me my life.
When we hlad paf'id the callie, we fell a fishing ; but
though I knew there was a bite, I difiembled the matter, in
order to put out further to fea. Accordingly we ran a league
further; when giving the boy the ielm, and pretending to
loop for something, I feizeA Muley by furprife ard ihrew
him overboard. As he w s an excellent fwimn.er, he fooi
ar,.fe, and made ro yards the bam.; upon .,hich, I took out
a fufee, and Frefentecd 4 him: Muley," faid T, I never
F yet dtfigned to do.yui any harm, and fiek nothing now

t but my redemption. I know yo.are ab'e enough to fwim
"to fhore, ard fave your life; but if you are refolved to
" follow me, to the endangering of mine, the very moment
"you proceed, I will (hcot you through the head." The
harmlets creature at thefe words, turned himfelf from me,
and I make no doubt got-fafe to land. Then turning to the
boy Xury, I perceived he trembled at the aticn ; but I put
him out of al fear, telling him, that if he would be true and
faithful to me, I wou:d do well by him. And therefore,"
faid J, ")ou muflt roke your face to be faithful; and, as the
STurks have learned > ou, (wear by Mahomet, and the beard
*' of your father, or elCe I will throw y. u into the fea alfo."
So innocent did the child then lock, and with fuch as oblig.
ing finile confented, that I readily believed him, and from
that day forward began to love him entirely.
We thn pursued our voyage; and left they should think
me gone to the ifraits' mouth, I kept to the fouthward to
the truly Barbarian coall ; but in the dufk of th! evening, I
changed my course, and leering direr&t S. and by E. that I
might k.ep near t:e lhire ; and having a helh gale of wind,
with a pleafant firooh fea, by three o'ckck next day I was
one hundred and tifty mikl beyond the Enmperor of Mrocco'3
dominions. Yet l ll having the dreadful apprehenli-n of
being retake-, I continued lailing for five days fucceifivelly
till faih time as the wind lifting to the southward, made me
corciJde, tha: if a.ny vtffn was in chafe of me, they woull
proceed no faru er. Alter fo much fatigue and thought, I
anchr. d at the mouth of a little river, I knew not what cr
where; neither cid I then fee ny people. What 1 principally
wanted. was freft water; and i wa. resolved about dufk to
f.vim af~o'e. Batro focner did the gloomy cl-uds of night
begin to farcctd the declining day, when we teatd-fucli
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that one
might Iai e thought the very lirongt ft monfiers of nature, or
inferna! Ipirits had their rrfuience there. Poor Xurv, almost
dead with fear, entrea'ed me not to go on (lore that night.
Scprolirg I don't, Xary," faid I, "and in the morning we
"fhou!d fee men who a.e wore than tho e we fa,, what
'tben ?" "0 den we may give dem de Ihco' gun," replied Xiry.,
laughing, "a,,d degun nake detnall run away." T he wit aan
b'r'cen Eng,!,i ,which tr.e boy had lear edamong theciptives
u'cer :;aik n, p e-led n-e ncrir'ey; and to add :oa nis cheer-
i^F.rfui, I gae i:.-i ranm of r.i b.'-tre. Wie :..'d, get t,,

little sleep all the night for thofe terrible howlings they made;
and, indeed, we were both very much affrighted, when, by
the rolling of the water, and other tokens, wejuftly con-
cluded oneof thofe monsters made towards our boat. I cou'd
not fee, till it came within twosars length, when taking my
fufee, I let fly at him. Whether I hit him or no; I cannot
tell; but he made towards the fho:e, and the noife of my
gun increased the flupendous noife of the monflers.
The next morning I was resolved to go on fhore to get
freff water, and venture my life among the bemis or favages,
should either attack me. XLry faid,.he would take one of
the jars and bring me fome. I afked him, why he would
go, and not 1i The poor boy answered, if wild mans come,
trey eat me, you go away." A m:nd fcarcely now to be
imitated, fo contrary to felf-prefervation, the moft powerful
law of Nature. This, indeed,increafed my affedioni to the -
c i!d. Well, dear Xury," laid I, we will both go afhore,
Loth kill wild mans, and they hall eat neither of us." So
.lving X iry a piece of ruik-biead to eat, and-a dram, we
waded afbore, carrying nothing withjus but -ur arms, and
two jars of water. I did not go out of fight of the boat, as
d.eadirg the fa, ages coming down the river in their canoes;
but the boy fleeing a low decent or vale about a mile in the
country, he wandered to it : and then running back to fin
wth great precipitatio-, I thought he was puzf,.J by fome
favage or wild beaft; upon whkh I approached, reiolving
to perilh or prote& him from danger. As hecame'nearer
to me, I faw fornithing hanging ever his shoulders, which -
was a creature he had fhot like ahare, but.different in colour,
and longer legs;, however we were ghd of it, for it. proved
wholesome and nourifhirg meat: but what added to or joy
was, my boy affured me there was plenty of water, and that
ieee ve owildmavs. And greater lill was ourcomfort, when
t- e tide was out, without going fo far up into the country.
In this place I began, toconfider that the Canary andCape
de Verde islands lay not for off; but having no infirument,
I knew not what lattude, or when to. land off to fea for
them; yet -my hopes were I should meet fome of the Eng-
li.h trading Veflels, who would relieve and take os in.
The place I was in was on doubt that wild country, in-
habited only by a few, that lies between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes. It isfilled with
.widtleatsi and the Moors ufe it for hunting chiefly. Fiom.

.-* -

this place I thought I faw the top of the mountain Teneriff
in the Canaries; which made me try twice to attain it;
but as often was I drove back, and fo forced to purfue my
fortune along (hore.
Early one morning we came to an anchor under a little
point of land, but pretty high: and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay ready to-.go further in. But Xury, whole
youthful and penetrating eyes were harper than mine, in a
foft tore, desired me to keep far from land, leTi we should
be devoured, For look yonder, mater," faid he, and fee
"de dreadful monfitr faft afleepon de fide of de hil."-
Accordingly locking whe;e he painted, I efpied a fearful
monficr indeed. It was a terrible great lion that lay on
flore, covered as it w.re by a ftade of a piece of the hill.
'"Xirv," faid I, You hall go ton fhore and kill him." But
the boy !coking-an2zed : "Me kill him !" fays he, he eat
me at one moiu;hi" meaning one mouthful. Upen which I
bid him lie fiii!, and charging my biggtit gun with two
flugs, ard a good charge cf p.:wder, I tek the belt aim [
c,.uld to fhcot him through the head, but his leg lying over
his nofe, the flug broke his knee bone. The lion awaking
with the pain, got up, but flen fell down, giving the moil
hideous groan I ever iteard: but taking my second .iece,
I fhot him throuluh the head, and then he lay firuggling for
life. Upon this Xury took heart, ard defired my leave to
go on fhore. ".Go then," faid I. Upon which taking a
little gun in one hand, he f.vam to hore with the ether, and
coming clofe to the lion, put a period to his life by flhotinig
him again through the head.
But this was f'entding our ammuniticn in vain, the flefh
not being gcod to eat. Xury was like a champior,.and
comes on board f r a hatchet, to cut off the head of hisene-
my; but n.t having flrength to perform it, lie cut off and
brought me a foot. I bet;. ug.t me, however, that his iin
'.ou.d be of ufe. This work colt Xury and me a whole
day ; when fpreading.it on the top of our cabin, the hot
beams of the f.n effecudi!y dried it in two days' time, and
it afterwards feived i:e f-r a bed to lie on.
And row we failed foutherly, living fparingly on our pro-
vifions, and went no oftener on fliore than we w-re ob i:ed
for frefl water. 'My design was to make the river GamBia
or Senegal, or any where about the Cape de Vdde, in hopes
to meet fome European thip. If Providence did norto fa-

vour me, my next course was to feek for the iflands, or l'fe
my life amongft the Negroes. And, in a word, I put imy
whole firefs upon this, "'Either that I mulf meet with:
fome fhip, or certainly perifh."
'One day as .we were failing along, we faw people ftand
on the fhore looking at us; we could aifo perceive they
were black and ftark naked. I was incline.! to go on fhore,
but Xury cried, No, no ;" however, 1 approached bearer,
and I found they run along the fhore by me a good way.
They had no weapons in their hands, except one, who held
a long flick, which Xury told me was a larce, with which
they could kill at a great diflance. I talked to them by figns,
and made them fenfible I wanted something to.eat; they
beckoned me to flop my boat, while two of them ran up
into -the country, and in lefs than half an hour came back,
and brought. with them two pieces of dried fleth and fome
corn, which we kindly accepted; and t3 prevent any fears
on either fice, they brought the food to the fhore, laid it
down, then we"t and flood a great way off till we fetched
it on board, and then came clofe to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to them, being all ie
could afford, two mighty creatures came from the mournains;
one as it were pursuing the otter with great fury, which we
were the rather inclined to believe, as trey feliom appear
but in the night; and both thefe fiiftly paffing.by the ne-
groes, jumped into the fea, wantonly swimming about, as
though -he diverfion of the waters had put a .op totheirfierce-
erfs. At lait one of them coming nearer to my boat than r
expeaed or dCfired, I Ihot him direllythrough thehead; upon
which he funk immediately, yet rifing again, would hiaVe
willingly made the hlore; but between the wourd-and the
firangling of the water, he died before he c6ld reach it.
Itfis impoflible to exprefs the conflernation the poor Ne-
groes were in at the firing of my gun; much lefs can I men- .
tion their furprife, when they perceived the creatuie to le
flain by it. I made fig's to them to drav near it wirt.a
rope, and then gave it them to hale on hiore. It was abe'ad--.
tiful leopard, which made me defire its fkin, and th N1':-.
grces feeming to covet the careafe, I freely gave it'to theim...
As for thC other leopard, i't made to thore, and ran with p ~t
dggious iwiftrsefs cut of fight. The Negroes having kindly
fu iniihej me with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I t:ok my leave, and after.e'yiva

dAys fail, came in ffght of the Cape de Verde, and thofe
iflands called by its name. But the great diliance I was from
it, and fearing contrary winds wouLd prevent my reaching
them, I begun to gro., melancholy and dejected, wnen, upon
a fudden, Xury cried out," "' IMlter! Mailer a ahip with a
fail !" and looking as affrigh ed as if it was his master's thip
fent in fearch of us. But I fcon difcovered the was a Por.
tuguefe Ihip, as I thought bound to the coat of Guirea for
Negroes. Upon which 1 firove for life to come up to them.
But vain had it beer, if through their perfpedive glaffes they
had not perceived Ine and shortened their fail to let me come
up. Encouraged at this, I let up my patron's ancient, and
fired a gun, both as signals of ditrefs ; upon which they
very kindly lay to, fo tihat in three hours time 1 came tp-
with them. 'hey fpoke to me in Portueuefe, Spanilh, and
French, tut none of thele did I underlrand ; ill at length.
a Scots faiklr calleci, an3 then I tcld him I was an Englifh-
man, who had ltcaped from the Mo rs at Salee; upon
which they took rmekindiv on bhard, with all my effeas.
Surely none car, express the inconceivable joy 1 felt at.
this happy deliver :nce! who from being a late miferable
ard forlorn cr-eatu e, was'not orly relieved, but in favour.
with tu,e master of the liip, to whom in return for my de-
liverance, I offe td all 1 bad. God f.-rbid," faid he,,
that I fihculd take any thing from you. Every ihirg Ihall
be delivnrdd to you wten. you come to Brazil. If I have
faved your life, it is no more than I should exseca to re-
ccive my(lf from any other, when in the fame circum-
Sflance 1 should happen to meet 'he lije delive*ance.-
.' And fliou!d I take from you what you have, and lea% e you.
tat Brazil, why, this uould be only taking away a life I
"had given. My charity teaches me better. Thefe effAes.
"yaou have will fupp-rt yoa there, and provide you a paf.
fagehome again." And, indeed, headed with the fti&.
el. juflice in what Le did, taking my things into his ptffef.
flon, and giving me a~n exaat inventory, ev.cn to my earthen.
jars. 'He bought my boat of me for the f'ip's ufe, giving
me a note of eighty picces of eight, payable at Brazil; and.
if any body offered more lhe would make it up. He-alfd
gave me fixty pieces for my boy Xury. It was with great .
relu&arce I was prevailed'upon to fell the child liberty,
who had served me fo faithfully; but the boy was willing
lhinmflf; and it was ag.red, that after ten ears he.fhould. .

.' "


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be made free, upon his renouncing Mahometanifm, and
embracing Chriftianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints "Bay, in twenty-
two days after. And here I cannot forget the generous
treatment- of the captain. He would take nothing for my
paffage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's fkin,land
thirty for the lion's. Every thing he caused to be delivered,
and what I would fell he bought. In fhort I made about
220 pieces of my cargo; and with this flock I entered
once more, as I may fay, into the fcene of life.
Being recommended to an honeft planter, I lived with
him till fuch time as I was informed of the manner, of their
planting and making fugar; and feeing how well they
lived, and how suddenly they grew rich, I was filled with a
defire to fettle among them, and resolved to get my money
remitted ;o me, and to purchase a plantation.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next door to an honest
and kind. neighbour, born at Lifbon, of Englilh parents,
whofe plantation j ining to mine, we improved it very ami--
cably together. Both our flocks were low, and for two
years we planted only for food : but the third year we
planted fome tobacco, and each of us dreffed a largepiece *
of ground the enfuing year for planting canes. But now
I found how much I wanted affifiance, and repented the
lots of my dear boy Xury.
Having none 'to affilt me, my father's words came int&
my mind; and I nfed to aik myfelf, if what I fought ws -i
only a middle station of life, why could it not as wel- be ob-e
tained in England as here ? When I pondered on this with
regret, the thoughts of my late deliverance forfook me. [
had none to converfe with but my neighbour; no work tobe
done but by my own hands; it often made me fay, my con-
dition was like to that of a tran caft upon a defolate ifllad.
So .unhappy are we in our refle&ions, fo forgettul of what
good things we receive ourselves, and fo unthankful for
our deliverance from thofe calamities that others endure. -
I was in fume meafure fettled, before the captain who -
took me up departe-d from the Brazils. One day I went to
him,.ard told him what flock I had in London, desiring his
afliftance in getting it remitted ; to which the good gentle,
Sman readily confented, but would only have me feld for
halt my money, left it should mifcarry; which if4t'did I

might Rill have the remainder to support me: and fo-taking
letters of rrocurztion of me, bid me trouble myfelf no far-
ther about it.
And indeed wonderfiil was his kindnefs towards me; for
he not only procured the money I had drawn for upon my
captain's widow, but fent me over a ferva,%*.it:h a cargo
proportionable to my condition. He alfo fent me over
tools of all forts, iron-work, and utensils neceffirv for my
plantation, which proved to be of the greatest ufe to me
in my bufinefs.
Wealth now accumulating on me, and uncommon fuccefs
crowning my proip:rocslabours, night have-refted happy
in tat middle fate of life my father had fo often recom-
mended ; yet nothing wouli content me, fuch was my evil
genius, but I mull leave this happy flation, for a foclifh am-
bition in rising ; and thu?, orce mere, I cail myfelf ir to the
greatft gulf of misery that ever poor creature fell into.
Having lved four years in Brazil, I had not only learned
the language, but crnwr aed acquainta-ce with the Irol
eminent players, and even the merchants of St. Salvader;
to whom, once, by Aay of difcourfe, having given account
of my two voyages to the coat of Guinea, and the manner
of trading there ior mere trifles, by which we furnish our
plantations with regroes, they gave fuch attention to what I
laid, that three of them came one morning to me; and told
me they had a secret proposal to make. After enjoininz me
to fccrecy, (it being an infringement on the powers of the
kings of Por:ugal and Spain,) they told me they had a mind
to fit out a fhip to go to Guinea, in order to ft:ck the p!an-
tation with Negroes, which as they could not be publicly
fold, they would divide among them ; and if I would go
their fuper-cargo in the fhip to manage the trading part, I
Should have an equal (hare of the Negroes, without provi-
ding any flock. The thing indeed was fair enough, had I
been in another condition. But I was born to be my own
defiroyer, could not refil the proposal, but accepted the of-
fer upon condition of their looking after my plantation. So'
making a formal will, I bequeathed my effects to my good
friend the captain, as my universal heir; .butobliged him'
to difpofe of my effeas as direaed, one half of the produce
to himnaelf, and the other to be whipped to England.
The Ihip being fitted out, and all things ready, we-fet
fail the firit of September, 1659, being the fame day eight

years I left my father and mother in Yorkhire. We. failed
northward upon the coati, in order to gain. Africa, till we
made Cape Auguftin ; from whence going fariner into the
ocean out of fight of land, we fleered as though we were
bound for the Ifle Fernand de Norenba, leaving the iflands:
on the eaf ; and then it was that we met wiril a terrible
tempeft, which continued for twelve days fucceffiyely, fo
that the winds carried us wherefoever they pleated. la this
perplex;ty- one of our men died, and one man and a boy
we-e uafhed overboard. When the weather cleared up a
little, we found ourselves in eleven degrees north latitude,u pon
t'-e coai of Guinea. Upon tais the captain gave reafons
for returning; which I oppofed, counfelling him to land,
away for Barbadoes, which, as I fuppofed, might be attained ,
in fifteen days. SJ altering our course, we failed north-
well and by well, in order to reach the Leeward iflands;
but a second liorm fuccecdiog, drove us to the vtefiward;
fo ti at we wtre jutily afraid of falling into the hands of
cruel favage,, or the paws of devouring balls of prey.
La this great diftreis, one of our men, early in the aiorn-
ing, cried out, Lard, land !" which he had no foonercried
out, but cur thp liruck upon a fand-bank, and in a moment.
the fta brcke over her in fuch a manner, that ie expeaded,
we faould all have perished immediately. We knew no-
thing where we were, or upon what land we were driven;
wh other an island cr the main, inhabited or not inhabited;
and we could not fo much as hope that the fhip would hold ot:
many minutes, without breaking in pieces, except A4ewind,-
by a miracle, flould turn about immediately. While we,
food looking at one another, expeEiing death every moment,
the mate lays hold of the boat, and with the help of the rft-
got her flung ever the (hip's fide, and getting all into her,
being eleven of us, committed ourrlves to God's mercy and
the wild fea. And now we law that this laft effort would
not be sufficient pioteaion from death; fo high did the (ea
rife, that it was imFoffible the boat should live. As to
making Tail, we had none; neither if we-had, could we
make ufe of any. So that when we had rowed, or rather,
were driven about a league and a half, a raging wave, like
a lqfiy mountain, came rolling a-flern of us, and took us
with fuch fury, that at once it overfet the boat. Thus being
fwallowed up in a moment, we had hardly time to call upon
thbereaendous name of God; much lefs to implore, in dying
ejadulations; his infinite mercy to receive our departing fouls.

Men are generally counted infenfible when struggling in
the pangs of death; but while I was overwhelmed with
water, 1 haa~ the moft dreadful apprehtnfions imaginable.
For the joys of heaven and the torments of hell, feemed to
present themselves before me in there dying agonies, and
even fmall pace of time, as it were, between life and death.
I was going I thought I knew not whither, into a difmal
gulf unknown, and as yet unperceived, never to behold
my friends, nor the light of this world any more Could I
even have thought of annihilation, or a total diffolution of
foul as well as body, the gloomy thoughts of having no far-
ther being, no knowledge of what we hoped for, but an
eternal qdietus, without life or fenfe: even that, I fay,
would have been enough to firike me with horror and con-
fation I ftrove, however, to the laft extremity, while all
my companions were overpowered and entombed in the
deep: and it was with great difficulty I kept my breath till
the wave fpent itself, and retiring back, left me on the fhore
half dead with the water I had taken in. As foon as I got
on my feet, I ran as faft as I could, left another wave
should purfue me, and carry me back again. But for all
the halle I made, I could not avoid it: for the Tea came
after me like a high mountain, or furious enemy ; fo that
my bufinefs was to hold my breath, and by railing myfelf
on the water, preserve it by swimming. The next dread-
ful wave buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep, but at
the fame time carried me with a mighty force and fwiftnefs
towards the Thore; when raising myfelf, I held out-as well
*as poflible, till at length the water having fpent itself, be-
gan to return, at which I ftruck forward, and feeling ground
with my feet I took to my heels again. Thus being served
twice more, I-was at length dashed against a piece of rock,
in fuch a manner as left me fenfelefs; but recovering a
little before the return of the wave, which, no doubt, would
then have overwhelmed me, I held faft by the rock till thofe
facceeding waves abated; and then fetching another run,
was overtaken by a fmall wave, which was foon conquered.
But before any more could overtake me, I reached the main
lan, when clambering up the difts of the fhore, tired and-
almoft fpent I fat down on the grafs, free from the dangers
of the foaming ocean.
No tongue can express the ecftafies and transports that
my foul felt at the happy deliverance. It was like a reprieve

to a dying malefator, with a halter about his neck, and
ready to be turned off. I was wrapt up in coen'rplation,
and ofter lifted-up my hrnds, with the profoundeft humility,
to the Divine Power., for facing my life, when the reft of
my companions were all drowned. And now I began to
caft my eyes around, to behold wlat place I was in, and
what I had next to do. I could fee no houfe nor people; I
was wet, yet had no clothes to shiftt me; hungry and thirfly,
yet had nothing to eat cr drink; no weapon to deftroy any
creatures for my fuftenance, nor defend myfelfagainlf de-
vourieg'beafts; in fort, I had nothing but a knife, a
tobacco pipe, and a box half filled with tobacco. The
darkfome night coming on upon me, increased my fears of
being devoured by wild creatures; my mind was plunged
in defpair, and having no profpet, as I thought, of life be-
fore me, I prepared for another kind of death than what I
had lately efcaped. I walked about a furlong to fee if I
could find any frelh water, which I did to my great joy;
and taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger, I got up
into a thick bulhy tree, and eating myself to that 1 could
not fall, a deep fleep overtook me, and for that night buried
my forrows in a quiet report.
It was broad day the next morning before I 4awsaked-
when I not only perceived the tempest was ceafed, but-faw
the fhip driven almost as far as the rock before-mentioned,
which the .waves had daihed me against, and which was
about a mile from the place where I was. When. I came
down from my apartment in the tree, I perceived the :Oip's
boat two miles diflant on my right-hand, lying on fhore, as
the waves had caft her. .- thought to have got to her; but
there.being an inlet of water of about half a mile's breadth
between it and me, I returned again towards the Ihip, as
hoping to find famething for my more immediate fabfift-
ence. About noon, when the fea-was calm, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of her, it was-to my grief that I
perceived, that if we had kept on board all our lives had
been faved. Thefe thoughts, and my folitude, drew tears
from my eyes, though all in vain. So refolving-to get to
the ihip, I' firipped and leapt into the water; when fwim-
ming round her, I was afraid I.hould not get any thing to
lay hold of; but it .was my good fortune to efpy a fall
piece of.rope hang down by the fore-chains, fo low that by
the .ilp -of.i e though with great difficulty, I got into ikt

