Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 List of Illustrations

Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072745/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 244, 4 p., 16 leaves of plates : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Heney, William ( Printer )
Poole ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Tabart and Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Printed for Tabart & Co.
Place of Publication: London (At the Juvenile and School Library No. 157 New Bond Street)
Manufacturer: Heney, Printer
Publication Date: 1805?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1805   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1805   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Citation/Reference: Osborne Coll.,
Statement of Responsibility: originally written by Daniel Defoe ; revised for the use of young persons ; and illustrated with sixteen copper plates.
General Note: "The design of the editor ... has been, to render a book possessing such claims to popularity as unexceptionable as possible ... London, August 1, 1805"--Advertisement, p. iv.
General Note: Plates have legend: London, Pubd June 4-Augt 1805, by Tabart & Co.; two have Poole, Sc.; some have caption of Crusoe or Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe, retold.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (3 p.) at end.
General Note: Library's copy imperfect: rebacked in 19th century (?) morocco with gilt relief spine title, Robinson Crusoe; plate at p. 223 lacking; several plates detached; plate from p. 45 bound in at end.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072745
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27691502

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    List of Illustrations
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        Page 248
        Page 249
Full Text

. . .c.9. .









And illustrated with


Price 4. 6d. half bound, wit th e plates plain, or Ts. witA
the plates coloured.

EInEY, Printer, 23, Baaner-street. .


NOTWITHSTANDING the acknowledged
merit of DEFoE's interesting narrative
of the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, it
will be admitted, that, as he did pot
address it expressly to Young Persons,
it must contain many things which are
not well adapted to an early age, and
which, when read by them, it were
better should be omitted. At the same
time, no book lays such strong hold on
the curiosity of Youth as this narrative;
and many eminent writers have strongly
recommended it, as deserving a pre-
ference over every other human pro-
duction, on account of the lively picture
it conveys of man residing in a state of
nature, and of the means necessary to
attain a state of enjoyment pnd easy ,
;, 'J.-''

The design of the Editor, therefore,
has been, to render a book possessing
such claims to popularity as unexcep-
tionable as possible. He has at the
same time preserved the spirit of the
narrative; and, he believes, the story
will not be found to have lost any of
its interest from the variations which
he has judged it necessary to make.

August 1, 1805.





I WAs born in the year 1639, in the
city of York, of wealthy and respect-
able parents. My father intended to
educate me for the profession of the
law; but I, unfortunately, acquired so
earnest a desire for going to sea, that
not even the commands of my father,
the entreaties of my mother, or the re-
monstrances of my other friends, could
induce me entirely to conquer my
childish propensity.
For some time, indeed, after I first
made my inclination known, the calm
and steady advice of my father, which
was accompanied with tears of affec-
tion, so .wrought upon me, that I
resolved not to think any more of

going to sea, but to conform myself to
the affectionate wishes of my parents:
but, about twelve months afterward,
going by chance to Hull, I there met
with a former school-fellow, the son of
a sea-captain, who, unfortunately for
j.e, was then going to London in his
ia;er's ship. This lad, not more nise
or prudent than myself, persuaded me
to go to sea with him, which I, like an
undutiful, ungrateful son, consented to
do; and, without more consideration,
abandoned my comfortable home, and
embarked on the first of September,
leaving my parents in utter ignorance
what was become of me.
Scarcely had we put to sea when a vio-
lent storm arose. I was also excessive-
ly sea-sick; and in the midst of my pain
and terror, I repented bitterly of my folly,
and made many good resolutions for
the government of my future conduct.
It was now that my want of duty,
and my ingratitude, to the best of pa-
rents, wrung my heart; yet, no sooner
was the storm over, mnd my sickness
abated, than the raillery of my com-
panion, the captain's son, chased away
-all my good resolutions: I became both

satisfied with my situation, and forgot
the anguish my excellent parentswere
enduring for my sake.
On the sixth day of our being at sea
we came into Yarmouth Roads, and the
wind being contrary, we were obliged
to cast anchor there. The wind conti-
nued for four or five days to blow very
hard; tt the sailors, thinking them-
selves secure as if they were at an-
chor in a harbour, spent the time mer-
rily. On the eighth day, however, it
blew a terrible storm indeed, and I be-
held terror and amazement in every
countenance. The sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes. The seamen were con-
tinually exclaiming that the ship would
founder. I did not know what they
meant by founder, and no one had
leisure or composure enough to give me
any information. In the middle of the
night one of the men cried out that
we had sprung a leak, and all hands
were called to the pump. I heard the
master express this melancholy ejacula-
tion, Lord have mercy upon us, we
shall be all lost and undone !" At that
dreadful sound I fell backwards upon the

bed where Iwas sitting; but the men soon
roused me, and drove me to the pump,
saying, that if I could not do any thing
ese, I was as able to pump as another.
The captain, meanwhile, ordered guns
to be fired, as signals of distress, and a
ship at some distance ventured to send
out her boat to our assistance. It was
with the greatest danger and difficulty
that the boat could come near us;
but the sailors ventured their lives to
save ours; and we had not been more
than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship, when we saw her sink with her
whole cargo on board.
The boat struggled many hours with
the wind and waves before she reached
the shore. At length, however, we got
safe to land, and travelled on foot to
Yarmouth, where the magistrates and
inhabitants pitied our destitute condi-
tion; and having lodged and fed us for
a few days, they gave us money to carry
us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense and goodness
to have gone home again, I should have
been happy, and my father would have
been spared the misery of supposing I

had perished; for it was some time
before he had any assurance of my hav.
ing escaped drowning in the ship that
had foundered at sea. But false shame
withheld me from doing my duty; for it
occurred to me that I should be laughed
at among my neighbours and friends,
and thus, like many other foolish young
people, I was ashamed to repent, though
I had not been ashamed to sin.
The evil influence which first carried
me away from my father's house, hurried
me on with the wild notion of making
my fortune. I travelled to London, and
soon got acquainted with the master of a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa, or,
as sailors call it, to the coast of Guinea,
With this captain I engaged to go to
Africa; and having written to some of
my friends, who, I suppose, prevailed oAi
my father or mother to contribute some-
thing towards my purchasing what was
necessary for my voyage, I had 401.
remitted to me, and bought with it such
tovs and articles as the captain told me I
might barter with the natives for gold dust.
My voyage was a very successful one;
for I brought home nearly.3001. in gold
dust, and had learned of the captain, who

took great pleasure in giving me instruc-
tion, the arts of navigation and mathe-
matics. He also treated me as his son,
and had he lived he would have prevail-
ed on me to return to my parents; but
scarcely had the ship reached the port
of London, when my good friend, the
captain, died, and his mate succeeded to
the command of the vessel. Determined
to pursue the course which had hitherto
proved so fortunate, I laid out 1001. in
articles for traffic, depositing the other
2001. in the hands of my friend, the
captain's widow, and set sail a second
time for the coast of Guinea.
Our ship steering towards the Canary
Islands, unfortunately fell in with a
Turkish rover off Sallee: an obstinate
engagement ensued ; but the pirates be-
ing superior in number, we were com-
pelled at length to yield, and were car-
ried prisoners into Sallee, a port be-
longing to the Moors. I was kept by
Ihe captain of the rover as his own
slave; but :he rest of the company were
canried up the country to the emperor's
When my new master went to sea
again he left me on shore to do the

usual drudgery of slaves about his house
and garden, and when he came home
from his cruise I was sent on board the
vessel to clean and look after the ship.
Many a sleepless night I spent in that
cabin, mourning over my hard fate in
being condemned to perpetual slavery,
from which I saw no likelihood of escap-
As I was voung and active my master
found me constant employment, and
made me assist in building a little cabin
in the middle of the long-boat belong-
ing to our English ship, which he was
now fitting up for a pleasure-boat. We
frequently went out to fish in this boat;
and one day my master ordered us to
have every thing clean, and fit for the
accommodation of several of his friends,
who were going on a party of pleasure
with him.
Three fusees, with powder and ball,
a case of liquors, and a quantity of pro-
visions, were sent on board the boat on
the appointed day, and I, a Moorish
slave, and a boy, were lying on our
oars, waiting the arrival of the com-
pany, when our master came to the
beach in great haste, and ordered us to

