Title Page
 The life and adventures of Robinson...
 Robinson Crusoe's vision of the...


The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072744/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and most surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner who lived twenty-eight years in an uninhabited island on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river Oroonoque, with an account of his deliverance thence, and his after surprising adventures
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2, 332 p. : ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Mundell and Son
Publisher: Printed by and for Mundell and Son
Place of Publication: Edinburgh
Publication Date: 1803
Edition: New ed.
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1803   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Scotland -- Edinburgh
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; caption title, p. 179: Further adventures of Robinson Crusoe; p. 311: Robinson Crusoe's vision of the angelic world.
General Note: "Printed by Mundell & Son, Royal Bank Close, Edin."--P. 332.
General Note: Parts I-II and extracts from pt. III of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe; pt. III under title: Serious reflections during the life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe sic.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27691507
System ID: UF00072744:00001

Table of Contents
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    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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    Robinson Crusoe's vision of the angelic world
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Full Text

T7 E










Author of Religious Courtip and various other Wiort.

A new edition.




F ever the ftory of any private man's adven-
tures in the world were worth making pub-
lic, and were acceptable when published, the
Editor of this account thinks this will be fo.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all
that (he thinks) is to be found extant ; the
life of one man beingfcarce capable ofa great-
er variety.
The itory is told with modefly, with fe-
rioufnefs, and with a religious application of
events to the ufes to which wife men always
apply them, viz. to the inftrudion of others
by this example, and tojuftify and honourthe
wifdom of Providence in all the variety of our
circumstances, let them happen how they will.
The Editor believes the thing to be a juft
hiflory of fat; neither is there any appear-
ance of fiCtion in it: And though he is well
aware there are many, who on account of the
very fingular prefervations the author met
with, will give it the name of a romance;
yet, in whichever of thefe lights it fall be
viewed he imagines, that the improvement
of it, as well to the diversion as to the in-
firuaion of the reader, will be the fame; and,
as fuch, he thinks, without farther compli-
ment to the world, he does them a great fer-
vice in the publication.

\V__ ,





N the year 1632 I was born at York, of a reput-
able family. My father was a native of Bre-
men, who, merchandising at Hull for fome time;
gained a very plentiful fortune, and married my mo-
ther in York, who received her firft breath in that
country; and as her maiden name was Robinfon, I
was called Robinfon Kreutznaer, which not being
eafily pronounced in the Engli(h tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crufoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers; the eldeft
was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's regiment, but
flain by the Spaniards; what became of the other I
could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my educa-
tion, my father designing me for the law; yet no-


__ ~___~

thing would ferve me but I muft go to fea, both
agairift the will of my father, the tears of my mother,
and the entreaties of my friends. One morning my
father expaftulated very warmly with me : Says he,
What reason have you to leave your native country,
where there muft be a more certain profpe& of con-
tent and happinefs, than to enter into a wandering
condition of uneafinefs and uncertainty ? He recom-
mended to me Agar's wifli, neither to defre adv'erty
nor riches ; that a middle fate of life was the moft
happy ; and that the high towering thoughts of raif-
ing our condition by wandering abroad, were fur-
rounded with mifery and danger, and often ended
with confusion and disappointment: I entreat you,
nay I command you, fays he, to defift from thefe in-
tentions ; consider your eldeft brother who laid down
his life for his honour, or rather loft it for his dif-
obedience to my will, If you will go, added he, my
prayers however flhall be offered for your preferva-
tion; but a time may come, when, defolate, oppreffed,
or forsaken, you may M ifl you had taken your poor de-
fpifed father's counfel.-He pronounced thefe words
with fuch a moving and paternal eloquence, while
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that feem-
ed to item the torrent of my resolutions.
But this wore off foon, and a little after I informed
my mother that I could not fettle to any bufinefs,
my resolutions were fo strong to fee the world, and
begged the would gain my father's content only to
go one voyage, which if it did not prove profperous
I would never attempt a second ; but my defire
was as vain as my folly in asking : My mother paf-
fionately expreffed her diflike of this proposal, telling
re, That as Jh f wv I was bent upon my own de-
jiru7ion, contrary to their will an.d iy duty, jhe voufd
fay no more, but leave me to nfelf, to do wubatfoever I
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when

one time being at Hull, I met a fchool-fellow of
mine, going along with his father, who was master
of a flip, to London and acquainting him with my
wandering defires, he affured me of my free paffage,
and a plentiful fhare of what was neceffary. Thus,
without imploring a bleffing, or taking a farewell of
my parents, I took flipping on the firft of September
165 ; when our flip having no fooner left the
Humber a-ftern, but there arofe fuch a violent form,
and being extremely fea-fick, I thought the judg-
ments of God defervedly followed me for my dif-
obedience to my dear parents. It was then only
I called to mind the good advice of my father,
how eafy and comfortable was a middle late of life ;
-and if it pleaded God to fet me on dry land once
more, I would return to my parents, implore their
forgivenefs, and bid a final adieu to my wandering
Such were my thoughts while the form conti-
nued; but thefe good refolutions decreafed with the
danger; more especially when my companion came
to me, clapping me on the shoulder: What, Bob!
faid he, fure you was not frightened laft night -with
Scarce a cap-full of wind ?---And do you, cried I,
tall fich a violent Jlorm a capfull of wind ? A
SJlrm, you fool you, faid he, this is nothing; a good
:jhip and fea-room always bafle fuch a fool/h fquall
of wind as that; but you're a frJCh-w~ater failor :
Come, boy, turn out, fee what fine weather we have
now, and a good bowl of punch will drown all yoar
paftforrows. In fort, the punch was made, I was
drunk, and in one night's time drowned both my
repentance and my good resolutions, entirely for-
gettinig the vows and promises I made in my diftrefs ;
and whenever any reflefions would return on me,
what by company and dririking, I foon maftered
thofe fits, as I deridingly called them; but this only
A z

'made way for another trial,, whereby I coldA -zot
but fee how much I was beholden to kind 'pro-
Upon the fixth day we came to an anchor in
Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound with fome
Newcaftle hips, and there being good anchorage.,
and our cables-found, the feamen forgot their late
toil and danger, and fpent their time as merry as if
they had been on flore; but on the eighth day there
arofe fuch a brifk gale of wind, which prevented
our tiding it up the river, and frill increasing, our
fhip rid forecaftle in, having whipped federal large
It was n6t long before horror feized the feamen
themselves, when I heard the master exprefs this me-
lancholy ejaculation, Lord have mercy upon us, we
fall be all loft and undone! For my part, fick unto
death, I kept my cabin till the universal andl moft
dreadful apprehenfions among us of our fpeedy fate
made me get up upon deck,and there I was dreadfully
affrighted indeed; the fea went mountains high; I
could fee nothing but diftrefs ground us; two. hips
had cut their mafts on board, and another was foun-
dered; two more that had loft their anchors were
forced out to the mercy of the ocean; and to fave
our lives, we were forced to- cut our foremaft.and
mainmaft quite away.
SWho is there fo ignorant as not to judge of my
dreadful condition ? I was but a frefh-water sailor,
.and therefore it fiemed more terrible. Our fhip was
very good, but too much. loaden, which made the
failors often cry out, She uwouldfounder; words, I
then was ignorant of All this while the forin con-
tinuing, the master and the more fober part of his
men went to. prayers, expeaing death evety Mf-.
ment. In the wid.'le of tre night oce cried guk
hadfprung a leak ;,. another, That IhIrr Waj
water in the hold. I asJuft ready to expireto
.. .- f -

fear, when immediately all hlad,-, were called to the
pump; and the men-forced me alfo'in that extreni-
ty to fhare with them in their labour. While thus
employed, the maftcr efpying fome light colliirs,
fired a gun as a final of diltrefs, which I not tm-
derftanding what .it meant, and thinking that either
the (hip broke or fome dreadful thing happened, fell
into a fwoon ; but in that common condition of Woe,
nobody minded me, excepting to thruft me aiide
with their feet, thinking me dead, and it was a grfea
while before I recovered..'
Happy it was for us, when upon the final given,
they ventured out their boats to fave our lives. All
our pumping had been in vain, and vain had their
attempts been, had they not come to our fhip's fide,
when our men caft them a rope over a-ftern with a
buoy to it, which after .great labour they got :hEld.
of, and:we hawling them toais, got into their boat..
So leaving our fhip, we perceived it fink in lefs that
a:quarter .of an hour, by which I knew what was
foundering atfea. And now the men incefflntly la-
boured to recover their own hfip, but the fea ran fo
high, and the wind blowing hard, they thought it
convenient to hawl within ihore, which with great
diftfiulty and danger at laft we happily effeftad
landing at a. place called Gromer, not far from
Winterton light-houfe; from whence we all wallet,
to Yarmouth, where, as:objeCts of pity, ninny g6od
people furnished us with neceflaries for our fubfit-
ence either to Hull or. Lordon.
It is ftrange, that after all this, like the prodigy
fon, .I did not return to my father ; who hearing of
the (hip's calamity, for' a long time thought me en-
toMed in the deep. No doubt but I should have
#hred it, his fatted calf, as the scripture expreffeth it a
Stuiyt il.fate ftill pushed me on, in.fpite of thb
w't-rful conviction of reafonand confcience. .
v. 6: A3,

When I had been at Yarmouth three days,.I met
my old companion, who had given me the invitation
to go on board along with his father. His behaviour
and speech was altered, and in a melancholy manner
afked me how I did, telling his father who I was,
and how I had made this voyage for a trial only to
proceed farther abroad ; upon which the old.gentle-
man, turning to me gravely, faid, Young man, you
Shght never to go tofea any more,, but to take this for a
certain fign that you will never proper in a fea-faring
condition. Sir, answered I, will you take the fame
resolution? 'Tis a different cafe, faid, he, 'tis my
calling, and confequently my duty, but as you : have
made this voyage for a trial, you fee what ill fucceft
heaven as et before your eyes ; and perhaps our miseries
have been on your account, like Jonah in thefJip of Tar-
Jhfi' ': But pray what are you, and on what account did
you go to fea ? Upon which, I very freely declared
my whole ftory, at the end of which he made this
exclamation, Ye faced powers I what had I com-
mitted, that fuch a wretch should enter into. my
thip, to heap upon me fuch a deluge of miferies!
But foon recolleaing his paffions, roung man, faid
he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever. yo~a
go, )yu will meet with di/afers and dfappeintments, tid
your father's words are fufilled upon.you. And fo.wd
I thought at firft to.return home, but fhame op-
pofed. that good motion, as thinking I should be
laughed at by my neighbours.and acquaintance. So
strange is the nature of youth, who are not afhamed
to fin, but-yet afhamed to repent; and far from be-
ing afliamed of thofe actions for.which they may be
accounted fools, think it folly in returning to their
duty, which is the principal mark of wifdom. Ih,
fort, I travelled up to London, resolved upon a vey..
age; and a voyage I foon heard of, by my acquaintsx
ance with a captain who, took a fancy to me, toQ


to the coaft of Guinea. Having fom; money, and
appearing like. gentleman, I went on board, not
as a common failor or foremaft-man; nay, the com-
mander agreed I should. go that voyage with him
without any expence, that I should be his meffmate
and companion, and I was very welcome to carry
any thing with me, and make.the beft merchandise
I could.
I bleffed my happy fortune, and humbly thanked
my captain for, his offer; when acquainting my
friends in Yorkfhire, forty pounds were lent me, the
greatest part. of which I believe my dear father and
mother contributed to, and with which I bought
toys and trifles as the captain directed me, My
captain alfo learned me navigation, how to keep an
account of; the thip's course, take an obfervation
and led me into the knowledge ot federal ufefal
branches of the mathematics; and indeed this voy.
age made me both a failor and merchant; for I
brought home 5 pounds 9 ounces of gold-duft for
my adventure, which produced at my return to Lon-
don almost three hundred pounds. But in this voy,
age I was extremely fick, being thrown into a vio-
lent cajenture, through exceffive heat, trading upon
the coaft from the latitude of I5 degrees north even
to the line itself.
But alas,! my dear friend the captain foon departed
this life after his arrival. This was a fenfible grief
to me, yet I refolved to go another voyage with his
mate, who had now got command of the, thip.
but this proved unfuccefsful; for though I did not
carry quite too!. of my late acquired wepith, fo that
I had 0ool. left, which I deposited with fte captain's
widow, who was an boneft geptlewoman, yet my
misfortunes in this voyage were very great upon me,
fft our flip failing towards the Canary Iflands, we
.were. chaced by a Sallee rover, and in fpite of all the
ail- we Fould make, by crowding as much cawn

v:rs as our yards would fpread, or marls carry, the
pirate gained upon us, and fo we prepared ourfelves
to fight. They had 18 guns, and we had but 12.
About three in the afternoon there was a desperate
engagement, wherein many were killed and wound-
ed on both fides; but finding ourselves overpowered
with numbers, our fhip disabled, and ourselves too
impotent to have the leaft hopes of fuccefs, we were
forced to surrender, and accordingly were all carried
into the port of Sallee. Our men were lent to the
emperor's court to be fold there ; but the pirate
captain taking notice of me, kept me to be his own
In this condition I thought myself the moR mifer-
able creature on earth, and the prophecy of my fa-
ther came afrefh into my thoughts. As it happened,
my condition was better than I thought it to be, as
will foon appear. Some hopes indeed I had, that
my new patron would go to fea again, where he might
be taken by a Spanifh or Portugal man of war, and
then I shouldd be fet at liberty ; but in this I was mif-
taken, for he never took me with him, but left me
to look after his little garden, and to the drudgery
of his houfe; and when he returned from fea, would
make me lie in the cabin, and look after the fhip.
I had no one that I could communicate my thoughts
to, which were continually meditating my efcape;
no Englifhman, Irifhman, or Scotchman here, but my-
felf, and for two years 1 could fee nothing prati-
cable, but only pleafe myfelf with the imagination.
After fome length of time, my patron, as I
found, grew fo poor, that he could not fit out his
fhip as ufiual; and then he ufed constantly, once
or twice a week, if the weather was fair, to go out
a fishing, taking me and a young Morefco boy to row
the boat ; and ib much pleaded was he with me "for
my dexterity in catching the fifi, that he would