forecaftle of the fhip. Here I found that the fhip was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hld ; her flern
was lifted up a.ainft a bank, and her head almolf to the
water. All her q arters, and what was there, was free and
dry. The provisions I fund in good order, with which I
crammed my pockets, and lofing no time, ate while 1 was
doing other things; 1 alfo fo:-nd fome rum', of which I took
a hearty dram; and now I wanted for nothing except a
boat, which indeed was all, to carry away what was need-
ful for me.
Neceflity 6ccafions quicknefs of thought. We had fe-
veral fpare yards, a fpare topmaft or two, and two or three
large fpars of wood. With thefe I fell to work, and flang
as many of them overboard as I could manage, tying every
one of them with a rope, that they might rot drive away.
This done I went down to he fhip's fide, and tied tour of
them fai togetherat both ends, in form of a raft, and laying
two or three fnort pieces of prank upon them c-offwife, I
found it would bear me, but not afiy considerable weight.
Upon which I went to work again, cutting a fpare topmaft
into three lengths, adding them to my raft with a great deal
'of labour and pairs. Then considered whatI should load
it with, it being not able to bearfponderus burden. And
thisIr foon thought of, firft laying upon it all the planks aid
boards I could.get; next I lote ed down three of the fea-
men's chefs, after I had filled them with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheefes, five pieces of dried goat's flefh, and fome
European corn, what little the rats had pared; and for
liquors, I found federal cafes of battles -belonging to our
iipper, in which were fome cordial waters, and four or
five gallons of rack, which I flowed by themselves. By
this time the tide beginning to flow, I perceived my coat,
waificoat, and (hirt, fwim away, which I had left on the
fhore; as for my linen-breeches and flockings, I fwam with
them to the fhip; but I foon found clothes enough, though I
took no more than I wanted for the prefeat. My eyes were
chiefly on tools to work with; and, after a long fearch, I
found out the carpenter's chefti which'I got fate dowi on
my raft. I then loked for arms and ammunition, and in the
great cabin.found two good fowiing-pitcs,, two piftols,,fe.
veral powder-horns filled, a fmall bag of ihot,,and Lw ski
rufty words. I likewise found three barrels of. powdir-
two of which were good, but the third haid rken wut ";

lfo two or three broken oars, two faws, an ax, and a has- .
mer. I then put to fea, and in getting to fhore had tliej
encouragenients. 1. A smooth calm fea. 2. The tide
rising and fetting'in to Ihore. 3. The littlee wind there a ii
blew towards the land. After I had failed about a iile, I
found the raft to drive a little diflance from the place where
I firit landed; and then I perceived a little opening of the
land, with a firong current of the tide running into it: ap-
on which I kept the middle of the fiream. But'great was
my concern, when on a fudden the forepart of my raft ran
aground, fo that had I not, with great difficulty, for'ear
half an hour, kept my back ftrairing against the chefs to
keep my effeas in their places, all I had would have gone
into the fea. But after fome time, the rifing of the water
caufed the raft to float again, and coming up a little river
with land on both-fides, I landed in a little cave, as near the
mouth as poffible, the better to difcover a fail, if any fach
providentially paifed that way.
Not far off, I efpied a hill of flupendous height, fur-
rounded with leffer hills about it, and thither I was refolvep
to go and view the country, that I might fee whia part
was beft to fix my habitation. Accordingly, armingmny-
felf with a piftol, a fowling-piece, powder and ball, I af4
cended the mountain. There I perceived I was- in an i.aud,
eicompiffed by the fea, no difant lands to. be feen Lbu
fcattering rocks that lay to the well: that it feemed-toa
be a barren place, and as I thought, inhabited only bt yildd
beafts. I perceived abundance of fowls, but ignorant a0
what kind, or whether good for noutrihment; I thot one of.
them at rmy return, which occafioied a confufid fcreami'ng.
among the other birds, and I found it by its colour and bWi.
to be a kind of hawk, hat its flelh was perfe& carrion.
When I came to my raft, I .brought my effects oh ftee,
which work fpent that day entirely; andfearing that piq,
crite beats inigh devour ne in ihi night time while [ifei;
made a kind of hut or barricade with the chet(h nd boards
I had brought on ibore. That igit'i:--flept very eimfort,
ably'' and the next morning my thoughts were em6plfo tb
Anik a further attempt on the fhip, and bring away-irbu
rieffakries I- could fid;, before anoAher form Ihourd breal
heri :pieces. Accordingly I got on board as ihfq, aan'
,preeaed a second raft far more vice: has tfe 4 p ifi
wHthW'Brought away the carjenter'fdtres twoi or itre


'bags full of nails, a great jack-fcrew, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and a grind-lione. I alfo tock away federal things
that belonged to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, two barrels of muzet-bullets, another fowling piece,
a mall quantity of powder, and a large bagful of fall Ihot.
Besides thefe, I took all the men's clothes I coul- find, a
fpare fore top-fail, a hammock, and fume bedding; and
thus completing my fec' nd cargo, 1 maoe all the hate to
Ihore I could, fearing feme wild heat might deltroy what
I had there already. But I only found a little wild cat
fitting cn one of the chefs, which seeming not to fear me
cr the gun'that I irefented at her, I threw her apiece of
bifcuit, which fhe instantly ate and departed.
When I had gotten thele-effefs on fhore, I went-to work,
in order to make me a little rent with the failand fome poles
which I had cur for that purpose; and having finished it,
what things might be damaged by the weather I brought
in, piling all the empty chefs and caks in a circle, the
better to fortify it against any fudden attempt of man or
beatl. After this I blocked-up the dcjrs with fome boards,
and an empty cheft, turned the long way out. I then
charged my gun and piflol, and laying my bed on the
ground,flept as comfortably, till next morning, as though I
had been in a Chriftian country.
Now, though.I had enough to fubfift me a long time, yet
despairing rf a fudden deliverance, or that b, th ammunition
and provifion might be fpent before ftich thing happened, I
coveted as much as I could; and to ling as the thip re-
mained in that condition, I daily brought away one necef-
fary or other; particularly the rigging, jails, and cordagej
fome twine, a barrel of wet powder, fome fugar, a barrel
of meal, three calks of rum, and, what indeed was molt
welcome to me, a whole hogfhead of bread.
The next time I went I cut the cables in pieces, carried
oaf a bawler whole, with a great deal of iron-work,,and
made another raft with the mizen and fprit-fail yard; but
this being fo unwieldy, by the too heavy burden I had upon
it, and not being able to dexteroufly to guideit as the former,
both my cargo and I were overturned. For my part, all
the damage 1 fuftained was a wet fkin; and, at low water,
after much labour in diving, I got moft of the cables, and
fome pieces of iron.
Thirteen days I had now been in the island, and cloven


~\ild~ //Jr

~-,- -a3-~-- --~ -C3 .4--

II W1 .,If/

~ -'~~3a--~~ --- A.-

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times on board, bringing away all that was poflible; and I
believe had the weather been calm, I should have brought
away the whole ihip piece by piece. As I was going the
twelfth time, the wind began.to rife- however 1 ventured
at low water, and rummaging the .abin,in.a locker I found
several razors, fcifors, and fome ,dozens of knives, and
forks; and in another thirty-fix pounds of pieces of ight,
filver and gold. Ah! simple vanity," (aid I, ''.woam
Sthis'world fo much dotes on, where is now thy tu, thy
Sexcellency to me? You cannot procure me one thing
"needful, nor remove me from this defolate island to a
" place of plenty. One of thefe'knives, fo meanly eftegt'edk
Sis to me more preferable than all this heap. PE'en, lbhpe.
"fore, remain where thou art, to fink in the deep as urncq -
" garded, even as.a creature whofs life is not worth pre
* serving." Yet, after all this exclamation,I wrapt it up in a
piece of canvas, and began to think ofmalg another raft :
but I foofl perceived the wind ganto, ari! ( a freh ale
blowing from the ihore, and the fky oercrcft with cloud
and darknfs ; 'o thinking a raft to be in vain,. I et yjfelf
into the water, with what things I had about me,,mnd i'was
with much difficulty I got ashore, when foon after ii ble
.a fearful florim.
That night 1 flept very contentedly in my little. teAtr-
rounded with all my effiets; but when 1 looked om it l :
morning, no more 'thip was to befeen. This reai fuf,
prifed,:ne for the present; yet, when I considered 1 tIa ',
no tiie, abated no pains, and had got every thiag'e :
out of her, I comforted my)cif is the beft maner, 4
entirely submitted to the will of Providence. .
.My next thoughts were, how I should defend anict fcc
myfelf from favages and wild. beais, if any fach were .
i e island. At one time 1 thought of digging p cav at
another I was for ereking a tent-;, and, at leng ih I fol vcd
to o both: The manner or form of which will nat I hqpe
he unpleafing to describe.
Wifen 1 cipfidered the ground .where I was,, that it wa
"moo ifi ad had. no frel.h water near it, ,my reflutioa
wetrae tJfeach for a foil healthy and well watered, where I
igiht Ots.nly be Ihelhered -from the fun's scorching heat
PFare ronvenieprly firuated, as well to bt.learerd
i U men and bealls of prey, as inre eafily to. difc v
any din t fail, thouid ii ever to hapPn. .
,' + + '.- + j -_ s + .' -'" *

And, indeed, it was not long before I had my defire. I
found a little p'ain near a risingg hill, the front towards
-which being as deep as e hoife-d.de,-nothing could descend
on me from the top. -On the fide of this rock was a little
TIhollow place, resembling -the entrance or door of a cave.
J uft before this place, on the.circle of the green, I resolved
my tet Thould stand. .This plain did not much exceed
hun red yards broad, and about twice as long, like a de-
lightful green before my door, with a pleading though an
irregular defcenteverey way to the low grounds by the fea.
fide, lying on the 'N. W. fide of the hill; fo that it was
Iheltered from the excellive heat of the fun. After this, I
drew a femi-circle, containing ten yards in a femi-diameter,
and twenty yards -in the whole, driving down two rows of
firong ftakes;.not fix inches from each other. Then with a
piece of cable which I had cut on board, I regularly laid
,them id, a cirid between the piles up to their tops, which
-were more than five feet out of the earth, and after drove
another row of piles looking within fide against them, be-
tween two or three feet high, which made me conclude it a
little impregnable caftle againft men and beafls. And for
my better fecurity I would have no door, but entered in and
came out by the help of a ladder, which I alfo made.-
Here was my fence and fortrcfs, into which I carried all
my riches, ammunition and flores. After which, working
on the rock, what with dirt and flones I dug out, I not
only raised my ground two feet, but made a little cellar to
iny manfion-houfe; and this coil me many days labour and
pains: One day,in particular, a Ihower of rain falling,
thunder and lightning enfued, which put me in terror let
my powder should take fire, and not only hinder my ne-
ceffsry fubfiflence, my killing me,food, but even blown up
me and my habitation. To prevent which, I fell to making
boxes and bags, in order to separate it, having by me near
S150b. weight. And thus being eftablifhed as king ofthe
island, every day I went out with my gun to fee what
-could kill that was fit to eat. I loon perceived numbers of
goats, but very hy ; yet having watched fhem narrowly,
and feeing I could better Ihoot off the rocks than when in
the low grounds, I happened to fhsot a Ihe-goat fuckfing a
young kid; which not thinking its aum Rlain, itbod by her
unconcerned; and when I took the dead creatre-up, the
young one followed me even to the inclofure. Ilifted'tie

eP? aoztses cause. a'S
- kid ower the pales,sod would willingly have kep t t live;
but finding it could net be brought to eat, I was forced to
iay it slt for my fubbiftrece;
Thus entering into as range a scene of life as ever any
man was in, I bad molt melancholy apprehensions concern-
ing my deplorable condition : and many times the tears
would plentifully rua down. my face, when Iconfidered
how I was debarred from all communication with human
kind. Yet while thefe defponding cogitations would feemt
to make me accufe Providence, other good thoughts would
interpofe and reprove me after this manner: Well, f[ppo-
fiag yeo are defolate, is it not better to be to than totally.
perih? Why were you singled out to be faved, and the reft
detroyed ? Why should you complain, when not only your
life is preferved, but the ihip driven even into your reach, ia
order to take what was neceffary out of'her for your fab-
fiftence? But to proceed. It was, by the account Ikept.
the Soth of September, when I firft landed on this land.
About twelve days after, fearing left I lhculd ofe
reckoning of time, nay, even forget the Sabbath days, f
want of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with a knife upon a
large poft, in great letters, and fet it up, in the fimilitude of
a crfes. on the fea-lhore where I landed,' ,came onf.Jare,
Spt. 30, 16b9. Every day I cut a na~tch with my knife or
the fides of tbi* square poft, and that on the Sabbath was as
long aga'n as the red; and every firft day of the montt as
long again as that long one. In this manner I kept my ca.
lendar, weekly, monthly, or yearly reckoning'of time. But
had I made a more Ori&t fearch (as afte:wards I did) i
eedeid Oat have fet- up this mark; for aniadg the parcdi.,
belonging to the gunner, carpenter, and captain's mate, I
found thfre very things I wanted; particularly -pes, ink,
fad paper: aifo I found two or three compaffes, fome ma- .
thematical infiraments, dials, perFefive glafi's, books of
Snaviga:isn, three Englilh Bibles, and federal other good
. ioroks, which I carefully put up.-Here I caCnot but call to
mind oat having a dog and two cats on board, whom I
made inltaiitanis with me in rhy cafte. Though one might
think I hait all the necctaries that were desirable yet fill
-I fo(di rerialbhings wanting. My ixk Was daily wafting:
I wasted needles, pins, and thistad o mend or keep qy
dcrtieh thgethir, and particularly a -de, pickaxz or
to remove the earth. Ipase I i

my little bulwark ; and having fome intervals of relaxation,
after my daily wandqripg abroad'for'pitvifion, I drew bp
this plan, alternately, as creditor' an' debtor, to remind ime
of the triferies and blefiggsof ity life, under':fomany
various circumstances.
I am, cast upon a desolate But' yet I ant preserved
island, having no ho .:'t' coinpanidns are pe-
pispect of a .welconte de- rishel ii th'e aging ocern.
itierance. Yet set aptrt to be spared
How miserable am 1 i. '' 1'" death. Ar d: h;" who
gled olt from the enjoyment or las s preserved me, can de-
company of mankind. lier me from this 6copidiion.
Hodtever, P havaefbod to eat,
Like an hermit (rather ad eia a happ prospect nt"
should 1 say a lonely an- suistence wmhtast life en-
c!torlte) am. -I forced from dures.
humaa conversation. At present I etjoy ihat is
.My c!')l/es after some time absolutely needfulU and the
y:i'lb e wuorn out; find then Ic'imate is so.hiot, il aihid I
shall have none to-over me. ,never so _-many, slobul
"r .n .lt'. wear them.
When my -antintt on ,q ..- ,i
',en ty n motion if ai it does, I see to'dan-
pnasted, tlcn I shall .2itai -.
wit ut I er of any hurt to me, aos in Af-
witlut a~ defence I :c, : And .what if hkactbeen
i'tild men aud bLtusts. :
id, cast away npon tat Icoat ; ;
hare no creature, no soul Is there nzot God to e6n-
jo spcak to ; none to I .' :. e to; adid is not hebhie
awsis:ance j)-om. Some corn- to ieiere thee? 4,lrdad4j as
fort would it be to resonuri [ie affIded thee s sstena t'e,
miy wocs there I -am vndr- andr ctt t in thy' pi:to
stood, and Aeg as.si.'tanci provide for thyself til' '.e
where I night hopefor relief. ,cndstheea deliverance.
And now eating my trind a little by thefe refleaiF
I began to render my I:fe as cafy as polible.
1 mult here add, to the description I-have given of my
ha.'itation, that having raised a turf-wall against theoutfide
of it, I thatched it fo clofe,, as nmigt keep it fromn.he inle-
imency of the weather ; I allow improved it within, enlarged
.my cave, and made a paffage ar.n door in the-rocjk,i. ich
same cutfbeycnd the pale of my foriifiaticn. I nextgrq-
ceeded to m.ke a cha'r ard -atable, and -f begap to.
' fch mechanical arts as seemed to me practicable. Whi

or: ai BINro C U 29
I wanted a pfank or board, I hewed down a treewitb my
hatchet, making it as thin with my axe as pollibIr, and then
smooth enough'with an adze to answer, my defigns: yet
thought I could make io more this way than one board out
of a tree, in length of time I got boards enough to shelter.
all my Dores, every thing being regularly plaied,- and my
guns focurely hanging against the fide of the rock. This
made it a very pleafant fight to me, as being the result of
vaft labour and diligence; which leaving for a while, and-
me to the enjoyment of it, I hall give the reader an account
of my Journalfrom the day of my landing,. till the fixing.
and Tettling of my habitation, as heretofore fhown.

SEP.TLBES. 30th, 1659 I, unhappy RGbinfonCriufg9
hayipg fiffered fhilwreck, was driven o0 this defolati-
filand, which I named" the Defolare Ifland of Defpair, my
companions being swallowed up in the tempeftous oceantr
STke next day I fpent in confideration'of my unhappy cir-
cumftances, having no profpeft but of death, either to bt
flarved with hunger, or devoured with'bealts or merciless
O I. 1. That morning with great comfort I beheld tW-
lhip drove afhore. Some hopes I had, that when the: tribt
was abated, I thight be able to get fome food and necef;.
fariesout of her, which I conceived were not damaged, .1'
caiife the Ihip did ftand upright.. At this time I lamrenited
the lofs of my companions, and our misfortune in eating thb
veiTe. When 'perceived the fhip,.as' it wrr,le'dry,I
wa@d throigih the'fands, tHefi fwram aboard, the weather'
being veiy rainy; and with fcarcely any wind.
STo the 14ith of'ihis mointhi" my time was eniolo/yed :ir
making voyages, every Tide g:titd what. I could o6ut of'th
Rla.. The weth'rivery .'.-t lnn:drt*i,.
:'kl,, X. My raft and all *h' .goo's th'ereon were over-
ft; yetsrecovered moRl ag' ait .w water.
O a,.2i. .Itbla hard, "nJ raide-d n.gnl and day, wh41
- tbhehjp fe.t.in pices,.o that ;bthng' wa; fee'n of her bu.
the wreck'iat l1 waer. Thi. day I fe:Wdd niyg 'ds frki'
tlej clm;qcy of the weather.
< w -- '*' '*' B 3 *

Oc. 26. I wandered to fee where I could find a place
convenient for my abode. I fixed upon a rock in the even-
ng, marked out a half-moon, intending to ereft a wall,
or tified with piles, lined within with pieces of cables, and
covered with turf.
Nov. 1. I ereted my tent murder a rock, and took up
miy lodgings very contentedly in a hammock that night.
Nov. 2. This day 1 fencedmyfelf in with timber, chelrs,
and boards.
Nov. 3. I thot two wild fowls, refembling ducks, which
were good to eat, and in the afternoon made me a table.
Nlv. 4. I began to live regularly. In the morning, I
allowed myfeif two or three hours to walk out with my gun;
I then worked till near eleven o'clock, and afterwards re-
frehted m)felf with what I had to eat. From twelve to
two I would lie down to fleep. Extremely fultry weather.
In the evening go to work again.
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog, thot a wild
cat with a ftft 1kin, but her flefe was good for nothing.
The &k'ns of thofe I killed, I preferred. In my return, I
perceived many wild birds, and was terrified by fome feals,
which made off to fea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Fair weather. I worked till the 12th, but
pRitted the I lth, which, according to my calculation; I fup-
pofed to be Sunday.
Nov. 13. Rain in abundance, which, however, much
cooled the, air; with thunder and lightning, caufed in me a
terrible farprife. The weather clearing, I fecured my
powder in separate parcels.
Nov. 14-16. I made little boxes for mypowder, lodg-
ing them in several places. I alfo fhot a large fjwl, which
proved excellent meat.
Nov. 17. I begin to dig in the rock, yet was obliged to
deefift for want of a pickase, {hovel,and wheelbarrow. Iron
crows I caused to supply, he place of the firlt; but with all
my art I could not make a wheelbarrow.
Nov. 18. It was my fortune to find a tree, refeifbling
what the razillians call an iron-tree. I had like to hal'f oiled
my axe with cutting it, being very hard and exceedingly
heavy ; yet, with much labour and industry, I made a fort
of a fpade out of it.
.Nov. 23. Thefe tools being made, I daily carried on my
bufinefa; eighteen dais I allowed for enlarging my cave,

ora KOBit soN ca U-sor ,
that it might fcrve me, not only for a warehouse, but kit-
chen, parlourl-anJ cellar. I commonly lay in the tent, un-
lefs the weather was rainy that I'could not lie dry. Sowet
would it be'at-certa.imfefons, that I was obliged to cover
all within the pale with long poles, in the form of after,
leaning against the rock, and loaded them with flags and
large leaves of trees, refembiing a hatch.
Dec. 10. N0 sooner did I thinc my habitation finished,
but suddenly a great deal of the topbroke in, fo that it was
a mercy I was not buried-in the ruins, This occafioned a
great deal of pains and trouble to me, before I could make
it firm and durable.
Dec 17. 1 nailed up fome shelves, and drove nails and
ftap'es in the wall and polls, to hang things out of the way.
Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place,- teo made
a fort of a dreffer, and another table.
Dec. 24,'25. Rain in abundance.
Dec. 26. Very fair weather,
Dec.-27. I chanced to lighten fomegoats, fhot one; and
wounded another. I led it home in a firing, bound up it*-
leg, and cared it in a little time; at length it became to
tame and familiar as to feed before ihe door, and follow me
where I pleaded. This put me in mind to bring up tame
creatures, in order to fopply mq with food aftermy ammu-
nition was (pent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. The weather being excefively hot.
with little air, obliged me, for the moll part, to keep within
Jan. 1. Still fultry; however, obliged by neceffity, I went
oat with my goa, and.found great flore of goats in the
valleys.; they were exceedingly fhy, nor cobid my Ad'g,
he t them down,
Jan. 3 to 14. My employment this time was to IaifitWd
wall before described, and fearch the ifitad. 1 difcoreed
a kind of pigeons, like our hoofe pigeons, in a at among'
the rocks. I brought them home, nurfed thetarii thqjeeot
fly, and then they left me. .After this, I fhot tome, wielkh
proved excellent food. Some time I fpent vainly in-coi-
triving to make a cafk; I may well fay it was vain, becauTd
I could neither joint the flaves, nor fix the heads, to as to
nake it tight: So, leaving that, took bome goat's tallow 1
had about me, and a little oakum far the wick; and provided
iyfelf with a lamp, which served me infeiad ofcaidl;s.

*' i

But now a very flrange event happened. For being hi
the height of my fearch, what should come into my hand,
but a bag, which ufed to hold corn (as I fuppofed) for the
fowls; fo immediately revolving to prt gunpowder in it, I
fhook all the hueks and dirt upon one fide of tte rock, little
expefing what the co.ifquence oajid be. The rain had
fallen plertlfJlly a few days before; and about a month
after, to my-great amazement, something began to look cut
very green and flourishing ; and when I came to view it
nmoe nicely every day as it grew, I found about ten -or
twelve ears of green barley appeared in the very fame fliape
and make as that in Englard.
I can farce express th-- agitations of my mind at this
fight. Hitherto, 1 had looked upon the actions of this life
no othe.iiife than orAy as the events of blind chance and
fortune. But now the appearance of this barley, flourishing
in a barren foil, -ni my ign, rance in not conceiving how it
thou'd come there, madt mre conc!~de, that miracles were n t
yet cealed: nay I even th ught that. Got had appointed it
to grow there without any fe-d, purely ftr my luftenince
in this miserable and def-late island. And indeed fuch
great effeE this had upon me, thai it often made me melt
into tears, through a grateful fenfe of God's'meicies; and
the greater fill ias my thankfulnefs, when I perceived
about this little field of barley fome rice flalks, alfo wondrr-
lully flourifninrg.
While thus pleaded in mind, I concluded there mufi be.
more corn in the ifand ; and therefore made a diligent
fearch narrowly among the recks; but not being able to
find any, on a sudden it c:'ne i-to mind, how I had taken,
the hu&fs of corn cut of the bag, and then my admiration
eeafed, with my gratitude to the Divine Being, as thinking
it fwas but natural, and not to be conceived a miracle; though
even the maner of its preservation might have maia me.
own it wasa wonderful evert of God's kind Providence.
It ,was about the latter erd of June when the ears of
tisj o4n ripened, which I laid up very careful, together
wti' 20 or 30 f~lks of rice, expetting ore day I should reap
e fruit of iy labor; yet four years were expired .e.
fore cold allow myfe!f to eat any barley bread, and much
1pnger tiree before I had any rice. After this, with indefa-
igab'e pains and industry, for three or four months, at, l a
I tniffied my wall on the 14th of April, having no wvay to
go in;c .: b a ladd.: agaict? he hall.