row out into the bay to catch some fish
as expeditiously as possible, as his guests
were not going to sail that day, but
were to sup at his house with other
At this moment the hope of making
my escape darted into my mind. Beside
the liquor and provision on board, I knew
there was plenty of twine in a locker,
with a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer.
The wind blew contrary to my wishes;
but I was resolved, blow which way it
would, to be gone from slavery. ,
After we had fished some time, and
caught nothing, (for when I had fish on
my hook I would not pull them up) I
said to the Moor, this will not do; we
must go farther out to sea. The Moor
made no objection; and having ran out
a league, I gave the boy the helm, and
stept forward to where the Moor was
busied with his fishing tackle, and mak-
ing as if I stooped to pick up something
behind him, I took him by surprise, and
tossed him over board.
He rose immediately, (for he. swam
like a cork) and begged to be taken in
again; but I presented a gun, and said,
Moloy, I intend you no harm, if you

will not come near the boat: make the
best of your way to the shore: I know
you can reach it with ease. But if you
persist in following me, I will shoot you
through the head; for I am resolved to
have my liberty. So he turned round,
and swam as fast as possible to regain
the shore.
I was under the necessity to serve
the Moorish slave thus, for I knew he
was not to be trusted. Xurv, the boy,
was an innocent, faithful, well-meaning
lad; and I knew he would be both useful
and faithful to me.
After sailing five days I believed my-
self to be safe from pursuit, and ven-
tured near the coast, and cast anchor in
the mouth of a little river. I could not tell
what latitude or what country we were
in. My aim in coming to the shore was
to get fresh water, and as soon as it was
dark I intended swimming on shore for
that purpose; but no sooner had the
day closed, than we heard. the most
dreadful roaring and howling o' "wild
beasts. Xury was excessively frightened,
and indeed so was I; but our fears greatly
increased when we heard one of these
hideous creatures come swimming to,

wards our boat. We could not see him.
yet by his blowing we knew him to be
a huge and furious beast. I fired at him,
upon which he turned about and swam
to the shore again, howling most horri-
bly. We no longer thought of going on
shore: but in the morning we found that
the water at the mouth of the river was
fresh, as the sea-tide was out; so, hav-
ing filled our jar, we again set sail.
After coasting several days longer,
we came again to an anchor under a
little point of land, where Xury pre-
sently discovered a monstrous lion, lying
on the side of a hillock, fast asleep. I
loaded two of my guns, and firing the
first, expected to have shot him dead;
but my aim was not a good one, for I
only wounded him, and broke one of
his legs. He attempted to rise, but
instantly dropped with the most dread-
ful roar I ever heard. As he lay strug-
gling for life, and uttering deep groans,
Xury leaped into the water, with the
small gun in his hand, and coming close
to the lion, put the muzzle of the gun
to his ear, and fired into his head, which
put him in a moment quite out of his
misery. But, alas! the flesh of a lion


/~no P~.Au; 4Ro rJ~Tuh~& '10

was no food for us; and I was sorry to
have wasted my powder and shot. I
resolved, however, to have his skin;
and having got off the hide, we dried
it in the sun, and it served me to lie
After this we bore away to the south-
ward, and with all the care I had taken
of our provisions, they were nearly ex-
hausted, and I began to fear we should
perish for want of food, when we came
once more in sight of land, and per-
ceived, as we came nearer the shore,
that it was inhabited by Negroes, who
were all perfectly naked. We were
afraid to land amongg these people, who
came in crowds to the beach to look at
us; but we made signs that we wanted
something to eat, upon which two of
them ran away, and presently returned
with a piece of dried flesh and some
corn : these they brought to the edge
of the water, and then retired to a dis-
tance, (for thve were as much afraid of
us as we of them) while Xury swam to
the shore, and brought it to the boat.
We made signs of thanks, for we had
nothing to give in return, when pre-
sncltly two wild beasts sprung from .

neighboring thicket, pursuing each
other with the utmost fury. TheNegroes
lied with great precipitation; but the
creatures, intent only upon each other,
plunged into the sea. 1 seized my gun
and fired upon the first. He imme-
diately made lor the shore, but died be-
fore he reached it.
It is impossible to express the asto-
nishment of the poor negroes at the
noise and fire of my gun : but when
they saw the creature actually dead,
their astonishment gave place to joy.
It was a beautifully spotted leopard. I
gave the flesh to the negroes, who are
very fond of it, but kept the skin for
myself. Having got some more corn
and some water of them, we again put
to sea, and beat about during eleven
da(vs without offering to go near the
shore. I now grew very pensive, and
was one morning meditating on my
misfortunes, when Xury suddenly cried
out, Master, master; a ship with a
sail!" And the foolish boy was frighted
out or his wits, thinking it must needs
be one of his master's ships sent to
pursue us; but I knew we were got
thr enough out of the reach of the

Moors. I jumped up, and immediately
saw that it was a Portuguese ship; and,
as I thought, bound to the coast of
Guinea for Negroes. But when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some
other way, and did not design to come
any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found
I should not be able to come in their.
way, but that they would be gone by,
before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded my utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw by
the help of their perspective-glasses, that
it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail and lay
by for me, and in about three hours time
I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portu-
guese, and in Spanish, and in French, but
understood none of those languages, but
at last. a Scots sailor, who was on board.
called to me, and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, and that -I
had made my escape out of slavery from

the Moors of Sallee: then they bid me
come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as
any one will believe, that I was delivered
from such a miserable and almost hope-
less condition. Iimmediatcly oKtired all
1 had to the captain of the ship, as a re-
lurn for my deliverance; but he gene-
rously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me when I came to the
Brasils. For," says he, I have saved
your life on no other terms, than as I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition: besides,"
said he, when I carry you to the Brasils,
so far from your own country, if I should
take from you what little you have, you
v ill be sr:rvcd there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, (said
he,) Seignor Inglese, (Mr. English
man,) I will carry you thither in cha-
rity; and those things you have will
help you to buy subsistence there, and
your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal,
so was he just in the performance to a

tittle; for he ordered that none of the
seamen should offer to touch any thing
I had; he took every thing into his owi-
possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have
them again when we came to land, even
so much as my three earthern jars.
As to my boat, he saw it was a very
good one, and told me he would buy it of
me fdr the ship's use, and asked mewhat
I would have for it. I told him he had
been so generous to me in every thing,
that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him;
upon which he told me he would give me
a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at the Brasils; and when
it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up: he offered.
me also sixty pieces of eight fo~my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take; not that
I was unwilling to let the captain have
him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boyan
obligation to set him free in ten years, if
c O

he turned christian. Upon this, and
Xury saying he was willing to go to him,
I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the
Brasils, and arrived in the bay de Todos
los Santos, or All Saints bay, in twenty-
two days after. And now I was once
more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do
next with myself I had still to consider.
The generous treatment the 'captain
gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's
ski;v, wMhich I had in my boat, and caused
evcry thing I had to be punctually deli-
\red to me, and what I was willing to
sel!, he bought. In short, I made about
t% o hundred and twenty pieces of money
of all my cargo, and with this stock I
went on shore in the Brasils.
The captain recommended me to the
house of a good honest man like himself,
who had an ingenio, as they call it, that,
is, a plantation and a sugar-house. I lived
with him some time, and acquainted
myself with the manner of their planting
and making of sugar; and seeing how

the planters lived, and that they grew
rich, I resolved, if I could get a license to
settle there, I would turn planter among
them; intending, in the meantime, to
find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to
me. To this purpose I got a letterofnatu-
ralization, purchasing as much land that
was uncultivated, as my money would
reach; and formed a plan of my plan-
tation and settlement, such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I
proposed to myself to receive from
I had a neighbour, a Portugese of Lis-
bon, but born of English parents, whose
name was Wells, and in much such cir-
cumstances as I was: I call him neigh-
bour, because his plantation lay next to
mine; and we went on very sociably to-
gether: my stock was brtt low as well as
his; and we rather planted'for food, than
any thing else for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our
:and to come into order: so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made
each of us a large piece of ground ready
fbr planting canes in the year to come;
but wec both wanted help; and pow I