often fend me with a Moor, who was one of his-
kinfmen, and the Morefco youth, to catch a difh of
fifh for him.
One morning as we were at the port, there arofe
fuch a thick fog, that we loft fight of the fliore,.
and rowing we knew not which way, we laboured
all the night, and in the morning found ourselves in
the ocean, two leagues from land ; however, we at--
tained there at length, and we made the greater
hate, becauferour ftomachs were exceeding tharp
andhungry. But thebetterto prevent fuch difafters,
my patron ordered a carpenter to build a little flate-
room or cabin in the middle,of the long-boat, with,
a place behind it to fleer and hawl home the main-
fleet, with other conveniences, to keep him from
the weather, as-alfo lockers to put in all manner of
provisions, with a handfome shoulder of mutton fail-
gibing over the cabin.
In this he frequently took us a-frfhing; and one
time invtiiig two or three perfons of diitin6tion to
go with him-,:made provision extraordinary, provid-
ing alfo three fufees, with powder and fhot, that
they might-4ave fome port at fowling along the fea
coaft. The next morning, the boat being clean,
herantients and pAndents out, and every thing.
ready, their minds altering, my patron ordered us-
to go a-fifhing, for that his guefts would certainly
fup with him that night,
And now I began to think of my deliverance in-
deed. In order to this, I persuaded the Moor to get
fone provifions on board, as not daring to meddle
with our patron's ; who, taking my advice, we
ftored ourselves with rufk biscuit, arid three jars oft
water; besides, I privately conveyed into -the boat
a bottle of brandy, -ome twine, thread, a ham--
iner, hatchet, and a faw ;. in particular fome bees--
WA. which was a great comfort to me, and, fervedi
**nake -candies. I then persuaded Muley (for fo,

was the Moor called) to procure fome powder and
fliot, pretending to kill fea curlieus, to which ho
innocently and readily agreed ; and in fhort, being
provided with all things neceffary, we failed out,
revolving for my own part to make my efcape, though
it might coil me my life.
When we had. paffed the castle, we fell to fishing;
but though I knew there was a bite, I diffembled the
matter, in order to put farther out to fea; accord-
ingly we ran a league farther, when giving the boy
the helm, and pretending to ftoop for something, I
seized Muley by furprife, and threw him overboard.
He was an excellent fwimmer, foon arofe, and made
towards the boat; upon which I took out a fufee,
and presented it at him : Muley, faid I, I never yet
delgned to do you any harm, and fek nothing now but
.my redemption. I know you are able enough to fiim
tofjore and fae your life; but if you are resolved to
follow me, to the endangering of mine,, the very moment
you proceed, I will/hoot you through the &iad. The
harmlefs creature, at thefe words, turned himself
from me, and I make no doubt got fafe to land.
Then turning to the boy Xury, I perceived he
trembled at the aaion ; but I put him out of all fear,
telling him, that if he would be true and faithful
to me, I would do well by him; and therefore, faid
I, you muji Jfroke your face to be faithful, and, as the
Turks have learnt you, fear by .Marhomet, and the
beard of your father, or elfJ I will threw you into the fea
alfo. So innocent did the child then look; and with
iach an obliging mile consented, that I readily be-
lieved him, and from that day forward began to
love him entirely.
Thus we purfued our voyage, and that they should
think me gone to the Straits mouth, I kept to thee
southward, to the truly Barbarian coaft; but in the
dufk of the evening I changed my courfe;, ian&
ttered direlyv S. by EF that I might keep nca

the fhore; and having a freth gale of wind, with a
pleasant smooth fea, by three o'clock the next day
I was i5o miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco'a
dominions. Yet ftill having the dreadful apprehen-
fions of being retaken, I continued failing for five
days fucceffively, till fuch time as the wind shifting
,to the fouthward, made me conclude, that if any
veffel was in chace of me, they would proceed ho
farther; and after fo much fatigue and thought, I
anchored in the mouth of a little river, I knew not
what or where, neither did I then fee any people.
What I principally wanted was frefh water, and .'
was resolved about dulkifh to fwim ashore ; but
no fooner did the gloomy clouds of night begin to,
fucceed the declining day, when then it was we heard
fuch barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures, that one might have thought the very ftrau-
geft monfters of nature, or infernal spirits, had their
residence there. Poor Xury, almost dead, with fear,.
entreated me not to go on fhore that night. S.-
pofing don't, Xury, faid I; and in the Marnxng wV
Jbouldfee men wuho are worfe than thofe we fear.s wuat
then ? 0 den we may give dem de flwt gun, replied
Xury, laughing, and de gun make dem. all run away*
The wit and. broken Englifh which the boy, had
learned from the captives of our nation, pleaded, T"'
entirely, and to add to his cheerfulnefs, I gave hin a
dram of the bottle. We could get but little fleep *11
the night for the terrible howlings they made, an4-
indeed we were both affrighted very much, when
by the rolling of the water, and other tokeas, we.
juftly concluded one of thofe monsters made towards
our boat; I could not fee it till it came within two
oars length, when, taking my fufee,..I. let fly at
him-: Whether I hit him or no, I cannot tells.bit:
h e made towards the fhore, and the noife of my guap
increased the ftupcndous noife of the mouftefs..

The next morning I was efolved to go on fhore
to get frefh water, and venture my life among beafts
or favages, should either attack me. Xury faid he
would take one of the jars and bring me fome; I
4 aiked him why he would go, and not I; the poor
boy answered, If wild mans come, they eat ne, you go
away. A mind scarcely now to be imitated, fo con-
trary to felf-prefervation, the moft powerful law of
tiature! This indeed increased my affection to the
child. Well, dear Xury, faid I, we w~ill both go
aJfore, both eat wild mans, and they Jfhall eat neither
ofus. So giving Xury a piece of rufk bread to eat,
and a dram, we waided afhore, carrying nothing with
us but our arms, and two jars for water. I did not
go out of fight of the boat, as dreading the favages
coming down the river in their canoes ; but the boy
feeing a low decent, or vale, about a mile in the
country, he wandered to it, and then running back
to me with great precipitation, I thought he was
purfued by fome favage or wild beat, upon which I
approached, refolving to perifh or prote& him from
danger. As he came nearer to me, I faw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
he had fhot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were glad of it, for it
proved wholefome nourifhing meat; but what added
to our joy was, my boy affured me there was, plenty
of water, and that hefee no wild mans. And greater
Ifill was our comfort, when we found frefh water in
-the'creek where we were, when the tide was out,
without going fo far up into the country.
In this place I began to consider that the Cana-
ry and the Cape de Verd iflands lay not far off; but
having no instrument, I knew not what latitude, or
when to ftand off to fea for them; yet my hopes
were, I should meet fome of the Englifh trading vef-
fels, who would relieve and take us up.

The place I was in, was, no doubt, that wild fort-
of country, inhabited only by a few, that lies be--
tween the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the-
negroes ; it.was filled with wild beats, and the Moors
ufed it for hunting chiefly. From this place I thought
I faw the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Ca-
naries, which made me try twice to attain, it; but as.
often was I drove back, and fo forced to pursue my
fortune along the flore.
Early one morning we came to.an anchor under a.
little point of land, but pretty high, and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay ready to go farther in; but
Xury, whofe youthful and penetrating eyes were.
harper than mine, in a foft tone defired me to keep-
far from land, lef we should be devoured ; for, look-
yonder, Aiteyter, faid he, and fee de dreadful monjfer
faft asleep on the fide of the hill. Accordingly, looking
where he pointed, I efpied a fearful monster indeed;,
it was a terrible great lion that lay on flore, covered,
as it were, by the fhade of a piece of the hill. Xury,.
faid I, youJball go on#gore and kill him ; but the boy.
looked amazed : Me kill him, fays he, he eat me at
one mouth, meaning one mouthful. Upon which I
bid him lie ftill, and charging my biggest gun with
two flugs, and a good charge of powder, I took the
beft aim I could to thoot him through the head, but
his leg lying over his nofe,, the flug broke his, knee-a
bone. The lion awaking with the pain, got up, but
foon fell down, giving the moft hideous groan I ever
heard but taking my second piece,Ifhot him through
the head, and then he lay firuggling,for life. Upon.
this Xury took heart, and defired my leave to go on.
fhore. Go then, faid I. Upon which, taking a little
gun in one hand, he fwam to fhore with the- others
aid coming clofe to the lion, put a period to his life
by shooting him again through the head.
SBut this was pending our ammunition in vain, the
Afth not being good to eat. Xury was like a chanm

pion, and comes on board for a hatchet to cut off"
the head of his enemy, which not having strength to
perform, cut off a foot; but I bethought myfelf that
his fkin would be of great ufe, which coft Xury and
I a whole day's work; when spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the hot beams of the fun fo effecually
dried it'in two days time, that it afterwards served'
me for a bed to lic upon.
And now we failed fouthwardly, living sparingly
on.our provisions, and went no oftener on fliore than
we were obliged, for frefh water. My defign was to
make the river Gambia or Senegal, or any where about
the Cape de Verd, in hopes to meet fome European
fhip. If providence did not fo favour, my next courfe
was to feek for the iflands, or lofe my life among.
the negroes. And in a word, I put my whole ftrefs
upon this, either that 1 muf/ meet with fonm jhip, or
certainly perjh.
But, as we were failing along, we law people ftand-
on the fhore to look at us we could alfo perceive
they were black and ftark naked. I was inclined to
go on fhore, but Xury cried, No, no; however, I.
approached nearer, and I found they run along the
thore by me a good way; they had. no weapons in.
their hands, except one, who held a long ftick, which
Xury. told me was a lance, with which they could
kill at a great distance. I talked to them by figns,
and made them fenfible I wanted something to eat:
They beckoned to me to fop my boat, while two of
them run up into the country, and in lefs than half
an hour came back and brought with them two pieces
of dry flefh, and fome corn, which we kindly ac-
cepted ; and to prevent any fears of either fide, they
brought the food to the fhore, laid it down, then.
went and food a great way off, till we fetched it on
board, and then came clofe to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to them, be-
ing all we could offer, two mighty creatures cam.

from the mountains, one as it were pursuing the
other with great fury, which we were inclined to
believe, because they feldom appear but in the night;
and both thefe paffing fwifely by the negroes, jumped
into the fea, wantonly swimming about, as though
the diversion of the waters had put a itop to their
fiercenefs. At laft, one of them coming nearer my
boat than I expe ed or desired, I fhot him direly
through the head, upon which he funk immediately,
yet riling-again, would have willingly made to the.
ihore; but between the wound and the strangling
of the water, he died before he could reach it.
It is not poffible for me to exprefs the confterna-
tion the poor negroes were in at the firing my gun,
much lefs can I' mention their furprite, when they
perceived the creature to be flain by it. I made figns
to them to draw near it, and then gave them a rope'
to hale it on fhore. It was a beautiful leopard,
which made .me deflre its kin ; and the negroes'
feeling to covet the carcafe, I very freely gave it to
them. As for the other leopard, it made to fhore,
and ran with a prodigious fwiftnefs out of fight.
The negroes having kindly furnished me with water,.
and with what roots and grain their country afforded,
I took my leave, and after eleven days fail, I came
in fightof the Cape de Verd, and thofe islands call.
ed by its name ; but the great distance I was from
it, and fearing contrary winds would, prevent my
reaching either of them, I grew melancholy and:
dejeed ; when- on-'a fudden, Xury cried out,.
Mantfl, '.Mafler, a J vip wih a fail; and looked fo
frightened, as if it. was his after's ihip lent in.
fearch of us ; but I foon discovered the was a Por-
tuguefe fhip, and, as I thought, bound to the coaft
of Guinea for negroes. Upon which I ftrove for
life to come up to them; but .vain had it heen.,
if through their perfpeaive glaffes they.had not per-
ceieil'nei aadihortened their fail to let me soma'e

Encouraged at this, I fet up my patron's antient,
and fired a gun, both as fignals of diftrefs, upon
which they very kindly lay to, fo that in three hours
time I came up with them. They fpoke to me in
Portuguefe, Spanifh, and French, but neither of thefe
did I underhand ; till at length a Scots failor called,
and then I told him I was an Englifhman, who had
efcaped from the Moors of Sallee ; upon which they
took me kindly on board, with all my effects.
Surely none can exprefs that inconceivable joy my
heart felt at this my happy deliverance; who, from
being a miferable and forlorn creature, was not otily
relieved, but in favour with the master of the fhip,
whom in return for my deliverance I offered all I had
to him: God forbid, faid he, that I Jiould .take any
tling from you ; every thing fall be delivered t you when
You come to Brqail. If 1 havefaved your life, it is no
more than 1 fJoukl expe& to receive myself from any
other, when in the fame circunm/ances, lJhould happen
to meet the like deliverance ; andjhould I take from you
what you have, and leave you at Brafle why. this
would only be taking away a life I have given; my cha-
rity teaches me better ; thofe efeets you have will support
you there, and provide you a pafage home again. And
indeed he a&ed with the ftriaeft justice in what he
did, taking my things in his poffeffion, and giv-
ing me an exa& inventory, even to my earthen jars.
He bought my boat of me for thp i(ip's ufe, giving
me a note of eighty pieces of eight, payable at Bra-
fil, and if any body offered more, he woukl make it
up. He alfo- gave me fixty pieces for my boy Xury..
It was with great relufance I was prevailed upon to
fell the child's liberty, who had ferved we fo faith-
fully; but the boy himfelf was willing ; and it was:
agreed, that after ten years he should bq made free,.
upon his renouncing Mahometanifm and embracing.
Having a pleafant voyage to the Brai s,. we ar-

rived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All-Saints Bay,
iv about 22 days after. And here I cannot forget
the generous treatment of the captain; he would
take nothing for my paffage, gave me 20 ducats for
the leopard's Ikin, and 30 for the lion's ; every thing
he caused to be delivered, and what I would fell he
bought. In fhort, I made about 220 pieces of my
cargo, and with this ftock I entered once more, as I
may fay, into the fcene of life.
Being recommended to an honest planter, I lived
with him till fuch time as I was informed of the man-
ner of their planting and making fugar; and feeing
how well they lived, and how suddenly they grew
rich, I was filled with an emulation, at leaft, to fet-
tle among them, ref6lving to get my money remit-
ted to me, and to purchase me a plantation.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next door to an
honeft and kind neighbour, born at Lifbon of Englifh
parents, whofe plantation joining to mine, we im-
proved it very amicably together: Both our flocks'
were low, and for two years we planted only for
food; but the third year we planted fome tobacco,
preparing each a large piece of ground for planting
canes the enfuing year ; but now wanting affiftance,
I repented the lofs of my dear boy Xury.
Here having none to affift me, my father's words
came again into my mind; and if only a middle fta-
tion of life I fought, why could it not as well be
obtained in England as here ? When I pondered of
this with regret, the thoughts of my late deliverance
forfook me ;' I had none to converfe with but my
neighbour; no work to be done but by my own
hands; and this often made me fay, my condition
was like that of a man caft upon a defolate'ifland.
So unhappy are we in our refleaions, fo forgetfutl
what good things we receive ourselves, and fo un-
thankful for our deliverance from thofe calamities
that others en ture.