April 17. I fiiifhed ,my ladder, and ascended ir; after,.
wards pulled it up ,then let it down on tLe.othet fide, and
defended into,my new habitation, where I. had (pace
enough, and fo fortified that nothing cotrd attack nme with-
out falling the walls.
.. But wnat does all humatt pains and induflry avail, if the
blefirig of God does .ot crown oar labours ? -Or who can
ftand before the Almighty, when. he fretcheth forth his armi
For onetimead I was at the entrance of my cave, there hap-
pened foch a dreadful earthquake, that not only-the roof of.
the cave came tumbling about my ears, but the pofts feenmed
to crak -terribly at the fame time. This -put me in great
amazement; and running to the ladder; and getting over the
wall, I then plainly knew it was an earthquake; the place I.
flood on fuftained three terrible shocks in lefs than three
minutes. Bautjudge-of my terror when I faw the top of a-
great.rac.krorintothefeaj I then expeaed the island would
be fwaliowed up every moment: And what made the fcene
ftill more dreadful, wasto fre the fea thrown into the mof
violent agitations and disorders by this tremendous accident.
For my.partI flood like a criminal at the place of execu-
tion, ready to expire. At the moving of the earth, I was,
as it were, fea-fick.; and very much afraid left the rock,
under, which was my defence- ana habitation, should over-
whelm it and Inyfelf in a lifting tomb.
\hen the third dreadful fhock had fpent itself, my spirits
began t- revive; et iiill I would not venture to afcend
the Jidder, but continued fitting,, not knowing what I should
do. So little grace had, I then, as only to fay,'Lord bavg
mercy upon me! and to sooner was the earthquake over,
but that pathetic, prayer left, me. -
It; was not,lng after, when a horrible tempeft arofe, at.
tlc fatme timt attended with a hurricane of wind. Theb fea
fecrpted mountain high, and the waves rolled fd impetuoufly,
thatnothing could be perceived but.froth and foam. Three
hogrAi. this flormcontinue, and in fo violent a manner, as
t tear. tie very trees up by the roots, 'which was succeeded
by aupdauce of rain. When the tempelf was over, I went
to my tent but the rain coming on in a furious manner, I,
wa~a .obigd. kc,~ kler in the cave, where I was forced
Sijc)bP.at' ~ Y:.gf f Otificatipn to letthe water out,
It ctuqe p ra#glpg, .Iart nigti, and fome tine the anex
day;. T te acsiaent mdet e me rfctilv, as foon as tiQ

weather cleared up, to build me a little hut in Tome open
place, walled round to defend me from wild creatures.and
ravages; nqt doubting but at the next earthquake, the
mountain would fall upon my habitation and me, and fwal-
low up all in its bowels.
April 16--20. Thefe days I fpent in contriving how
and in what manner I tpuld fix my place of abode. All
this while I was under the moft dreadful apprehenfions.-
When I locked round my habitation, every thing I found in
its proper place. I had several refolutions whether I should
mcve or not; but at length resolved to flay where I was till
I found out a covenient place where I might pitch my tent.
April 22. When I began to put my resolution in prac-
tice, I was flopt for want of tools and inlfruments to work
with. Moft of my axes and hatchets were ufelefs, occa-
fioned by cutting the hard timber that grew on the island.
It took.me upa full week to make my grindflone of ufe to
me; and at laft I found out a way to turn it about with my
foot, by help of a wheel and a firing.
April 28,29. There days were fpent in grindingmytools,
April 30. My bread failing fnort, I allowed myfelf but
onebifcuit a day.
May I. As I walked along the fea-fhore, I found a barrel
of gunpowder, and federal pieces of the wreck, the fea had
flung up. Having fecured thofe, I made to the Ihip, whofe
ltern was tore off, and wafhed a great distance afhore ; but
the reft lay in the fands. This I fuppofed was ocafioned
by the earthquake. I now resolved to keep my old place
of abode; and alfo to go to the Ahip that day, but then
found it impobfible.
May 3. This day I went on board, sad with my faw
fawed off one of the beams, which kept the quarter-deck.
I then cleared the fand till flood.
May 4. 1 caught fome filh, but they were not wholefome.
The fame day I alfo catched a young dolphin.
May 5. This day I alfo repaired to the wreckand fawe&
another piece of timber, and when the flood came, I made
a float of three great planks, which were driven akhon b
the tide.
May 6, 7, 8, 9. There days I baght off theiroeabolt.
opened the deck with the iron crow, n carried twd pTiik
to land, having made a way into the very middle i thie

SMayl10 112, 13, 4. All this time I pent inbringing
off gret quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took withkne two hatchets on purpose to cut
of fome lead from the roll, but all in vain; for it lay too
low under water.
May 10. I omi ted going to the wreck this day ; forem-
p!oynmg myfelf to look for pigeons, I outftayed my time.
day 17. I perceived several pieces of the wreck driven
ashore, which 1 found belonged to the head of the (hip.
May 24. To this day I worked on-the wreck, and with
great difficulty loofened fome things fe much with the crow,
that at the firft flowing tide, federal calks floated out, and
many of the feamen's chests ; yet that day nothing came to -
land but pieces of timber, and a iog;Aead-whicih had fomen
Brazil prk.in it. I continued working to the 15th of Jute
(except neceffary time for fcod-or reft;) andr had I known
how to have built a boat, I had timber and planks enough:
I had afo near 10& weight of lheet lead. .
June. 16. As' wa was ndering towards- the fea-fide, I.
found a large tortoife or turtle, being the first I.had feen on."
the island ; though, as I afterwards found, they were many
on, the-other Rde of it.
June 17. This day I fpeont in cooking it, Foond in her
threefcore eggs, and.her fleth the moit favoury-and pleafAint
I ever talted-in my life.
June 18.-, I Raid within this day, there being a continual
rain: and it was somewhat more chilly and coW than: fual.
June 9.. Exceedingly bad, being taken with a treahbling
and Lhiveriag.
June 20o, Awake all:night, my head racked with-pain-
and feverifh.
June 11. Sidk unto-death, and*terrified with lhe dibfiAt
appreheafions of my conditio-. Prayed. to God more s
quntly, but rery ccnfafedly. .- .-
June 22. Something better, but till uneafy in myriad.
.Jane 23s Again relapsed much as before,
June 24> Mended a fccond time.
June 2;5 A violent ague for feven hours; cold and hot
fits facceeded.with faint fweats.- .
JwLe 20. better, but very weak, yet I fcraabled outi got
a It-goat, brought it home and boiled fumeof it; I wo m -
.ihaIt* y have Aewed it, and made cfome broih, buthad no.

June 27. All this day I was affli&ed with ah: ag6ie;
thirty, yet could not help mvfelf to water: Prayed to God"
in there words: Lord, in pity look upon me: Lord haie
"mercv upon me: have mercy upon me!" After this '
fell afleep, which I found had much r-frefhed me, when I
awaked. I fell falt afleep a second time, and fell into this
strange and terrible fort of dream.
Methoutht I was fitting on the fame fpot of ground at the
outfide of the wall where I fat-when the form blew after
the earthquake; and that I faw a man descending from a
great black c'oud, nd alight upon the ground. He was all
over as bright as a-lafh of fire that a little before surrounded
him ; his countenance incorceivably terrible; the earth, as
it were, trembled when he flept upon the ground, and ffafhes
of fire seemed to fill all the air. No sooner, I thought, he
landed uron the earth, but with a long fpear, or other wvea-
pon, he made towards me ; but firft afcending a rising
ground, his voice added to my amazement, when I thought
J heard him pronounce there dreadful words, Unhappy
"* wretch feeing a!l thefe things have nnt brought thee to
repentance, thou halt immediately die." In pronouncing
this dreadful fentence, I thought he meant to kill me with
the fpear that was in his hand.
Any body may think it impoffible for me to express the
horrors of my mind at this vifion : and even when I awaked,
this very dream made a deep imprefion upon my mind.-
The little divine knowledge I had, I received from my fa-
ther's inftru&ioas, and that was worn out by an uninter-
rupted series offea-faring impiety for eight years pace. Ex-
cept what ficknefs forced from me, I do not remember I had
one thought of lifLing up my heart towards Ged, bur rather
had a certain flupidity of foul, not havIng the leaft fenfe or
fear-of the Omniptent Being when in diftrefs, nor of gra-
titude to Kim for his deliverances. Nay,when I was on the
desperate expedition on the defert African fhore, I cannot
remember I had one thought of what would become of me,
or to beg his confolation and afitlarce in my fufferings and
difirefs. When the Portugal captain took me up, and ho-
noLrably uofd.me, ray, farther, when I was even delivered
from drowning, by escaping to this island, I never looked
,upon it as a judgment, but only faid I was an unfortunate;;
dog, and that's all. Indeed, fome secret tranfpcrts of (pull
had, which was not through grace, but only a common flight-

.OP aomrirsow CROeFSQoJ, 3:
of jo*,A'hat'I was yet alive, When my companies '-re al,*
drowned, and no other joy- could I conceive bih a what .i
common with the sailors over a bowl of punch, aftar they
have'efcaped the greatest dangers. :'
The likelihood of wanting for neither food nor conven*-.
ences, might have called upon me for a thankful acknow-
ledgment to Providence. Indeed the growth of my corn
touched me with fome fenfe; but that foon wore off again.
The terrible earthquake pointed to me, as it were,-the fin-
ger of God, but my dreadful amazement continued no longer
than its duration. But now when my ifirits began to think
under the burden of a firong dillemper, and 1 could leifurely
view the miferies of death prefent themselves before my
eyes, then my awakened confcience began to reproach meu
with my paft life, in which I fo wickedly provoked the:
justice of God to pour down his vengeance upon me.
Such refleAions as thefe oppreffed me even in the violence
of diDemper.. Some prayers I uttered, which only proceeded.
from the fear of death. But when I considered my father's.
advice and prophecy, I could not forbear weeping: for he
told me, Tnat ifI did perfift in my folly, I should not only
' be deprived of God's bleffing, but have time enough to
"reflea upon my defpiling his inflru&ions, ahd this in a
" wretched time, when none could help me." And now
concluding it to be fulfilled, having no foul in the island to
administer any comfort to me, I prayed earneilly Xo the
Lord, that he would help me in this my greatcalamiy.-iy
And this, I think, was the firft time I prayed in incerisy for
many years. But now I muft return to my journal.
Jube 28. Something refreshed with fleep, and the Sfit
quite off, I got up. My dream flill occafioned in meagreat
confiernation; and, fearing that the ague might return thai.
fucceeding day, I concluded' it time to get fomeihing to coa-i-
fort, me, I filled a cafe-bottle with water, and-f4x itrthi~n
reach of my bed ; and, to make it more nourishing and : fctk
chilly, I put fome rum in it. The next.ahitg did wasirto
broil me-a piece of goat's fieth, of which I ate botnlittL ;-i>
was very weak; however, walked about, dreadingitiratureai
of maydiAtemper; and at night I fupped on three efthea
turSle'egg which I roasted and ate, begging God's bie.t
fing = *ti i -k
A~l LI eaten, I attempted to walk-again out of doows,
wih !gea; but was fo weak, that I fat down, anad ook~ i

ed at the fea, which was smooth and calm. While I con.
tinued here, thefe thoughts came into my mind :
In what manner is the produllion of the earth and fea, of
which I have feen fo much ? From whence caine myfejf,
and all other creatures living, and of what are they made
Our beings were affuredly created by lome almighty in-
vifible Power, who framed the earth, the fea, the air and
all therein. But what is that Power ?
Certainly it muft follow that God has created it. all -Yet,
faid 1, if God has made all this, he mult be the Ruler of
them all, and what is relating thereto; for certainly the
Power that makes, muft indisputably have a power to goide
and direct them. And if this be fo, (as certainly it'mufl,)
nothing can happen without his knowledge and appoint-
ment. Then, purely, if nothing happens without God's ap.
pointment, certainly God has appointed thefe my fufferings
to befall me. And here I fixed my firm belief that it wasi
his will that it fhouldkbe fo; and then proceeded to inquire,
why should God deal with me in this manner? Or what
have'I done thus to deserve his indignation.
Here conscience flew in my face, reprehending me-as a,
blafphemer; crying with a loud and piercing voice, Un-
Sworthy wretch! how dare you afk what you have done r
SLook on your part life, and fee what you have left nndoime!
Aik thyfelf, why thou wert rot long ago in the mercilefe
Hands of death? Why not drowned in Yarmouth roads,
"-or killed in the fight, when the ihip was taken by the
".Salee man of war? Why not entombed in the bowels of
wild beats on the African coaft, or drowned here when
"all thy companions suffered shipwreck in the ocean ?"
Struck dumb with thefe refleleions, I role up in a pen,
five manner, being fo thoughtful that I could not go to
leep ; and fearing the dreadful return of my ditemper, it
caused me to member, that the Braziilians ufe tobacco for
almost all difeaess. I then went to my chef in order to
find fome; where Heaven, no doubt, directed me to find a
cure for both foul and body; for there I found one of the
Bibles, which, till this time, I had neither leilare nor tinci
nation to look into. I took both the tobacco and thaetonof
the chelf, and laid them on the table. Several experiatenti
did 1 try with the tobacco: Firft, I took a piece of leaf, and
chewed it; but it being very green and ftrong, alml :
Aupified ie. Next I lteeped it in fome rum a bhor or

two, revolving when I went to bed to take a doLe of it;
and, in the their i place, I burnt lime over a pan of fire,
holding my nole over it as long as I could endure it with-
out suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though my head was
giddy and diflurbed by the tobacco, I took up the Bible to
read. No fooner did I open it, but there appeared to me
thefe words, Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
Deliver thee, and thou halt glorify me.
At firft, this sentence made a very deep impreffion on
my heart, but it foon wore cff again, when 1 considered the
word deliver was foreign to me. And as the children of
Yrael faid, when they were promised flefh to cat, "Can
God spread a table in the wiidernefs ?" In like manner I
began to fay, Can God himself deliver me from this defol
late island?" However, the words would till return to my
mind, and afterwards made a greater impreffion up -n me.
As it was now very late, and the tobacco had dozed my
head, I was inclined to fleep; but before I would lie down
I fell on my knees, and implored the promise that God had
.made me in the Holy Scripture, that if I called upon him
in the day of trouble, he would deliver me." With much
difficulty, Iafterwards drank the rum, wherein I had fteeped
the tobacco, which flying into my head, threw me into luch
a profound fleep, that it was threeo'clock the next day before
I awaked; or rather I believe, I flept two days, having cer-
tainly loft a day in my account, and I could never tell any
other way. When I got ups my spirits were lively and
cheerful; my stomach much better, being very hungry ;
and, in flort, no fit returned the next day, which was the
29th, but I found myfelf much altered for the better.
The 30th I went abroad with my gun, but not far, and
killed a fea-fowl or two, resembling a brand goofe, which,
however, I cared not to eat when I brought them home,
but died on two more of the turtle's eggs. In the evening
I renewed my medicine, excepting that I did not take fo
large-a quantity, neither did I chew the leaf, or hold my
head over the fmoke: but the next day, which was the IRl
of July, having a little return of the cold fit, I again took
my medicine as I did the firft time.
-July 3. The fit quite left me, but very weak. In this
condition, I often thought of thefe words, "I will deliver
thc'" and While, at fome times, I would think of the im-

poflibility of it,-other thoughts would reprehend man for di(-
regarding the deliverances I had received.even from the
molt forlorn and difirefled condition. I a(ked myfelf, what
regard have I had to God for his abundant mercies? Have-
I done my part? "-He has delivered me, but I have not
glorified himi' '-as if I had faid, I had not owned 'and
been thankful tor thele as deliverances, and how could I
exped greater ? So much did this fenfibly touch my heart,
th.,t I gave God thanks for my recovery from. ficknef# in
t'e molt humble profRration.
July 4. This morning I began ferioufly to ponder on what-
is written in. the New Ttflament, zefolving to lead a chap-
ter every morning and night as long as my thoughts would
engage me. As foon as I fet about this work.ferioufly,i.
found my heart deeply affedled with the impiety.of my palt
life; there words that. thogght.were spoken to me in myj
dream, revived", All thefe things have not brought thee t-
" repentance." After this, I begged of God to affit mew
with his Holy Spirit in returning to my duty. One day, in
pcrufag the Scriptures, I came to thefe words, Him hath
- God exalted to be a Prince.and a Saviour, to give.repentance
"and to give remifion :" immediately I-laid down the
hook, and with uplified-hands to Heaven, loudly cried, "0,
bleffed Jefus, thou fon of David, Jefus-thou exalted Prince
and Saviour, give me repentance I" And now indeed I prayed
with a true fenfe of my condition and a more certain hope,
fou-nded on the word of God. Now I had a differept:l.fe
of thtfe words, "'Call on me.and 1 will deliver thee," that
is, from the dreadful load of guilt which opprefled my fi a l
foul, and not from a folitary life, which might rather be
called a bleffing, feeing I wanted Meither food nor rai-
ment, when compared with living among the human:race,
surrounded with fo much oppreffion, mifery, and af8iliona
Jo a word, I came to this conclusion,, that a deliverance
from fin was a much greater blefling tha ,.,eliVerag;c
from afflition. But again I proceed to my j9urnaL
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my ga, .tittle
and little at a time,, having been reduced to the.~.yg
extremity of weaknefs. The applications aq4dexzpersie"
I ufcd, were perftdly new : neither could I recCBjp
them to any one's pradice. For, though it carried 9 4e
fit, it very much weakened me, and.l had frcqpe jW
fions in my nerves and limbs for ioce time. PFp si

learned, that going abroadin rainy weather, efpeclally where
it was attended with forms and hurricanes of wind, was
moft pernicious to health. I had now been about ten
months in the ifland ; and, as I never had feen any of the.
human kind, I therefore accou-.ted myfelf as fole monarch ;
and as I grew better, having fecured my habitation to my
mind, I resolved to make a tour round my kingdom, in or.
der to make new discoveries,
The 15th of July, 1 began my journey ; I firf went to
the re-k, where I had brought my rafts on iore ; and, tra-
veiling farther, found that the tide went no higher than two.
miles up, where there was a little brook of running water,
on the banks of which were many pleasant favannahs or
meadows, plain, fmooth, and covered with grafs. On the.
rising parts, where I fuppofed the water did not reach, I
perceived a great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong
fialk. Several other plants I likewise found, the virtues of
which I did not under stand. I searched a long time for the
Caffava root, which I knew the Indians in that climate.
made their bread of, but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not what they;
were; likewise I faw several fugar canes, but imperfect. for-
want of cultivation. With there few discoveries, I came,
back that night, and flept contentedly in.my little cafile.
The next day, being the 16th, going the fame way, but,
farther-than the day before, I found the country more adored'
with woods aqd trees. Here I perceived different fruip ia:
great abundance. Melons in plenty lay on the ground,ra.i4
clufters of grapes, ripe and very rich, spread over the trees,,
Yo.may .imagine I was glad.of the difcbvery,.yet ate very
fparingly, let'.l should throw myself into a flux or fevee,;
The grapes I found of excellent ufe; fr. when 4 hal, dri;4,
them in the fun, which preferred them as dried raifins are
kept, they p oved very wholefome and nouri"hing, aln
served me in thefe feafons when no geapeswcre to behad, *
Tne night drawing on apace, I ascended u a tree, apti '-
flept very comfortably, though it was the firft timme had: .
lain out of my habitation. And when the morning came, IJ
proceed with great pleafury on my way, travellihg about
fomq.ailes, as I imagined, by the length.of the valley, i.-.
re ig my coiue n :rhward, there being a ridge of hlU on,
thlljith and north iide of me. At the end of this valley,,
I.cpe wo an opening, where the "co iy f 4ced to defic

to the weft; there I found a little fpring of freeh water,
proceeding out of the fide of the hill, with its cryffal firearms
running dire8!y eaft. And, indeed, here my fenfes were
charmed with the moti beautiful landscape Nature could af-
ford; for the country appeared flourishing, gleen, and de-
lightful; that to me it seemed like a planted garden. I then
defended on the fide of that delicious vale, when I found
abundance of cocoa, orang., lemon, and citro, tress, but
very wild and barren at that time. As for the lhnesj they
were delightful and whole ome, thej jice of which I afterwards
ufed to mix in water, which made it.very cooling and re-
frefhing. And now 1 was-refo.ved to carry home and lay
up a flore of grapes, limes, and lemons, against the approach-
ing wet feafoi. So laying them up in several parcels, and
then taking a few of each with me, I returned to my little
caftle, after having fpent three days in this journey. Before
I got home, the grapes were- fo bruised that they were
utterly spoiled; the limes, indeed, were good; but of thofe
I could bring only a few.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I returned thither
again, but, to my great furprife, found all the grapes spread
about, trod to pieces, and abundance eaten, which made me
conclude there were wild beaflts thereabouts. To preyenl
this happening again, I gathered a large quantity orthbe
grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches of the tree,
both to keep them unhurt, and that they might cure and dry
in the fun: and having well loaded myself with lies and
lemons, I returned once more to.my old place of refiv
And now contemplating on thefruitfulnefs ofthis valty,,
and pleafartnefs of its situation, its security, from forms,
and the delightfutnefs of the adjacent woods, concluded:
I was fettled in the worit part of the country, and there-
fore-was thinking to remove my habitationi.
But when I considered again, that, though it-was pleasant,
it was off from. the fea-fide, where there was a pofibility,
fome time or other, a fhip might either be driven or fail by;
and. that to inclofe myfelf among hills and woods, muft cer-
tainly put an end.to my hopes-of,deliverance; *I refoled
to let my cattle remain where Providence had firfi affigned
it. Yet fa ravifhed was I with this place, that made me
a'little kind of bower, furroanding it with a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well flaked and filled with bWll