found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that
never did right, was no great wonder: I
had no remedy but to go on. I had got
into an employment quite remote to
my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
mv father's house, and broke through aH!
his good advice; nay, I was coming into
the very middle station, or upper degree
of low life, which my f hcr advised me
to before, and which, if 1 resolved to go
on with, I might as well have stayed at
home, and never have fatigued m self in
the world as I had done. 1 used often to
say to myself,-I could have done this
as well in England among my friends,
as to have gone five thousand miles off to
do it among strangers and savages in a
wilderness, and at such a distance, as
never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon
my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with but now
and then this neighbour; no work to be
done but by the labour of my own hands;
and I used to say, I lived just like a man

cast away upon some desolate island,
that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been, and how should
all men reflect, that, when they compare
thCir present condition with others that
:are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity by their experience.
1 say, how just has it been, that the truly
solitary life I reflected on in an island,
of mere desolation, should be my lot,
who had so often unjustly compared it
n ith the life which I then led, in which,
ha.d I caotinued, I had in all probability
bc-,n exceeding prosperous and rich!
1 was in some degree settled in my
measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend the captain of the
ship, that took me up at sea, wentback;
for the ship remained there in providing
her loading, and preparing for her vot '
nge, near three months; whe6n telling
him what little stock I had left'behinl
me in London, he gave me this friendly
and' sincere advice Seignor Inglese,"
said he, for so he always called me, if
yotu will give me letters and a procu-
ration here in form, with orders to
the- person who has your money in Lonh.

don, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this coun-
try, I will bring you theproduce of them,
(God willing) on my return; but since
human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give or-
ders but for one hundred pounds ster
ling, which you say is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first;
so that if that come safe, you may order
the rest the same way; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have re-
course to for your supply.'
This was wholesome advice, and look-
ed so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters
td the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a
full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the hu-
inanity of his behaviour, and in what
condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and
when this honest captain came to Lis-


bon, he found means, by some of the
English merchants there, to send over
not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant in London,
who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon, she not only delivered
the money, but out of her own pocket
sent the Portugal captain a handsome
present for his humanity and charity
to me.
The merchant in London vesting this
hundred pounds in English goods, such
as the captain had written for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safety the Brasils; among
which, without my direction, (for I was
too young in my business to think of
them) he had taken care to have all sorts
of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were
of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my
fortune made; and my good steward the
captain had laid out the money which
my friend had sent him as a present for
himlri f, to purchase and bring me over a
servant under bond for six years service;
and would not hear of any considera-
tion, except a little tobacco, which I

would have him accept, being of my
own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods
being all English manufactures, as cloth,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly va-
luable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first car-
go, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the first thing
I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and an
European servant also; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is often
times made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me.
I went on the next year with great suc-
cess in my plantation; I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours;
and these fifty rolls being each of above
one hundred pounds weight, were well
cured and laid by against the return of
the fleet from Lisbon. And now, in-
creasing in business and wealth, my

head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as
are indeed often the ruin of the best
heads in business.
Having now lived almost four years
in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion, I had not only learned the language,
but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow planters, as
well as among the merchants at. St. Sal-
vadore, wiich was our port; and that in
my discourse among them, I had fre-
quently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the
manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles, (suchasibeads,
toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like) not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but
Negroes, for the service of the Brasils, in
great numbers.
The planters always listened very at-
tentively to my conversation on this
subject; but especially to that pirt
which related to the buying of Negroes,
which was a trade at that time wet far

entered into ; but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the permission of
the king of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock; so that
few Negroes were bought, and those
were excessively dear.
Being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very ear-
nestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had
been musing very much upon what I
had conversed with them about the last
night; and they came to make a pro-
posal to me: and after-enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had
a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for no-
thing so much as servants; that, as they
could not publicly sell the Negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; wishing that I
would go their super-cargo in the ship,
to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and thev offered me,

that I should have my equal share of
the Negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be
confessed, had it been made to any one
who had not had a settlement and plan-
tation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock
upon it: hut for me, that was thus esta-
blished, and had nothing to do but go
on as I had begun for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other
1001. from England, and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth 3,0001.
or 4,0001., and that increasing too--for
me to think of such a voyage, was.the
most preposterous thing that ever man
in such a situation could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own
destroyer, could no more resist the offer
than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel
was lost upon me. In a word, I told
them I would go with all my heart, if
they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct,

if I miscarried. This they all engaged
to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a for-
mal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my
life, as before, my universal heir; but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as
I had directed in my will: one half of
the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution
to preserve my effects and keep up my
plantation. I-ad I used half as inuch
prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and ought
not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an un-
dertaking; 'leaving all the probable
views of thriving circumstances, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended
with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reason I had to expect,
particular misfortunes to befal myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed
blindly the dictates of my fancy rather
than my reason; and accordingly, the
ihip being fitted out, and the cargo

finished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voy-
age, I went on board in an evil hour
again, September 1, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went fros.
my father and mother at Hull, in ord4a-i
to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.
We had been at sea about a fortnight
when a violent hurricane, or tornado,
arose, and drove us quite out of our
knowledge. For twelve days we beat
about, at the mercy of the winds and
waves, expecting to be swallowed up at
every instant. In this distress, the wind
still blowing very hard, one of our men,
early in the morning, cried out, "Land'"
And scarcely had we time to run up on
deck to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, be-
fore the ship struck upon a bank of
sand; and in a moment the sea broke
over us with such violence, that we
seemed to have but little chance of
escaping with our lives.
Only those persons who have been in
the same dreadful circumstances can
imagine the grief and terror with which
we looked on one another, ignorant
D 2

whether we were driven upon an un-
inhabited island, or on a coast peopled
by savages; expecting also that the ship
would fall to pieces every moment, by
the violence with which she beat upon
the sand.
Our mate was the only person on
board who had presence of mind enough
to think of throwing the boat over the
ship's side, and with great difficulty we
all (eleven of us) got into it, and strove
with our utmost might to row to land;
but after we had rowed about a league
and a half from the ship, a raging wave
came rolling, mountain-like, towards us:
we foresaw the event-the wave overset
the boat, and we were all swallowed up
in a moment.
I saw no more of my unfortunate
companions; for the wave that threw
us all into the sea, carried me a vast way
on towards the shore, and, having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the
beach almost dry. I got upon my feet,
and endeavoured to reach the mainland;
but another enormous wave presently
overtook me, and buried me at once
twenty or thirty f'et deep in its own
body, carrying me wNith a mighty force

Lo~ ~ ~ ~/-n __d4~/,9d/~~;u /(.

and swiftness towards the shore; whi--
I held my breath, and assisted myself t ?
swim forward with all my might. I wii
ready to burst with holding my breath,
when I felt my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time
that I could keep myself so, yet it.re-
lieved me greatly, gave me breath and
new courage.
I stood still a few moments to re.
cover breath, when another wave, hav-
ing hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me against a piece
of a rock; and that with such force, as
left me senseless, and indeed helpless,
as to my own deliverance; for had the
wave returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water:
but I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and held fast by a part
of the rock till the wave abated, and
then took another run, which brought
me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me; yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away;
and the next run I took, I 'gtt tthe
mainland, where, to my great mifort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,

and sat dovk upon the grass, free from
danger, anddquite out of the reach of
the water.
I was now lanced and safe on shore,
and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved in a case which,
some minutes before, afforded scarce any
room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soulare when it is thus saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave.
For suddenjoys, like griefs, confound at first."
I w4lked about on the shore, lifting
up my hands, and my whole being,
wrapped up in the contemplation of
my deliverance, making a thousand ges-
tures and motions which I cannot de-
scribe, reflecting upon all my compa-
nions that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three
of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes toward the stranded
vessel, and could hardly see it, it lay so
far off; and again I exclaimed, how was
it possible I could get on shore !