I was in fame measure fettled before the captain
who took me up departed from the Brafils. One day
I went to him, and told him what ftock I had in
London, defiring his afliftance in obtaining its remit-
tance, to which the good gentleman readily con-
fented, but would only have me fend for half my
money, left it should mifcarry, which if it did, the
remainder might support :ne and fo taking letters
of procuration from me, bid me trouble myfelf no
farther about it.
And indeed wonderful was his kindnefs towards
me; for he not only procured the money I had drawn
for upon my captain's widow, but fent me over a
fervant, with a cargo proportionable to my condi-
tion ; he alfo fent me over tools of all forts, iron-
work, and utenfils neceffary for, my plantation, and
which proved of the greatest ufe tome in my bufinefs.
Wealth now accumulating on me, and uncommon
fuccefs crowning my prosperous labours, I might
have refuted happy in that middle fate of life my fa-
ther had fo often recommended:; yet nothing would
content me, fuch was my evil genius, but I muft
leave this. happy station, for a foolifh ambition in
rifing greater than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus, once more, I caft myfelf into the deepelt
gulf of mifery that ever abandoned creature fell
into; for having lived four years in Brafil, I not
only learned the language, but contracted acquaint-
ance with the moft eminent planters, and even the
merchants of St. Salvadore, to whom, by way of
difcourfe, giving an account of my two voyages to
the coaft of Guinea, and the manner of trading there
for mere trifles, by which we might furnifh our
plantations with negroes, they gave fuch attention
to what I faid, that three of them came one morn-
ing to me, and told me they had a fecret proposal to
make. After enjoining me to fecrefy (it being an
infringement on the powers of the kings of Portugal

ibnarso4 CRUSOF.. -9
and Spain),:they told me they had a mind to fit otu
a flip to go to Guinea, in order to flock the planta-
tion with.negroes, which, as,they could not be pub-
licly fold they would divide among them, and if I
would go their fupercargo.in the fbip, to manage the.
trading part, I should have an equal fhare of the ne-
groes, without providing any flock. The thing in-
deed was fair enough, had I.been in another condi-
tion; but I, born to be my own. destroyer, could not
refift the proposal; but accepted the offer, uiion con-
dition of their looking after my plantation ; fo, mak-
ing a formal will, I bequeathed my effe&s to my good;
friend the captain, as my uAiverfal heir, but obliged;
him to difpofe of my effe&s as dire&ed, one half of
Iny produce to himfelf, and the other to be shipped
for Englandi
The ihip being fitted out, and all things ready,
we fet, fail the firft of September 1659, being thq
fame day eight years I left my father and mother in
Yorkfhire. We failed northward upon the coaft,
in order to gain Africa; till we made Cape Auguftine,
from whence going further in the ocean, out of fight
of land, we fleered as though we were bound for the
ifle of Fernand de Noremba, leaving the iflands on
the eaft; and then it was we met with a.cruel tern.
peft, which held us for twelve days facceffively, fo'
that the waters carried us wherefoever they pleaded.
In this perplexity one of our men died, and one man
and the boy;were wafhed overboard. When the-wea-
ther cleared up a little, we found ourfelves eleven
degrees north latitude upon the coaftof Guinea.
Upon this- the captain gave reafons for returning,
which I oppofed, counfelling him to ftand away for
Barbadoes, which, as I fuppofed, might be attained
in 15 days ; fo altering our course, we failed north-
weft and by weft, in order to reach the Leeward
iflands; but a second florma fucceeding, drove us to
the westward, fo that we were juitly afraid o falling

into the hands of cruel favages, or the paws of de-
vouring beats of prey.
In this great diitrefs, one of our men, early in the
morning, cried out, Land land i when no fooner
looking out, but our flip truck upon a fand, and in
a moment the fea broke over her in fich a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished imme-
diately. We knew nothing where we were, or upon-
what land we were driven, whether an ifland or the
main, inhabited or not inhabited ; and we could not
fo much as hope that the fhip would hold many mi-,
nutes without breaking in pieces, except the wind
by miracle should turn about immediately. While
we flood looking at one another, expe&ing death
every moment, the mate laid hold of the boat, and,
with the help of the reft, got her flung over the-
flip's fide, and getting all into her, being eleven of
us, committed ourselves to God's mercy, and the
wild fea. And now we faw that this laft effort would
not be a fuflicient prote&ion from death; fo high
did the fea run, that it was impoffible the boat flould
live. As to making, fail, we had none, neither if
we had, could we make ufe of any; fo that when
we had rowed, or rather were driven about a league
and a half, a raging wave, like a lofty mountain,-
came rolling altern of us, and took us with, fuch fu-
ry, that at once it overfet the boat. Thus being
swallowed up in a moment, we had hardly time-to
call upon the tremendous name of God, much lefs
to implore, in dying ejaculations, his infinite nmrcy,
to receive our departing fouls.
Men are generally counted infenfible.when firug-
gling in the pangs of death; but while I was over-
whelmed with water, I had the mof dreadful appre-
henfions imaginable ; for the joys of heaven, and
torments of hell, seemed to present themselves before-
me in thefe dying agonies, and even in the finally fpace:
of time, as it were, between life and death. I wa

going, I thought, I knew not whither, in a difmal
gulf unknown, and as yet unperceived, never to be-
hold my friends, nor the light of this world any
more Could I even have thought of annihilation, or
a total diffolution of foul as well as body, the gloomy
thoughts of having no further being, no knowledge
of what. we hoped for, but an eternal quietus,.with-
out life or fenfe ; even that, I fay, would have been
enough to ftrike me with horror and confusion But
ftriving to the laft extremity, while I thought all my
companions were overpowered and entombed in the
deep, it was with great difficulty I kept my breath
till the wave fpent itself, and retiring back,left me
pn the fhore half dead with the water I had taken in ,
however, I got on my feet as faft as I could, left
another wave should purfue, and carry me back
again; but for.all the hafte I made, I could not
avoid it, for the fea came after me like a high
mountain, or furious enemy, fo that my bufinefs was
to hold my breath, and; by raising myfelf on the
water, preserve it by swimming; the next dreadful
wave buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep,
but at the fame time carried me with a mighty force
and fwiftnefs towards the Ihore; when raising my-
felf, I held out.as well as poffible, till at length the
water.hlving fpent itself, began to return, at which
I truck forward, and feeling ground with my feet, I
took to my heels again. Thus being served twice more,
I was at laftidafhed against a piece of rock, in fuch
a. manner as left me fenfelefs; but recovering a little
before the return of the waves, which, no doubt,
then would have overwhelmed me, I held faft by the
rock till thofe,.focceeding :waves abated, and then,
fetching another run- wa4 overtook by a fall wave,
which'wa, foon conquered- but before any more
could overtake rine,.'I:reached the main land, where
'lambering up.:the lifts of the fhore, tired and almost
4ent, Jakt dqwnoon the grafs, free from the dangers
of the foaming ocean.


No tongue can exprefs the ecftafies and tranfports
that my foul felt at this happy deliverance; it was
like a reprieve to a dying malefa6tor, with the halter
about his neck, and ready to be turned off. I was
wrapt up in contemplation, and often lifted up my
hands, with the profoundeft humility, to the Divine
Powers for having my life, when the reft of my com-
panions were all drowned. And now I began to caft
my eyes around, to behold what place I was in, and
what I had next to do. I could fee no houfe, nor
people; I was wet, yet had no clothes to fhift me;
hungry and thirty, yet nothing to eat or drink; no
weapon to destroy any creature for my fuftenance,
nor defend myfelf against devouring beafts; in thort,
I had nothing but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a box
half filled with tobacco. The darkfome night com-
ing upon me, increased my fears of being devoured
by wild creatures; my mind was plunged in de.
fair, and having no profpeEt, as I .thought, of life
before me, prepared for another kind of death than
what I had lately efcaped. I walked about -a fur-
long, to fee if could find any frefh water, which I
did to my great joy, and taking a quid of tobacco to
prevent hunger, I got up into a thick buthy tree, and
eating myfelf fo that I could not fall, a deep fleep
overtook me, and for that night buried my forrows
in a quiet repofe.
It was broad day the next morning before I awak-
ed, when not only I perceived the tempeft was
ceafed, but the fhip was driven almoft as far as the
rock before-mentioned, which the waves had dafh-
ed me against, and which was about a mile from the
place where I was. When I came down from my
apartment in the tree, I perceived the fhip's boat
two miles distant on my right hand, lying'on 4horei-
as the waves had caft her; I thought to l ve got'tao
her, but there being an inlet of waterEof about elf
a mile's breadth between it anda me, I retwtaeid.gain
2a .

R'btrIsdN-CRItSOZ. i3
towards the fhip, as hoping to find something for my
more immediate fubfiftence. About noon, when the
fea was calm, that I could cone within a quarter of
a mile of her, it was to my grief I perceived that, if
we had kept on board, all our lives had been fared :
The'e thoughts and my folitude, drew tears froti
tny eyes,though all in viin. So -refolving toget to
the thip, I ftripped, and leaped into the water, 'hen
swimming round her, I was afraid I f/hbuld not get
any thing to lay hold of; but it was hy good for,
tune to efpy a ftiall piece of rope hang o-dow~nby the
fore-chkins fo low, that with great difftiuty,'by the
help of it, I got into the forecaftle of the fiip. Here
I found ihat the (hip was but' d, and had -a
great deal of water in her hold; her ftetn was*lifted
up againrfta barik, and her head almoft it 'the -ta-
ter; all her quarter, and what was thete, were free
and dry. The provisions I 'found in good order,
with which I crammed my pockets; and, losing no
time, eat when I was doing oiher things;. I alfo
found fome rum, of which I took a hearty dram;
and now I wanted for nothing except a boat, which
indeed was all, to carry away what was needful for
Neceffity occasions quicknefs of thought. We
had several fpare yards, a fpate topmaft or two, and
two or three large fpars of wood; with thefe I fell
to work, and flung as many of them overboard as I
could manage, tying every one of them with a rope
that they might not drive away. This done, I went
down the fhip's fide, and tied four of therz 'faft toa
ether at both ends, in form of a raft, and laying
two or three fhort pieces of plank upon them crofs-
ways, I found it would bear me, but net any corifi-
deable weight; upon which I went to work again,
cutting a fpare topmiift into three lengths, adding
them ito -y raft with a gfeit deal of labour and
pains. I then confideredwhat I fliould load it with

it being not able to bear a ponderous burden ; and
this I foon thought of, firft laying upon it all the
planks and boards I could get; next I lowered down
three of the feamens chefts, after I had filled them
with bread, rice, three Dutch cheefes, five pieces
of dried goats flefh, and fome European corn, what
little the rats had fpared; but for the liquors, I
found several cafes of bottles belonging to our Ikip-
per, in which were fome cordial waters, and four
or five gallons of arrack, which I Rlowed by them-
felves; by this time the tide beginning to flow, I
perceived my coat, waiticoat, and fhirt fwim away,
which I had left on the fhore ; as for my linen,
breeches, and ftockings, I fwam with them on to the
fhip; but I foon found clothes enough, yet took
no more than I wanted for the present. My eyes
were chiefly on tools to work with; and after
long fearch I found out the carpenter's cheft,
which I got fafe down on my raft; then I looked
for arms and ammunition, and in the great cabin,
found two good fowling-pieces, two piftols, several
powder-horns filled, a finall bag of fhot, and two
rufty old words. I alfo found three barrels of pow-
der, two of which were good, but the third had
taken water : With two or three broken oars, two
faws, an axe, and a hammer, I put to fea, and in
getting to fhore, I had three encouragements; r. A
fmooth calm fea. 2. The tide rifing and getting in
to the thore. 3. The little wind there was blew to-
wards land; but after I had failed about a mile, I
found the raft to drive a little distance from the place
where I firft landed; and then 1 perceived a little
opening of the land, and a ftrong current of the tide
running into it, upon which I kept in the middle of
the ftream ; but great was my concern, when on a
fudden the fore part of my raft run aground; fo that
had I not with great difick 'iy, for near half an hour,

kept my back training against the chests, to keep
my effects in their places, all I had would have gone
imno the fea. But after fome time, the rising of the
water caused the raft to float again, when coming up
a little river, with land on both fides, I landed in a
little cove,,as near the mouth as poflible, the better
to discover a fail, if any fuch providentially paffed
by that way.
Not far off, I fpied a hill of a stupendouss height,
surrounded with leffer hills about it, and thither I
was refolved to go and view the country, that I
might fee what part was the beft place to fix my ha-
bitation in, Accordingly, arming myfelf with a
piftol, a fowling piece, powder and ball, I ascended
the mountain; there I perceived I was in an island
t'nc.-ipaffed by the fea, no distant lands to be
I..c o, but scattering rociis that lay to the weft; that
it Icinmed a barren place, and, as I thought, inhabit-
td oly by wild beats. I perceived abundance of
Klo I., but was ignorant of what kind, or whether
....I for nourishment I thot one of them at my re-
turn, which occafoned a confused fcreamin.g among
hli other birds; and I found it, by its colour and
I,:.k. to be a kind of hawk, but its fleflh was perfect
When I came to my raft, I brought my effects on
ifhore, which work ipcnt that day entirely; and
fearing that fome cruel beats might devour me in
the night while I flept, I made a kind of hut or bar-
ricade with the chests and boards I brought from
thorc. That night I fiept very comfortably, and the
next morning my thoughts were employed to make
a further attempt on the thip, and bring away what
necefliries I could find, before another ltorm should
break her to pieces. Accordingly I got on board as
before, and prepared a second raft, far more nice
han the firit, upon which I brought away the car-
enter's stores, two or three bags full of nails, a.