OP R103Mo0I CciVso. 49
rufhes: and having fpent a great part of the month of July
I think k was the frft of Auguit before I began to enjoy
my labour.
Aug. 3. Pereiving my grapes to be dry, I took them from
the trees; and they proved excellent good raifips of the fun:
the anoft of which I carried to my cave; and happy for me
I did fo; by which I faved the bed part of my winter'food.
Aug.\ 14. This day it began to rain; and though I bad
made me tent like the other, yet having no Ihelter of hill
to keep me from forms, nor a cave behind me to retreat to,
I was obliged to return to my old castle. The rain con-
tinued more or lefs every day, till the middle of October;
and sometimes fo violent, that I could not fiir out of my
cave for federal days. This feafon I found my family to
increase; for one of my cats that ran away from 'me, and
which I thought had been dead, returned about Aagult,
With three kittensat her heels, like berfelf, which I thought
fraege, because both my cats were females, and the wild
cats of the ifland seemed to be of a different kind from our
Eutepean cats; but from there cats proceeded fach num-
bers, that I was forced to kill and deftroy them as would
do wild bears and vermine.
To the 26th of this month, I could not tAi oat, it raimia
inceffantly ; when beginning to want food, I was compelled
Co venture twice; the firt of which I hot a gent, ad af-
terward* found a very large tortoiTe. The amenr-ofmy
regulating my food was thui: a bunch of raisins fervd me
for my breakaft, a piece of goat's fleflt or trtle, boiled, fr
my dinner, and two or three turtle's eggs for my lapper.
While the rainlafted, I daily worked two or three hoarfat
enlarging my cave, and ly degrees worked it oa todlrds
one fide, till I came to the oatide of the hin, a mamde a
door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall, sad
fo I came in and out this way. But after I had done thi,, t
was troubled-to fee myself thus erpofed; though I could
not perceive any thing to fear, a goat being te biggest
creature I had feen upon this island.
Sept; 30. Cafting up my notches on my poft, which
amounted to 365, I concluded thi to be the aaniverfary of
any landing ; and, therefore, 'humbly proflrati lmyfelf on
the ground, confefing my fins, acknowledgig God'a
righteous judgments upon me, and praying to JeV Chiif
Stoi'have mercy upon me, I fated for twelve foars tilk tl

going down of the fun; and then eating a bi(ceit and -
bunch of grapes, laid me on the bed and with great sromnrt
took my night's repofe. Till this time, I never had diftin-
guilhed the Sabbath-day : but now I made a longer adtch
than ordinary for the days of reft, and divided the week- at
well as I could, though I found I had loft a day or two in
my account. My ink failing foon after, I omitted'in my
daily memorandum things of an indifferent nature, and con-
tented myfelf to write down only the moft remarkable events
of my life. The rainy and dry feafons appeared now regular
to me, and experience taught me how to provide for them
yet, in one thing I am going to relate, mf experience very;
much failed me. You may call to mind what I have men-
tioned of fome barley and rice which 1 had faved, about
thirty talks of the former, and twenty of the latter; and, at
that time, the fun being in its southern position, going from,
me, together with the rains,. made me conclude it a very,
prper feafon to fow it. Accordingly I dug up a piece of
_ground with my wooden fpade, and dividing it into two
parts, fowed about two-thirds of my feed, preferring by
me about a handful of each. And happy it was I did fo; forn
no rains falling, it was choked up, and never.appeared.
above the earth till the wet fefon came again; and then
par; of it grew as if it had been newly fawn.
I was refolved till to make another trial; and feeling,
for a moitfer piece of ground near mny bower, I there owed.
the reft of my feed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox; which having the rainy months of March *ad:
April to water it, yielded a noble crop, and fCrang up very
pleasantly. I had i!ll fayed part of the feed, not daring to
venture all; and by the time i found out the proper feafoas,
to fow it in, and that I might expect every ycar two feed-,
times and tv9-haivefts, my flock amounted to above half a.
peck of each fort of grain.
No ftoner were the rains over, but-theflakes which Ihad;
cut from the trees, thqt out-like willows,.the firft year after.
lopping theiriheads. I was ignorant of the tree I cat them
from: but they grew Io regularly bauiuful, that they made
a .modl lively appearance, and to flourished in.three years.
timer that resolvedd to cut more o(them ; and thef. fooa,
growing, made a glorious fence, as afterwards I hall cbherve;
And now I perceived that the feAons of the year wagIh
generally be divided not into summer and winter. as in,
Europe, but into wet and dry feafons, as in this manner:

(February, -I
Half< Marcb, Rainy, fin corning near the Equinot.
~( April, )tray '

Hall< June, Dry, -fn getting North of the Line.
IAugaff, 1
Halt j4!t.pgm ber; Wet,-the fun being-then come baech
October, '
November .
Half iUcembtri Dry, fun running South7 of the im.

Tjie wei .Leak would-crontintie lopgierr hoter,, pa th4
tvinds pJ;ppFw to blow. But,4aving iound4,4l;,coPfr C
qaeCueA of beisg abnoO in 4eaeain. I tookcapCgit4foafe4
-;o. fari4h myfelf vwith Opovifons; and, clR;g. ;b e an&
months, (At within 4oorsas nwchas -offibl. Athis i
contrived, to mkaiany- hings that I wanted,.thofth it-oil
eIeQ;fllaclsA~boranad pains, before l could acoopif lt. th;;&.,
The firil ,i tried was to make a baikes; box allUthc, teig!4
could get, pio.qvd fo brjiAt, jhat I could not shea perform m it.
kt~npv, pqvc.d4of grqat advantage -to Ime, ;a4wc I);k~j;,:-
Foao a grpatzdelight at fiandiug at a baflcat-A"IW'os j
Stqoys .bqre --sytyf.ther lived, to view them at #poj4
n4. Sijtither bpys.sirioUS to 'fee the manner of t1i4i
avOrking-theS7~ ;hingasun4 very officious to ai I Rre4ILt
Oareedtsheethod 4fit, and wanted othin&b bt lhs qqis4
And, it coming into my mind, that the xair of.:hst srceq4
wluicI~ Lmade- ,xy flakes, niugbt:)e awtougk as &,*allqw-
.iJkO~ris 94 oilers,. gpow~iVg in Rngland, I r~fqlfed tp ma
;a*. "WnIEnS !PAd- went the uext 4Ly to my cGIRSPE'.4a
;i4d f ,A jfOm -fit foc my twra.; and afier ctSsiag ei a
qisn i'yi~g b. hatcet, I dried them in my R*,,aS4,
gsk~#p ,jSbPOork with, carri;, ldqmu toqmI* C*VA
.PpY4gPijfcf in makingfeveralfdts9, W.
.Wffk sb,4~cruld put ip-awhrlfiei~ IpcV Af 10440
Aqu..w cu qsC# e-rly vmadaL, Y10 ~kAyiV.py 44Y4 -q%

But till I wanted two neceffary things. I had no calk
to hold my liquor, except two rualets almost full of rum, a
few bottles of an ordinary fize, and fome fquare cafe battles
neither had I a pot to boil any thing in, only a large kettle
urfit to make broth, or flew a bit of meat: I wanted like-
wife at the beginning of this dry feafon, a tobacco pipe;
but for this I afterwards found an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my second row of
flakes. But remembering that when I travelled ui to the
brook, I had a mind to fee the whole island, I now refumred
my intention; and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two bifcuit
cakes, a great bunch of raifins, with a larger quantity of
powder and fhot than ufoal, I began my journy. Having
paffed tte vale where my bower flood, I came within view
of the tea, lying to the weft; when it being a lear day, I
fairly defcried land, extending from the W. to the S. W.
abcut ten or fifteen leagues, as I concluded; but could not
fey whether it was an island or a continent. Neither
could I tell what this place might be; only thought it was
part of America, and where'l might have been m a mifer
able condition, had I landed. Again, I considered, that if
this was the Spanifh coat, certainly, one time or other, I
should fee fome ihip pifs by; and if it was not, then it
muft be the favage coatt, between the Spanith country and
Brazil, which abounds with cannibals or man-eaters.
As I proceeded forward, I found this fide of the ifand
much more pleasant than mie ; the field fragrant, adorned
with fweet'flowers and verdant-graft, together with federal
very fine woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made me hlng for one to be my compaoitona but it war with
great difficulty I could knock one down with my fick; and
I kept him at home frome years before I could get him te
call me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found variousfors of har ti
foxes, as 1 took them to be, but much different
in Englard. Several of thefe I kitlle, but never
neither, indeed, had I any occafion ; for abiz
goars, pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I could defy
market to furith me a better table. In this jour ,
fot travel above tao miles a day, because l to-
turns and a findings, to fee what discoveries I ceM
ret uPnin weary enough to the place where i
XIt all night, whichh was either in a tree o~f'

which I surrounded with flakes, that no wild creature might
suddenly furprife me. When ( came to the fea-fhore, I was
amazed to fee the fplendour of it. Its firand was covered
with shells of the moRf beautiful fifh, and conflantly abound-
ing with innumerable turtles, and fowls of many kinds,
which I was ignorant of, except thofe called penguins. I
might have Ihot as many as I pleaded, but was paring of
my ammunition, rather chocfing to kill a (he-goat, which I
did with much difficulty, on account of the flatnefs of thq
Now though this journey produced me the molf pfeafing
satisfaction, yet my habitation was fo much to my liking,
that I did not repine at my being feated on the worft part
of the island. I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the eaf, where I fet a great
pile oh the thore for a mark, concluding that my next jour-
ney should bring me to the other fide of the ifland, eat from
my castle, and fo round till I came to my poft again. As I
had a conftant view of the country, I thought I could not
mifs my way; but fcarcely had I travelled three miles,
when I defended into a very large valley, fo surrounded
with hills, covered with wood, that I having no guide but
the fun, nor even that, unlefs 1 knew well his position at
that time of the day; and, to add to my misfortune, the wea-
ther proving very hazy, I was obliged to return to my polt
by the fea-.fide, and fo backward's the fame way I came.-
In this journey my dog furprifed a kid, and would have
killed it, had I not prevented him. As Ihad often been
thinking of getting a kid or two, and fo raising a breed of
tame goats to supply me after my ammunition was fpent, I
took this opportunity of beginniing : and having made a
collar for this little creature, with a firing made of rope-
yarn, I brought it to my bower, and there inclofed and left
him; and having fpent a month in this journey, at length
I returned-to my own habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when I returned to
my little called, and repofed myfelf in my hammock. After
my journey, I relied myfelfa week, which time I employed
in making a cage for my pretty Poill' 1 sriw began to
consider my poor kid I had left in the bower, and I imme-
diately went tofetch it home. When I cdme there, I found
the young creature almost ftarved; I gave it fome food,and
tied it as before: but thete wai no occaioan for it followed

me like a dog; and, as I confantly fed it, it became fo
Jloing, gentle, and fond, that it commenced one of my do-
meftics, and would never leave.me.
The rainy feafon of the autumnal equinox being now
come, I kept the 30th of September in the moft folemn
manner, as ufual: it being the third year of my abode in
-the island. I fpent the whole day in acknowledging God's
mercies, in giving him thanks for making this folitary life as
agreeable and.lefs finful, than that of human society; and
for the communications of his grace to my foul, in fupport-
ing, comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon his
Providence, and hope for his eternal presence in the world
to come.
Indeed, I often didconfider how much mndre happy I was
in this fate of life, than in that accurfed manner of living I
formerly ufed; and sometimes when hunting, or viewing
the country, the angulfh of my foul wduld break out upon
me, and my very heart would fink within me, to think of the
woods, the mountains, the deferts I was in; and how I was
a prifoner locked up within the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without hopes, and
without redemption. In this condition I would often wring
my hands and weep like a child : And even sometimes, in
the middle of my work, this fit wculd take me; and then I
would fit down and figh, looking on the ground for an hour
or two together, till fuch time as my grief got vent in a
flood of tears.
One morning as I was fadly employed in this manner, I
opened my Bible, when I immediately fixed my eyes upon
thefe words, "I will ever leave thee, nor forfake thee !"
Surely, thought I, thefe words are directed to me, orelfe why
should they appear juft at a moment when I am bemoaning
mny forlorn condition; and if God does not forisae, what
matters it, fince he can make me more happy in this flateof
lift, than if I enjoyed the greatest fplendour in the world?
But while I was going to return God thanks for my present
Rate, something seemed to thock my mind, as if it had thus
laid.: U.pwrthy 'rerch, can you pretend to be thankfl
for a condition from twjiclh.yu woujd pray to be delivered
Here I ftopt;-and though I could not fay, I thanked the
divine Majefly,for being there, .yet I gave God tha;lk fpr'
placing to my view my former coaurfe of jife, and grant"
n b, true knowcdge of FrepeFtjc PA. whenever o

or fhut the Bible, I bleffed kird Piovidence, that directed
my good friend in England to fend it among my goods wiih-
out any order, and for affifting me to lave it from the power
of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my fevrral daily em-
ployments were thee : Firf, My duty to Heaven, ad di-
ligently reading the Holy Scriptures; which I cid t;ice or
thrice every day : Sccndly, Seeking provisions hith my gun,
which commonly took me u ), wien it did not rain, three
hours every morning : Thirdly, The ordering, curing, pre-
ferving and cooking what I killed, cr catched for my fup-
ply, which took me up great part of the day; for, in the
middle of the day, the fun being in its height, it was fo hor,
that I cold not flir out ; fo that I 1tad only but four hours
in the evening to work in : and then the want of tools, of
afliftance, and fkil, wanted a great deal of time to little
purpose. I was no lefs than two and forty days making a
board fit for a long flit-f, which two fawyerb, with their
tools and law-pit, would hive cut cff the fime tree in
half a day.. It was of a large tree, as my board was to be
bread. I was three days- in cutting it down, and two morse
in lopping off the boughs, and reducing it to a piece of tim-
ber. This I hacked and hewed off each fide, till it became
light to move; and then I tu ned it, mad'- one fide of it
fmooth and flat as a board from end ;o end, then tufred it
downwards, cutting the other fide, till I bro gnt the plank
to be about three inches thick, and fmooth on bo:h tides.
Any body mayjudge my great labour, and fatigue in fuch a
piece of work ; but this I wtnt t' r ugh. ith p-aience, 3a
alfo mary oth-r things that my circumniances made recef-
fary fjr me to do.
The I.arvelt months November ard Derem'ber, vwerc
aow at hand, in which I rad ti e pleating prcfpect of a very
good crop. Bua here 1 met with a rew risfcrtune; f,.r
the goats. and hares, having taIed of the fw.einefs of the
blade, kept it f? Ilhbrt, that it had rot ftrer. th to Ibrot up
into a flalk. To prevent (his, I enclosed it with a hedge,
and by day flot fome rf i:s de\ourcrs; and my dog which L
had tied to the field gate, l *frightened thcfe creatures, that I gnt tn:i ze rid oftherm.
But no fo.nrr did I get rid o' thef than cther ,nemi:g
t.ppered, tolvit, whole 11cr ks of fev ra[ forts of birds, hio
oaly waued. mya bsic was Usred to aio me.' So A.dcc

did this provoke me, that I let fly, and killed three of the
malefa6turs ; ard afterwards served them as they do notori-
ous thieve, in England, hung them up in chains, as a terror
to others. And, indeed, fo good an effect had this, that they
not orily forfock the corn, but all that part of the ifland, fo
long as tilee criminals hung there.
My corn ha'vig ripenea apace, the latter end of Decem-
ber, which was my lecund harvest, I reaped ir with a fithe,
made of one cf m-) broad words. I had no fatigue in cut-
ting down my frfl crop, it was fo lender. The ears I car-
ried home in a balket, rubbing i: with my hands, inflead of
thraf :ing it; and Ahen the harveft was over, found my
half peck of feed produced near two bufhels of rice-and
two bufhela and a half cf barley. And now I plainly fore-
faw, that, by God's gocdnefs, I ihoul4 be furnilhed with
bread; but yet I was concerned, because I knew not how
to grind or make meal of my corn, or bread, neither knew
how to bake it. I would not, however, tafle any of the
crop, but refulved to prefcrve it againfi next feafon, and,
in the mean while, ufe my bell endeavours to provide my-
felf with other food.
But where were my labours to end ? The want of a
plough to turn up the earth, or shovel to dig it, I conquered
by making wle a wooden fpade. The want of a harrow I
supplied myfeif with dragging over the corn a great bough
of a tiee. Wt.en it was growing I was forced to fence it;
when ripe to mow it, cairy it home, thralh i,, part it from
the chaff, and lave it. And, after all, I wanted a mill to grind
it, live to drefs it, 'elt and falt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it. This let my brains to work to find
fome expedient for every oe of thcfe neceflaries against the
next harvel.
And now having more feed, my firft care was to prepare
me more land. 1 pitched upcn two large flat pieces of
ground near my cattle, fcr that purpose, in which I owed
any feed, and fenced it with a good hedge. This took me
up three months: by which time the wet feafon coming on,
and the rain keeping me within door, I founn several oc-
cafions to emrply myfelf; and, while at work, ufed to di-
vert m);elf in talking to my parrot, learning him to know
and peak his own n e Poll, the irft welcome word Lever
hear (poke in the island. I t3ad been a long time con-.
triving how to niake earthen veffres, which I wanted ex-.

tremely, and when I considered the heat of the climate, Idid
not doubt but if I could find any fuch clay, I might potch
up a pot, strong enough when dried in the uin, to bear
handling, and to hold any thing that was dry.,as corn, meal,
and other things.
To be fhort, the clay I found ; but it would occasion the
moft fericus person to file, to fee woat awkward way; I
took, and what ugly mithapen thin s I made; how many
either fell out or cracked by the viWFnt heat of the fun, and
fell in pieces when they %cre removed : fo that I think it
was two months time before I could perfea any thing; and
even then but two clumfy things- in imitation of earthen jars.
Thefe, however, I very gen:ly placed in wicker baskets,
made on purpofe for them, ad between the pot and the
bafkets, fluffed it full of rice and birley-liraw, and thefe I
prefumed woL)d bo'd my dried c r;, and perhaps tre meal
when the corn was bruifed. As for the smaller things, I
made them with better iuccefs ; fuch as little round pots,
flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, the fun baking them very
Yet fill I wanted one thing absolutely neceffary, and that
was an earthen pot, not only to hokl my liquid, but alfo to
bear the fire,. which none of thefe could do. It once hap-
pened, that as I was putting cut my fire, I found therein a
broken pieteofcne of my veffels burnt as hard as rock, and
red as a tile. Tais made me think of burning fome pots;
and having r o notion of a kilr, or of glazing them with lead,
I fixed thrree large pipkins, aiid two or three pots ina pile
one upon another. T'he fire I piled round the outside, and
dry wood on tie top, till I law the pots in the i,,fide red
hot, and found that they were.not cracked at all and when
I perceived them perfectly red, I let oie .of them land in
the fire about five or fix hours, till the clay melted by the ex-.
tremity of he heat, and would have rnn to glafs had I lufr
fered it: upon which I blackened my fire by degrees, till the
rednefs abatec; and watching them tillthe morning, I found
I had three very good p'pkins, and two eaith.n pats, as
well burnt aud fit for my turn as I could deGre.
Nojoy could be greater than mine at this discovery. For
after this, I may fa,, I wanted for no fort of car then-ware.
I filled-one of my pipkins with water to boil pe fome meat,
which it did admirably well, and will piece o' kid, I ma'ie
mie-fome good broth, as well as my circumilanceswould
afford me ai that time.

The next concern I had, was to get me a flone mortar to
beat-f. me corn in, instead of a mill to grind it. Here, in-
deed, I was at a great lofs: as not being fit for a flone-cu:ter;
and many days 1 fpent to find out a great qone big enough
to cut hollow and make fit for a mortar, and firong enough
to bear the weight cf A peltle, and that would break tie corn
without filing it wi:h fard. But all the Iones of the ifland
heinz of a mouldering nature, rendered my ftarch f uitefs;
and then I ref. Lived to I-olk out for a great block cf hard
wood, which having found, I formed it with my axe and
hammer, and then, with infinite labr.ur, made a hollow in it,
jutt as the Indians of Brazil make their canoes. When [
had finifled this, I made a great pefile of iron wood, and
then laid them up agairft my fucceeding harvest.
My next bufinefs was to make me a iieve to flit my meal,
and part it from the bran and hulk. Having. ro fine thin
canvas to fearce the meal through, I could not tell what to
do. What linen I had was reduced to rags : 1 had goat's
hair enough, but neither tools to work it, nor did I know
how to fpin it: At length I remembered I had fame neck-
cloths of calico cr muflin of the sailors, which I had brought
out of the fhip, a d with thele I made three fraail fieves,
proper enough for the work.
1 come now to consider the baking part. The want of
an oven I supplied by making fome earthen pars ver) broad
but not deep. When I had a mind to bake, 1 made a great
fire. uon the hearth, the tiles of which I had rrade myself;
and R hen the wood was burnt into live coals, 1 (cr-ad them
over it, till it became very. hot : then sweeping them away,
I fet down my loav-s, and whelming down zhe earthen pots
upon them, drew' the afhes and coals all around the o:-ttdes
bf the pot to continue the heat; and in thi- manner I baked
nmy barley loaves, as well as if I 1had be.:- a complete.patiry-
ccok, and alfo made of the rice feveral cakes and p, dd ngs.
SIt is no wonder that thefe things took me up the beft
part of a year, fiance 'Lhat in ermediate time I had was be-
Itowed in.m naging my new harveft and hufbandry ;. for in
the proper fe.f'n I reaped my corn, carried it home, and
laid it up in the ear in my large basket', til. I hai time to
rub, infiead of thrafming it. And, now, irdced, my corn
increased fo much, -that it produced me twenty bufhels of
barley, and as much rice, that I not oily began to ufe.it
freely, but wa-s thinking how to enlarge my barns, a-d re-

solvedd to fow as much at a time as would be sufficient for
me for a whole year.
All this while, the profpe& of lard, which I had- f.en
from the cthtr fide of the ifland, ar, in my mind. lftill
meditated a deliverance from this place, though the fear
of greater misfortunes might have deterred rre from it. For,
allowing thai 1 had attained that place, I ran the hazard of
being killed anJ eaten by tht devouring cannilta's; and if
they were not fo, \et I might be fl in, ae other Europeans
had been, who fell irto their hands. NotwiLhfandirg all
this, mr thoughts ran continually upon that there. I now
wished for ny boy XLry, ard the iorg boat with the fheul-
der of mutton fail : I weent on the fhip's boat that had been-
call a great way on the fhore in the late form. She was
removed but a little; but her bottom being turned up by-
the impetuofity and fury of the waves and wind, I fell to
work with all the flrength I had, wiih levers and rollers I
had cut from the wood, t. turn h:,r, and repair the damages
fle had fuliained. This work t.ck me up three or foer-
weeks, when finding my little fircngth aNi in vain,, I fell to
undermining it by digging away the fand, and fo to make
it fall down, fettirg picc s of wood to thrift and guide it
in the fall. But after this was done, I was lill unable to
ftir it up, or to get under it, much lefs to move-it forward
towards the water, and fb I was forced to give it overs
This difappoi- tm nt, however, did not frighten-me. I1
began to think whether it was not poffib!e for me to maeki
a canoe or Ferigua, fuch as the Indians make of the trunk--
of a'tre. But here I lay under particular inconvnenences;
want of tools to make it, and want of hands to move it in
the water wlen it was made. However, to Aor!c I went
upor it,.flopping all the ir quiries I'cou'd make, with this
lery fi.mp!e anfwer I made' to nv)felf, Let's firft make it,
I'l. arrant I'li find fome way or other to get it along-when
it is doce.
I fricut down a cedar-tres, which was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the flun;p, and fout
feet eleven inches diameter at the end of ltenty-two feet,
af:er which it leffned for a fFace, and then parted into
branches. Twer.ty days was I a hacking and hearing this
tree at the bottom, fowtteen more in cutting off the branches
and limbs, and a whole month in (hapisg it like the bottom
ofa.boat. As for the inside, I was three weeks with-a-
.C 3

mallet and chifie!, clearing it in fuch a manner, a that it
was big enough to carry twenty-fix men, much higger th-
any canoe I ever faw in my life, and consequently fuffici-t
to tranfport me and all my effects to that wiihed-for fhore
I fo ardently de!ire3.
Nothing remained now, but, indeed, the greatefi diffi-
culty to get it into the water, it lying about one hundred
%ards from it. To ieme 4y the firft irconveeniece, which
was a rising h'l between the boat and the creek, with won-
derful pains and labours I dug into the bowels of the earth,
and made a declivity. But when this was done, all the
Arength I had was as infinfciezt to remove it, as it was when
I attempted o -emove ihr boat. I then proceeded to measure
the dift nce of ground, refclving to make a canal in order
to bring the water to the canoe, fince I could not bring the
canoe to the water. Eat as this seemed to be impracticable
to myfelf alone, under the fpace of eleven or twelve years,
it brought me into fome fort of consideration; -fo that I
concluded this alfo to be impoffi'.le, and the attempt alto-
gether vain. I now faw, and not before, what flupidity it
is to begin work before we reckon its coft, or judge rightly
our own abilities to go through with its performance.
In the height of this work my fourth year expired, from
the time I was caft on this ifland. At this time I did not
forget my anniversary; but kept it with rather greater de-
votion than before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had nothing to do with;
fnd very well might I fay, as father Abraham faid unto Dives,
"Between thee and me there is a gulph fixed." And in.
deed I was separated from its wickednefs too, having nei-
ther the lah of the filLh, the luit of the eye, nor the pride
of life; I had nothing to covet, being lord, king, and em-
peror over the whole country I had in poffeffion, without
dispute and without control : 1 had loadings of corn, plenty
of turtles, timber in abundance, and grapes above measure.
What was all the reft to me ? The money I had lay by me
as despicable droff, which I would freely have given for a
grofs of t< bacco pipes, or a hard-mill to grind my corn; in
a word, the nature and experience of thefe things dictated
to me thisjuft reflecion: Teat the good things of this world
are no farther good to us, than they are for our ufe; and
-that whatever we may heap up to give to others, we can
but erny as much as we ute and no more.