After I had solaced my mind with the
comfortable part of my condition, -I
began to look round me, to see what
kind of a place I was in, and what was
next to be done; when I soon found my
comforts abate, and that I had had but
a dreadful deliverance. I was wet; had
no clothes to shift me, nor any thing
either to eat or drink, to comfort me;
neither did I see any prospect before
me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and
that which was particularly afflicting to
me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sus-
tenance, or to defend myself against any
other creature that might desire to kill
me for theirs. I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
Tobacco in a box; this was all my pro;
vision; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, so that for a while I ra n
about like a madman. Night coming .
upon me, I began, with a heavy;heart
to consider what would be my:tlot if
there were any ravenous beasts in the
island, knowing that at night they always
come abroad for their prey. .--

All the remedy that offered to my
thoughts at that time was, to get up
into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die;
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find some fresh water to
drink, which I did to my great joy; and
having drank and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to
the tree, and, getting up into it, endea-
voured to place myself so, as that, if I
should sleep, I might not fall. I cut me
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my
dcfence; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it, that, I think,
I ever was on such an occasion.
I did not awake till it was broad day,
the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage as before :
but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the

swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by being dashed against it: this was
within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright, I wished myself on board,
that, at least, I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.
When I came down from my apart-
ment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to get
to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of
water between me and the boat, which
was about half a mile broad; so I came
back, for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present sub-
A little after noon I found the sea very
calm, and the tide ebbed-%o far out, that
I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship: so I pulled off my cloaths, for
the weather was extremely hot, and took
the water; but when I came to the ship;

my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board, for as she lay
aground and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold
of: I swam round her twice, and the se-
cond time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains, so low,
that with little difficulty I got hold of it,
and bythe help of that rope got up into
the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank
of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern was lifted upon the bank, and her
head low almost to the water; by this
means all her quarter was free, and all
that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see
what was spoiled and what was free;
and first I found that all the ship's provi-
sions were dry, and untouched by the
water; and being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room and filled
my pockets with biscuit and eat it as I
went about other things, for I had no
time to lose. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of whichI took a large

dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of to give me spirits for what
was before me. And now I wanted no-
thing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for
what was not to be had; and this extre-
mity roused my application. We had
several spareyards, and two or three large
spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship; I flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage of their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drift away; when this was
done I went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft; and laying
two or three pieces of plank upon them
cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too
light; so I went to work, and with the
carpenter's saw I cut a spare top.mast
into three lengths, and added dam to my .
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains;
but the hope to furnish myself with necesM:-i-
saries encouraged me to go beyond what

38 AbVtKTrlaks 6 Ot
I should have been able to have, done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear
any reasonable weight; rmy next care
was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon t from the
surf of the sea. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what -I most
wanted, I got three of the seamen's
chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; the first of these I filled with
provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh
which we lived much upon, and' a little
remainder of European corn, which had
been laid by for some fowls which we
brought to sea with us, but the 'fowls
were killed; there had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my grept
disappointment, I found that the rats
had eaten and spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bott
ties belonging to our skipper, in -which
Were some cordial waters, and in all
about five orsix gallons of arrack; these
I stowed by themselves, there being no
need to put them in the chest, nor any

L o Pndhon JT zn bZ, Tbart r &

i of
A 1

room for them. While I was doing
this, I found the tide began to flow,
and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim-
ming away. This put me upon rum-
maging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I was more intent
upon other things, such as, tools to work
with on shore; and after long searching
I found the carpenter's chest, which was
indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-load
of gold would have been at that time; I
got it down to my raft without loosing
time to look into it, for I knew in gene-
ral what it contained.
My next care was for some ammuniu-
tion and arms. There were two fowling
pieces in the great cabin, and two pistol;
these I secured first with some powder
horns, and a small bag of shot, and two
rusty swords: with much search I found
two barrels of gunpowder dry and good,
and a third which had taken water; .those
two I got to my raft with the arms. And
now I thought myself pretty wellfreight-
ed, and began to consider how Ishaould gt

to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, or rudder; and the least gust of
wind would have overset all my navi-
I had three encouragements: a smooth
calm sea;. the tide rising and setting into
the shore; and \ihat little wind there
was blew me towards the land. Having
found two or three broken oars belong-
ing to the boat, and, besides the tools
Which \were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and an hammer; and with
this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or
thereabouts, my raft went very well, only
that I found it drive a little distant from
the place \where I had landed before; by
which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
It proved to be a creek; and in en-
deavouring to keep in the middle of the
stream, 1 had like to have suffered a se-
cond shipwreck, which, had it been so,
would, I think verily, have broke my
heart; for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft, ran aground at one end
tupon a shotl, and my cargo was

sliding off towards that end that was
still afloat, I set my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength, neither durst Istir from the pos-
ture I was in; but holding up the chests
with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the tide
flowing, my raft floated again; anddriving
up higher I found myself in the mouth of
a little river, with land on both sides. -
I observed a little cove on the right
shore of the creek, to which with great
pain and difficulty I guided my raft, for
I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping in time to see some
ship at fea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could,
Having got safe into the cove at high
tide, though my raft drew about a foot
of water, I thrust her upon a flat piece
of ground, and there moored her bystick-
ing my two broken oars into the-ground;
one on one side near one endaWil one
on the other side near the other end; arid
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, add
left myraft and all my cairgoAfeon shore. ,
My next work \,as to 'ie ;.. he cot i
try, and seek a proper place for my. ha-

bitation, and where to stow my goods, to
secure them from whatever might hap-
pen. Where I was, I yet knew not, whe-
ther on the continent or on an island;
whether inhabited or not inhabited; whe-
ther in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high,
and seemed to over-top some other hills
which lay as in a ridge from it northward.
I took out one of the fowling pieces.
and one of the pistols, and an horn of
powder; and thus armed, I travelled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficul-
ty reached the top, I saw, to my great af-
fliction, that I was in an island environed
every way with the sea, no land to be
seen, except some rocks which lay a
great way off, and two small islands less
than this I was cast on, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in
was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of which, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew
riot their kinds; neither when I killed
them, could I tell what was fit for food,

and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird which I saw sitting
upon a tree on the side of a great wood-:
I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, but from
all parts of the wood there arose an in-
numerable number of fo wls of many
sorts, making a confused screaming and
crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of any kind that I
knew: as for the creature that I killed, I
took it to be a kind of an hawk, its co-
lour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common; and
its flesh was carrion and good for nothing.
Contented *with this disc6verv, I came
back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on0 shore, \i which took me up
the rest of that day: what to do with my-
self at night I knew not, nor indeed i here
to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild
beast might devour me, though I after-
wards found there was really no need for
those fears.
H. however, as well as I could, I barri-
radoed myself round with chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and

made a kind of an hut for my shelter,
yet I dreaded to lie down, fearing the at-
tack of wild beasts; none however came
near me, and I passed the night in silence
,and in safety.
On the following day I again swam to
the ship, for I knew that the first storm
that came would dash her to pieces, and
I resolved to get every thing on shore
that would be useful to me before I at-
tempted to fix my habitation.
I made a second raft which I loaded
with a good hammock and plenty of bed-
ding, all the mens clothes I could find,
with sails and canvas, and as much of the
rigging, ropes, and twine, as I could get;
bags of nails, a screw jack, two dozen
of hatchets, and that most useful thing a
I was under some apprehensions dur-
ing my absence from the land, that my
provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came I found no sign of any
visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wild cat upon one of the chests, which
when I came towards it, ran away to
a little distance, and then stood still;
she sat very composedly, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind

to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not
understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned, nor did she offer to stir; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though
I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great. However, I spared her a
small piece, and she went to it, smelled
at it, and eat it, and looked (as if
pleased) for more; but I thanked her,
and could spare no more; so she march-
ed off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,
I went to work to make a tent, with a
sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; into this tent I brought every
thing that I knew would spoil, either with
rain or the sun. And I piled all the
empty casks and chests in a circle round
:the tent, to fortify it against any attacks
of man or beast. I then blocked up the
door of my tent with some boards, and
spreading one of the beds which I had
brought on shore, I lay down with my
gun and pistols close beside me, and
slept very soundly all night,
After several other voyages to the
ship, I had the good fortune to find .7
a large hogshead of biscuit, amthei~or