great jack fcrew, a dozen or two of hatchets, and
a grind-ftone. I alfo took away several things that
belonged to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, two barrels of mufket-bullets, another
fowling-piece, a fmall quantity of powder, and a
large bag full of fmall fliot. Besides thefe, I took
all the mens clothes I could find, a fpare fore-top
fail, hammock, and fome bedding; and thus com-
pleting my second cargo, I made all the hafte to
fhore I could, fearing fome wild beaf might destroy
what I had there already; but I only found a little
wild cat fitting on one of the chefts, who not feem-
ing to fear me, or the gun that I presented to her, I
threw her a piece of bifcuit, which fhe instantly ate,
and departed.
When I had gotten thefe effects on fhore, I went
to work, in order to make me a little tent with the
fail and fome poles which I had cut for that purpose ;
and having finished it, what things might be damaged
by the weather I brought in, piling all the empty
chefts and calks in a circle, the better to fortify it
against any sudden attempt of man or beat. After
this I blocked up the doors with fome boards, and an
empty cheft turned the long way without. I then
ch-rgcd my gun and piftol, and laying my bed on the
ground, flept as comfortably, till next morning, as
though I had been in a Chriftian country.
Now, though I had enough to fubfift me a long
time, yet, defpairing of a fudden deliverance, or that
both ammunition and provision might be fpent be-
fore fuch a thing happened, I coveted as much as I
could, and fo long as the flip remained in that con-
dition, I daily brought away one neceflary or other;
particularly the rigging, fails, and cordage, fome
twine, a barrel of wet powder, fome fugar, a bar-
rel of meal, three cifks of rum, and what indeed
was moft welcome to me, a whole hogflead of

The next time I went, I cut the cables in pieces,
carried off a haufer whole, with a great deal of iron-
work, and made another raft with the mizen and
fprit-fail yards, but this being fo unwieldy, by the
too heavy burden I laid upon it, and not being able
dexteroufly to guide it as the former, both my cargo
and I were overturned; for my part, all the da-
mage I fuftained was a wet fkin; and at low water,
after much labour in diving, I got moft of the cables,
and fome pieces of iron.
Thirteen days had I now been in the iflind, and
eleven times on board, bringing away all that was
poffible; though, I believe, had the weather been
calm, I flould have brought away the whole fhip
piece by piece. As I was going the twelfth time,
the wind began to rife; however, I ventured at low
water, and rummaging the cabin effetually, in a
locker I found federal razors, fciffars, and fome
dozens of knives and forks, and in another thirty-
fix pounds in pieces of eight, filver and gold. ARh
simple vanity, faid I, whom this world fo much doats
on, where is now thy virtue, thy excellence to me ? You
cannot procure me one thing needfld, nor remove me from
this difolate yiland to a place of plenty : One of thefe
knives, fo meanly efleemed, is to me more preferable than
all this heap. Even therefore remain where thou art,
to ink in the deep, as unregarded even as a creature
wjhofe life is not worth preferring. Yet after all this
exclamation, I wrapt it up in a piece of canvas, and
began to think of making another raft; but foon I
perceived the wind began to rife, a frelh gale blow-
ing from the thore, and the fky overcaft with clouds
and darknefs. So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let
myfelf into the water, with what things I had about
me, and it was with much difficulty I got afhore,
when foon after it blew a fearful ftorm.
That night I flept very contentedly in my little
tent, surrounded with all my effects but when I

looked out in the morning, no more flip was to be
feer. This much furprifed me for the present, yet
when I considered I had loft no time, abated no pains,
and had got every thing ufeful out of her, I com-
forted myfelf in the beft manner, and entirely fub-
mitted to the will of Providence.
My next thoughts were, how I should defend
and fecure myfelf from favages and wild beafts, if
any fuch were in the island. At one time I thought
of digging a cave; at another, I was for erecting
a tent; and, in lhort, I resolved to do both: The
manner or form of which will not, I hope, be un-
pleafing to defcribe.
When I considered the ground where I was, that
it was mooriflh, and had no frefh water near it, my
resolutions were to fearch for a foil healthy and well
watered, where I might not only be fheltered from
the fun's fcorching heat, but be more conveniently
situated, as well to be fecured from wild men and
beats of prey, as more eafily to discover any distant
fail, should it ever fo happen.
And indeed it was not long before I had my de-
fire ; I found a little plain near a rifing hill, the
front towards which being as fteep as a houfe-fide,
nothing could defeend on me from the top. On the
fide of this rock was a little hollow place, refem-
bling the entrance or door of a cave. Juft before
this place, on the circle of the green, I resolved my
tent should ftand. This plain did not much ex-
ceed Ioo yards broad, and about twice as long, like
a delightful green before my door, with a pleading,
though irregular defcent every way to the low
grounds by the fea-fide, lying on the N. N. W. fide
of the hill, fo that it was fheltered from the excef-
five heat of the fun. After this I drew a femi-
circle, containing ten yards in its femi-diameter,
and twenty yards in the whole, driving down two
rows of strong flakes, -not fix inches from each


other; then, with the pieces of cable which I had
cut on board, I regularly laid them in the circle be-
tween the piles up to their tops, which were more
than five feet out of the earth, and after drove ano-
ther row of piles looking within-fide against them,
between two or three feet high, which made me
conclude it a little impregnable castle from men and
beals ; and, for my better security, I would have no
door, but entered in and came out by the help of a
ladder, which I alfo made.
Here was my fence and fortrefs, into which I
carried all my riches, ammunition, and stores. Af-
ter which, working on the rock, what with the dirt
and flones I dug out, I not only raised my ground
twuo feet, ,ut made a little cellar to my manfion-
h'ul,:., and this coft me many days labour and pains;
bur one day in particular, a ihower of rain falling,
Sthunder and lightning enfued, which put me in ter-
ror :Rft my powder should take fire, and not only
hidIcr my neceflary fubfiftence from killing me food,
but even blow up me and my habitation; to pre-
vent which, I fell to making boxes and bags, in or-
der to separate it, having by rm: near :5clbs. weight.
And thus being eftl.bhfhled aS king of the island,
every day I went our with my gun to fee wh:t I
could kill that was fit to eat. I foon perceived num-
ber, of goats, but very fhy ; yet having watched
them narrowly, and feeing i could t~ trer thoot off the
rock; than when in the low grounds, I one day hap-
pened to foot a fhe-goat fuckling a young kid, who
not thinking its dam flain, flood by her unconcerned,
and when I took the dead creature up, the young
one followed me even to the inclofure. I lifted the
kid over the pales, and would willingly have kept it
alive; but finding it could not be brought to eat, I
was forced to flay it alfo for my own fubfiftence.
Thus entzre3 iiito a firange fcene of life as ever
.y man-was in, I Lad rnoit melancholy apprehen.-
B 3.

fions concerning my deplorable condition, and many
times the tears would plentifully run down my face,
when I considered how I was debarred from all com-
munication with human-kind ; and while fome de-
fponding cogitations would feem to make me accufe
Providence, other good thoughts would interpofe,
and reprove after this manner: Well, fuppofing you
are defolate, is it not better to be fo than total-
ly perifh ? Why were you singled out to be faved,
and the reft deftioyed ? Why flhould you complain,
when not only your life is preferred, but the flip
driven even into your reach, in order to take what
was necefiTry out of her for your fubfiftence ? But to
proceed. It was, by the account I kept, the 3oth of
September when I firft landed on this island; about
twelve days after, fearing I should lofe my reckon-
ing of time, nay even forget the Sabbath-days, for
want of pen, ink, and paper, I carved it with a
knife upon a large poft, in great letters, and getting
it up, in the fimilitude of a crofs, on the feafhore
where I landed, viz. I came on hore Sept. 30. 1659.
Every day I cut a notch with my knife on the fides
of this fquare poft, and that on Sabbath was as long
again as the reft, and every firft day of the month as
long again as that long one. In this manner I kept
my kalendar, weekly, morfthly, or yearly reckoning
of time i but had I made a more ftrit fearch (as
I did afterwards) I need not have fet up this mark;
for among the parcels belonging to the gunner,
carpenter, and captain's mate, thofe very things I
wanted I found, particularly pens, ink, and paper;
alfo two or three compaffes, fome mathematical in-
firuments, dials, profpeltive glafs, books of naviga-
tion, three Englifll bibles, and several other good
books, which I carefully put up. But here I cannot
but call to mind our having a dog and two cats on
board, whom I made inhabitants with me in my ca-
file. But though one might think I had all the necef


faries as were desirable, yet fill I found several things
wanting. My ink was daily wafting; I wanting nee-
dles, pins, and thread, to mend or keep my clothes
together, particularly a fpade, pick-axe, or shovel,
to remove the earth. It was a year before I finished
my little bulwark, and having fome intervals of re-
laxation, after my daily wandering abroad for provi-
fion, I drew up this plan alternately, as creditor and
debtor, to remind me of the"miferies and bleffings
of my life, under fo many various circumstances.

I am caft upon a defolate
island, having no hopes, no
profped of a welcome deli-
Thus miferably am I fin-
gled out from the enjoyment
or company of all mankind.
Like an hermit (rather
should I fay, a lonely an-
chorite) am I forced from
human conversation.
My clothes, after rome
time, will be worn out ;
and then I (hall have none
to cover me.
When my ammunition is
wafted, then hall I remain
without any defence against
wild ren and beats.
I have no creature, no
foul to fpeak to; none to
beg affiftance from. Some
comfort would it be to re-
found my woes where I am
understood ; and beg affift-
ance, where I might hope
fqr relief,

But yet I am preferred,
while my companions are
perifhed in the raging ocean.
Yet fet apart to be fpared
from death and he who
has fo preferred me can de-
liver me from this condition.
However I have food to
eat, and even a happy pro.
fpe& of fubfiftence whilf
life endures.
At present I enjoy what
is abfolutelyneedful; fndthe
climate is fo hot, that, had
I ever fo many, I should
hardly wear them.
Yetifit does, I feeno dan-
ger of any to hurt me, as in
Africa: And what if I had
been caft away on that coaft ?
Is there not God to con-
verfe to, and is not he able
to relieve thee ? Already has
he afforded thee fuftenance,
and put it in thy power to
provide for thyfelf till he
fends thee a deliverance.

And now eating my mind a little by thefe reflec-
tions, I began to render my life as eafy as poffible;
I muft here add to the description I have given of
my habitation, that having raised a turf wall againif
the outside of it, I thatched it fo clofe as might keep
it from the inclemency of the weather. I alfo im-
proved it within, enlarged my cave, and made a paf-
fage and door in the rock, which came out beyond
the pale of my fortification. I next proceeded to
make a chair and table, and fo began to ftudy thofe
mechanical arts that seemed to me practicable ; for
when I wanted a plank or'board, I hewed down a
tree with my hatchet, making it as thin with my
axe as poffible, and then" fmooth enough with my
adze to answer my defigns; yet this way could I
make no more than one board out of a tree; but in
length'bf time I got boards enough to shelter all my
stores, every thing being regularly placed, and my
guns fecurely hanging against the fide of the rock.
All this made it a very pleasant fight to me, being the
result of vaft labour and diligence; which leaving
for a while, and me to the enjoyment of, I hall give
the reader an account of my journal, from the day
of my landing till the fixing and fettling of my ha-
bitation, as heretofore fhown.

September 30, 1659. I unhappy Robinfon Crufoe,
having suffered fhipwreck, was driven on this defo-
late ifland, which I named the Defolate 1fland of De-
fpair, the reft being fwallowed up in the tempef-
tuous ocean. The next day I fpent in consideration
of my unkjppy circumstances, having no profpe6l
but of dean, either to be flarved with hunger, or
devoured by beats or mercilefs favages.
C(,,ob. 1. That mor-oing, with great comfort, I.
beheld the (hip drove ashore. Some hopes I had,.

that-when the form was abated, I might be able to
get fome food and necefaries ont of her, which I;
conceived were not damaged, because the tiip didr
hand upright. At this time I lamented the lofs .of
my companions, and our misfortune in leaving the-
veffel. When I perceived the (hip, as it were, lie-
dry, I waded through the fands,. then fwam aboard,
the weather being very rainy, anrd with fcarcelyiany:
To the 24th of this month, my time was employ-
ed in making voyages, every tide getting what r
could out of the fhip. The weather very. wet and
uncertain. Ii
O0ob. 20. My raft, and all the goods thereon,
were overfet; yet I recovered mot of them: again at
low water.
Obob. 25. It blew. hard, and rained night and
day, when the thip diffolved in pieces, fo that no-
thing was feen of her but the wreck at low water.
This day I fecured my goods from the inclemency of
the weather.
SOlob. 26. I wandered to fee where I could find a
place convenient for my abode... I fixed upon a roel
in the evening, marked out a half moon, intending
to erea a wall, fortified with piles, lined withnu with
pieces of cable, and covered with turf. df f-
Nov. i. I ere&ed my tent under a rock, and took.
up my lodging very.contentedly in a hammock that
Nov. 2. This day I fenced myfelf in with timber,,
chefts, and boards.
Nov. 3. I thot two wild fowl, resembling ducks,.
which were good to eat,, and in the afternoon: omal
me a table. .
Nov. 4. I began tolive regularly. In the mot
Allowed myfelf two or three hours to walkoati with
aygnn, then worked till near II o'clock apd a:ir

refreihed myfelf with what I had to eat. From twelve
to two I would lie down to fleep. Extreme fultry
weather. In the evening go to work again.
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog, flht a
wild cat with a foft fkin, but her flefh was good. for
nothing. The flins of thofe killed I preferred. In
my return I perceived many wild birds, and was ter-
rified by fome feals, which made off to fea.
Nov. 6. Completed my table. "
Nov. 7. Fair weather. I worked till the 12th,
but omitted the i Ith, which, according to my calcu-
lation, I fuppofed to be Sunday.
Nov. 13. Rain in abundance, which however
much cooled the earth, when thunder and lightning
caused in me a terrible furprife. The weather clear-
ing, in separate parcels I fecured my powder.
Nov. 14, to 16. I made little boxes for my pow-
der, lodging them in federal places. I alfo thot a
large fowl, which proved excellent meat.
Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rock, yet was obli-
ged to defit for want of a pick-axe, shovel, and
wheel-barrow. Iron crows I caufed to fupply the
place of the firft, but with all my art could not make
a wheel- barrow.
Nov. 18. It was my fortune to find a tree, refem-
bling what the Brafilians call an iron tree. I had
like to have fpoiled my.axe with cutting it, being
very hard, and exceeding heavy; yet with much la-
bour and industry I made a fort of a fpade out of it.
Nov. 23. Thefe tools being made, I daily carried
on my bufinefs eighteen days I allowed for jnlar-
ging my cave, that it might ferve me not only for
a warehonfe, but kitchen, parlour, and cellar. I
commonly lay in the tent, unlefs the weather was
rainy that I could not lie dry. So wet would it be at
certain feafons, that I was obliged to cover all within
the pale with long poles in the form of rafters leaniBg

against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees refembling a thatch.
Dec. 1o. No fooner did I think my habitation fi-
nifbed, but suddenly a great deal of the top broke in,
fo that it was a mercy I was not buried in the ruins.
This occasioned a great deal ofpains and trouble to
me before I could make it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. I nailed up fome shelves, and drove nails
and ftaples in the wall and pofts, to hang things out
of the way.
Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place, then
made a fort of a dreffer, and another table.
Dec. 24. 25. Rain in abundance.
Dec. 26. Very fair weather.
Dec. 27. I chanced to light on fome goats, (hot
one, wounded another; I led it home in a firing,
bound up its leg, and cured it in a little time; at
length it became fo tame and familiar, as to feed be-
fore the door, and follow me where I pleaded. This
put me in mind to bring up tame creatures, in order
to fupply me with food after my ammunition was
Dee. 28. 29; 3o. The weather being exceffive hot,,
with little air, obliged me for the moft part to keep
within doors.
Jan. I. Still fultry. However, obliged by necef-
fity, I went out with my gun, and found a great ftore
of goats in the valleys ; they were exceeding ihy, nor
could my dog hunt them down.
Jan. 3. to 14. My employment this tj m was to
finish the wall before described, and fearch the ifand.
I difcoered a kind of pigeons like our heuCe .pi-
geons, in a neft among the rocks I brought.hem:
home, nurfed them till they could fly, and theti tfly
left me; after this I (hot fome, which proiei ex-
cellent food. Some time I fpent vainly .in contriving
to-. "e a calk i may well fay it was vain, becatif-