oF ROBINSON Ct.usO ; 55
Thefe thoughts rendered my mind mere eafy than ufual, '
Every time I fat down to meat, I did it with thankfu!ners,
admiring the providential hand of God, who, in this wilder-
nels, had fpread a table to me. And now I corfidered what
1 enjoyed, rather than what I wanted ; compared my present
condition with what I at firft exp ded it should be : how
I should have done, if I had-got nothing out of the ihip ;
that I nolahave perifhed before I had caught fifl or turtles;
or lived, had I fJund them, like a mere savage,-by eating
them raw,'andapulling them to piec-s with my claws, like a
b*ift. I next compared my fIttion to that which I-deferv-
ed ; bow undutiful I had bien to my parents ; how dettitute
of the fear of God : how void of every thing that was good;
and how ungraceful for thofe abundant mercies I had re-
ceived from Heaven, being fed, as it were, by a miracle,
even as great as Elijah's being fed by ravens; and caft on
a place where there is no venomous creatures to-poifon or
devour me; in fh-rt, making God's tender mercies matter
of great confolation, I relinqilhed all fadnels, and gave
way to contentnient.
As long as my ink con:'nied, which with water I made
lafl as long as I could, I ufed to minute down the days of the
month on which any remarkable event happened.-And,
Firlt, I observed, that the fame day I forfook my parents
and friends, and ran away to itull, in order to go to fea; the
fame day afterwards in the next year, I was taken and made
a flave by the Salee rovers.
That the very day I efcaped out of the wreckl of the Ihip
in Yarmouth roads, a year after, on the fame day, I made
my efcape from Salee in my patron's fi4hing-boat.
And, on the 30th of September, being the day in the year
I was born on, on that diy tienty-fix years after; was i
miraculously faved, and caft ashore on this ifland.
The next thing that wafled after my ink, was the Iif.
cults which I had brought out of the (hip ; and tho:jgh I al-
lowed myself but one cake a day for above a twelvemonth,
yet I was quite out of bread fEr near a year, before I got
any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and my
linen had been gone long before. Ho ever, I had pre-
ferved about three dozen of the failors' chequere4 (hirts,
which proved a great refrefhment to me, i'hen the violent
beams of the fun would not fuffer me to bear any of the fea-

men's h+avy watch-coits; which made me tirn tailor, and
after a miserable botching manner, convert them tojackets.
To preserve my head, I made me a cap of goat's 1kin, with
the hair rutwards to ker- out the rain ; which indeed served
me fo well, that af er.verds I made me a waiftcoat and open-
kneed breeches of the fame: And then I contrived a
J'o: of an umbrella, covering it nith &fins, which not only
kept cut the heat of the fun, but rain aklo. Thus being eary
and fettled in my mind, my chief happiness was toconverfe
with God, in mof heavenly and cc'mfpitable ejaculatione.
For five years after this 1 can-ot fay any extraordinary
thirg occurred to me. My clihkf employment was to cure
my raifins, and plart my bar'ey ad d rce, both of which I
had a year's prov;(ion beforehand. But though I was dif-
appoin:ed in my firil canoe, I made it, at in ermediate times,
ry bufinefs to make a feconl, of much inferior fize; and it
was two years before I had En'f:id it. But as I perceived
it would no wife answer my defign of failing to the other
Ihore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour rou-d the
island, to fee wnat farther di;coverics I could make. To
this intent, aft.r havirg moved her to the water, and tried
how the would.filt, I fitted up a little marl to my boat, and
made a fail of the fhip's fa:1 that lay by me. I then made
lockers or b, xes at rth end (f it, to put in neceffiries; pr)-
vilion, a-i ammuii ion, wH:ch would preserve them dry,
either fiom rain or the f ray of the fea ; and in the inside
of the boat, I c:t me a long hcl'ow place to lay my gun in;
and to keep it. ry, made a flag to hang over i-. MIv um-
bre:la I fixed in a flep in the ftlrn, like a mall, ti keep the
hrat of the fun off me. And now revolving to fee the cir-
cumference of my little kingdom, I victualled my fhip for
the voyage, patingin two d!zensof my barlty-brea! loaves,
an earthen pot tull of parched rice, a li;tle- bo : of um,n
half goat, p wder and ltht, and two wa'ch coats. It was
the 6th of Novem3er, in the 6th year of my reign, or capt--
vity, that I fet out in thi, voyage; which was much longer
than I expeded, beiog obl gel to pu: fart-er cut, by leafon
of the rcks that laya great way in the fea. And indeed
fo much did tree rodks furprife m-, that was for putting
back, fearing that if I vcn:ured farther it would be cut of.
my power to return. In this uncertainty I came to an a4-
chor jull on thoie, to which I wadd with my gun on my
ilioulder, and ticn clia.bing up a hill, which overlooked

that point, I faw the full extent of it, and fo resolved to run
all hazards.
In this profpec from the h1ll, I perceived a violent cur-
rert running to the eall, coming very clefe to the point;
which I the more carefully obferved, thinking it dangerous,
and t at when I came to it, I might be drove into the fea
by its force, and rot able to return to the ifland; .and cer.-
tainlv it mull have been fo, had I not nade this obfe, ovation ;
for on the other fide was the like current, with this-differ- -
erce, that it fre off at a greater dillance; and I perceived
there was a wrongg eddy unier. the land; fo that my chief
bufirefs was to work out of the fiFrt current, and conveni- -
ently get i to the eddy. Two days I ftaid here, the win4 '
blowing very brifk!y E. S. E. which beiiig contrary to the
current, leaves a great breach of the fea upon the point r
fo.it .as. neither fit for me to keep too near the fhere, on
account of the breach ; nor land at too near a diflaRce, for :
fear of the flreams. That night the wind abating, it grew -
fo calm that I .ventured out; and here I may be a monui
ment to all rafh and ignorant pilots; f r I was no focoer
come to the point, and-not -above the boai' length from
fhore, but I was got in'o deep water, with a current like
a mi.i, wh ch drove my boat along fo violen:ly, that it was
inp ffible for -i;e to keep near ttie edge of it, but forced
cie more and mor. cut from the eddy to the left of me; and
all I could do'with my paddles were ufecefs, there -beirg no
wind to help me.
Now 1 began to look upon myfelf as qui:e Irf, fine, as
the current ran on both fides of the ifland, l.was very cer-
tain they mull join again, and then I had no hcpes but of
pertfhing for want in the fea, after wiat prov;lfiis [Ihsad
was fotnt, or before, if a form (huld happen to arif-.
Who can. ccn eive the present angu'fh of my mind at
this calamit-, ? W;th lngirg eyes did 1 look upcn my I tt!e
kingdom, and. thought i.e island the pleafal tefi place in
the universe. Happy tricee haFpy d-fert,:faid I, fall I
never fee ihee more ? Wrethed creature whither am f
going ? Why did I murmur at my lcnef;me condition, when
now I would give the whole wcrld to. be thiiher again ?
While I w.s thus compla nirg, I found myfelf to be.drivtn
about two leagues into the f-a ; however, I laboured till
ny fltength was far fpent, to keep my boat as far north as
p9ffbly.l. could, tro that lide of the current.where tIe eddy,
C 1-

lay on. About noon I perceived a little breeze of wini
spring up from the S. S. E. which overjoyed my heart; and
was flill.more elated, when in about half an hour, it blew a
gentle fine g.le. Had any thick weather sprung up, I had
been loft another way ; for having no compafs on hoard, I
should never have found the way to fleer towards the island,
if once it had disappeared ; bJt it proving the contrary, I
fet up my mall again, fpread my fail, and flood away
northward as much as I could, to get rid of the current. And
no fooner did the boat begin to firetch away, but I perceiv-
ed, by the clearnefs.of the water, a change of the current
was near; for, where it was ftrong, the water was foul;
and where it was clear the current abated. To the eaft, I
foon faw about half a mile, a breach of the fea upon fome
rocks, which caused it again to separate ; and as the main
force of it drove away more foutherly, leaving the
rocks to the north eaft; fo the other came back by the re-
pulfe of the rocks, making a (harp eddy, which returned
back again to the north-well with a very fwift fiream.'
They who have experienced what it is to be reprieved
upon the ladder, or to be faved from thieves, juft going to
take away their lives, or fuch as have been in the like cala-
nities with my own, may guefs my present excefs of joy ;
how heartily Iran to my boat intothe ftream of this eddy, and
how joyfully I spread my fail to the refreshing wind, fland-
ing cheerfully before it, with a fmart tide under foot.' By
the affiflance of this eddy, I was carried above a league
home again, when being in the wake of the island, betwixt
the two currents, I found the water to be in a fort of a fand.
About four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within a
league of the island, and perceived the points of the rock,
which cauftd this difafter, firetching ,ut, as I observed be-
fore, to the fouthward, which throwing off the currents more
fouthwardly, had occafioned another eddy to the north. But
having a fair brilk gale, 1 liretched acrofs this eddy, and in
an hour came within a mile of the fhore, where I foon
landed to my unfpeakable comfort; and after an humble
proftratioa, thanking God fo rrmy deliverance, with refo-
lution to lay all thoughts of escaping aide, I brought my
boat fafe to a titlee cove, ani laid me down to take a wel-
come repefe. When I awoke, I was co.fide-ing how f
might get my boat home and coating along tne fhore, I
came to a good bay which ran up to a rivulet or brook,

where finding a fafe harbour, I flowed her as fafe as if ihe
had been in a dry dock made on purpose for her.
I now perceived myfelf not far from the place where be-
fore I had travelled on foot; fo taking nothing with me,
except my gun, and umbrella, I began my journey; and in
the evening came to my bower, where I again laid me down
to reft. I had not flept long before I was awakened in
great furprife, by a firange voice that called me several
times, Robin, Robin, Robinfon Crufoe, poor Robin
" Where are you, Robinfon CruToe ? Where are you ?
" Where have you been ?"
Sa fall was 1 afleep at fir., that I did not awake thorough-
ly: but half afleep and half awake, I thought I dreamed
that somebody fpoke to me. But, as the voice repeated,
Robinfon Crufoe several times, being terribly affrighted,
I started up in the utmroft confusion; and nofooner were
my eyes fully open, but I beheld my pretty Poll fitting on
tbejtop of the hedge, and foon knew that it was he that call-
ed me; for jufi in fuch bewailing language I ufed to talk
and teach him; which he fo exactly learned, that he would
fit upoh my finger, and lay his bill clofe to my face, and
cry, "Poor Robinfon Crufoe, where are you ? where have
'* you been ? how came you here ?" and fach like pra:tle I
had constantly taught him. But even though I knew it to
be the parrot, it was a great while before I could adjult my-
felf; being amazed how the creature got thi.her, and that
he flhould fix about that ptlce, and no where elfe. But
now being afflred it could be no other than my honest
Poll, my wonder ceafed, and reaching out my hand, and
calling familiarly Poll, the creature came to me, and perch-
ed upon my thumb as he was wont, conltantly prating to
me with Poor Robinfon Crufoe, and how did I come here,
" and where had I bc=n ?" as if the bird was overjoyed to
fee me; and fo I took him home along with me. "
I was now pretty well cured of my rambling to fea; yet
I could with my boat, which hid coft me io much trouble
and pains, on tais fide the island once more, b-t which in-
deed was impracticable. I therefore began to iead a v.ry-
retired life, living near a twelvemoith in. u very coaten el
manner, wanting fur-nithing except c nverlfatida. "As t.
mechanic labours, which my neceff;ies ali ed me ti I
fancied I c.uld, upon occaioi, mace a ro:er.ib! carp-nter,
were rth poor tools I-had to work withal tt g >oY. le.

fides, as I improved in my earthen-ware, I contrived to
'make them with a wheel, which I found much eafier and
better, m king my work ihacely, wh ch before was rude
and ugly. But, I think, I was nev r fo elated with my
own performance or pr.j-Ct, than for being able to make a
tobacco-p'pe, which, though it proved an awkward clumfy
thing, yet it was very found, and carried the fmoke Fer-
feAly well, to n-y grer- fathifaaion.
I alfo improved my wicker ware, making me abundance of
receffary btiketq, which, though not very handsome, were
vtry handy and convcn:ent to fetch things home in, as alfo
for holding my forcs har!ev, rce, and other provisions.
My ponder beginning to fail, made -me examine af.er
what manrer I fioold kill te goats rr birds to live on after
it was all gone. Upon which I contrived many ways to
erfnare t!e geats, and fee if 1 c:uld catch them alive,parti-
cularly a fhr-goat wi h young. At laft I had my defire;
for, making pitfalls and traps baited with barley and rice; I
found one mo ni g, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in
the other, three kids, one male, the other two. females.
So boi!erous was the old one, that I could not bring him
sway. But I forgot ihe rld proverb, That hunger will
"' tame a lion;" for had I kept him three or four days with-
out provifionw, and then given him fom- water, with.a little
ccrn, he iould have been a tame as a young kid. The
t-'er creatures I bound with fLings together: but I had
great cificuity before I could bring them to my habitation.
It was forre time before they would feed ; but throwing them
iweet ccrn, it fo much tempted them that they began to be
t.mer. From thence I concluded, that if I defigr.ed to.fur-
nilh myfl If wit; goat's flcifi, when my ammunition was
icent, the tame'y b reedina thdm up like a flock of fheep,
abo t my fettiemee t, was the only method I could take. I
concluded, allo, I muft fepprate the wild front the tame; or
l e they would aia;s run wild as they grew up; and the
I.i:t way fir this, was tohave fmne inclofed piece of ground*
ieell fenced, either with a hedge or pale,- to keep them fo
efl-fually, that thofe within might n- t break cut, or thore
without breik i-. Such a', undertaking was very great-for
one pair of hands ; but as there was an absolute neceffity for
doirg it, my fi-it care was to find a convenient piece of
ground where there was likely to be herbage for them toeat,'
after r to dr.ik, acd cover to keep them :rom the fun,

Here, again.I gave another inflance of my ignorance and
inexperience, pitching upon a piece of meadow land .f: large,
that had I enclosed it, the hedge or pale had been at left
two miles about. Indeed, had it been ten miles, I had
time enough to do it in but then I did not consider that my
goats would be as wild in Co much compafs, as if they had
had the whole iflard, and co frequently as difficult for me
to catch them. This thought came into my head,'af:er I
had carried it on, I believe; about fif y yard<; I therefore
altered my fcheme, and resolved to inclofe a piece of ground
about one hand el and fi ty yards in length, and one hu.-
dred in breadth, sufficient e-ounh for as many as wo ldmain-
tain me, till fich time as my fl ck increased, and then I could
add more ground. I new vigoroufly prosecuted my work,.
and it took me about three months in hedging telfirft piece,
in which tire I tethered the three kios in the beft part of
it, feeding them as near me as poffible, to make them fami-
liar; and inched I very often would carry lome ears of bar-
ley, or a handful of rice, ard feed them out of m) hand; by
wh'ch they grfw fo tame, that when my encofure was
finiihe., and I had let them locfe, they would run after me
for a handful of corn. This indeed answered my end ; and
in a year and a half's time, I had a flock of about twelve
goats, kids and all; and in two years after, they amounted
to forty-three, befides what I had taken and killed for my
fuftenance. After vhich I enclofed five federal pieces of
ground to feed them in, wi'h pens to drive them into, that'
I might take them as I had cccafion.
In this pr.je&k I likewife fund additional blefings; for
I not only had phnty of goat's fleth, but milk too, which in
my beginrirg I did not Co much as ih:nk of. And, indeed,
th-ugh I had never milked a cow, much lefs a goat, or feet
butter or ch-efe made, yet, afier fome flrays and mifcar-
riiges, I made me both, and never afterwards wanted.
How mercifully can the omnipotent Power comfort his
creatures, even in the midlt of their greatest calamities?
Huw can he iweettn the bitterell providence, and give us
reason to magnify him in dungeons and prifons! what a
bounteous table was here fpread in a wilderncfs for me,
where I expeLed nothing at firfi but to perifh for hunger t
Certainly a Stoic would have finiled to'fee me at dinner.
There fat my royal majefly, an absolute prince and ruler
of 4i.kLingdom,attended by my dutiful fubjects, whom, if I

pleaded, I could either hang, draw, quarter, give them
liberty, or take it away. When I dined, I seemed a king,
eating alone, none daring to prefume to do fo till I had
done. Poll, as ifhe had been my principal court favourite
was the only person permitted to talk with me. My old,
but faithful dog, now grown exceedingly crazy, and who
had Po species to multiply his kind upon, continually fat on
my right-hand; while my two cats fat on each fide of the
table, expecting a bit from my hand, as a principal mark of
my royal favour. Thefe were not the cats I had brought
from the fhi,; they had been dead long before, andinterred
near my habitation by my own hand. But one of them, as
I fuppofe, generating with a wild cat, a couple of their
youngg I had made tame; the reft run wild into the woods,
and in time grew fo impudent as to return and plunder me
of my flores, till fuch time as I Ihot a great many, and the
refl left me without troubling me any more. In this pler.-
tiful manner did I live, wanting for nothing but converfa-
tion. One thing indeed concerned me, the want of my
boat; I knew not which way to get her round the island
One time I refo!ved to go along the (hore by land to her;
but had any one in England met with fuch a figure, it would
either have affrighted them, or made them burft into
laughter; nay, I could not but fmile to myself at my habit,
which I think in this place will be very proper to describe.
The cap I wore on my head, was great, high, and thape-
lcfs, made of a goat's Ikin, with a flap or pent-boufe hang-
ing down behind, not only to keep the fun from me, but to
ihoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing being
more pernicious tha-n the rain falling upon the flelh in thele
climates. I had a thort jacket of goat's kin, whole hair
hung djwn fuch a lengthon each fide, that it reached down
to the calves of my legs. As fir thoes and-fiockings, I had
none, but made a femblance of io'ne thing, I know not what
to call them; they were made iike bufkins, and laced on
the fides like fpatterdafhes, barbaroufly shaped like the reft
of my habit. I had a broad belt of goat's Ikin dried, girt
round me with a couple of :hon-s, instead of buckles; on
each of which, to fuppiy the deficiency of fword and dag-
ger, .ung my hatcbet and faw. I had another belt, not fo
bro..d, yet faftened in the fame manner, which itingoyer
my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung
two pouches, made of goat's fkin, to hold my powder and.