rum, a box of sugar, and a barrel of
fine flour. There were more provisions
on board, but they were all spoiled by
the salt water. I also on the same day
discovered a locker, with three razors, a
.large pair of scissars, and a dozen knives
and forks in it, and thirty-six pounds in
money. The money was now a mere
useless drug, but hoping it might here-
after serve me, I wrapped it in canvas
and took it with me.
I had nowbeen thirteen days on shore,
and had been eleven times on board the
ship. In the last visit I loaded my raft
too heavily, and it overset. By this ac-
cideni I lost a quantity of iron that
would have been very useful to me, but
the planks and cables drifted on shore
with the tide.
Had the fine weather continued, I be-
lieve I should have brought away the
whole ship piecemeal, but on the night
of my last visit the wind blew very
hard ail night, and when I left my hut in
the morning the ship was no more to be
seen. I was greatly affected by this event:
it seemed to me that I had lost my last
friend, and was now more deserted and
alone than I had been before. I at

down on the ground to gaze on the rock
where the ship had been, and tears ran
down my cheeks, till my kind dog came
and fawned upon me. His caresses ba-
nished my melancholy thoughts, and I
rose up resolved to make the best of my
condition; and to this end, I began to
consider what sort of a dwelling I should
construct, that would best secure me
from the attacks of savages, or wild
beasts, if any such should visit the island.
In determining on a situation I con-
sulted several things which I found would
be proper for me; first, health and fresh-
water; secondly, shelter fiom the heat
of the sun; thirdly, security from raven-
ous creatures,' whether men or beasts';
fourthly,a view of the sea, that, if a ship
came in sight, I might not lose the chance
of deliverance:-my only hope and anxi-
ous expectation.
I fixed at length upon a small plain
that sloped towards the sea shore, and
lay at the foot of a high perpendicular *
rock, so steep that nothing could come
down to assault me from above. I made
a half circle on the plain, roundLa hollow
part of the rock, into which I drove rows
of stakes, about five feet high, and stand-

ing about six inches from each other. I
then piled rows of pieces of cable close
to the stakes, and within them I drove
other stakes leaning against them about
two feet and a half high; and this fence,
which cost me much time, and excessive
labour, was so strong that nothing could
break through it. 1 made no door-way,
but used, for entering my habitation,
a short ladder, which, when I was on
the top of my wall, I lifted over
after me, so that I thought my-
self completely fenced in from all the
Into this fence, or fortress, with infi-
nite perseverance and difficulty, I carried
all my riches, provisions, ammunition,
and stores. I next made a large tent
within my wall, and a smaller one within
that, and covered the whole with a tar-
paulin to secure them from the heavy
rains ; and in the small tent I swung my
hammock, which had belonged to the
mate of the ship, and lay very com-
My next operation was to work my
way into the rock; and I soon made a
cave behind my tent, which served as a
kitchen and cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour before. all
these things were brought to perfection.
A storm of rain falling at this time frbm
a thick dark cloud, accompanied with a
sudden flash of lightning, and after that
a great clap of thunder, a thought darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself-' Oh my powder!' My very heart
sunk within me, when I reflected that at
one blast all my powder might be de-,
stroyed; on which not only my defence
but the providing my food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was not anxious
about my own danger; though, had the
powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.
Such an impression did this make upon
me, that, after the storm was over, I laid.
aside all my works, my building and-
fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate my powder,
in hopes that, whatever might happen,
it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another..
I finished this work in about a fortnight;.
and I think my powder, which -was in all:
about hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided in not less than a hundxre -'

parcels. As to the barrel that had been
wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that, so I placed it in my new cave,
which I called my kitchen; and the rest
I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that' no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid
In the interval of time, while all this
was doing, I went out once every day
with my gun in search of food. I soon
found that there were plenty of goats in
the island; but they were so subtle and
swift of foot, that I could not come
near them. After many. fruitless at-
tempts, I observed, that if they were on
the rocks and I in the valley, they
fled with far more precipitation than
when I descended from the rocks when
they were feeding in the valley. I
therefore concluded that the position
of their eyes was such, that they could
not readily see objects above them, I
found this opinion to be verified when,
having climbed the rocks immediately
above where they were feeding, I had
a fair mark, and shot a she-goat which
was giving suck to a little kid beside

Pa1 Jt~t,<,o f4y Z-b er"- eZon .

I was very much grieved to have shot
the old one; and when I took her up to
carry her home, the poor little kid bfl-
lowed me, bleating for its dam. I car-
ried the kid over my enclosure, and
offered it food, intending to have bred.
it up tame; but the poor thing would
not eat, and after two days it died.
The goat served me as meat a long
time; for I eat very sparingly, and.
saved my provisions, especially my
bread, as much as I possibly could.
I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts .about
living, which, it may well be suppd ed,
were not few. I had a dismal propext-
of my condition; for,. as I was not .CsE
away upon that island withdot -bea
driven by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, S~tne
hundreds of leagues out of the odi r i y
course of the trade of mankiid, a i:
great reason to consider it as a detetini-
nation of Heaven, that in thip desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, .
should end my life. The tears Would run
plentifully down my face when I made
*tlhse reflections; and soietiniesI would
expostulate with myself.iy' :YFmsi

dence should thus completely ruin his
creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable, so without help abandoned,
so entirely depressed, that it would-
hardly be rational to be thankful for
such a life.
But something always returned swift
upon me to check these thoughts, and
to reprove me; and particularly one
day walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated
with me in this way: 'Well, you are
in a desolate condition, it is true; but
pray, remember, where are the rest of
you ? Did not you come eleven of
. you into the boat ? Where arc the
ten ? Why were not they saved, and
you lost ? Why were you singled out?
Is it better to be here or there ?' And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the good that is
in them, and with what attended aggra-
vations they might have.
Then it occurred to me again, how
well I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my
case if it had not -happened, that

the ship floated from the place where
she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to
get all these things out of her. What
would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition
in i which I at first came on shore, with-
out the necessaries of life, or any
means to procure them ? Particularly,
said I, aloud, what could I have done
without a gun; without ammunition;
without any tools to \ ork with; with-
out clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of covering ? And that now
I had all these to a sufficient quan-
tity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live
% without my gun when my ammunition
u as spent.
And now, being to enter into a me-
lincloly relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in
its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September when I first set foot
upon this horrid island; 'when the sun,
being to us, in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over ,my head; for I

reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of 9 degrees -2 minutes
north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or
twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books and pen and ink, and
should even forget the sabbath days
.from the working days; but to prevent
this, I cut it with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz. I came
on shore hcre on the 30th of September,
1659. Upon the sides of this square
post, I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month as long again as that
long one ; and thus I kept ny calendar,
or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckon-
ing of time.
In the next place we are to observe,
that, among the many things which I
brought out of the ship in the several
voyages which I made to it, I got seve-
ral things of less value, but not at all
less useful to me, which I omitted set-
ting down before.; as, i particular,

pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping; three or four conm-
passes, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of
*navigation; all which I huddled toge-
ther, whether I might want them or not:
also I found three very good bibles,
which came to me in my cargo. from
England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese
books also, and among them two or
three popish prayer-books, and several
other books, all which I carefully se-
cured. And I must not forget that we had
in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried
both the cats with me; and as for the
dog he jumped out of the ship himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me for many
years. I wanted nothing that he could
do for me, nor any company that. he
could make up to me: I only wished to
have him talk to me, but that. was im-
I now found I wanted many thiau .
r3 -

notwithstanding all that I had amassed
together; and of these, that of ink was
one ; as also a spade, pick-axe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pens, and thread. As for linen,
I soon learned to want that without*
much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I
undertook go on heavily, and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished
my pale, or surrounded my habitation.
The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts,
and a third day in driving it into the
ground: driving these posts, or piles,
was a very laborious and tedious work
But what need had I to be concerned
with the tediousness of any thing I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it
in; nor had I any other employment if
that had been over, at least, that I could
foresee; except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did more or
less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my
condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come
after me, (forlwas likelyto have but few
heirs) but to relieve my thoughts from
daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, and to
set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish
my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor,
(the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered) thus:-

I am cast upon a horri-
ble desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and
.separated, as it were,
from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from
mankind ; a solitary'
one, banished from all
human society.

But I am alive, and
not drowned, as all my
ship's company were.
But I am singled out
too from all the ship's
crew -to be spared from
death ; and I E that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not tarved
and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no


I have no clothes to
cover me.

I am without any de-
fence, or means to re-
sist any violence of man
or beast.