I could neither join the ftaves, or fix the heads, fo
as to make it tight; then taking fome goat's tallow
I had by me, and a little okum for the wick, I provided
myfelf with a lamp, which served me inftead of can-
Bnt now a very ftrange event happened ; for being
in the height of my fearch, what should come into
my hand, but a bag, which was uled to hold corn (as
I fuppofed) for the fowls: So immediately revolving
to put gunpowder in it, I fhook all the hufks and dirt
upon one fide of the rock, little fufpe&ing what the
confequence would be. The rain had fallen plenti-
fully a few days before; and about a month after, to
my great amazement, something began to fprout out
very green and flourishing; and when I came to
view it more nicely every day, as it grew, I found
about io or 12 ears of green barley appearing in the
very fame fhape and make as that in England.
I can fcarce exprefs the agitations of my mind at
this fight. Hitherto I had looked upon the actions
of this life no otherwise than only as the events of
blind chance and fortune; but now, the appearance
of this barley, flourishing in a barren foil to the fort
of grain, and my ignorance in not conceiving how it
fliould come there, made me conclude, that miracles
were not yet cefed : Nay, I even thought- that God
had appointed it to grow there without any feed,
purely for my fuflenance in this miserable and defo-
late ifland. And indeed fuch great effe& had this
upon me, that it often made me melt into tears,
through a grateful fenfe of God's mercies; and the
greater fill was my thankfulnefs, when I perceived
about this little field of barley fome rice talks, won-
Sderfully flourishing in proportion to the crop within.
While I was thus furprifingly pleaded in mind, I
concluded there muft be more corn in the island;
and therefore made a diligent fearch narrowly among
the rocks, but could not find any; when upon a

fudden, it came into my mind, how I had shaken
the hufks of corn out of the bag, and then my admi-
ration ceased, with my gratitude to the Divine Being,
as thinking it was but natural, and not to be conceived
a miracle; though even the manner of its preferva-
tion might have made me own it as a wonderful
event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the ears
of this corn ripened, which I laid up very carefully,
together with 20 or 30 talks of rice, expe&ing
one day I should reap the fruits of my labour; yet
four years were expired before I could allow myself
to eat any barley bread, and much longer time before
I had any rice. After this, with indefatigable pains
and industry for three or four months, at laft I finish.
ed my cave on the i4th of April, having no way to
go into it but by a ladder against the wall.
April k6. I finished my ladder and afcended it ;
after pulled it up, then let it down on the other fide,
and defended into my new habitation, where I had
pace enough, and fo fortified that nothing could at-
tack me without fcaling the walls.
But what do all human pains and industry awail,
if the bleflings of God do not crown our labours X
Or who can ftand before the Almighty, when he
ftretcheth forth his arm : For one time, as I was at
the entrance of my cave, there happened foclh k
dreadful earthquake, that not only the roof of the
cave came crumbling about my ears, but the poff&-
feemed to crack terribly at the fame time this made
me, in great amazement, run to my ladder and get
over the wall; when there I plainly knew it was aan
earthquake, the place I flood on fuftaining three
terrible shocks in lefs than three minutes. And when
I-faw the top of a great rock roll into the fea, then
I expeaed the ifland would be fwallowed up every
Ssi aent i:and dreadful-it was to fee the fea thrQownI

into the moft violent agitations and disorders by this
tremendous accident.-
For my part I food like a criminal, at the place
of execution, ready to expire. At the moving of the
earth, I was, as it were, fea-fick, and very much a-
fraid left the rock, under which was my fence and
habitation, should overwhelm me and it in a blaing
When the third dreadful fhock had fpent itfelf,
my fpirits began to revive ; yet fill I would not ven-
ture to afceiad the ladder, but continued fitting, not
knowing what I should do. So little grace then I
had, only to fay, Lord, have inrcvy upon me! And no
fooner was the earthquake over, but that pathetic
prayer left me.
It was not long after when a horrible tempeft a-
rofe, at the fame time attended with a hurricane of
wind. The fea seemed mountains high, and the
waves rolled fo impetuoufly, that nothing could be
perceived but froth and foam. Three hours did this
ftorm continue, and in fo violent a manner as to tear
the very trees up by the roots, which was fucceeded
by abundance of rain.; when this was over I went
to my tent, but the rain coming again upon me in a
furious manner, obliged me to take shelterr in the
cave, and then I was forced to cut a channel through
fny fortification to let the water out. It continued
raining al that night, and fome time the next day:
Yet no fooner did the weather clear up, hut I re-
folved to build me a little hut in f9me open place,
walled round, to defend ,me from wild creatures and
favages, as not thinking but at the next earthquake
the mountain would fall .pon my habitation and me,
and fwallow up all in its bowels.
April 19. 20. Thefe days I fpent in.contriving how
and in what manner I should fix my place of abode ,
all this while I was under the moft dreadful ap-
prehenfions. When I looked round my habitation,

every thing I found was in its proper place. I had
several refolutions whether I- hold move or not; at
length I refolved to flay where I was, till I had found
a convenient place where I might pitch my tent.
Apr. 22. When I began to put my refolutions in
practice, I was flopped for want of tools and intar-
ments to work with. Moft of my axes and hatchets
were ufelefs, occafioned by cutting the hard timber
that grew oa the ifand. It took me up a full week
to make my grind-fone of ufe to me, and at iaf I
found out a way to turn it about with my foot, by
the help of a wheel and a trying.
Apr. 28. 29. Thefe days were fpent in grinding
my tools.
Apr. 30. My bread falling thort, I allowed my.
felf but one buifcuit a-day.
May i. As I walked along the fea tiore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and feveial pieces of the
wreck, which the fea had flung up. -Having fecured
thole, I made to the fhip, whofe ftern was torn off,
and waffled a great distance ashore, but the reft lay
in the fands. This I fuppoed was occaliened by the
earthquake. Now I resolved to keep my old place
of abode, and alfo to go to the thip that day, -but
found it impoffible. *
May 3. I went on 'board, and -with my faw fawed
off one of the beams which kept her quar er-deck j
then I cleared the fand till flood.
May 4. I caught fome fifh, but they -~we not
wholefome ; the fwan day I alfo watched a y~ong
May 5. This day I alforepaired to the weaok, and
fawed another piece of timber ; asd when the food
came, I made a float of three .great planks, which
was driven afhore by the Wide.
May 6. 7. 8. 9. Thefe days I brought aff the iam
bolts, opened the deck with the iron crow, and ca-

ried two planks to land, having made a way into the-
very middle of the wreck.
May 10. I. I2. 13. 14. All this timeI fpent im,
bringing off great quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets, on purpofe
to cut fome lead off the roll, but all in vain, for it
lay too low under water.
May 16. I omitted going to the wreck this day,
for employing myfelf in looking for pigeons, I out-
ftayed my time.
May 17. I perceived several pieces of the wreck
blown afhore, which I found belonged to the head
of the fhip.
May 24. To this day I worked on the wreck,
and with great difficulty loofened fome things fo
much with the crow, that at the firft flowing tide
federal calks floated out, and many of the feamens
chefts; yet that day nothing came to land but pieces
of timber, and a hogfhead which had fome Brafil pork
in it. I continued working to the xSth of June (ex-
cept neceffary times for food and reft), and had I
known how to have built a boat, I had timber and
planks enough: I had alfo near ioo weight of feet
June 16. As I was wandering towards the feafide,
I found a large tortoife or turtle, being the firft I had
feen on the island, though, as I afterwards found,
there were many on the other fide of it.
June 17. This day I fpent in cooking its found in
her threefcore eggs, and her fle'h the moft favoury and
pleafant I ever tafted in my life.
June 18. I ftaid within this day, there being a
continual rain; and it was something more chilly
and cold than ufual.
June 19. Exceeding bad, taken with a trembling
and shivering.

fune 20. Awake all night, my head tacked with
pain, and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with the
difmal apprehenfions of my condition; prayed to
God frequently, but very confufedly.
. une 22. Something better, but till uneafy in my
June 23. Again relapfed, much as before.
June 24. Mended a fecond time.
June 25. A violent ague for even hours, cokl and
hot fits, succeeded with faint fweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak, yet I scrambled
out, fhot a fhe-goat, brought it home, and broiled
fome of it; 1 would willingly have ftewed it and
made fome broth, but had no pot.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with an ague
thirty, yet could not help myfelf to water; prayed
to God in thefe words, Lord, in pity look upon me,
Lord have mercy upon me, have mercy upon me After
this I fell afleep, which I found had much refrefhed'
me when I awaked: I fell afleep a second time, and
fell into this ftrange and terrible fort of dream :
Methought I was fitting on the fame fpot of
ground, at the outside of the wall, where I fat-when
the ftorm blew after the earthquake, and that I faw
a man defending from a great black cloud and a-
light upon the ground : He was all over as bright as
a flafh of fire that a little before surrounded him ;
his countenance inconceivably terrible; the earth,
as it were, trembled when he stepped upon the ground;
and flafhes of fire seemed to fill all the air. No fooner
I thought him landed upon the earth, but with a
long fpear or other weapon he made towards me,
but firft afcending a rising ground, his voice added
to my amazement,'when I thought I heard him pro-
nounce there dreadful words, Unhappy wretch!feeing
dls thefe things have not brought thee to repentance, thao.

fJalt immediately die. In pronouncing this dreadful
sentence, I thought he went to kill me with the fpear
that was in his hand.
Any body may think it impoffible for me to exprefs
the horrors of my mind at this vifion, and even when
I awaked, this very dream made a deep impreffion
upon my mind. The little divine knowledge I had
I received from my father's inftrufions, and that was
worn out by an uninterrupted feries of feafaring im-
piety for eight years fpace; except what ficknefs for-
ced from me, I do not remember I had one thought of
lifting up my heart towards God, but rather had a
certain stupidity of foul, not having the leaft fenfe
of fear of the Omnipotent Being when in diftrefs, nor
of gratitude to him for his deliverances. Nay, when
I was on the desperate expedition on the defert Afri-
can thore, I cannot remember I had one thought of
what would become of me, or beg his consolation
and affiftance in my fufferings and diftrefs. When
the Portugal captain took me up, and honourably ufed
me, nay, farther, when I was even delivered from
drowning, by efcaping to this island, I never looked
upon it as a judgment, but only faid I was an unfor-
tunate dog, and that is all. Indeed fome fecret tranf-
ports of foul I had, which was not through grace,
but only a common flight of joy, that I was yet alive,
when my companions were all drowned; and no
other joy could I conceive but what is common with
the sailors over a bowl of punch after they have
efcaped the greatest dangers.
The likelihood cf wanting for neither food nor
conveniences might have called upon me for a
thankful acknowledgment to Providence. Indeed the
growth of my corn touched me with fome fenfe, but
that foon wore off again: The terrible earthquake
pointed to me as it were the finger of God, but my
dreadful amazement continued no longer than its
duration. But now when my fpirits began to fink

under the burden of a strong diftemper, and I could
leifurely view the miferies of death prefent themselves
before my eyes, then my awakened conscience began
to reproach me with my palf life, in which I had fo
wickedly provoked the justice of God to pour down
his vengeance upon me.
Such reflefions as thefe oppreffed me even in the
violence of my diftemper ; fome prayers I uttered,
which only proceeded from my fear of death; but
when I considered my father's advice and prophecy,
I could not forbear weeping; for he told me, that
if I did perftf in my folly, IJhould not only be deprived
of God's blefing, but have time enough to reflej upon
my defpifng his inflrulions, and this in a wretched time
when none could hdlp me. And now concluding it to
be fulfilled, having no foul in the island to admini-
fter any comfort to me, I prayed however earnestly
to the Lord that he would help me in this my great
calamity ; and this, I think, was the firft time I
prayed in sincerity for many years. But now I muft
return to my journal.
June 28. Something refreshed with fleep, and the
fit quite off, I got up. My dream till occasioned in
me a-great consternation, and fearing that the ague
might return the succeeding day, I concluded it a
time to get something to comfort me. I filled a cafe
bottle with water, and fet it within the reach of my
bed, and to make it more nouritfing and lefs chilly,
I put fome rum into it. The next thing I did was to
broil me a piece of goat's flefh, of which I eat butittle.
I was very weak, however walked about, dreading
the return of my diftemper, and at night I fupped.
on three of the turtle's eggs, which I roafted and.
eat, begging God's blefling therewith.
After I had eaten, I attempted to walk again out of
doors with my gun, but fo weak thai I fat down
and looked at the fea, which was smooth and calm.