(bot. My basket I carried on my back, and my gun on my
shoulder; and over my head a great .cumfy ugly goat's
fkin unbrella, which however, next to my gun, was the
moft neceffary thing about me. As for my face, the colour
was not fo fwarthy as the Mulattoes, as might have been
expected from one who took fo little care of it, in a climate
within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. At one time
my beard grew fo long that it hung down about a quarter
of a yard; but as I had both razors and rciffors in ftore, I
cut it all of, and fuffered none to grow, except a large pair
of Mahometan whiskers, the like of which I had feen wore
by fome Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed to hang a
hat' upon, but of fuch a monftrous fize, as would have
amazed any in England to have feen.
But all this was of no confequence here, there being none
to obferve my behaviour or habit. And fo without fear
and without control, I proceeded on my j urney, the profe-
cutionof which took me up five or fix days. I firft travelled
along the fea-fhore, directly to the place where I firlf brought
my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; but now havy
ing no boat to take care of, I went overland a nearer way
to the fame height that I was before upon; when looking
forward to the point of the rock, which lay out, and which
I was forced to double with my boat, I was amazed to fee-
the fea fo fnooth and quiet, there being no rippling motion,
nor current, any more than in other places. This made me
ponder fome time to guefs the reason of it, when at laft I
was convinced that the ebb getting from the welt and joining
with the current of water from foine great riveron there,
muft be the occafion of there rapid ftreams; and that, con-
fequently, as the winds blew more weftwardly or more
fouthwardly, fo the current came the nearer, or went the
farther from the (hore. To fatisfy my curiosity, I waited
there till evening, when the time of ebb being made, I
plainly perceived from the rock the current again as before,
with this-difference, that it ran farther off, near half a league
from the (bore, whereas, in my expedition, it let clofe up-
on it, furioufly hurrying me and my canoe along with it,
which at another time it would not have done. And now
I was convinced, that, by obferving the ebbing and flowing
of the tide, I might cafily bring my blat round the island
again. But when I began to think of putting it in practice
. te remembrance of the late danger Itruck me with fuch

horror, that I changed my resolution, and formed another,
which was more fafe, though more laborious; and this was
to make another caroe, and to-have one fcr one fide of the
island, and one for the ot-er.
I had row two plantatiors in the ifland; the fift my
little fortification, fort, or cafile, with many large and fpa-
cious improvements; for-by this time 1 had enlarged the cave
behind me wi-t' several little caves, ole within another,
to hold my baskets, corn and firaw. Th piles with which
I made my wall, were grown fo lofty and great, as obscured
my habitatin; And near this commodious and pleafr-nt
fett'ement, lay my well-cultivated and improved cornfields,
which kindly yielded me th'ir fruit in the proper feaf.n,
My second plantation was that near my country-fear, or
little bower, where my grapes flburifhed, and where, having
planted man% flakes, I made erclofures for -my goats, fo
fironely Fcriified by labour and time, thatit wasmuch fltonger
than a wall, and ccnfequently impofiible for them to break
through. As for my bower i'felf, I kept it conflantly in
repair, and cut tre trees in fuch a manner, as made then
I grow thick and wild, and form a moft deligh-ful fhade. In
the centre of th s, food my. tent, thus erected.: I had driven
four piles in the erounA, spreading over it a piece of the
fhip's fail; beneath which I made a fort of a couch with the
fkins of the creatures I had flain, and other things; and
having laid therebn one of the failor's blanke s, whie. I had
faved from ihe w.r-ck of the (hip, and covering m} felf with a
greai watch-coat, I took up this pace for my country retreat.
Very frequently from this fe tlement did I ufe to vifit
my boat, and keep her in very good order. .And fometimei
I would venture in her a cald or two from the Ihore, but
ro farther, left either a strong current, a fidden ftcrmy
wind, or fome unlickv accid nt thculd hurry me from the
island is- before. Eut now I entreat ycur attention wi illi
proceed to inform you of a new, but mof furp iing,
Lfene of life w.ich here befel me.
You may cafily fuppcfe, that after having been here fo
long, r.othin'g could be mere amazing than to fee a human
creature. One day it happened, that, going to my boat- I
faw the print of a man's naked foot on the thore, very eti-.
dent on the fand, as the toes, heels, a'-d every part o it.-
Had I feen an apparition of the molf frightful thape, I cold
not have been more confounded. My willing ears .ga'.

the flrictefl attention. I caft my eyes around, but could
fatisfy neither the one nor the other. I proceeded alter-
nately to evety part of the- thore, but with equal eff~c ;
neither could I fee any otler mark, though the land about
it was as fu(ceptible to take imprefflon, as that which was
fo plainly ifamped. Thus, firuck wi.h confusion and hor-
ror, I returned to my habitation, frightened at every bufl,
and tree, taking every thing f-r men; and p ffeffed with
the wi'deft ideas: That night my eyes never clfed. I
formed nothing but the moll difmal imagination', concluding
it mulf be the mark of the devil's fnct which I had feen.
For otherwise how could any mortal come to this island?
where was th: (hip that tranf-or ed them ? and what figns
of any other foutt eps? Trough there fCemed very llrong
reafons for fuch a fuppofition, yet (thought I) why should
the devil make the print of his foot to no purpose, as I can
fee, when he might have taken other ways to have terrified
me ? why should he leave his mark on the other fide of the
iflind, and that too oni the fands, where the forging waves-
of the ocean might foon have erafed the impreffion. Surely
this a6ion is not i nfiftent with the fubtlety of Satan, faid
I to myfelf; but rather muft be fime dangerous creature,
ofme .wild savage of the main land over again ft me, that,
venturing too far in the ccean, hbs been driven here, either
by the violent currents or co rtrary inrds; and nr)t caring
to flay on this defolate island, has gone back to fea a-ain..
Happy, indeed, faid I to myfelf, that r,one of the favage
had teen me-in that place; yet I was not a'totether with-
out fear, left, having found my boat, tcey fhoulj return in
numbers and devour me, or at leal carry aNay all my coca
and detlr'y my flock of tame goats. In a word, all my reli-
gious hopes vanished, as thcugi I thought God would not
now protect me by his power, who h d fo wonderfully, pre-
ferved me fo long.
What various changes of Providence are there in the life
of man? How change ble are our affections, according to
different circumi:ances? We love to day, wha; we hate
to-morrow; we- fl-in one hour w.iat we feek the next.
This. was evident in me in the m .11 confp'casus manner:
For I, who before had f, much lamented my condition, in
being-b,.nifhed fron all human kind, was now even ready
to etxjre, when I considered th1a a ma had. fet his foot oa

th:s .efolate island. But when I considered my flation of _
life. decreed by the infinitely wife and good providence of
God, :-': I oght not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty,
who iiL ..: undoubted right to govern and difpofe of his
creatures az e thinks convenient; and that his justice and
mercy could either p -frA or deliver me: I fay, when I
confidercd all this, I c:.niortab'y founJ it my duty to truft
fincereiv i:. ':im, pray ardently to him, and humbly refign
myfeli to hi' divine will.
One morning lying on my bed, thefe words of the facred
writings came into my mind, Call upon me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou flialt glorify me."
Upon this sentence, ri':ng more cL':;rf'uly from my bed, I
offered up my prayers in the mc:i heavenly manner: and
when I nad drne, taking up my Bible to read, thefe words
appeared firft in my fight:-" Wait on the Lord, and be
of good cheer, and he (hall ltrrngthen thy heart: Wait
I fay on the Lord." Such divine comfort did this give
me, as to remove all caufe of fadnefs upon that occasion.
Thus, after a world of apprehenfions and fears, for three
days and nights, 1 at iaft ventured out of ry castle and
milked my goats, one of which was almail fpailel for want
of it. I next thoughh in great-feair) viilted my bower, and
milked my flicks there alfo ; when growing bolder, I went
Down to the fhoreagain, and meafaring the print of the foot
to mine, to fee, perhaps, whether I myfelf had not occafion-
ed that mark, 1 found it much superior in largenefs: and fo
returned home, now absolutely convinced that either fome
men had been afhire, or that the island mul! be inhabited,
and therefore that I might be furprifed before I was aware.
I now began to think of providing for my security, and
refolved in my mind many different fchemes for that pur-
pole. I firlt proposed to cut down my inclofures, and turn
my tame cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might
not find them, and frequent the island in hopes of killing
the fame. Secondly, I was for digging up my corn-fields
for the very fame reason. And, lartly, I concluded to de-
moliih my bower, left, feeing a place of human contrivance,
they might come farther, and find out, and attack me in my
little catile.
Such notions did the fear of danger fuggef to me: ard- I
looked, I thought, like the unfortunate king Sail, when riot
only opprefcid by the Pailiines, but alfo forfaken by God

.himelf. And, it is firange, that a little before,- having en-
tirely resigned myfelf to the will of God, I should now have
little confidence in him, fearing thofe more who could kill
this fading body, than him who could deilroy my immortal
Sleep was an utter firanger to my eyes that night; yet
nature, fpent and tired, fubmitted to a filent repafe the next
morning, and then joining reason with fear, I considered
th.t -.is delightful and pleasant island might not be fo en-
tirely forfaken, as I might think; but that the inhabitants
from the ether Ihore might fail, either with a defign or from
neceffity, by crofs winds; and, if the latter circumifance,
I had reason to believe they would depart the firft oppor-
tunity. However, my fear made me think of'a place for re-
treat upon an attack. I now repented that I had made my
door to come out beyond my fortification ; to remedy which
I resolved to make me a frcond one: I fell to work, there-
fore, and drove betwixt that double rows of trees, which I
planted above twelve years before, several lirong piles;
thickening it with pieces of timber and old cables, and
strengthening the fo3t of it with earth which [ dug out of my
cave; I alfo made me even holes, wherein I planted my
mufkets like cannon, fitting them into frames resembling,
carriages. This being finished with indefatigable inddRtry,
for a great way every where, I planted fticks of offers like a
wood, about twenty thousand of them, leading a large pace
between them and my wall, that I might have room to fee
an enemy, and that they might not be (heltered mong the
young trees, if they offered to approach the outer wall.-
And, indeed, fcarce two years had paffed over my head,
when there appeared a lovely (hady grove, and in fix years
itbecamea thick wood, perfeflly impiffib'e. For my fafe-
ty, I.left no avenue togb in or out; instead of which I fet
two ladders,' one to a part of a rock which was low, and
then broke in, leaving room to place another ladder upon
that; fo that when I took thefe down, it was impofi ble for-
any man to defend without hurting himself; and if they
had, they would li:l be at the outside of my outer wall.-
But while I took all thefe meafure3 of human prudence for
mvown preservation, I was not altogether unmindful of other
affairs. To preserve my fock of tame goats, that the eae-
.my should not take all at once, I looked out for the molt

retired part of the ifland, which was the place where I had
lofl mvfelf before-mentioned, and there finding a clear piece
ofland, ccntainirg three acres, furrcunded with thick woods,
I wrought fo 'ard, that in !efs than a month's time, I fenced
it fo well ro7:nd, that my flocks were very well fecured in
it, and put tler-in two he-goats and ten the-goats.
All this labour was occafioned purely by fearful appre-
henfions, on account of feeing the print of a man's foot.-
And not contented yet wi h what I had don-, I fezrched
for another place towards the well point of the ifland,
where I might alfo retain another flock. Then wandering
on this errard more to the well of the ifland than ever I had
yet done, and calling my eyes towards the fe3, methou'gbt
I perceived a boat at a great difiance, but cuuld rot poffi-
bly tell what it was for want of my perfpeaive glafs. I
confi'ered then it was no ftrange thing to fee the print of
a man's foot ; and concluding them cannibals, bUeffed God
for being calf on the other fide of the ifland, where none of
the favages, as [ thought, ever came. But wwen I came
down the hill to the thore, which was the S. W. point of
the island, I was foon confirmed in my oirion ; nor can
any one describe my horror -and amazement, when I faw
the ground flread with fkulls, hands, feet, and bones cf
human bodies; and, particularly I perceived a pace like
a circle, in the mid ref which had been a fire, about which
I conjet&cred thefe wretches fat, and ul aturaily facrificed
and dvonrei their fellow-treatures.
TI horror and loa'hfotmnefs of this dreadful spectacle,
bo:h confoun ed my fenfes, and made me discharge from my
flomach in an exceffive mann r. I then return. ed towards
my habitation; and, in my way thither, heddiing floods of
tear;, and fallin" down on my bended knees, gave God
tanks for making my na:ure contrary to thefe wretches,
ad delivering me fo long out of their hands.
Though re.4o anJ my long residence here had ;ffrred
m-. t'Oat thefe favages never came up :o the thick woody
part of the countr-, and that I had no reaf n to be apore-
ihe live of a dticovery ; yet fuch an abhorreLce did I flil
retain, that, for two years after, [ confiiied myfel only to
m/ three pl.n:ations; I mean my calile, coai try-feat, anwl
inclofure in the wooJs. And though in process of time my
dreadful apprehensions began to wear away, yet-my eyes.
wee.: more vigilant for fear of being fur'priftdar.d I was

very cautions of filing my gun, left being heard by thofe
creatures, they should proceed to attack me. I resolved,
however, manfully to lofe my life if they did, and went
armed with three pifials, fiuck to my girdle, which, added
to the defcripTion I have given of mylelk before, made me
look with a very formidable appearance.
Thus my circumfiances for Come time remnai -e very
calm and undiflubed; and when I compared my condition
to others, I found it far from being miserable. And indeed,
would all peifons compare their circuimtanrcs, not with
thole above them, but with thofe innumerable unhappy ob-
jects beneath them, I am fure we fhou'd not hear thofe
daily murmurings and complainings that are in t e world.
For iny part I wanted but few thing;. IndeeJ, the terror
which the favages had put me in, fpoi!ed (eme inventions
far-my own conveniences. One of my projefs was to brew
me fome beer; a very whimfical one indeed, when it is
corfidered that I had neither cafks fufficient, nor c-.:d I
make any to preserve it in; neither had I hops to m ke it
k-ep, yell to nake it work, nor a copper or kettle to make
it boil. Perhaps, indeed, after fome years I might bring
this to bear, as I had done ether things. But now my inven-
tions were p'aced ano her way; and day and night I could
think of nothing but how 1 might deltroy fome of thefe
carnibals, when proceeding to their bloody entertainments
and fo having a victim from being sacrificed, that he might
atier become my fervant. Misy were my contr vances
after this purpose, and as many mo e objections occurred,
alter I hAd hatched them. I once contrived to dig'a hole
under the place where they male thei- fire, and put therein
five or fix pounds of gunpowder, which would consequently
blow up all thofe that were near it; and then I was loath to
fpend fo much upon them, let it should not do.chat certain
execution I could defire, ard but only affright and not kill
them. Having laid this defign afide, I again proaoled to
myfelf to lie privately in embulh, in fome convenient place,
with my three guns double :oaded, and let fly at them in
the'miilt of the;r dreadful ceremony : a-d having killed
two or three of them at every fhot, fail upon the rett fad-
denly with my three niflols, and not, let one mother's fjn
efcape. This imagination pleafed my fancy fo much, that
I afed to dream of it in the night time. To put my deffga

in execution, I was not Icng in seeking 'or a place conve-
nient for my purpose, where unfeen i might behold every
action of the favages. Here I placed my two mulkets, each
of which was loa 'ei with a brace of flugF, and four or
five smaller buolbts about the fize of piflol bullets; the
fowl:ng-piece tea cr~ rge- i ;h t.ear a handful of the larger
fwac, thot, and r, eiry piftul was about four bullett.-
And ithus all things brirg pre;-arei,, ro foner would the
veic;r e I ght spread over the element, b:t, like a giant re-
jitfea 'w.rh W' '.ne, Os the bc; pt 'e e ha ir, woiud 1 flTue forth
frm my cAfie, and from a lcfy hill, three miles distant,
vitw if 1 co uld fee .ny irvaders approach unlawfully to
niy kingdom. But having waited :n vain tAo or three
months, it net ,nly great y.r) tirefome to me, but brought
me to lonec confirmation, and made.me examine myself,
what right I :ad tc k!il thefe creatures in this manner.
If (arg-ed I to myfelf) tois unnatural cufom cf their's be
a fin offenfive to Heaten, it belongs to the Divine Being,
who alone h;.s tie v.nd 14tve power in his hands, to shower
down his vengeance upon t!.em. And, perhaps he does lo
in making them become one another's executioners. Or,
if not, it Gcd thinks thefe doings jult, according to the
krow.edge thr) conceive, what authority have I to pretend
to thwart the decrees ol Providence, which has permitted
thefe actions tk.r fo many ages, perhaps from a'motl the be-
ginning of t e creation ? They never offenced me, what
right have I then to concern mifelf in their shedding one
another's bloud? And, indeed, 1 have fince knovn, they
ialue no inore to kill and devour a captive taken in war,
than we do to kill an ox, or eat mutton. I then co. eluded
it ncetflarily followed, that thefe people were no more
murderers than Chriliians, who many tiress put whole troops
to ihe word. after throwing down their arms.-Again, I
confioered that if I fell upon them, I should be as much in
te wrong as t.e Span.ards, who had committed th'e great-
ef barrbaities upon thele people who had never offended
them in their whole lies ; s if the kingdom lo Spain was
emirent :rr a race of men without common compaffion to
the miserable, a principal rign of the molt generous temper:
thefe cornidea:ions n.ade me paufe, and made me think I
had taken c wrong meafurts in my xeloruion: I now argued'
with ii Jelf, it was better for ire never to attack, but to re-
n.ain undifcovered as ong as 1 pofiibly could; that an op-

pcfite conduct would certainly prove destructive; for as it
was fcarcely to be fuppofed I could kill them all, I might
either be overpowered by the remaining, or thaz fome
efcaping, might bring thousands to my certain dcltruction.
And, indeed, religion took t .eir part fo much as to convince
me how contrary it was to my 3uty to be guilty of shedding
hum in blood, innocent as to my particular, whatever they
are to one another, th t I had nothing to do with it, but'
leave it to ti: G d of aT power and dominion, as I faid
beftor, to lo therei:i what feemed convenient to his heavenly
wifdom. n'no, inerefore, cn my knees I thanked the Al-
mignty for delivering me from blood-guiltinefs, and begged'
his protec,.on that I might never fall into their-hands.
Trnus giving over an attempt which I had rafhly begun,
I never alcendcd thehill on that occasion afterwards :- only
removed my boat, which layon the otner fide of the ifland,
ann every thing that belonged to her, toward the eaft, into
a little cove, that there might not be the leafti hadow of any
boat near, or habitation upon the ifland.-My caflIe then
became my cell, keeping always ret red in it, except when
I went out to milk my the-goats, and order my little flock in
the wood, which was quite out of danger : for fure I was
that thefe favages never came here with expectations to
find any thing, and consequently never wandered'from the
coait: however, as they might have been several times on
ihor6, as well before as after my dreadful apprehensions, I
looked back with horror to think in what fate I might have
been, had 1 suddenly met them flenderly armed, with oau
gun only loaded with mall flhot; and how great would
have. been my amazement, if, instead of one man's foot, I
had perceived fifteen or twenty ravages, who having once
fet their eyes upon me, by the fwiftnelf of their feet would
have left me no poffibility of efcaping? Thefe thoughts
would. ink my very foul, fo that I would fall into a deep
melancholy,- till fuch time as the consideration of my grati-
tude. to the Divine Being moved it from my heart. I then
fell into a contemplation of the fecret springs of Providence,
and how wonderfully we are delivered, when infenlible of
it; and when intricate in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of
doubt or helitatiori, what fecret hints direct us in the right'
Way, when we intended to go out of it; nay, perhaps con-
trary to our bufinefs, fenfe, or inclination. Upon which I
fixed within me this as a certain rule, never to difobey thofe

fecret impreffiors of the mird, to the sctinZ or not acting
any thing that i fiered, for which I'yet cou'd affign no rea-
fon. But let it te how it will, the advantage of this con-
duct very emirendy appeared in the latter part of my ab de
on ihi' island : I am a stranger in determi:-irg w hence thbfe
frciet intin.ations of Provitdnce derive ; yet methinks they
are not only fome proof of the cotverfe of fpirits, but alto
of the fecret communications they are fuppofed to have
with thofe that have not pafled through the gloomy vale of
The'e anxieties of mind. and the care of my prefervation,
put a period to all future inventions and contrivances, either
for accommodation or convenience. I now cared not to
drive a nail, chop a flick, fire a gun, or make a fire, lell
either the n(ife fin old be h ard, or the fnmoke discover me.
And o. this account I ufed to iurn my earthen-ware privately
in a cave which 1 found in the wcor, and which I made
convenient for that pJrpofe: the principal caufe that
lircught roe here was to make charcoal, fo ttat I might bake
nd crefs my breadar.d meat without any danger. At that
time, a curious accident happened me, which I hall now
Whilr I was cutting down fctre wcod for making my
charcoal, 1 perceived a cality behind a very thick branch
-of und( r.a cod. Curious to look into it, l attained its mouth,
and perceived it fufficiert ftr rre to fiand upright in. But
when i had entered, and took a further v ew, two rolling
fThnirg eyes, .like flanintg tiers, feemed to dart themfelvs
at me ; fo that I made all the aftere cut that I could, as not
knowing whether it was a devil or a rnonfler that had taken
his residence in th:t I lace. \VIen I recovered a little from
my fuiprife, I called rn}fiClf a thcufand focls, for being
afraid to fee the devil ore rrcment, who had now lived
almost tw-ntv )ears in the molt retired folitude. Aid
therefore rtfuming all the courage. I had, I to.k a flaming
firebrard, ano in I ruled again. I had no- proceeded
above three itps, v, len I was mere affrighted than before;
for then 1 heard a v ry loud figh, 1 ke that cfa Iuman crea-
ture in the greateft a ory, ficceeded w:th a broken noife,
relembiing- w rds half exp-effed, znd then a broken figh
again. Stepping back, Lnr (thought 1 to m)}fef).whera-
am I got, into what enchanted p'ace have I plunged my-
elf, fuch as are reported to co:,taiu mniferable cap;i.ve, till

death puts an end to their ferrows ? And, indeed, in fuch
grea: amazement was I, that it iruck me into a cold fweat;
ard had my hat been on my head, I believe my hair would
have moved it off. But again encouraging myfelf with the
hopes of God's protedi n, I proceeded forward, and by the
light of my firebrand, perceived it ao be a monlfrous he-goat,
lying on the ground, gaping for life, and dying of mere old
age. At firft lltirred him, thinking to drive him cut, and
the poor ancient creature flrcve to get upon his feet, but
was not able; fo I e'en let him lie fli'l to affright the fava-
ges, should they venture into this cave. I now looked
round me and found the place but fmall and thapelefi. At
the farther fide of it, I perceived a fort of an entrance, yet
fo low, it mulf oblige me to creep upon my hmnds and
knees to it ; fo, having no candle, I fufpended my cnter-
prife till the next day, and then I.came provided with two
large ones of my own mak ng.
Having crept upon my hands and feet through this firait,
I found the roof higher up, 1 think about twenty feet. But
furely mortal never faw fuch a glorious fight before Tre
roof and walls of this cave reflected a hundred thoufand
lights to me, from my two candles, as though they were in-
dented with shining gold, precious stones, or sparkling
diamonds. And, indeed, it was the moft delightful cavity or
grotto of its kind that cculd be d-fired, though entirely
dry. The floor was dry and level, and had a kind of
gravel upon it; no nauseous venomous creatures to be feen
there, neither any damp or wet abcut it. I could find no
fault but in the entrance, and I began to think that even
this might be very nectffary fir my aetence, and therefore
refulvea to make it my moll principal magi.zine. I brought
hither two fowling-pieces, and ti-ree muikets, leaving only
five pieces at my caflle, planted in the nature of cannon.
Of the barrel of gunpowder which I took up out of the fea,
I brought away ab3ut fixty pounds of good powder, which
was not damaged ; ai d this, with a great quantity of lead
for bullets, I removed ficm my caile to this retreat, now
fortified both by art and nature.
I fancied myself new like one of the giants of old, who
were fai.dto live in caves and holes among the rocks, inac-
cefible to any but themselves; or, at leatt, a moft danger-
ous attempt. And nov I defpi'ed both the cunning atd
flrergth of the favages, either to find me out or to hurt me.

But I muft not forget the old goat, which' c."ufed my late
dreadful -amazement. The poor creature gave up the
phoft the day after my difcovey ; and it being difficult to
drag him out, I dug his grave, and honourably entombed
him in the fame pl.ce where he departed, wi h'as much
ceremony as any Welch goat that has been interred 'about
the high mountain Penma:;mawr.
I think 1 now was in thb twen y third year of my reign,
and my thoughts much eafier than formerly, having contri-
vod several pr-t y amulemrents and diverfions to pafs away
the time in a p!eafant manner. By this time my pretty Poll
lad learned to peak Englifh, .zn pron unce bii words
very articulately and plain; fa that for many hours we ufed
to chat together after a familiar manner, and he lived with
me no leis than twenty-fix sears. My dog, which was
Tineteen years old, fixteen of which he lived with me, died
fome time ago of mere old age. As for my. cats, they mul-
St;plied fo fa9, that I was forc-d to kill or drive them into
tr.e woods, except two or three which became my particular
favoLrites. Besides there, I continually kept two or three
household kids about me, which I learned it feed o-t of my
hand, and two more parrots which could talk indiff-renily,
and call Robinfon Cru/e, bu; not fo exceillnt'y as the firfi,
as not taking that pains with them. I had alfo several fea-
fowls which I had wounded and cut their wings; and
.growing tame, they ufed to breed amcng the lcw trees
about my calile walls, all whcli made my.abode very
SBut what unforefeen events suddenly destroy the enjoy-
ment of tnis uncertain Hate of life, when we leaft expect
them It wa' now t,~ mcinth of December, in the southern
folitice, and particular time of my harvest, which r-quired
my attendance in the fields ; when going out pretty early
one morning, before it was day-'ight, there appeared to me
from the fea-ihore, a flaming light, about to miles fiom
me at the eaft end of the ifland, wheie I had observed fome
favages had been before, r.ot on the other fide, but to my
r'eac affliction, it was on my fide the island.
Struck with a terrible furpri.e, and'my ufaal apprelen-
fions, that the favages would perceive my improvements, I
returned direly to my cattle, pulled the ladder aftrei me,
making all things look as wild and natural asI- pafibty
could. In the next place, I put myfe:f in a pOt i -
S..- .

defence,,loaded my mufkets and piffols, and committing
*myfelf to God's prote6ticn, I resolved to defend myfelf till
my lafR breath. Two hours after, impatient foriLtelligence,
I let my ladder up to the fide of the hill, where there as
a flat place, and then pulling the ladder after me, ascended
to the top, where, laying myself on my belly, with my per-
fpetive'g'afs, I perc ived no lefs than nine naked fava es,
fitting round a fmall fire, eating, as I fuppofed, human fleft,
with their two canoes hailed on fhore, waiting for the ficed
to carry them iff again. YUu cannot eafilv express the
conflernation I was in at this light, efpecialiy leeirg th-,n
rear n e; but when I perceived their coming muft be
always with :he current of the ebb, I became more ealy in
my thoughts, being fully convinced that I might go abroad
with security all the time of flood, if they were not before
landed. And, indeed, this proved juft as I imagined; for
no fooner did they all take boat and paddle away, but the
tide made N. W. Before they went off, they danced,
making ridiculous poftures and geftfres, for above an hour,
ali ftark-naked: but whether men or women, or both, I
could not perceive. When I faw them gore, I tcck two
guns upon my Ihoulders, and placing a couple of pisols in
my belt, with my great tword hanging by my fide, I went
to the; hill, where at firft I made a discovery cf thefe can-
nibals, and then faw the;e had been three canoes more of
the favages on Ihore at that place, which with the reff were
making over to the main land.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when going to
the place of sacrifice, the blood, the bcnes, and other mangled
parts of human bodies appeared in my fight; and lo fired
was I with indignation, that I was fully rekilved to be re-
ve: ged on' the firft that came there, though I lo16 my life
in the execution. It trhn appeared to me, that the visits
which they make to this ifland are not very frequent, it be-
ing fifteen months before they came again: but fill
I was very uneaf), by reaf.n of the dismal apprehenfih:ns
of their furpriling me urawares ; nor dared I offer to fre a
gun on that fice of the island where they u(ed to appear,
left, taking the alarm, the favages might return with many
hundred chances, and then Gcd knows in what msnoer I
thould-have.made my end. Thus was I a year or more.be-
Abre I faw any of theie devouring cainibals again.