I have no soul to
speak to or to relieve

But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an
island where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of
;Africa: and what if I
had been shipwrecked
But Cod wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to the shore,
I have gotten out so
many necessary things
as will enable me to
supply myself, even as
long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an un-
doubted testimony that there was scarcely
any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something negative, or
something positive, to be thankful for
'in it; and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most misera-
ble of all conditions in this world, that
we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set in
the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little
to relish my condition, I came by im-
perceptible degrees into that state of
contentment and resignation, that my
labour was no longer a cheerless toil;
but I looked with pleasure on the many
comforts and conveniences my labour
produced for me.
Having finished my dwelling, I applied
myself to make a table and chair, the
want of which was a daily inconvenience
to me. I was particularly awkward when
I first began this work, and a skilful car-
penter would have laughed to see the
clumsy manner in which I handled my
saw, adze, aud hatchet; yet, by applica-
tion and contrivance, I found at last that
I overcame all my difficulties, and made
not only my chair and table, but shelves,
and many other conveniences, which
made my tent not only more commo-
dious, but gave it that look of order,
neatness, and arrangement, which is at
all times so pleasing to the eye, whether
in a cave on a desert island, or in a
splendid palace.
My cave seemed now like a general
magazine of all useful things ready to
the hand;, and I rejoiced heartily to find

my stock of necessary stores even larger
than I had at first supposed them to
My table and chair were a great solace
to me; and every day, as long as my
ink lasted, I kept a journal of my occu-
pations, my observations, and of every
thing that befel me; of which journal I
shall give a copy, though in it will be
told all these particulars over again.

September 30, 1659. I, poor misera-
ble Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked
during a dreadful storm in the Offing,
-came on shore on this dismal, unfortu-
nate island, which I call The Island of
Despair; all the rest of the ship's com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost
All the rest of that day I spent in
afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz. I had nei-
ther food, house, clothes, weapon, or
place to fly to; and, in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me:
either that I should be devoured by wild
beasts, murdered by savages, or starved
to death for want of food. At the ap-

proich of night I slept in a tree, for fear
of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw,
to my great surprise, the ship had float-
ed with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island. This
was some comfort, as I hoped if the wind
abated I might get on board, and get
some food and necessaries out of her
for my relief, which I did.- I went upon
the sand as near to the ship as I could,\
and then swam on board. This day also
it continued raining, though with nio
wind at all.
From the 1st to the 14th was entirely"
spent in many several voyages to get
all I could out of the ship, which t
brought on shore every tide, -upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days;
though with some intervals of f.ai::
weather: but it seems this was the ainy;
season. .
SOct. 20 I overset my raft and all
the goods I had got upon it;. but, being
in sloal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.

Oct. 35. It rained all night and all
day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the
wind blowing a little harder than before,
and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I had saved, that the
rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 16. I walked about the shore
almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation; greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the
night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper
place under a rock, and marked out a
simicircie for my encampment, which
I resolved to strengthen with a work,
wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable, and with-
out with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked
very hard in carrying all my goods to
my new habitation, though some part of
the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st in the mornin-g I went out
into the island with my gun to see for
some food, and discover the country,

when I killed a she-goat, and her kid
followed me home, which afterwards
died, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under
a rock, and lay there for the first night,
making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
The next day I set up all my chests and
boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my raft, and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within .the
place I had marked out for my fortifi-
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and
killed two fowls, like ducks, which were
very good. In the afternoon, went to
work to make my table. The next morn-
ing I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep,
and time of diversion; viz. every morn-
ing I walked out with my gun for two or
three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about ten; theat
eat what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the
weather being excessively hot; and then
in the evening to work again. The work
ing part of this day and- the next were
wholly'employed in making my tables

for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as
I believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with
my gun and my dog, and killed a wild
cat, her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing: every creature I killed
I took of' their skins and preserved them.
Coming back by tke sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of fowls, whose species I did
not know; but was surprised and almost
frighted with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and es-
caped from me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I
went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my lik-
ing; nor was it long before I learned to
nend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and a
part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sun-
day) I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me:
and even in the making, I pulled it to
pieces several times.

Nov., 13. This day it rained, which
refreshed and exceedingly cooled the
earth; but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully for fear of my
As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I
spent in making little square chests or
boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds, at most, of powder; and
so putting the powder in, I stowed if in
Places as secure and remote from one
another as possible. On one of thee
three days I killed a large bird that was
good to eat, but I knew not what to
call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig be-
hind my tent into the rock, to make
room for my further conveniencies.
Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work, viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and
a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I desisted
from my work and began to consider how
to supply these wants, and make me some
tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of

the iron crows, which were properenough.
though heavy : but the next thing was a
shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching
the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or
one like it, which in the Brasils they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding harness;
of this, with great labour, and almost
spoilingmy axe, I cuta piece, and brought
it home too, with difficulty enough, for
it was very heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood,
made me a long while employed upon
this machine; for I worked it effectu-
ally by little and little into the form
of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that
the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at the bottom, it would not last
me so long; however, it served well
enough for the use which I had occa-
sion to put it to; but never was a sho-
vel, I believe, made after that fashion, or
so long a making.
I was still deficient of a basket,
or Wheel-barrow; a basket I could

not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend, to
make wicker ware, at least norne yet
found out; and as to the wheel-barrow,
I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of, neither did I
know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make the iron gud-
geons for the spindle or axis of the wheel
to run in, so I gave it over; and for
carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod
which the labourers carry mortar in, when
they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as
the making the shovel; and yet this,
and the shovel, and the attempt which
I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow
took me up no less than four days,
excepting my morning walk with my
gun, which I seldom neglected; and
very seldom failed to bring home some-
thing to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now
stood still, because of my making these
tools; when they were finished I wenbon,
and working every day, as my strength
and time allowed, I spent eighteen days.
entirely in widening and deepening my

- I

cave, that it might hold my goods com-
During all this time I worked to make
this room or cave spacious enough to
accommodate me as a warehouse or ma-
gazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar; as for my lodging, I kept to the
tent, except that sometimes in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused
me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves
of trees like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think
my cave or vault finished, when on a
.udden (itseems I had made it too large) a
.great quantity of earth fell down from the
top and one side, so much that in short it
frighted me, and not without reason too;
for if I had been under it, I had never
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this dis-
aster I had great deal of work to do over
again; for I had the loose earth to carry
out, and which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with
itaccordingly, and got two shores orposts
pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post;
this I finished the next day; and setting
more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off my house.
Dec..17. From this day to the twen-
tieth I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts to hang every thing up
that could be hung up; and now I began
to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20. Now I carried every thing
into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, andfixedup some pieces of boards
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon,.
but boards began to be very scarce with
me; also I made me another table.
Dec. 24 and 25. Much rain; no stir-
ring out.
Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much
cooler than before, and pleasanter,
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and
lamed another so that I caught it, and
led it home in a string; when I had it
home, I-bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke. N. B. I took such

care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever; by nurs-
ing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green before my door, and
would not go away. This was the first
time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heats, and no
breezes; so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening for food.
This time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went
abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening going further into the allies,
whichlay towards the centre of the island,
I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day, I
went out with my dog, and set him upon
the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon him ; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them,