While I continued here thefe thoughts came into my
mind :
In what manner is the produ&ion of the earth and
fea, which I have feen fo much of? From whence
came myfelf and all other creatures living, and of
what are we made ?
Our beings were affuredly created by fome Al-
mighty invifible power, who framed the earth, the
fea, and air, and all therein; but what is that
power ?
Certainly it muft follow that God has created it
all. Yet, faid I, if God has made all this, he muft
be the ruler of them all, and what is relating there-
to; for certainly the power that makes muft indif-
putably have a power to guide and direC them.
And if this be fo, (as certainly it muft) nothing can
happen without his. knowledge or appointment.
Then, furely, if nothing happens without God's ap-
pointment, certainly God has appointed thefe my
fufferings to befal me. And here I fixed my firm
belief, that it was his will that it should be fo; and
then proceeded to inquire, why should God deal
with me in this manner ? or what had I done thus
to deferve his indignation ?
Here confcience flew in my face, reprehending
me as a blafphemer, crying with a loud and piercing
voice, Unworthy wretch dare you ajq what you have
done ? Look upon your paf life, and fee what you have
left undone. Afk thyfelf, why thou wert not long
ago in the mercilefs hands of death ? Why not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads, or killed in the fight
when the fliip was taken by the Sallee man of war ?
Why not entombed in the bowels of wild beats on
the African coaft, or drowned here, when all thy
campanions suffered shipwreck ?
Struck dumb with thefe reflecions, I rofe up in a
penfive manner, being fo thoughtful that I could not
go to fleep; and fearing the dreadful return of. my

difiemper, it caused me to remember that the Bra-
filians ufe tobacco for almost all difeafes. I then went
to my cheft in order to find fome, where -heaven no
doubt dire&ed me to a cure for both foul and body,
Sfor there I found one of the bibles, which till this
time I had neither leifure nor inclination to look
into; I took both the tobacco and that out of the
cheft and laid them on the table. Several experi-
ments did I try with the tobacco; firft I took a
leaf and chewed it, but it being very green and
strong almost ftupified me ; next I steeped it in
fome rum an hour or two, refolving when I went to
bed to take a dofe of it; and in the third place, I
burnt fome over a pan of fire, holding my nofe over
it fo long as I could endure the leaft heat without
In the intervals of this operation, though my head
was giddy and disturbed at the tobacco, I took up
the bible to read : No fooner did I open it, but there
appeared to me thefe words, Call on me in the day of
trouble, and 1 will deliver, and thoujhalt glorify me.
At firft this sentence made a very deep impreffion
Son my heart, but foon wore off.again, when I con-
fidered the word deliver was foreign to me and as
the children of Ifrael faid, when they were promised
flefh to eat, Can Godfpread a table in the wilderness 7
In like manner I began to fay, Can God himfelf
deliver me from this defolate island ? However, the
words woull fill return to my mind, and after made
a great impreffion upon me. As it now was very
late, and the tobacco had dozed my head, I was in-
clined to fleep, but before I would lie down, I fell
on my knees, and implored the promife that God
had made to me in the holy fcriptures, that if I call-
ed upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me.
With much difficulty I after drank the rum, where-
in I had fteeped the tobacco, which flying in my
had very violently, threw me into fuch a profound
r e .

fleep, that it was three o'clock the next day before
I awaked, or rather, I believe, I flept two days, ha-
ving certainly loft a day in my own account, and I
could never tell any other way. When I got up, my
fpirits were lively and cheerful, my stomach much
better, being very hungry ; and, in fhort, no fit re-
turned the next day, which was the 29th, but I found
myfelf much altered for the better.
The 30th I went abroad with my gun, but not far,
and killed a fea fowl or two, resembling a brand-
goofe, which yet I cared not to eat when I brought
them home, but dined on two more of the turtle's
eggs. In the evening I renewed my medicine, ex-
cept not taking that quantity, neither did I chew of
the leaf, or hold my head over the fmoke; yet the
next day I had a little fpice of the cold fit, which was
on the ft of July.
July 2. I took my medicines as I did the firft time.
Yuly 3. The fit quite left me, but very weak. In
this condition I often thought of thefe words, I will
deliver thee; and while at fome times I would think
of the impoffibility of it, other thoughts would 're-
prehend me for difregarding the deliverances I had
received, even in the moft forlorn and diftreffed con-
dition. What regard had I to God's abundant mer-
cies ? Had I done my part ? He had delivered me, but
I had not glorified him; as much as to fay, I had not
owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance,
and how could I expea a greater ? So much did this
fenfibly touch my heart, that I gave God thanks for
my recovery from ficknefs in the moft humble pro-
July 4. This morning I began .ferioufly to ponder
on what is written in the New Teftament, refolving to
read a chapter every morning and night, as long as
my thoughts would engage me; but when foon after
I fet about this work ferioufly, I found my heart
deeply affeCted with the impiety of my paft life.

Tiefe words, that I thought were fpoken to me in my
dream, revived, A11 thefe things have not brought thee
to repentance : After this, I begged of God to affift
me with his holy fpirit in retuning to my duty;
when pernfing the fcriptures one day, I came to
thefe words, e has exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to giv repentance and to give remff#n : Immediately
Laid down the book, and with uplifted hands to
even, loudly cried, 0 Meeld Jefus, thu &n of
avid, Jefus, thou exalted Prmnce wnd Savisr, give me
epentance! And now indeed I prayed with a true
nfe of my condition, and a more certain hope
unded on the word of God; now I had a different
nfe of there words, Call on me and I rvill d~eiw
u ; that is, from the dreadful load of guilt which
ppreffed my finful foul, and not from a solitary life,
which might rather be called a bleffing feeingg I
wanted neither food nor raiment) than living among
the race of human-kind, surrounded with fo much
oppreffion, mifery, and affli&ion; and in a word, I
came to this conclusion, That a deliverance from fin
was a muckgreater bleffing than a deliverance from
afflilion. But again I proceed to my journal.
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my gun,
a little and a little at a time, having been reduced to
the greatest extremity of weaknefs. The applica-
tion and experiment I ufed were perfe6ly new ; nei-
her could I recommend it to any one's practice;
or though it carried off the fit, it very much weak-
ned me, and I had frequently convulfions in my
serves and limbs for fome time. From hence I
earned, that going abrqod in rainy weather, efpe-
ially when it was attended with forms, and hurri-
anes of wind, was moft pernicious to health. In
his ifland I had been about ten months, never all the
while having feen any human-kind, and fo account-
d myfef as Rfle monarch; and as I grew better,
having feeured my habitation to my mind, I refolved

to make a tour round my kingdom, in order to make
new difcoveries.
The 15th of Yuly I began my journey. I firft
went to the creek, where I had brought my rafts on
More, and travelling farther, found the tide going
no higher than two miles.up, where theretwas-a little
brook of running water, on the banks of which were
many pleafant favannas or meadows, plain, fmooth,
and covered with grafs: On the rifing parts, where
I fuppofed the water did not reach, I perceived a
great deal of tobacco growing to a very firong talk.
Several other plants I likewife found,- the virtues of
which I did not understand; but a long time I
searched for the caffava root, which I knew the In-
dians in that climate made their bread of, but all in
vain. There were several plants of aloes, though at
that time I knew not what they were;. likewise I faw
federal fugar-canes, but imperfe6 for want of culti-
vation. With thefe few discoveries I came back
that night, and flept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the fame
way, and farther than the day before, I found the
country more adorned with woods and trees. Here
I perceived different fruits, which lay in very great
abundance. The melons in plenty lay on the ground,
and clusters of grapes, ripe and very rich, fpread-
over the trees. You may imagine I was glad of
tis discovery, yet eat very fparingly, left I should
throw myfelf into a flux or fever. As for the grapes,
I found them of excellent ufe; for when I had dried
them in the fun, which preferred them as dried rai-
fins are kept, they proved very wholefome and nou-
rihfing, and served me in thofe feafons when no
grapes were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I afcended up a tree,
and flept very comfortably, though it was the firft
time I had lain out of my habitatiop. .And when
the morning came, I proceeded with great plefia

on my way, travelling about four miles, as I ima-
gined, by the length of the valley, dire&ing my
course northward, there being a ridge of hills on the
fouth and north fide of me At the end of this val-
ley I came to an opening, where the country seemed
to defcend to the weft: There I found a little spring
of frefh water proceeding out of the fide of a hill,
with its crystal streams running directly eall. And
indeed here my fenfes were charmed with the moft
lovely obje& nature could afford; for the country
appeared fo flourishing, green, and delightful, that
to me it seemed like a planted garden. I then defcend-
ed on the fide of that delicious vale, where I found
abundance of cocoa, orange, lemon and citron trees,
but very wild and barrenr at that time; the juice
of which I afterwards ufed to mix in water, which
made it very cool and refreshing. And now I
was resolved to carry home and lay up a ftore of
grapes, limes, and lemons, against the approaching
wet feafon: So laying them up in separate parcels,
and then taking a few of each with me, I returned to
my little caftle, after having fpent three days in this
journey: But before I got home, the grapes were fo
bruifed that they were utterly fpoiled-; the limes in-
deed were good, but few could I bring away.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I returned
thither again; but to my great furprife found all the
grapes fpread about, trod to pieces, and abundance
eaten, which made me to conclude there were wild
creatures thereabouts. To remedy this, I gathered
a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon
the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure
and dry in the fun; and having well loaded myfelf
with limes and lemons, I returned once more to my
old place of residence.
And now it was, that contemplating on the fruit-
fulnefs of the valley, the pleafantnefs of the fituatioi,

the security from forms on that fide the water, and
the delightfulnefs of an adjacent wood, I concluded
I was fettled in the worft part of the country, and
therefore was thinking to remove my habitation. But
when I considered again, that though it was pleasant,
it was not by the fea-fide, where there was a poffibi-
lity, fome time or other, a fhip might either be driven
to, or fail by that coaft; and that to inclofe myfelf
among hills and woods muft certainly frustrate all
hopes of a deliverance, I refolved to let my caftle
remain where Providence had firft affigned it. Yet
fo raviflied was I with this place, that I made me a
little kind of bower, surrounding it at a distance
with a double hedge, as high as 1 could reach, well
flaked and filled with bullrufhes ; and having fpent
a great part of the month of July, I think it was the
firit of Auguft before I began to enjoy my labour.
Aug. 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I took
them from the trees, and they proved excellent good
raifins of the fun; the moft of which I carried to my
cave; and happy for me I did fo, by which I faved
the beft part of my winter food.
Aug. 14. It began to rain this day; and though I
had made me a tent like the other, yet having no
iheher of a hill to keep me from forms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat to, I was obliged to return to
my old caftle. Still the rain continued more or lefs
every day till the middle of October; and sometimes
fo violently that I could nct ftir out of my cave
fori.veral days. This feafon I found my family to
increase ; for one of my costs that ran away from me,
and whcm I thought had been dead, returned about
Auguft, with three kittens at her heels, like herfelf,
-which I thought ftrange, because both my cats were
ft males, and the wild cats of the island feemed to be
of a different kind frcm our European cats; but from
.thefe cats proceeded fuch numbers, that I was forced

to kill and deflroy them, as I would do wild beats or
To the 26th of this month I could not ftir out, it
raining inceffantly; when beginning to want food,
I was compelled to venture twice, the firft of which
I fhot a goat, and after found a very large tortoife.
The manner of regulating my food was thus: A
bunch of raifins ferved me for breakfast ; a piece of
goat's flefh or turtle broiled for my dinner and two
or three turtle's eggs for my upper. While the rain
lafted, I daily worked two or three hours at enlar-
ging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards
one fide till I came to the outside of the hill, and
made a door or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall, and fo I came in and out this way.
But after I had done this, I was troubled to fee my-
felf thus expofed, though I could not perceive any
thing to fear, a goat being the biggest creature I had
feen upon this island.
Sept. 30. Cafting up my notches on my poft, which
amounted to 365, I concluded this to be the anni-
verfary of my landing; and therefore humbly pro-
firating myfelf on the ground, confefing my fins,
acknowledging God's righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to Jefus Chrift to have mercy on me, I
fated for twelve hours till the going down of the fun
and then eating a bifcuit and a bunch of grapes, laid
me on the bed, and with great comfort took my
night's repofe. Till this time, having no fenfe of reli-
gion, I never diftinguifhed the Sabbath-day; but now
I made a longer notch than ordinary for the days of
reft, and divided the weeks as well as I could, though
I found I had loft a day or two in my account. Soon
after, my ink failing, I omitted a daily niemoran-
dum of indifferent things, and contented myself to
write down only the moft remarkable events of my
life. The rainy and dry feafons appeared now re-
gular to me, and experience taught me how to pro-


vide for them; yet, in one thing I am going to re-
late, my experience very much failed me. You may
call to mind what I have mentioned of fome bar-
ley and rice which I had fared; about thirty flalks
of the former, and twenty of the latter; and at that
time the fun being in its southern position going from
me together with the rains, made me conclude it a
very proper feafon to fow it. Accordingly, I dug up
a piece of ground with my wooden fpade, and divid-
ing it in two parts, fowed about two-thirds of my
feed, preferring by me about a handful of each. And
happy it was I did fo, for no rains falling, it was
choked up, and never appeared above the earth till
the wet feafon came again, and then it grew as if it
had been newly fown.
I was resolved ftill to make another trial; and
seeking for a moifter piece of ground near my bower,
there I fowed the reft of my feed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox, which having the rainy
months of March and April to water it, yielded a
noble crop, and fprung up very pleasantly. Part of
the feed I had yet faved, not daring to venture all;
and my crop amounted to above half a peck of each
fort. But by this time I found the proper feafons to
fow in ; and that two feed-times and two harvelts I
might expe-t every year.
No fooner were the rains over, and the flakes,
which I had cut from the trees, shooting like willow
trees the firit year after lopping their heads, than I
was ignorant of the tree I cut them from ; Lut they
grew fo regularly beautiful, that they made a molt
lovely appearance, and flourished fo in three years
time, that I resolved to cut fome more; and thefe
Loon growing made a glorious fence, as in order I
hall observe.
And now I perceived that the feafon of the year
might generally be divided, not into summer and win-

ter as in Europe, but into wet and dry feafons, as in
this manner :

Half February, 1
March, Rainy, fun coming near the equinox.
Half April,
Half April,
June, Dry, fn getting north of the line.
Half Auguft,
Half Auguft, 1
September, Wet, the fun being then come back.
Half Oaober,
Half Oaober, 1
December, Dry,fun running fourth of the line.
January, 1
Half February,