** .

But to wave this, the following accident, which demands
attention, for a while eluded the force of my thoughts in
revenging myself on thele Heathens.
On the 16th of May (according to my wooden calendar)
the wind blew exceedingly hard, accompanied with abun-
dance of lightning and thunder all day, and succeeded by a
very formy night. The feeming anger of the Heavens
made me have recourfe to my Bible. Whilli 1 was leri-
oufly pondering upon it, I was suddenly alarmed with the
noife of a gun, which I conjetured was fired upon the
ocean. Such an unufual furprife made me ftart up in a
minute, when, with my lander, afcending the mountain as
before, that very moment a fath of fire prefaged the report
of another gun, which I presently heard, and found it was
from that part of the fea where the current drove me away.
I could not but then think, that tnis muft be a Ihip in dif.
trefs, and that thefe 'were the melancholy fignals for a
speedy deliverance. Great, indeed, was my forrow upon
this occasion; but my labours to affift them mult.have
proved altogether vain and fruitless. However, I brought
together all the dry wood that was at hand, and making a
pretty large pile, fet it on fire on the hill. I was certain
they plainly perceived it, by their firing another gun as fon
as it began to blaze, and after that several more from the
-fame quarter. All night long I kept up my fire: and
when the air cleared up, I perceived fijmething a great way
at fea direaly- E. but could not diflinguifh what it was,
even with my glafs, by reafoi the weather was fo very
foggy out at fea. However, keeping my eyes direly fixed
upon it, and perceiving it did not flir, I prefently concluded
it mull be a fhip at archor, and fo very halty I was to be'
fatisfied, that taking the gun, I went to ,he .. E. part or the
island, to the fame rccks where I had been formerly drove
away by the current: in which time tne weather being
perfealy cleared up, to my great forrow, I perceived the
wreck of a Ihip caft away upon thcfe hidden rocks 1 found
when I was out with my boat; and which, by making a
kind, f an eddy, were the occasion of my p:efervation.
Thus, what is one man's fafety is another's ruin : for un-
doubtedly this (hip had been driiren on them in the night,
the wind blowing iron_ at E. N, E. Had they perceived
the iflard, as I now gteffed they had not, certainly, inittad
of firing their guns for heip, they wculd rather haie yeh-

tored in their boat, and faved themselves that way. I then
thought, that perhaps they had done fo, upon feeing my
fire, and were caft away in the attempt; for I perceived
no boat in the Ihip. Bat then I again imagined, that, per-
haps, they had another veffel in company,- which, upon
final, faved their lives, and took the boat up: or that the
boat might be driven into the main ocean, where thefe poor
creatures might be in the moft miserable condition. But
as all thefe conjecures were very uncertain, I could do no
more than commiserate their diftrefs, and thank God for
delivering me, in particular, when To many perifhed in the
raging ocean.
When I confilered ferioufly every thing concerning this
wreck, and could perceive no roo-n to fuppofe any of them
faved, I cannot explain, by any poffible force of words,what
longings my foul felt at this occasion, often breaking out
in this manner :-" 0 that there had been but two or three,
"nay, even one person faved, that we might have lived
" together, converted with, and comforted one another !"
and fo much were my desires moved, that when I repeated
there words, Oh that there had been but one!" my
hands would clench together, and my fingers prefs the
palms of my hands fo clofe, that, had any foft thing been
between, it would have crushed it involuntarily, while my
teeth would ftrike together, and fet against each other fp
firong-, that it required fome time for me to part them.
Till the laft year of my being on this island, I never
knew whether or not any had been faved out of this fhip.
I had the affliction, fome time after, to fee the corpfe of a
drowned boy come on ihore, at the end of the island which
was next the shipwreck ; there, was nothing on him but a
feaman's waiflcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers,
and a blue linen (hirt, but no particular mark to guefs what
nation he was of. In his pocket were two pieces of eight,
and a tobacco-pip,, the laft of which I preferred much
more than I did the firft. And now the calmnefs of the
fea tempted me to venture out in my boat to this wreck,
not only to get something neceffary out of the ihip, but
perhaps fome living creature might be on board, whofc
life I might preserve. This had fuch an influence upon
my mind, that immediately I went home, and prepared
Every thing neceffary for the voyage, carrying on board

71 .M* .

my boat proviflons of all forts, with a good quantity of rum,
frelh water, and a compass: fo putting off,-I paddled the
canoe aslng the thore, till .I ca-nc at lftt-t- the'north-eaft
part of the island, from whence I wis to launch into the
ocean; but here the currents ran fo violently, and appeared
fo terrible, .hat my heart began to fail-me; foreseeing that
if I was driven into any of th-fe currents, I might be car-
ried not only out of reach or fight of the island, but even
i.ev'tahly loft in the boiling forges of the ocean.
So oppreffed was I at thefe troubles, that I gave over
my enterprise, failing to a little creek oui the ibore, where
lApping out, I fet me down on a rising h-11, very penfive
anJ ihouehtful. I then perceived that the tide was turned,
and the food came on, which made it impraAicable for me
to go out f r fo many hours. To be more certain how the
fets of the rides or currents lay when the f od came in, I
ascended a higher piece of grounJ, which overtoIked the
fea both was ; and tere I found that as the cu'rentof the
ebb fet out c'ofe by the fouth-po!nt of the island, fo the
currie:t of the flood fet in clofe by the fhore of the north
fie ; and all that I had to do, was to keep to the north of
the island in my return.
That night I repofed myself in my ciroe, covered with
my watch-coat, inftehd of a blanket, the heavens being my
tci!er, I fet out wiih the firft of the tide full north, till I
felt the benefit of the current, which carried me at a great
raie eatlward, yet not with luch impetuofity as before, as
to take from me all government of my canoe; fo that in
two h urs time I came up to the wreck, whiuh appeared
to me a moft melancholy fight. It feerred to be a Spaniih
.veffel by'i.s building, fluck faRt between two rccks; her
flerea and quarter beaten to pieces by thefea ; her main-
mil and foremaft were brought of by the board, that is,
broken ff thort. As I approached n'ar, I perceived a.dog
on board, who, feeing me coming,.yelped and cried, and
no f oner did I call him, but the poor creature jumped into
the fea, out of which J took him up, almost famiflhpd with.
hanger and thirft; fo that when I gave him a cake of bread,
no lavencus wolf.could devour itimore greedily; and h1
drank to that degree, of freth water, that he would have
burit himf-lf, had 1 suffered him.
. The firft fight I met with in the ihip, were t*Aip4
drowned in the cook-room or forecafle, inclofed i'mc ,



another's arms : hence I very probably fuppofed, that, when'
the veffel ftuck in the florm, fo high and inceffdntly did
the wars break in and over her, that the men not being
able to bear it, were ftrangled by the conflant rushing in-bf
the waves. There were several cafis of liquor, whether
wine cr brandy I could not be positive, which lay in the
lower hold, as were plain!y perceptible by the ebbing out
of the water, yet were tco hlrke for me to prI tend to :ned-
die with; likewife I p-r:eived favcril chefs, which I
fuppofed to belong to the feamen, tvo of wihch I zpt into
my bjat, without examining what was in them.. tII the
flern of the thip beeo fixed, and the forepart broken off. I
should have made, a very prosperous voyage fince, by
what I af:er found in thefe two chefs. I cou'd not other-
wife conclude, but that the fhip mnuf have abundance of
wealth on board; nay, if I mu!t guels by the course fhe
Ifeered, (he muft have been bcund from Buenos Ayres,
cr the Rio de la Phra, in the fouthein parts of America,
beyond the Brazils, tr theHEav.nah, in the gutph of Mexico,
and f, perhaps' to Spain. What brcmce ot the reft of the
fai:ors, I could no; certainly tell; and all her riches figni-
fi::d nothing at th ittime to any body.
Searching further, I found a cafe, containing about-
twenty gallons, fual of Iquar, which, witi frome labour, I
got into my boat; in her cabin were federal mukers, which.
I let remain there, but tock away with me a great Fowdir-
horn, with about four pounds of powder in it. I took alfo
a fire-fhovel and tongs, two brafe kettles, a. copper pot to .
make cL.ocolate ard a gridiron', all which were ex remely'
neteffary to me, efpecial4y the firs (hovel and longs. And
fo with tb~s cargo, accompanied with amy- dog, I 'amine
away, the tidd'feiving for. that putpof e: and,.the' Gna ,
evening, ABoot'i hour within Bight, I attained the iftand,
after t.e great-efttcil and fatigue imaginable.- ,
'That night I repofed my wearied limbs in theboat, 'i-
folving the next nmorring.to harbour what I had got n ie
my new-fopad fubterrane'ous grotto; and not to Cariy-
my cargo lome to my ancient cattle. Having refrIhed& .
myfel', -and got ill my eff~cs on tliore, I next promeedd : .
o1 examine the particlars.; and fo tapping the calk; I '.
food the liquor to be a kind of rum, but not like what we.
had at the Br.zli, nor indeed near fo good. At the opera -
*t 'h a,,. .4 .
';V ,

~a~ .L..1 : :

I '79

ing of the cheft, several things appeared very ufefnulto'me,
for inflance, I found in one a very fine care of bottles, con-
taining the fineft and beft forts of cordial waters; each
bottle held about three pints, curioufly tipt with filver. I
found alfo two pots fu[l of the choicest fweetmeats,' and
two more which the water had utterly spoiled. There
Were likewise federal good Ihirts, exceedingly welcome to
me; and about one dozen and a half-of white linen handker-
chiefs and coloured n.ckc!oths, the former of which was
* absolutely neceffary for wiping my face in a hot day ; and,
in the till, I found three bags cf pieces of eight, about eleven
hundred in all, in one of which, decently wrapped up in a
piece of paper, were fix'd'ubloons of gold, and eome faiall
bars and wedges of the fame metal, which I believe might
weigh near a pound. In the other cheft, which I gueffed
to belong to the gunner's mate, by the mean circumstances
which attended it, 1 found only Tome clothes of very little
value, except about two pounds of fine glazed powder, in,
three flafks, kept, as--I believe, for charging the fowling-
pieces on any occafon; fa that, in the whole, 1 had no
great advantage by this voyage. The money was indeed
as mere dirt to me, u'elefs and uiprofi.able, all which I
would have freely parted wi:h for two or three pair of Eng.
Slifh (hoes and fRockings; things that for many years I had
not worn, except lately thofe which I had-taken off the feet
of thofe unfortunate men I found drowned in the wreck,
yet not fo good as Englifh Ihoes, either for eafe or fervicei
I alfo found in the feaman's chet about fifty pieces.of eight
in royals, but no gold; fo concluded that what I took
from the frfR belonged to an officer, the latter appearing
to have a mach inferior; perfon for its owner. However,-
as defpicable.as the moi.y seemed, I like*ife .lugged ii to -
my cave, laying it up fecurely as I did the reft of my
cargo; and after I had done all this, I returned back to
my boat, rowing and paddling her along till I came to my.
old harbour, where I carefully laid her up, and fo made'the.
belf of my way to my cattle. When I arrived there, erery
thing seemed fafe and quiet: fo that now my only bufinefs
was to repofe myself after dy wonted manner, aa4 take
bare of my domestic affairs. But thoigh'I might have lived
very eafy, as wanting noting absolutely needful; yet
ftiil I was more vigilant than ufual upon account of fhpi -..
ages, never going much abroad;- or, if I did, it was tejtt


eall piat of the iflad, where I was well "affred the
ravages never caie, and where I might not be.iroubled to
carry that heavy load of weapons-for my defence, as I was,
obliged to do if I went the other way.
.Two years did I live in this anxious condition, in all which
time, contrary to my former resolutions, my head was filled.
with nothing but projeAts and designs, how I might escape
from this ifllad ,and fo much were my wandering thoughts
bent upon a rambling difpofition, that had I had the'fame
boat that I went from Salee in, I should have ventured
once more to the uncertainty of the raging ocean.
I cannot, however, but consider myfelf as one of the in-
happy perfons, who make themselves wretched by their
diffatisfa ion with the nation which God has placed, them
in; for, ot to take a review of my primitive condition, and
my father's excellent advice, the going contrary to which
was, as I may fay, my original fin, the following miftakes
ofthe fame nature certainly had been the means of my pre-
fent unhappy -iation. What bufinefs had I t* leave a fet-
tied fortune -and well flocked plantation, improving and
increarfig, where, by this time, I might have been worth
a hundred thousand moidores, to turn taper-cargo to
Guinea, to fetch Negroes, when time and patience would
fo much enlarge my flock at home, as to be able toemploy
thofe whofe more immediate butlnefs was to fefch theai
home even to my door.
But as this is commonly the fate of young heads, fo a f.
rious reflieion upon the folly of it ordinarily attends.the
exercise of; future years, when the dear bought experictce'
of time-teaches us repentance. -Thus was it with me; dig
notwithstanding, the thoughts of my deliverance raft fo-
Arongly in. my mind, that it seemed to'check all the dilcates
of reafon-and-philofophy. And now to uIher in my kind
reader with greater pleafure t, the remaining partof may.
relation, I flatter myfelf, it will not be talcei. amifi, to gi~
him an account of my firft conceptions of the manner oi
escaping, and upon. what foundation I laid my foolihit
Having retired to my caftle, af:er my late voyage to the-.
ft'ip, ny Trigate laid up and fecured, as ufiual, and nycOeX
edition the fame as before, except bIing rich-r, though I had
as little occasion for riches as be hidiaai. of Peru had fo.
gldbefO.e the cruel Spaniards cami am niq rhenm, ena
Dr-5 -






night in March, being the rainy feafon, in the four and
twentieth year of my f9litude, I lay down to fleep, very
well in health, without dife.nper, pain, or uncommon un-
eafinefs'either of'body or-mind; yet, notwithstanding, I
c-uld not compofe myfeif to- eep all the night long. All
this tedious while, it is impoflib!e to express what innumei-
.able thoughts came into my head. I traced quite over the
whole hillory of my life in miniature, from my utrpoft re-
membrance of things till I came to this island, and then
proceeded to examine every action and paffage that had
occurred fince I had taken poffeffion of my kingdom. In
my refleeion's upon the latter, I was comparing the happy
pofture of my affairs in the beginning of my reign, to this
life of anxiety, fear, and concern, fince I'had discovered a
print of a foot in the fand ; that while I continued without
appreherficns I was incapable of feeling the dread and ter-
ror I no.v suffered. How thankful rather ought I to
have been for the knowledge rf my danger, fince the
g eate f happinefs one can be poffeffed of is-to have fuffi-
cient time to provide again it ? How ftupendcus is the
geodnefs of Providence, which fets foch narrow bounds to
the fight and knowledge of human nature, that while men
walk in the midft of fo many dangers, they-are kept ferene
and calm, by having the events of things hid from their eyes,
and knowing nothing of ttofe many dAngers that furrcund
them, till perhaps they are diffipated a-d vanifh away..
A hen I came mire particularly to consider of the real
danger I had for fo many years efcaped; how I had walked
about in the greatest security and tranquillity, at a time,
perhaps, when even nothing but the brow of a hill, a great
%rec, or the common approach of night, had interpofed be-
tween me :and t!;e deftrudtive hands of the caruibals, who
would devour me with as go-d an appetite, as I would a
pige n or cu-lew; fkrely all thi., I fay, could not but
pae me fincerely thankful to my great Preferver, whole
fingular prottrion I a(knowledge.with the greatest humi-
lity, and withcst which I maft inevitably have fallen into
the true hands tf thoe devourers.
Having thus difcuffed my thoughts in the clearefl manner,
acco-ding to my wek understanding, I next proceeded to
consider the wretched nature of thofe defircying favages,
by feeling, though with great reverence, to inquire, why
God Zhould give up mny ot his creatures to fuch inhumanity,

even to brutality itfilf, to devoir its own kin! ? Ibutas this:
was rather'matter of abftrufe'fp-cutlhiot, and as my mi l.-
Sable fituation made me think this of miae (he moft uncom-
fortable situation in,the wo*ld, I then began rather to inquire
what part of. she wgrld thef4 wre'ches-lived in how far off
the coaft was from whence they care; why they gentered
over- fo far firm home ; what kind ,f boats conveyed them
either; and why I could not order myself and my bifinefs
fo, that. I might be as able to attain their cour.try, as they
were to come to my kingdom ?
, But then, thought I, how (hall I manage.m'f-lf when I.
come hither t-what will le ome of me if I fall into the
hands of the favages ? or how (hall I efcape hrom them, if
they make anantempt upon me ? and fuppofirg 1 should not
fall into their power what hall do f-r provisions, or which"
way flall I bend my courfr ? Thtefe counter-though's threw
me into the greatest ho-ror and confufioC imaginable; bat
then Ifitil lo. ked upon niy prefent condition to be the mCol
miserable that potlible could be.; and that n thing cocddbI h
worfe, except death. Fon (thought l could I but attain
the fhore of t'e main,. 1 might perhaps meet with fome re--
lief,,or ccaft it along, as did with:my boyXury, on the
African flore, till I came to fome inhabited country, where.
I might-meet with fonme relief, or fa'l in with fome Chriftian.
blthipztht-miht take me in ; and if-i failedgwhy thoe I could
but meet-with death, which would put an-end to-all my milfe -
ries. Thefe thoughts, I mutr confefs, were the ffuirof.-a .
diftempered mind, an impatient temper, mede defperate,:as -i
were, by long continuance of th' troubles and difappoint-
ments Iha& met with-in the wreck; where I hopedto.hav
fund fome living perfons to fprak .to, by whpm Luighbt-
bave-knownin what place I was,,a:,d.of the probabie-.maiita
ef my-deliverance. Thus, while myithougnts were agitarel -
my resignationn to the will of H-aven were entirely ifupend-
ed, fo that 4 had no power to fix:-my iind to any thing, bat
to the prcjrCt of a voyvge to the main land. And,indeed, -
fo much-was I inflamed upon this account, that it fet'ny
blood ino-a ferment; and my pu fe beat high, as though I
'had been in a feverf; till nature bAing, as it weie, fafiguad .
arkexhauftd witgt the thoughts o it, made me febmit my-:
fe to a filent repofe.
Jn fuch a situation, it is. very rangeg, that I did not'
draft of what I was fo intent upon.; bt, inflead of it,n ...
-L 6_

S. I

mind roved on a quite different thing, altogether foreign.
I dreamed, that as I was ifluing fiom my cafile one morn-
ing, as cuflomary, when I perceived upon the 1hore two
.canoes, and eleven favages coming to land, who had brought
with them another Indian, whom they designed to make a
sacrifice of,' in order to devour; but juft as they were going
to give the fatal blow, methought the poor designed victim
jumped away, and ran directly into my little thick grove
before my fortification, to abfcond from his enemies, when.
perceiving that the others did not follow him that way, I.
appeared to him; that he humbly kneeled down before
me, seemed to pray .for my afiflance; upon which I
showed him my ladder, made him afcend, carried him to
lay cave, and he became my servant; and when-I had
gotten this man, I faid to myfelf, now furely I may have
fome hopes to attain the main land; for this fellow will
ferve me as a pilot, tell me what to do, and where I muft
go for provisions, what places to lhua, what to venture to,
and what to escape. But when I awaked, and found all
thefe inexpreffible impreffons of joy entirely var lhed, I
fell into the greatefi dejetion of spirit imaginable.
Yet this dream brought me to refleA, that one fare way
- of efcaping was to get a favage; that after I had ventured
iy life to deliver him from the bloody jaws of his devourers,
the natural fenf he might have of foch a preservation,
might infpire him with a laying gratitude and moit fincere
affe&ion. But then this objection reasonably interpofed:
how can I effect this, thought I, without I attack a wfiole
company of them, and kill them all ? whyr hoid I proceed
6n fuch a desperate attempt, which my fCuples before had
fuggefted to be unlawful? and indeed my heart trembled
at the thoughts of fo much blood, though it were a means
to procure my deliverance. 'Tis true, I might reafonably
enough fuppofe there men to be real enemies to my life,
-men who would devour me, was it in their power; fo that
it was felf-prefervation in the highest degreeto free myfelf,
by attacking them in my bwn defence, as lawfully as if
they were acually affaulting me; though all thefe things,
I fay, seemed to me to be of the greatest weight, yet, as I
juft faid before, the dreadful thoughts of shedding J.*an
blood, ftruck fach a terror to my foul, that it was ii'mg.
time before'l could reconcile myfelf to it -
But how far will the ardency of desire prompt us on ? FwE

2-- .