Jan. 3. I began my fence, or wait,
which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by some body, I resolved to
make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before
I purposely omit what was said in the
journal. It is sufficient to observe,
that I was no less time than from the
third of January to the fourteenth of
April, working, finishing, and perfect-
ing this wall, though it was -no more
than twenty-four yards in length'
being a half-circle from one place in
the rock to another place about eight
vards from it; the door of the cave
being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the
rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but Ibelieved
I should never be perfectly secure till
this wall was finished. It is scarcely tredi-
ble what inexpressible labour every thing
was done with; -especially the bringing
piles out of the woods and driving them
into the ground, for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the
outside double fenced with a turf-welf
raised up close to it, I persuaded myself

fS W vIEutsss or
jhat if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive
any thing like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed
hereafter upon a remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds
in the woods for game every, day when
the rain permitted me, and made fre-
quent discoveries in these walks of some-
thing or other to my advantage; parti-
cularly I found a kind of wild pidgeons,
that built not, as wood-pidgeons, in a
tree, but rather, as house-pidgeons, in
the holes of the rocks; and taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they all flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them.
However, I frequently found their nests,
and got their young ones, which .were
:very good meat.
And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself in want of
many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make. For
instance, I could never make -a cask to
be hooped; I had a small runlet or two,
but I could never arrive to the capacity

of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it: I could neither
put in the heads or join the staves so true
to one another as to make them hold
water, therefore I gave that attempt over.
There was yet another material want
unsupplied, namely candles: I did at
length find a substitute for them. When
I killed a goat I saved the tallow, and
put it into a little dish made of clay and
baked in the sun. I put a wick of oakum
into the tallow; and had a lamp which
gave me light enough to read, write, or
work by, though it did not yield so
clear and steady a flame as that of a
It happened, when I was arranging
my stores on the shelves, that I found a
bag which had once been filled with
corn for the fowls we had on board the
ship. There appeared to be only a few
dry husks remaining, which I shook out;
intending to fill the bag with gun-pow-
der. It was a little before some great
rains which fell, that I emptied these
husks by the side of the rock; and about
a month afterwards,-whcn I did not so
much as recollect- what I had thrown
away there, I saw some green .stal~

shooting out of the earth; and perfectly
astonished was I, in a little time, to see
these shoots ripen into ten or twelve
ears of English barley.
I can scarcely express the agitation of
my mind at this sight. Hitherto I had
looked upon the actions of this life, no
otherwavs than only as the eventsof blind'
chance and fortune; but now the ap-
pearance of this barley, flourishing in a
barren soil, and my ignorance in not
conceiving how it could come there,
made me conclude that miracles were
not yet ceased: nay, I even thought that
God had appointed it to grow there
without any seed, purely for my sus-
tenance in this miserable and desolate
island. And, indeed, such great effect
this had upon me, that it often made me
melt into tears, through a grateful sense
of God's mercies; and the greater still
was my thankfulness, when 1 perceived
about this little field of barley some rice-
stalks also wonderfully flourishing.
Thus pleased in mind I concluded
there must be more corn in the island,
and therefore made a diligent search
narrowly among the rocks; but not
being able to find any, on a sudden

it came into my mind how I had shaken
the husks of corn out of the bag, and
then my admiration ceased, with my gra-
titude to the divine Being, as thinking it
was but natural, and not to be conceived
a miracle; though, even within the man-
ner of its preservation, might have made
me own it as a wonderful event of God's
kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June
when the ears of this corn ripened,
which I laid up very carefully, together
with twenty or thirty stalks of rice, ex-
pecting I one day should reap the fruits
of my labour; yet four years were ex-
pired before I would allow myself to
eat any bread, or rather food; for I
found ways to cook it up without
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard three or
four months to get my wall done; and
the 14th of April I closed it up, con-
.triving to go into it, not by a door, but
over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my
April 16. .I finished the ladder; so I
went up by it to the top, and then pulled
it up after me, and let it down on the

inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough,
and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could first mount my
But what do all human pains and
industry avail, if the blessing of God
do not crown our labours ? Or who
can stand before the Almighty, when he
stretcheth forth his arm ?"
The very next day after this wall was
finished I had almost had all my labour
overthrown at once, and myself killed.
The case was thus: as I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the
entrance into my cave, on a sudden I
fund the earth came tumbling down
from the roof of my cave, and from the
edge of the hill over my head, and two
of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a most frightful manner. I
was heartily scared; but thought nothing
of what was really the cause, only think-
ing ihat the top of my cave was falling
in, as some of it had done before; and,
for fear I should be buried in it, I ran
forward to my ladder; and, not thinking
viyself safe there neither, I got over my
wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill,
.which I expected might roll down. upon

me. I was no sooner stept down upon the
firm ground than I plainly felt it was a
terrible earthquake, for the ground I
stood upon shook three times in about
eight minutes, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest,
building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of
the top of a rock, which stood about,
half a mile from me next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I.
never heard in all my life. I perceived
also that the very sea was put into vio-,
lent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself,
having never felt the like, or conversed
with any one who had, that I was like
one dead or stupified; and the motion.
of the earth made my stomach sick, like.
one that was tossed at sea; but the noise
of the falling of the rock, roused me.
from the stupified condition I was in,
and I thought of nothing then but the,
hill falling upon my tent, and all my,
household goods, and burying all atonce :
and this sunk my very soul within me a,
second time.
After the third shock was over, and I

felt no more for some time, I began to
take courage; and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive; but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do.
All this while I had not the least se-
rious religious thought, nothing but the
common Lord have mercy upon me!"
and when it was over, that went away
While I sat thus, I found the air over-
cast, and grow cloudy, as if it would rain;
and in less than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane: the sea was all
on a sudden covered over with foam and
froth, the shore was covered with the
breach of the water, the trees were torn
up by the roots, and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and
then began to abate; and in two hours
more it was calm, and began to rain
very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground
very much terrified and dejected, when
on a sudden it came into my mind, that
these winds and rain being the conse-
quence of the earthquake, the earth-
quake itself was spent and over, and I
might venture into my cave again. With

this thought 'my spirits began to revive,
and the rain also helpingto persuade me,
I went in, and sat down in my tent; but
the rain was so violent, that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it, and I
was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy for fear it;
should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new-
work, viz. to cut a hole through my iew*
fortification like a sink to let water go
out, which would else have drowfid my
cave. After I had been in my cave some
time, and found no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed; and now to' support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very
much, I went to my little store, and took
a small sup of rum, which however I did;
then, and always very sparingly, know-
ing I could have no more when that was
It continued raining all that night,
and great part of the next day, so that [
could not stir abroad; but my mind bet
ing more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do; concluding, that if
the island was subject to these earth-
quakes, there would be no living for m.
in a gavy but I must consider of build-

ing me some little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall as I
had done here, and so make myself se-
cure from wild beasts or men; but con-
cluded, if I staid where I was, I should
certainly, one timeor other, be buried
With these thoughts I resolved to
remove my tent from the place where
it stood, which was just under the
hanging precipice of the hill, and
which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. And
I spent the two next days, being the
19th and'20th of April, in gntriving
where and how to remove min.ibitation.
The fear of beingswallowed up alive,
made me that I never slept in quiet;
and yet .the apprehension of lying abroad
without any fence was almost equal to it:
but still when I looked about, and saw
how every thing was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe
from danger, it made me very loath to
In the mean time it occurred to me,
that it would require a vast deal of time
to do this, and that I must be contented
to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had se-

Cured it so as to remove it. So with
this resolution I composed myself for a-
time, and resolved that I would go to
work with all speed to build me a wall
with piles and cables, &c. in a circle as
before, and set my tent up in it when it
was finished; but that I would venture
to stay where I was till it was finished
and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning'I began
to consider of means to put this resolve
into execution, but I was at a great loss
about my tools; I had three large axes,
AAd abundance of hatchets, (for we car-
/ried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians,) but with much chopping and cut-
ting knotty hard wood, they were all-full
of notches; and though I had a grind-I
stone, I could not turn it and grind my
tools too. At length I contrived a kind
of a wheel with. -string, to turn it with
my foot, that 'I mighlhaye both my
hands at liberty. I had never seen any
such thing-in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since
I have observed it is very common there;
besides -that, my grindstone was very
large and heavy. This machine cost
me a full week's work to bring it to