As the winds happened to blow, fo the wet feafons
would continue longer or shorter ; but when I found
the ill confeqiuence of being abroad in the rain, I
took care beforehand to furnifh myself with provi-
fions, and during the wet months fat within doors
as much as poffible ; and in this time I contrived
to make many things that I wanted, though it was
with much labour and pains before I could accom-
plith them. The firit I tried was to make a bafket,
but all the twigs I could get proved fo brittle, that
I could not then perform it. But now it proved of
excellent advantage to me, that, when a boy, I took
great delight in landing at a bafket-maker's in the
fame town where my father lived, to view them at
work, and like other boys, curious to fee the man-
ner of their working thefe things, and very officious
to affift, I perfe&ly learned the method of it, and
wanted nothing but the tools ; and then it came

into my mind that the twigs of that tree of which I
made my flakes might be as tough as fallow, willow,
and offers, growing in England ; and fo refolving to
make an experiment, I went the next day to my
country feat, and found fome fit for my turn; and
cutting down numbers with my hatchet, I dried them
in my pale, and when fit to work with, carried them
to my cave, where I employed myfelf in making fe-
veral forts of baskets, to put in whatfoever I pleaded ;
it is true, they were not cleverly made, yet they ferv.
ed my turn upon all occasions.
But fill I wanted two neceffary things; I had ne-
ver a calk t, hold my liquor, except two rumlets al-
moft full of rum, a few bottles of an ordinary fi2e,
and fome fquare cafe bottles; neither had I a pot to
boil any thing in, only a large kettle, unfit to make
broth or ftew a bit of meat; after this I wanted a
tobacco pipe, for which laft I found an expedient.
I kept myfelf employed in planting my second row
of takes, and worked in this wicker the dry feafon.
You may remember before, that when I travelled up
to the brook, I had a mind to fee the whole island ;
accordingly, taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two bif-
cuit cakes, a great bunch of raifins, with a larger
quantity of powder and fhot than ufual, I began my
journey ; and having paffed the vale where my bower
food, I came within view of the fea, lying tothe weft,
when it being a clear day, I fairly defcried land, but
could not fay whether it was an island or a continent.
It extended from the W. to the W. S. W. about ten
or fifteen leagues, as I concluded ; neither could I
tell what place this might be, only thought it was
part of America, and where I might have been in a
miserable condition had I landed. Again,lcoi.fidered,
that if this was the Spanifh coaft,certainly one time or
other I should fee fome fhip pafs by; and if it was not,
then it muft be the favage cofit between the Spanith

country and Brafil, which abounds with cannibals or
man-eaters, that devour human-kind.
As I proceeded forward I found this fide of the
island much more pleasant than mine, the fields fr.a
grant, adorned with fweet flowers and verdant grafs,
together with several very fine woods. There were
parrots in plenty, which made me long for one to be
my companion ; but it was with great difficulty that
I could knock it down with my flick, and it was
fome years I kept him at home before I could get
him to call me by my name.
In the low grounds I found various forts of hares
and foxes, as I thought them, but much different from
all I had met with : Several of thefe I killed, but
never eat them, neither indeed had I any occasion,
for abounding with goats, pigeons, turtle, and grapes,
I could defy Leadenhall-market to furnish me a
better table. In this journey I did not travel above
two miles in a day, because I took several turns and
windings to fee what discoveries I could make, re-
turning weary enough to the place whfre I designed
to ref all night, which was either in a tree or in a
place which I surrounded with (lakes, that no wild
creature might suddenly furprife me. When I came
to the fea-fhore 'I was amazed to fee the fplendour
of it; its strand was covered with shells of the moft
beautiful fifth, and constantly abounding with innu-
merable turtles and fowls of many kinds, which I
was ignorant of, except thofe called penguins. I
might have fhot as many as I pleafed, but was fpar-
ing of my ammunition, rather choosing to kill a the-
goat, which with much difficulty I did, because of
the flatnefs of the country.
Now, though this journey produced the rnqfjItleaf-
ing fatisfaRion, yet my habitation was fibnajtlto
me, that I did not repine, at my being feared .a the:
worft part of the island ;. and fo travelling Arhet l~
siles towards the cafl, I fet a -great pile on the

thore for a mark, concluding that my next journey
should be on the other fide of the ifland, ealt from
my caflle, and fo round till I came to my poft again.
However I took another way back, thinking I could
not mifs by having a conflant view of the country ;
but farce hLd I travelled three miles, when I de-
fcended into a very large valley, fo surrounded with
hills that were covered with wood, that I had no guide
but by the fun, nor even then unlefs I knew well
the position of the fun at that time of the day. What
added to my misfortune was, the weather proved fo
hazy for three or four days as to oblige me to re-
turn to my poft by the fea-fide, and fo backwards the
fame way I came. My dog furprifed a kid in this
journey, and would have killed it, had I not pre-
vented him. I had often been mufing whether I
could not get a kid or two, and fo raife a breed of
tame goats to fupply me after my ammunition was
fpent. Upon which I made a collar for this little
creature with a firing made of rope-yarn which I al-
ways carried about with me; and when I came to
my bower, there I inclofed and left him, and after a
month's time in this journey I came home to my old
Nobody can fuppofe otherwise but that I had a
pleating fatisfaation when I returned ta my little
caftle, and repofed myfelf in my hammock. After
this journey I refuted myfelf a week; and the princi-
pal concern I then had was to make a cage for my
pretty poll; and then I began to consider the poor
kid I had left at my bower, and immediately I went
to fetch it home. When I came there, I found the
young creature almost flarved; when feeding it with
branches of fuch fhrubs as I could find, I tied it, as
before; but there was no occasion, for it followed ie
like.a dog, and as I conflantly fed it, became fo lov-
ing, gentle, and fond, that it commenced one of my
domeftics, and would never leave me.

The rainy feafon of the autumnal equinox being
now come, I kept the 3oth of September in the moft
folemn manner as ufual, it being the third year of my
abode in the ifland. I fpent the whole day in acknow-
ledging God's mercies, in giving him thanks for mak-
ing this folitary life as agreeable, and lefs finful, than
that of human fociety, and for the communications of
his grace to my foul, supporting, comforting, and en-
couraging me to depend upon his providence, and'
hope for his eternal presence in the world to come.
Before I considered how happy I was in this ftate
of life, towards that accurfed manner of living I for-
merly ufed, while either I was hunting or viewing
the country, the anguish of my foul would break out
upon me on a fudden, and my very heart would fink
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains,
the deferts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, lock-
ed up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean,
in an uninhabited wildernefs, without hopes and"
without redemption ; and in this condition I would
often wring my hands and weep like a child; even
in the middle of my work this fit would take me,
and then I would immediately fit down and figh,
looking on the ground for an hour or two together,
till fuch time as my grief would be vented, by burft-
ing out into melting tears.
As one morning I was suddenly pondering in my
mind, I opened my Bible, when immediately I fixed
my eyes upon thefe words, I will never leave thee nor
forfake thee! Surely, thought I, thefe- words are di-
reCed to me, or elfe why should they appear juft at
a moment when I am bemoaning my forlorn condi-
tion ? And if God does not forfake me, what matters.
it, fince he can make me mote happy in this ftate of
life than if I enjoyed the greatest fplendour in the
world ? But while I was going to return God
thanks -for my prefent ftate, something seemed to
thock my mind, as if it had thus faid, Unworthy

wretch can you pretend to be thankful for a con-
dition from which you would pray to be delivered ?
Here I flopped; and though I could not fay I thanked
the divine Majefty for being there, yet 1 gave God
thanks for placing to my view my former wicked
course of life, and granting me a true knowledge of
repentance. And whenever I opened or fhut the
Bible, I bleft kind Providence that dire&ed my goods
without my order, and for affifting me to fave it from
the power of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my several
daily employment were thefe : Firft, My duty to
Heaven, and diligently reading the holy fcriptures,
which I did twice or thrice every day. Secondly,
Seeking provifion with my gun, which commonly
took me up, when it did not rain, three hours every
morning. Thirdly, The ordering, curing, preferv-
ing, and cooking what I had killed or catched for
my fupply, which took me up a great part of the
day; and in the middle of the day, the fun being in
its height, it was fo hot that I could not ftir out,
fo that I had but four hours to work in; and then
my want of tools, help, and fill, wafted a great
deal of time; for I was two-and-forty days making
a board fit for a long thelf, whereas two lawyers,
with their tools and fawpit, would have cut several
out of the fame tree in half a day. But this was the
cafe, it was to be a large tree, because my board was
to be broad; I was three days in cutting it down,
and two more in lopping off the boughs and redu-
cing it to a piece of timber; this I hacked and hewed
off each fide till it became light to move, then I
turned it, made one fide of it fmooth and flat as a
board, from end to end, then turned it downward,
cutting the other fide, till I brought the plank to be
about three inches thick, and fmooth on both fide&.
Any body may judge my great labour and fatigue.

in fuch a piece of work; but this I -went through
with patience, as alfo many other things that my cir-
cumftances made neceffary for me to do.
But now came my harveft months, November and&
December, in which I had the pleading profpe& of
a very good crop ; but fuch was my misfortune, that
the goats and hares having-once tafted of the fweet-
nefs of the blade, kept it fo fhort, that it had not
strength to fhoot up into a talk. To prevent which,
I inclofed it with a hedge, and by day fhot fome of
its devourers, and my dog, which I lad tied to the
field-gate, keeping barking all night, frightened the
creatures away.
No fooner did I get rid of thefe, but other ene-
mies appeared, whole flocks of several forts of birds, \,
who only waited till my back was turned to ruin me.
So much did this provoke me, that I let fly and
killed three of the malefa&ors, and afterwards served
them as they do notorious thieves in England, hung
them up in chains as a terror to others ; and indeed
fo good an effet had this, ta.t they not only fbrfook
the corn, but all that part of the island, fo long as
thefe criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end of
December, which was my second harveft of the year,.
I reaped it with a fcythe made of one of my broad
fwords. I had no great fatigue in cutting down my
firft crop, it was fo flender, the ears of which I
carried home in a basket, rubbing it out with my
hands instead of threfhing it; and when my harvefi
was over, I found my half peck of feed produce near
two bufhels of rice, and two bufhels and a half of
barley. And now I plainly forefaw that, by God's.
goodnefs, I shouldd be furnifhed with bread; but yet-
I was concerned, because I knew not how to grind or
make meal of my corn, nor bread, neither knew how
to bake it. Upon thefe considerations I would not:
tfte any of the crop, but preserve it against the netac


feafon, and in the mean while ufe my beft endeavours
to provide myfelf with materials to make bread.
But where were my labours to end ? 4he want of
a plough to turn up the earth, or fhorel to dig it, I
conquered by making me a wooden fpade after a
particular manner ; the want of a harrow, I fup-
plied myfelf by dragging over the corn a great bough
of a tree; when it was growing or fully ripe, I
was forced to fence it, mow it, carry it home, threfh
it, part it from the chaff, and fave it; and after all
this, I wanted a mill to grind it, fieves to drefs it,
yeaft and falt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it. This fet my brains on work to find fome
expedient for every one of thefe eceffaries against
the next harvest.
And now, having more feed, my firft care was to
prepare me more land. I pitched upon two large
flat pieces of ground near my castle for that purpose,
in which I fowed my feed, and fenced it with a good
hedge, which took me up three months, by which
time it was the wet feafon. While the rain kept
me within doors, I found several occasions to em-
ploy myfelf; and while at work ufed to divert my-
felf with talking to my parrot, learning him to know
and peak his own name Poll, the firft welcome
word 1 ever heard fpoke on the ifland. I had been a
long time contriving how to make earthen veffels,
which I wanted extremely; and when I considered
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I could
find any proper clay, I might botch up a pot, strong
enough, when dried in the fun, to bear handling,
and to hold any thing that was dry, as corn, meal,
and other things.
To be fhort, the clay I found; but it would oc-
cafion the moft serious person to fmile to fee what
aukward ways I took, and what ugly mifhapen things
I made; how many either fell out or cracked by the
violent heat of the fun, and fell in pieces when they

were removed; fo that I think it was two months
time before I cqyld perfe& any thing, and after this
great fatigue, made two clumfy things in imitation
of earthen jars; thefe however I very gently placed
in wicker baskets, made on purpofe for them, and
between the pot and the baskets, ftuffed it full of
rice and barley ftraw, and thefe I prefumed would
hold my dried corn, and perhaps the meal when the
corn was bruifed. But as for smaller things, I made
them with better fuccefs, which the fun baked very
hard, fuch as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins.
Yet ftill I wanted one thing absolutely necefrary,
and that was an earthen pot, not only to hold any'
liquid thing, but to bear the fire, which none of
thefe could do. It once happened, that as I was
putting out my fire, I found therein a broken piece
of one of my veffels burnt hard as a rock, and red as
a tile. This made me contrive how to order my fire
as to make it burn fome pots and having no notion
of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead, I fixed three
large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile one
upon another; the fire I piled round the outside
with dry wood, and on the top, till I faw the pots
in the inside red hot, and found that they did not
crack at all and when I perceived them perfe&ly
red, I let one of them fand in the fire about five or
fix hours, till the clay melted by the extremity of
the heat, and would have run to glafs had I suffered
it; upon which I lacked my fire by degrees, till the
rednefs abated ; and watching them till the morning,
I found I had three very good pipkins, and two
earthen pots, as well burnt and fit for my turn as I
could defire.
No joy can be greater than mine at this difco-
very; for after this, I may fay, I wanted for no
fort of earthen ware. Killed one of my pipkins with
vater to boil me fome meat, which it did admirably

well, and with a piece of kid I made me fome good
broth, as well as my circumstances would afford me
at that time.
The next concern I had was to make me a f(one-
mortar to beat fome corn in, instead of a mill to
grind it. Here indeed 1 was at a great lo.s, as not
being fit for a ftone-cutter, and many days 1 fpent
to find out a great f(one big enough to cut hollow
and make fit for a mortar, and strong enough to bear
the weight of a peftle, as would break the corn-
without filling it with fand ; but all the (ionesof the
ifland b'ing of a mouldcring nature, rendered my
fearch fruitlefs; and then I resolved to look out a
great block of hard wood, which having foon found,
1 formed with my axe and hammer, and then with
infinite labour made a hollow place in it, juft as the
Indians of Brafil make their canoes. When I had
finished this, I made a great peftle of iron-wood,
which I had formerly laid up against my succeeding
My next bufinefs was to make me a fieve to fift my
meal, and part it from the bran and the hulk. Hav-
ing no fine thin canvas to fearch the meal through,
I could not tell what to do; what linen I had was
reduced to rags; I had goats hair enough, but nei-
ther tools to work it, nor did I know how to fpin it:
At length I remembered I had fome neckcloths of ca-
lico or mullin of the sailors, which I had brought
out of the ihip, and with there I made three finally
fieves, proper enough for the work.
And now I come to consider the baking part in
course. The want of an oven I supplied by making
fome earthen pans -ery broad but not deep. When
I had a mind to bake, I made a great fire upon my
hearth, the tiles of which I had made myfelf, and
when the wood was burnt into live coals, I fpread-
them all over it, till it became very hot then fwee)-

ing them away, I fet down my loaves, and whelm-
ing down the earthen pots upon them, drew the a(hes
and coals all around the outside of the pots to con.
tinue the heat; and in this manner I ufed to bake
nty barley loaves, as well as if I had been a complete
paltry-cook, making myself of the rice several cakes
and puddings.
It is no wonder that all there things took me up
the beft part of a year, fince what intermediate time
I had was beflowed in managing my new harveft and
husbandry; for in the proper feafon I reaped my
corn, carried it home, and laid it up in the ear in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub, inflead of threfh-
ing it. And now indeed my corn increased fo much,
that it produced me about twenty bufhels of barley,
and as much of rice, fo that I not only began to ufe
it freely, but was thinking how to enlarge my barns,
and was resolved to fow as much at a time as would
be sufficient for me for a whole year.
All this while the profpe&6 of land, which I had-
feen from the other fide of the ifland, ran in mj
mind. I ftill meditated a deliverance from this plao,
though the fear of greater misfortunes might hawe
deterred me from it; for after I had attained ,that
place, I run the hazard of being killed and eaten by
the devouring cannibals; and if they were not fo, yet
I might be flain, as other Europeans had been who
fell into their hands. Notwithstanding all this, my
thoughts ran continually upon my acquiring that
ihore; and now I wanted my boy Xury, and the
long boat, with the shoulder of mutton fail. Then I
went to the thip's boat that had been caft a great (
way on the fhore in the late ftorm; the was but a
little removed, but her bottom was turned up by the
impetuofity and fury of the waves and wind. With
all the strength I had, I tried whatever I could do,
with levers and rollers I had cut from the wood, to
turp her, and repair the damages the had fuftained.