o." aoINSON cLVIOt. 8' '
notwithstanding the many disputes ad perplexities I'had
with iyfelf, iat length re3lved, right, or *rong, to get one
of thefe ravages into my' hands; co what it would, or even
though I should lofe' hy life in the attempt -Infpired with
this firm resolution, I fet all my wits at work, to find oat"
what methods I should take to anfwer my defign: this,, in- -
deed, was fo difficult a talk, that I could not pitch pot any
probable means to execute it: I therefore refolvied cdibri
nually to be in a vigilant posture; to perceive when thef- a-
vages came on Ihore, and to leave the reft to the vent, let
the opportunities offer as they would .
Such was my fixed refolutions; and accordingly I fet
myself upon the fcoit, as often as I-could, till fuch times as I
was heartily tired of it. I waited for above a year andy a
half, the greater part of which I went out to the weft and
fouth-weft corner of the island, almoft every day, to look
for Canoes; but none appeared. This was a very great dif- .
couragement; yet though I was very much-iohcerned, thet,
edge of my defign was as keen as ever, and the longer it
seemed to be delayed, -the more eager was I for it; in a
word, I never .before -was fo careful to hune the loathing'
fight of thefe ravages, as I was now eager to be with them; '
and I thought myfelf sufficiently able to manage one, te ,.'
or three favages, if I had them, fo as to make them my en-
tire flaves, to do.whatfoever I thoald direct them, and'pre-o.
vent their being able at any time to do me a mifchief. Many'
times did I ufe to please myfelf with there thoughts, with'
long and ardent expectations, but nothing prefeatingm all
my deep projected fch'emes and numerous fancies varied' -
away, as though while I detained fuch thoughts, thedecrftae ':
Providence were fuchthat no favages were to come nar n
About a year and a halfafer, when I was ferioadif
fing.of fundiy other ways how I should attain my end, oe
-morning early,- I was-very much furprifed by feting no -le
than five canoes all on lhore together, on my fide the illad,
and the ravages that belonged to them all landed, and oau
of my fight. Such a number of them difconcerted all amy *
measures ; for, feeing fo many boats, each of which would
contain fix, and sometimes more, I could not tell what to
think of it, oi how to order my meafares, to attack tseity
or thirty men fingle-handed; upon which, much dilpirit
and perplexed, I lay till in my caftl; which, however, I
put in a proper posture for an attack; and having former. j
piptided all- that was. neceffary, was. foor steady to- enti

upon an engagement, should they attempt. Having waited
for fome time, my impatient temper would let me bear it no
longer; I fee my guns at the foot of my.ladder,. and, as
ufual, ascended up to the top of the hill at two flager, ltand-
ing, ho-ever, ip fuch a manner, that -.y head did not ap-
-pear above the hill, fo that they could not efily perceive.
me; and here, by-the afliltance of my perfpedive glafs, I
observed no lets than thirty in number around a fire, feaflting
upon what meat they had dreffed; how they cooked it, or
what it was, I could not then perfectly tell; but they were
all dancing a-d capering about the flames, uiing many.
frightful and barbarous gestures.
But while, with a curious eye. I was beholding thefe.
wretches, my fpirits fu.k within rme, when I perceived
them drag two mnferab:e creatures from the boats, to ad.
afreth the dreadful tragedy, a I fuppfcd they had done
before. It was not loo'g before one of them fell upon the
ground, knocked down,as I fuppole,with a club or wooden
word, for that.was their manner; while two or three others.
went immediately to wo k, cutting him open for their cook--
ery, and then fell to devour him as they had d.ne the for-
mer, while the lalt unhappy captive was left by himfeif,.
till fuch time as they were ready for him. The poor crea-
ture looked r. und him with a wishful eye, trembling at the
thoughts of death; yet, feeing himfelfa little at liberty, na-
ture, that very. moment, as it were, inspired him with hopes.
of life: He started away from them, aid ran, with incre-
dible fwiftnefs, alcng the lands, direly to that part of the.
coaft where:myancient and venerable cafle flood.
You may well imagine I was dreadfully affrighted upon
this occafion, when, as I thought, they purfurd him in a.
who!e body, all running towards my palace.., And now,
indeed, I expected that part of my dream was going to
befulfi.led, and that he would certainly fly to my grove
for protection ; but, for the reft of my dream, I could de-
pend nothing on it, tiat the fi.vages would purfue him.
thither, and find him there. However, my pitss begin.
ning to recover, I fill kept upon my guard; and I now
plainly perceived there were but three men out of the num.
ber that purfued him. I was infiniieiy, pealed with what
fwiftncfs the poor creature ran from his purfuers, gaining to
much ground upon them, that I plainly perceived cculd he
thus hold out for half an hour, there was not the leaft dp n I'
bua he would fave his life from the power of his enh

Between them and my caRle there was a creek,'*that
very fame which I failed into with all my effe&s from the '
wre:k of the (hip, on the fleep baks" of which I very-
much feared the poor victim would be'takie, if he could
not fwim for his efcape: But fooh was I aut of pain for
-him, when I perceived he made nothing of it, thou ~
full tide, but with an ii~trepid courage, spurred on
feare of danger, he plunged into the fodd, fwimmitg -,
in about thirty flrokes, and then landing, ran with t'
fame incredible firength and fwiftnefs as before., Wrien'
the three pnrfuers came to the creek, one of them, ~tio [ ,
perceived could not fwim, happily for his part, rethiru d
to his company, while the others, with-equal courage, 6it "'
much left fwiftnefs, attained the other fide; as thongb they,
were resolved neVer to give over the ppurfit. 'AWrd.ttow
or never I thought was the time for me to procure me a
fervant, companion, or afliftant; and that I was- defeed
by Providence -to be the inflrument'to fave this poor crea-
thre's life. I immediately defcehded my two ladders with
the greatefi expedition; I took up my two guns, whics,as'I
faid before, were at the bottom of them, and getting u .,
again with the fame hafe towards the hill, I made nearer"
the fea. In -a word, taking a Ihort cut dawn the hill, .
interpofed between the purfuers and purfued; hanoo:ng -
aloud to the latter, who, venturing to look back, was, no
doubt, as much'terrified at mq as I at them. I beckoned
to him-with my band,-to return back; in the. mean tinit' :
advancing towards the purfuers, and rushing onthe fcrc- /
moft, i knocked him down with the itock of my piece,'
and laid him flat on thegrpund. I was very unwillra to
tire, leal the reft should hear, though, ata difiance, 1 -. :u-
tioned whether they could or no; and being out of fight of '
the (moke, they could not easily have known what to make'
of it. The other favage feeing his fellow fall, lopped'as
if he had b-en amazed; when, tavanciag t wards pii, i "I "I
could perceiv hini take his bow' fro Uhis back, rpd, fix-'
ing an arrow to it, was preparing'to (hoot at me, anJ, wihh- '
out dispute, might have lodged the arrow in my brea.fi ; "
but, in this absolutely nieceffary cafe of felf-prefervation*' I
immediately fired at him, and f(ht him dead, jft at his ",
hand was going to draw the fatal iring. Ali this"whbli
the favage who had fled before, flood, Ai; and had the ta-
.tistfaion to ree his enemies killed, as he thought, who'd- .
.-: 7'

signed to take away his life; fo affrighted was he with the
fire and noife of my piece, that he flood, as it were, like
Lot's wife, fixed and immovable, without either fenfe or
motion. This obliged me to halloo to him again, making
the plaineil figns I could to him to draw nearer. I per-
ceived he underftood thofe tokens by his approaching.to
me a little way, when, as if afraid I should kill him too,
he flopped again. Several times did he advance, and as
often flop in this manner, till coming more to my view, I
perceived him trembling as if he was to undergo the fame
fate. Upon which I looked upon him with a filing
countenance, and till beckoning to him, at length he
came clofe to me, and kneeled down, killing the ground,
laid his head upon it, and taking me by the foot, fet it
upon his head; and this, as 1 understood afterwards, was
a token of wearing to be my flave for ever. I took him
up, and, making much of him, encouraged him in the bef
manner I could. But my work, was not yetfinifhed;
for I perceived the savage whom I had knocked down, was
not killed, but gunned with the blow, and began to cyme
to bimfelf. Upon which I pointed to my new fervant, and
showed him that his enemy was not yet expired; he fpoke
fame words to me, but which I could not understand; yet
being the firft found of a man's voice I had heard for above
twenty-five years, they were very pleading to me. But
there was no time for reflection now, the wounded savage
recovering himself fo far as to fit upon the ground, which
made my poor prisoner as much afraid as before; to put
him out of fear, I preftnted my other gun at the man, with
an intent to ihoot him; but my favage, for fo I mull now
call him, prevented my firing, by making a motion to me
to lend him my word, which hung naked in my belt by my
fide. No fooner did I grant his requeft, but away he runs
to his enemy, and atone blow cut off his head as dexteroufly
as the mofl accomplished executioner in Germany could have
done, for, it feems, thefe creatures make ufe of wooden
words made of hard wood, which will bearedge enough to
cut off heads and arms at one blow. When this valorous
exploit was done, he comes to me laughing, as a token of
triumph, delivered me my fword again, with abundance of
furprifing geftures, laying it along with the bleeding and
ghaltly head of the Indian, at my feet.

Thegreateft aflonilhment that my new-f~rant conceived,.
was the mainer of killing the favage at fuch a distance,
without a bow and arrow; and fuch was hii longing desire
to khow it, that he firft pointed to the deadcarcafe, and
then' made figns to me to grant him leave to.gb to him.
Upon which I bade him go, and, as well as I could,- made
him fenfible ,I granted his request. But when he came
there,-how wonderfully was he flrack with amazement!
Firft he.turned him on onefide, then on another, wolder-
ing he could perceive no quantity of blood, he bleeding
inwardly; and after sufficiently admiring the. wound the
bullets had made in his breast, he took up his bow and ar-
rows, and came back again: upon' which I turned to go
away, making my figns to him to follow, left the reft mif-.
fng their companions, might come in purfait of them, and
this I found he underflood very well; by his making me
underfland that his.defign was to bury them, that they might
not be fen -if it happened, and which by figns agaiti I
spade him fenible I very moch approved of. limediatety
he fell to work, and never was grave-digger mo:e dexteroua
in the world Ain he was: for in an infant, as t might fay,
he fcraped a large hale in the fand with his hands, fffiient
to bury the fire in therer he dragged him, and without any
ceremony he covew;. him over; is like manner he served
the other; fo that I am fare no4andertaker could be more
expert in his bafinefs; +for all this was done in refs than a
.quarter of an hour. I then called him away, and.inlead
of carrying him diretly to my caftleat firft, I coaveycedhl i
to my cave on the farther part of the island ; and (fomy
dream was* now fulfilled in that particular, that my grove
should prove-an afylum or fanctuary to him, -
Weary and faint, hungry and thirty, undoubtedly malt
this poor creature be, fupportel chiefly by the vivacity of
spirit, and uncommon tranfports of joy that his delircro a.e
occasioned; Here' I gfai him bread and a bunch of raids
to eat, and wier to drink, on which he fed very cheerfully,
to his exceeding rrefelhrmeat. then made him a conveni-
ent b:a with a parcel of rice ftraw, and a blanket aoon it,
(a bed iwhch I ufed myself foaitimes,) and then pointing
to it, maae figns for him to lie do*an to fl:ep, upan which
Ib lpoor creature went to take a welcome repole.
Inread he was a verycosely, hanlCame young fellei -
tradi well-mat&,' with flraight long limbs, not too tr '

,+ -

but tall and well-fhaped,.and, as near as [ could reckon,
-ab-ut twenty-fix years of age. His countenance -had no-
thing in it fierce or'furly,but rather a fort of majefty in his
face; and yet; erp-cially when he filed, he had all the
fi eetnefs and fqftne's of an Europea;. flis hair was not
curire like wool, as many of the backs are, but long and
b!hck, with the moit beautiful yet careless treffes spreading
over his shoulders. He had a very high and large forehead,
with a great'vivacity and fparkling tharpnifs in his eyes.
His fkin was not fo tawny as the Virginian Brazilians, or
other Americans, but rather of a bright uun olive col3ur.
that had something agreeable in it, though' not very eafy to
give a derciptio of. His face was round and plump, with
a mall nofe, very different from the fla,:efs of the negroes,
a pretty fmall mouth, thin lips, fine teeth, very well fet,
and white as the driven fiow. In a word, fach handfoee
features, and exact fymm-try in every part, made me cn-
filer, that I had faved the life of an Indian'prince, n- lefa
graceful and accomplished than the great Oroonoko, whofe
memorable behaviour, and unhappy contingencies of life,
have charm. the world, both to admiration of his person,
and companion to his fuffirings.
But let him be either prince.or peafant, all my happinefs
centered in thiS, that I had now got a good servant or com-
panion, to whom, as he deferred, I was resolved to prove a
kind master, and a lailing friend. He had not, I thinkflept
above an hour, when he awaked again, and while I was
milking my goats hard by, out he runs from the cave towards
me in mty inclolure, and laying him(flf down on the
ground, in the lowef p:oltration, made all the antic gestures
imaginable, to express his thankfulnefs to me, for being his
deliverer. I confet6, though the *manner of his behaviour
feemed to be ludicrous enough to occafioni la.ighter, yet I
was very much moved at his affection, fo that my heart
melted within me, fearing he might die away in excefs of
joy, like reprieved malefactors: especially as I was iacapalle
either to let him blood, or adrninif/tr. phytic. Ii were
to be wilhed that Chriftians would take example by this
Heathen, to have a lalting remembrance of the benefits ind
deliverances they have received, by the kind mediation
and powerful interpofition of their benefactors an I deiver-
ers: and it would be likewise happy for mankind, were
there no occasion to blame many, who, iailna4 of tha6nfrik

*,, )

SorRbai oca /.

acknowledging favours and benefits, rather abafe and cpAn
demn thofe'who have been the infltuments to fave them
from deitruttion.
But leaving there reflections, I returned to the object'.
that occasioned them,; for my man, to conclude the laft
ceremony of obedience, laid down his head again on the
ground, clofe to my foot, and fet my other foot upon his
head, as hehad'done before, making all the figns of fubjec-
tio servitude, and fubiniffion imaginable, and let me un-
derfland he would ferve ameas long as his life endured.: As
I underflood him in many things, I made him fenfi'le I was
very well pleafed with him; and, in a little time, T began
to peak to him, and learn him to talk to me %,ain. In the
firei place I made hini understand his nime was to be Frr,- "
day, because it was upon that day I faved his life ; then I,
taught him to fay Maft.r, which 1 made him fenfible-si ~
.to be my name. I likewife taught him to fay Yes ad.Nqg,,
and to know what they meant. I-gave himfome milk i ia
earthen pot, making him view me while I drank it before
h;m, andiToaked my bread in it; I gave him a cakeof bread,
and canted him to foak it likewise; to wh.ch he readily cgn.
fenced, making figns of the greatefl latisfacfion imaginable.
All that night did I keep him there; bat no fooner did
the morning light.appear, when I ordered him to arif, andd
corsealong with me, wt-h certain token, that 1 would give
him fome clotheslike mine, at which he seemed very glad,
being ftaik naked, without the leaft covering whatever.-
As we paffed by the place where the two men hait bee'
interred, my man pointed directly to their graves, Ihowing .
me the marks that he had made'to find them again, g tr '
me to understand, by figns, that we Ih uld dig the i&
and devour them. At this I appeared extremely d41p_`
expreffed my utmoft abborience,. as if I would vomit dt-
apprehn.fion ?f-it, beckoning with my han I to came ai at
which he did widlt the greatefl reverence and fabmiioa.
After this I conducted hm to the top of the ill, to, view it
the reft of the favages were yet iemaiining.there; but:when
I Looked through my perfpefive glafs, I could fee no ap-;
pearance of them, nor of their anoes; fo that it war v~jy.-
evident they-never minded their deceafid company iovs w .
-we t bd flain; which if they had, they would' frry hfoy
g. irtched for, -or left one boat behind fi- them to fialir i;
fAr tey retrined from their prfuit.

I '-

Curiofity, nnd adefire of satisfaction, animating me with
courage to fee this fcene of barbarity, I took m.y man Fri-
day with me, putting a fword into his hand, with the bow
and arrows at his back, which I perceived he could ue
very dextrouflv, caofing him to carry one gun for me, and
I two for myself; and thus equipped againfl all attacks,
away we marched directly to the place of their bloody en-
tertainment. But when I came there, I was'firuck with
the utnicft horror at fo dreadful a fpectacle, whilft 'riday
was no way concerned about it, being no doubt in his turn
one of there devourrrs. Here lay several human bones, there
fever;! pieces of mangled flech, 1plf eaten, mangled and
fcorchcd; wi;ilft fireams of blood ran promifcuoufly as
waters from a fountain. As I was mufing on this dreadful
fight, Friday took all the pains he could, by particular
iigns, to make me underfhand, thatbthey had brought over
four prisoners to feaft upon, three of whom they had eaten
up, and that he was the fourth, pointing to himself; that
there having been a bloody battle between them and his
great king, in the jut defence of whom he was taken pri.
foner, with many others, all of there were carried off to
different places to be devoured by their conquerors; and
that it was his misfortune to be brought thither by thefe
wretches for the fame purp fe.
After I was made fenfible of thefe things, I caused Fri-
day to gather thofe horrid remains, and lay them together
upon a heap, which I ordered to be fet on fire, and burn
them to afhes; My man, however, till retained the nature
of a canniba', having a hankering ftomach after fome of the
flefl; but fuch an extreme abhorrence did I express at the
leaf appearance of it, that he durft not but conceal it; for
I made him very fenfible, that if he offered any fuch thing,
I would certainly fhoot him.
This being done, I carried my man with me to my caffle,
and gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had taken
out of the podr gunner's cheft before mentioned, and
which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well: in the
next place I made him a jerkin of goit's fkin, fuch as my
kill was able to manage, and indeed I thought myself then
a tolerable good tailor. f gave him alfo a cap which I
made of a hare's fkin, very conv-nient and fa:hi:;)able.-
Thus being clothed tolerably well, my man was no !efs
proud of his habit, than I was at feeing him in it. Indeed he


went very awkwardly at firit, the drawers being too heavy
on his thighs, not uled to bear auiy weight, and the 1!'eves
of the waiflcoat grilled his th:ulidrs and the in ide of his
arms; but by a little eating where he complained they hurt
him, and by uting himself to tnem, at length he took to
them very well.
My next concern was, where I should lodge him; and
that I might do well by him, and yet be perfcily eafy my-
felf, I ereaed a tent for him in the vacant pace between
my two forttiications, in the inside of the latt, and the out-
fide of the firft aad, as there was an entrance vt door in-
to my cave, I made a formal framed door-cafe, and a door
to open on the infide; I barred it un in the night tim;, ta-
king in my ladders too, to that, was my man to provetriach-
Srous, there could be no way to come at me in the inside
of my innermcft wall, without making to much noile in
getting over, that it muft needs waken me; for my firft
wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles, fpread-
ing over my tent, and leading up to the tide of the moun-
tain, which was agiin laid crofs with smaller flicks instead
of laths, and thatched over a great thicknefs with the rice
firaw, which was as firong as reeds: and at the hole of the
place, left on purpose to go in and out by the ladder, had
placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted
on the outside, would not have opened at all, but have
fallen down, and made a great noife: and as to my wea-
pons, every night I took them all to my bedfide.
But there was no occaficn for this precaution; for farely
never mailer had a more fincere, faithful, and loving fer-
vant than Friday proved to me. Without paffion, fullen-
nefr, or design, perfectly obliging and engaging, his affec-
tions were as much tied to me, as thoie of a child to its
parents; and I might venture to fay, he would have facri-
fiT ed his life for the facing mi;ie, upon any occasion what-
foever. And, indeed, the many tettiminies he gave me of
this, fuffiz;intly convinced me that had no occasion to ufe
-thele precautions. And here I could not but reflect with
great wonder, that, however it hath pleaded the Almighty
in his providence, and in the government of the creation,
to take from fo great a part of the world of his creatures,
the "oblet ufes to which their faculties, and the powers of
their fouls are adapted; yet that he has beitowed upon

them. the fame reason, affections, -fentiments of kindnefs
and obligation, pafinas of reftntment, fincerity, fidelity,
and all the capacities of doing and receiving good that he
has given us; and that whsn he is gracioufly pleaded to
offer -them occasions of exertirg. thefe, they are as ready,
nay, more ready, to- apply them to the, proper ufes for.
whih they were beftieed, than we often are. Thefe
thoughts would make me melancholy, especially when I
co.fidered how mean a ufe we make of all thefe, even
-though we have thefe powers enligherned by the Holy
Spirit of-God, and by the knowledge of this world, as an
addition to our anderifanding; and why it has pleaded the
heavenly wifdom to conceal the like having knowledge
from fo many millions of fouls, who wou!d certainly make
a much better ufe of it than generally mankind do at this
time. -Thefe refleflions would sometimes lead me fo far
as to irveigh'the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were,
arraign the justice of futh an arbitrary difpcfition of things, -
that should obfcure that light from fome, and reveal it to
others, and yet expect a like duty from gfl. ButI closed
it up," checking my thoughts with this conclusion; firft,
That we were ignorant of that right and law by which,
, thofe should becondemned; but as the Almighty was ne-
ceffarily, and by the nature of his tffence, infinitelyjuft
'and holy; fo it could not be otherwise, but that if thefe
Screatures were all defined to absence fromhimfelf, it was
on accountt of finning against that light, which, as' the
Scripture fays, was a law to themselves, and.by Tuch a rule
Sas their confciences would acknowledge tobe jull, though
the Iirfl foundation was rot discovered to us.- 'And, fe-
cendly, That fill as we were the clay in the-sand cf the-
potter, no veffel could thus fay to him, Why-haflt thou
"fafhiored me after this manner."
I had not been above two or three days returned to my
caftle, but mny .:hiefdefign was, how 1 should bring Friday.
ff -from this horrid way of f-cding; ard to take from him
that inhuman rtli h he by ra-ure had been accuflowned te,
I thought it my duty to let him dafte other flfh, hich
night the rather tempt him to the fame abhorrence fo
often expreffed agaili their accur!ed way of livir.g. Up'.a
,which, -one morning I took kim out with me. unitb an pr
tention to kill a kid out of the flock and bring it hoare.' -
drefi it. As I was going, 1 perceived a lhe-gsat lyj

". Ti- 't .


down a the' fade,' and two young. kids fitting'byher.-
Immediately I catches hold of my' man Friday, add biddi g
him fland fill, and not ifir. I presented my. piece; and Iht
ore of the kids. My poor feryant, who at a diftance pe'r-
ceived'-me kill his ;dverfary, and yet did not know by what
means, cr how it was done, flood trembling and farprifea;
and looked fo amazed, that I thought he would'have frank
into the earth. He did not fee the kid I aimed at, or be-
held I had killed it, hut ripped up his waiftcoat 6o fee if he
was cictwoarded, thinking my refolu:ion was to kill him;
for coning to me, he fell on his knees, earneftly prcnouir-
cing many things which I did not underflandthe meaning'
of: which -at length I perceived was, that I would not
take away his life.
Indeed I was much concerned to fee -him in that con-
diti'n, where nature is upon the fevereft trial, when the
immediate hand of death is ready to put for ever a period
to this mortal life; and, indeed, fo much compa'llio had I
to this, creature, that it was with difficulty I refrained froni
tears. But, however, as another fort of coun:enance'gai ,
rec'fary, and to co-vince him that I wCuld do him no
harm, It ok him smiling by the hafid, then laughing at
him, and pointing.to the kid which I had flain, made figns
to him to fetch it, which accordingly he did., No',t a
curious was he in viewing how the creature was killed, tan
he hhd been before in beholdirg the Indian; which, while'
he was admiring at, I charged my gun again, and prefently
perceived a great fowl, like a hawk, perching upon a-tree
within. hot : and, therefore, to let Friday unneritand .what
I was going t6 do, I called him to me again, pointing a(thete.
-fowl, which I fourid to be a parrot. I made hiin undec-
ftand that I would fhoot and kill that bird ; accordingly I
fired, and bade him look, when immediately he faw tht
parrot fall dot n. Again he flood like one amazed, not-'
'withftanding all' had faid to him: ard the more confound.
ed he was, because he did not perceive mre putany thing :
into my gun. Undoubtedly a thing fo utterly firange,-
.carrying detth along with it, far or near, either .to man 'or-
-beaff, muft certainly create the greareft zftonifhment l'onape
wo 'never had heard fach a, thing in his whole life; and'
rethyhis amazement continued fo long, that had I allowed
it he would have profirated isimfelftbfore me and m9_gna
-.itk.tbe greatest vorlhip and adoratitn. .As far ueLgun


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