April 28, 29. These two whole days I
took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grindstone per-
forming very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread
had been low a great while, now I took
a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my
heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning looking to-
wards the sea-side, the tide being low, I
saw something lie on the shore bigger
than ordinary; and when I came to it,
it proved to be a small barrel, and two
or three pieces of the w reck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane; and looking towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the n ater than it used to
do. On examining the barrel, I found
it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked
as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it
further on shore for the present.
When I camedown to the ship, I found
it strangely removed; the forecastle,
which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet; and the
stern, which was broke to pieces, and
parted from the rest by the force of the

sea, soon after I had left rummaging her,
was tossed up, as it were, and cast on one
side, and the sand was thro wn so high on
that side next her stern, that where there
was a great place of water before, so that
I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I
could now walk quite up to her when
the tide was out; I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must
have been done by the earthquake.
This wholly diverted my thoughts
from the design of removing my habi-
tation; and I busied myself that day in
searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was
to be expected of that kind, for that all
the inside of the ship was choaked up
with sand.
May 3. I began withmy saw, andcuta
piece of abeam through, which I thought
held the upper part or quarter-deck to-
gether, and when I cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the
side which lay highest; but the tide com-
ing in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught
not one fish that I durst eat of, till I wVs
weary of my sport; when just going ti

leave off, I caught a young dolphin.
I made a long line of rope-yarn, but I
had no hooks, yet Ifrequently caught fish
enough, as much as I cared to eat; all
which I dried in the sun, and eat them
May 5 to 14. I went every day to the
wreck, and got a great deal of pieces of
timber and board, or plank, and two or
three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets to try
if I could cut a piece off the roll of lead
by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it in with the other; but as it
lay about a foot and an half in the water,
I could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blowed hard, in the
night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I
staid so long in the woods to get pigeons
for food, that the tide prevented me
going to the wreck that day.
May 24. Every day to this day I work-
ed on the wreck, and with hard labour I
loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the sea-
men's chests; but the wind blowing
from the shore, nothing came to land thai

day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead
which had some Brasil pork in it, but the
salt-water and sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to
the 15th of June, except the time neces-
sary to get food, which I always appoint-
ed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might
be ready when it was ebbed out; and by
this time I had gotten timber and plank,
and iron-work, enough to have built a
good boat, if I had knownhow; andalsoI
got at several times, and in several pieces,
near a hundred weight of sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side,
I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This
was the first I had seen, which, it seems,
was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I hap-
pened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards.
June 17. 1 spent in cooking the turtle:
I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me at that time the most
savoury and pleasant that I ever tasted
inWmy life, having had no flesh, but o6
goats and fowls, since I landed in this
.horrid place.
June 18. Rained all day, and I staye4

within. I thought at this time the rain
felt cold, and 1 was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if
the weather had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent
pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill; frighted almost to
death with the apprehensions of my sad
condition-to be sick, and no help!
Prayed to God for the first time since
the storm off Hull; but scarcely knew
what I said or why, my thoughts being
all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under
dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and
shivering, and then a violent head-ache;
but on the 24th I was much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the
fit held me seven hours; cold fit and hot,
with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no vic-
tuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a
she-goat, and with much difflcuty got it
home, and broiled some of it, and eat;
I would fain have stewed it, and made
some broth, but had no pot.

June 57. The ague again so violent,
that I lay in bed all day, and neither eat
or drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak, I had no strength to
stand up, or to get myself any water to
And now when I began to be sick,
and a distinct view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me;
when my spirits began to sink under the
burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the
fever; conscience, that had slept so long,
awakened, and I began to reproach my-
self with my past life, in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to deal with
me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for
the second or third day of my distemper;
and in the violence as well of the fever
as of the dreadful reproaches of my con-
science, extorted some words from me
like praying to God, though I cannot
say they were either a prayer attSied
with.desires or with hopes: it was-fthei
the voice of mere fright and disfres.
My thoughts were confused;.,the con-
victions great upon my mind; and the
horror of dying in such a miserable

condition, raised vapours into my head
with the mere apprehensions: and in
these hurries of my soul I knew not
what my tongue might express; but it
was rather exclamation; such as, Lord,
what a miserable creature am I! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for
want of help-and what will become of
me Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a
good while.
In this interval the good advice of my
father came to my mind, which I had so
wickedly rejected, viz. That if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless
me; and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to
assist in Imy recovery. Now, said I,
aloud, my dear father's words are come
to pass-God's justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me I
rejected the voice of providence, which
had mercifully put me in a posture, or
station of life, wherein I might have
been happy and easy; but I would nei-
ther see it myself, or learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents. I left
my parents to mourn over my folly,
and now I am left.to mourn under the

consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance, who would have fted.
me into the world, and would have made
every thing easy to me; and now I have
difficulties to struggle with too great for
even nature itself to support, and no
assistance, no help, no comfort, no ad-
vice. Then I cried out, Lord, be my
help, for I am in great distress !
This was the first prayer, if I may call
it so, that I had made for many years.
But I return to my journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat re-
freshed with sleep, I rose to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself;
and the first thing I did, I filled a large
square case bottle with water, and set it
upon my table, in reach of my bed; and
to take off the chill of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together; then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled !
it on the coals, but could eat but very
little; I walked about, but was very
weak, and withal very sad and.hjeavy-
hearted with the thoughts of my misep-
ble condition, dreading the return of sMy
distemper the next day. .
At night I made my supper of there'' .
of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted i
1 2

the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat
I had ever asked God's blessing to, that
I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but
found myself so weak that I could hardly
carry the gun; (for I never went out
without that) so I went but a little way,
and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before
me, and very calm and smooth. As I
sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me:-
What is this earth and sea of which I
have seen so much ? Whence is it pro-
duced ? And what am I and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal-whence are we ? Surely we are
all made by some secret power, who
formed the earth and sea, the air and
sky; and who is that ?
Then it followed most naturally-It is
God that has made it all Well, but
(then it came on strangely) if God have
made all these things, he guides and
governs them all, and all things that
concern them; for the power that could
make all things, must certainly have
power to guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great

RsaIn8sON GOOE. 8.
circuit of his works, either wil4"t his
knowledge or appointment: and if no-
thing happens without his knowledge,
he knows that I am here, and am in this
dreadful condition; and if nothing hap-
pens without his appointment, he has
appointed al this to befal me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to
contradict any of these conclusions; and
therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that
God has appointed all this to befal me;
that I was brought to this miserable cir-
cumstance by his direction, he having
the sole power not of me only, but of
every thing that happened in the world.
Immediately it followed,
Why has God done this to me ? What
have I done to be thus used ? My con-
science presently checked me in that
enquiry, as if I had blasphemed; and
methought it spoke to me like a voice,
' Wretch Dost thou ask what theou hast
done ? Look back upon a dreadfully
mispent life, and ask thyself what tho4Q
hast not done!. Ask, why is it that th o
wast not long ago destroyed ? Why
wast thou not drowned in Yarmoutlh
roads; killed in the fight, when the ship
was taken by the Sallee maJ of wa,;

devoured by the wild beasts on the coast
of Africa; or drowned here, when all the
crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, what have I done !'
I was struck dumb with these reflec-
tions, as one astonished; and had not a
word to say, no not to answer to myself;
but rose up pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went up over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed,
and I had no inclination to sleep; so I
sat down in my chair and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my
distemper terrified me very much, it
occurred to my thoughts, that the Brasi-
lians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers; and I had a
piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests which was quite cured, and
some also that was green and not quite
I went, directed by heaven no doubt;
for in this chest I found a cure for both
soul'and body; I opened the chest, and
found what I looked bfr, viz. the tobacco;
and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the bibles,
which I mentioned before, and which to

this time I had not found leisure or so
much as inclination to look into; I say I
took it but, and brought both that and
the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco, I
knew not exactly, but I tried several ex-
periments with it: I first took a piece of
a leaf and chewed it in my mouth, which
at first almost stupified me, the tobacco
being green and strong; then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose
of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
some upon a pan of coals, and held my
nose close over the smoak as long as I
could bear it, as well for the heat as
almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took
up the bible and began to read, but my
head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least that
time; only having opened the book ca-
sually, the first words that occurred to
me were these-" Call on me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver, and thou
shalt glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case,
and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did after-

wards; for, as for being delivered, the
word had no meaning, as I may say, to
me; the thing was so remote, so impos-
sible in my apprehension of things, that
I began to say as the children of Israel
did, when they were promised flesh to
eat, Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?" So I began to say, Can
God himself deliver me from this place ?"
And as it was not for many years that
any hope appeared, this prevailed very
often upon my thoughts. It grew now
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much, that I inclined to
sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the
cave, lest I should want any thing in the
night, and went to bed; but before I lay
down, I did what I had never done in my
life, I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called
upon him he would deliver me. After
my broken and imperfect prayer was
over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank with it, that I could
scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed, and I presently
found it flew up into my head violently;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked
no more, till by the sun it appeared to

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