This work took me up three or four weeks, whew
finding my little ftrength all in vain, I fell to under-
mine it by digging away the fand, and fo make it fall
down, getting pieces of wood to thruft and guide it
in the fall; but after this was done, I was unable to
ftir it up again, or to get under it, much lefs to move
it forwards towards the water, and fo I was forced to
give it over.
Not contented with this disappointment, I began
to think whether it was not poffible for me to make
a canoe or periagua, fuch as the Indians make of the
trunk of a tree; but here I lay under particular
inconveniencies, want of tools to make it, and
want of hands to move it to the water when it was
made; however, to work I went upon it, flopping
all the inquiries I could make, with this very simple
anfwer I made to myfelf, Let's firft make it, I'll war-
rant I'll find fome way or other to get it along when
it is done.
I firft cut down a cedar tree, which was five feet
ten inches diameter at the lower part next the flump,.
and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end
of twenty-two feet, after which it leffened for a
face, and then parted into branches. Twenty days
was I hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom,
fourteen more in cutting off the branches and limbs,
and a whole month in shaping it like the bottom
of a boat; as for the inside, I was three weeks with
a mallet and chiffel, clearing it in fuch a manner
as that it was big enough to carry twenty-fix men,
much bigger than ever a canoe I faw in my life, and
consequently sufficient to transport me and all my
effeds to that wifhed-for fhore I fo ardently defir-
Nothing remained now, but indeed the greatest
difficulty to get it into the water, it lying about too
yards from it. To remedy the firft inconvenienced.

which was a rifing hill between this boat and the
creek, with wonderful pains and labour I dug into
the furface of the earth, and made a declivity; but
when this was done, all the strength I had was as
insufficient to move it, as it was when I attempted
to move the boat. Then I proceeded to measure the
distance of ground, refolving to make a canal, in or-
der to bring the water to the canoe, fince I could not
bring the canoe to the water; but as this'feemed to
be impra&icable to myfelf alone, under the fpace of
eleven or twelve years, it brought me into fome fort
of consideration, that I concluded it impoffible to
be done, and fo this attempt was in vain alfo. And
now I faw, and not before, what flupidity it is to be-
gin a work before we reckon its coffs, or judge right
of our own abilities to go through with its perform-
It was in the height of this work my fourth year
expired fince I was caft on this island,, and then
I did not forget my anniversary, but ke.t it with the
fame ardent devotion I had done before. But now
my hopes being frustrated, I looked upon this world
as a.thing I had nothing to do with; and very well
might fay, as father Abraham unto Dives, Between
me and thee there is a gulffixed. And indeed from
the world I was feparated, from its wickednefs too,
having neither the luft of the flefh, the luft of the
eye, or the pride of life ; I had nothing to covet, be-
ing lord, king, or emperor over the whole country I
had in poffefiion, without dispute, and without con.
troul; I had loadings of corn, plenty of turtles,
timber in abundance, and grapes above meafure;
but after I was fcrved, what was all the reft to me ?
The money I had by me lay as dciicable drofs,
which I would freely have given for a grofs of to.
bacco-pipes, or a handmill to grind my corn.,In a
word, the nature and experience of thefe things 4c-

4 ,' *

tated to me this juft reflection, That the good things
of this world are no farther good to us than they are
for our ufe; and that whatever we may heap up to
give others, we can but enjoy as much as we ufe, and
no more.
Thefe thoughts rendered my mind more eafy than
ufual. Every time I fat down to eat I did it with
thankfulnefs, admiring the providential hand of God,
that in this wilderness had fpread this table to me.
And now I considered what I enjoyed, rather than
what I wanted, compared my prefent condition with
what I at firft expected it should be; how I should
have done if I had got nothing out of the fhip;
that I muft have perished before I had caught fifh
or turtles, or lived, had I found them, like a mere
favage, by eating them raw, and pulling them in
pieces with my claws, like a beat. I next compared
my station to that which I deferred ; how undutiful
I had been to my parents; how dettitute of the fear
of God; how void of every thing that was good
and how ungrateful for thofe abundant mercies I had
received from Heaven, being fed, as it were, by a mi-
racle, even as great Elijah's being fed by ravens,
and caft on a place where there was no venomous
creature to poifon or devour me. In thort, mak-
king God's tender mercies matter of great confo-
lation, I relinquished all fadnefs, and gave way to
As long as my ink continued, which with water I
made laft as long as I could, I ufed to minute down
te days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened. And,
Firit, I observed, That the fame day I forfook my
parents and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order
to go to fea, the fame day afterwards, in the next
year, I was taken and made a fave by the Sal e1 ro.

The very day I efcaped out of the wreck of the
fhip in Yarmouth Roads, a year after, on the fame
day, I made my efcape from Sallee, in my patron's
The 3eth of September, being the day of the year
I was born on, on that day twenty-fix years after,
Swas I miraculoufly faved, and caft on fhore on this
The next thing that wafted after my ink, was the
bifcuit which I had brought out of the lhip ; and
though I allowed myfelf but one cake a day, for
above a twelvemonth, yet I was quite out of bread
for near a year, before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and
my linen had been gone long before; however, I
had preferred about three dozen of the sailors chec-
qued shirts, which proved a great refreshment to me,
when the violent beams of the fun would not fuffer
me to bear any of the feamens heavy watch-coats,
which made me turn taylor, and after a miserable
botching manner, convert them into jackets. To pre-
ferve my head, I made me a cap of goat-fkin, with
the hair outwards, to keep out the rain, which in-
deed ferved me fo well, that 1 afterwards made me
a waiftceat and open-knee'd breeches of the fame ;
and then I contrived a fort of an umbrella, covering
it with ikins, which not only kept out the heat of
the fun, but the rain alfo. Thus being eafy and fet-
tied in my mind, my chiefeft happinefs was to con-
verfe with God, in moft heavenly and comfortable
For five years after this I cannot fay any extraor-
dinary thing occurred to me. My chief employ.
ment was to cure my raifins, and plant my barley and
rice, of both which I had a year's provifon before.
hand. But though I was difappointed'im my firft
canoe, I made it at intermediate times my bufinefsta
make a Second, of much inferior file and it was tw

(V "*

years before I finished it. But as I perceived it would
no ways answer my defign of failing to the other
fhore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour
round the ifland, to fee what further discoveries I
could make. To this intent, after having moved
her to the water, and tried how fhe would fail, I
fitted upa little maft to her, and made a fail of
the fhip's fail that lay by me; I then made lockers
or boxes at the end of it, to put in neceffary provi-
fions and ammunition, which would preferve them
dry either from rain or the pray of the fea ; and in
the inside of the boat I cut a long hollow place to
lay my gun, and-'t keep it dry, made a flag to hang
over it; my umbrella' fixed in a ftep in the ftern
like a maft, to keep the heat of the fun off me. And
now revolving to fee the circumference of my little
kingdom, I vi6ualled my ihip for the voyage,
putting in two dozen of my barley bread loaves,
an earthen pot full of parched rice, a little bottle
of rum, half a goat, powder and fhot, and two
watchcoats. It was the 6th of November, in the
6th year of my reign, or captivity, that I fet out in
this voyage, which was much longer than I expelt-
ed, being obliged to put further out, by reason of the
rocks that lay a great way in the fea; and indeed
fo much did thefe rocks furprife me, that I was for
putting back, fearing that if I ventured further, it
would be out of my power to return. In this con-
fufion I came to an anchor juft off fhore, to which
I waded with my gun on my ftoulder, and then
climbing up an hill, which overlooked that point, I
faw the full extent of it, and resolved, to run all
In this profpe6& from the hill, I perceived a vio-
lent current running to the eaft, coming very clofe
to the point, which I the more carefully observed,
thinking it dangerous, and that, when I came to it, I
might be drove into the fea by its force, and not able

to return to the island; and certainly it mift have
been fo, had I not made this observation; for on
the other fide was the like current, with this differ-
ence, that it fet off at a greater distance, when I per-
ceived there was a strong eddy under the land, fo
that my chiefeft bufinefs was to work out of the firft
current, and conveniently get into an eddy. Two
days I ftaid here, the wind blowing very briskly
E. S. E. which being contrary to the current, leaves
a great breach on the fea upon the point; fo it was
not fit for me to keep too near the fhore, upon ac-
count of the breach, nor to ftand at too great a dif-
tance for fear of the ftreams.. That- night the wind
abating, it grew fo calm that I ventured out; but
purely I was to be a memento to all rafh and igno-
rant pilots; for I was no fooner come to the point,
and not above the boat's length from the fhore, but
I was got into a deep water, with a current like a
mill, which drove my boat along fo violently, that
it was impoffible for me to keep her fo much as to
the edge of it; but it forced me more and more out
from the eddy to the left of me, and all I could do
with my paddles was ufelefs, there being no wind to
help me.
Alas! now I began to think myfelf quite loft;
fince, as the current ran on both fides of the island, I
was very certain they mutt join again, and then I
had no hopes but of perifhing for want, in the fea,
after what provisions i had was fpent, or before, if a
itorm should happen to arife.
Who can conceive the present anguifh of my
mind at this calamity ? With longing eyes did I
look upon my'little kingdom, and thought the island
the pleafanteft place in the univerfe. Happy, thrice
happy defert, faid I, hall I never fee thee more ?
Wretched creature whither am I going ? Why did
I murmur at my lonesome condition, when now I
would give the whole world to be there again ?

While I was thus contemplating, I found myself te
be driven about two leagues into the fea; however,
I laboured till my strength was fpent, to keep my
boat as far north as poflibly I could to that fide of
the current where the eddy lay on. About noon, I
perceived a little breeze of wind spring up from the
S. S. E. which overjoyed my heart the more, when,
in about half an hour, it blew a gentle fine gale.
Had any thick weather fprung up, I had been loft
another way, for having no compafs on board, I
should never have found the way to fteer towards the
island, if once it had disappeared; but it proving the
contrary, I fet up my maft again, fpread my fail, and
food away northward, as much as I could, to get
rid of the current; and no fooner did the boat be-
gin to stretch away, but I perceived by the clearnefs
of the water, a change of the current was near; for
where it was clear the current abated. To the eaft
I foon faw, about half a mile, a breach of the lea
upon fome rocks, which caufed it again to separate;
and as the main force drove away more fouthwardly,
leaving the rocks to the north eaft, fo the other came
back by the repulfe of the rocks, making a fharp
eddy, which returned back again to the north weft
with a very fwift fream.
They who have experienced what it is to be re-
prieved upon the ladder, or to be faved from thieves
juft going to take away their lives, or eife fuch who
have been in the like calamities, may guefs my pre-
fent excefs of joy ; how heartily I run my boat into
the ftream of this eddy, and how joyfully I fpread
my fail to the refreflling wind, standing cheerfully
before it with a fmart tide under foot. By the af-
fiftance of this eddy, I was carried above a league
home again, when being in the wake of the iflind,
betwixt the two currents, I found the water to be
at a fort of a fand. About four o'clock in the after-

noon I reached within a league of the island, and
perceived the points of the rock which caused this
difafter, ftretching out as I observed before to the
fouthward, which throwing off the current more
fouthwardly, had occasioned another eddy to the
north; but having a fair brilk gale, I stretched a.
crofs this eddy, and in an hour came within a mile
of the thore, where I foon landed to my unfpeakable
comfort; and after an humble proftration, thanking
God for my deliverance, with a resolution to leave
all thoughts'of escaping afide, I brought my boat
fafe into a little cove, and laid me down to take a
welcome repofe. When I awoke, I was considering
how I might get my boat home; and coaftiag along
the fhore I came to a good bay, which ran up to a
rivulet or brook, where finding a fafe harbour, I flow-
ed her as fafe as if fhe had been in a dry dock made
on purpose for her.
And now I perceived myfelf not far from the place
where before I had travelled on foot; when taking
nothing with me except my gun and umbrella, I be-
gan my journey, and in the evening came to my
bower, where I again laid me down to reft. But it
was not long before I was awakened in great furprife
by a strange voice that called me several times, Robin,
Robin, Robin Crufie, Poor Robin Where are yous
Robin Crufoe ? Where are yu ? Where have you been
So faft was I afleep at firft that I did not awake
thoroughly; but half afleep and half awake, I thought
I dreamed that somebody fpoke to me. But as the
voice repeated Robinfon Crufoe several times, being
terribly affrighted, I started up in the utmoft con-
fufion; when no fooner were my eyes fully open,
but I beheld my pretty Poll fitting on the top of the
hedge, and foon knew that it was he that called me ;
for juft in fuch bewailing language I ufed to talkand
teach him, which he fo exactly learned, that he
would fit upon my finger, and lay his bill clofe to my

face, and cry, Posr Robinfon Crufoe, where are you ?
Where have you been ? How came you here ? and fuch
like prattle as I had constantly taught him. But
though I knew it to be the parrot, it was a great
while before I could adjuft myfelf; firft, I was amaz-
ed how the creature got thither, and that he should
fix about that place, and no where elfe. When I
was affured it could be no other than my honest Poll,
my wonder ceafed; fo reaching out my hand, and
calling familiarly Poll, the creature came to me, and
perched upon my thumb, as he was wont, conflantly
prating to me, with Poor Robinfon Crufoe, and How
did I came here ? and where had I been ? as if the
bird was overjoyed to fee me; and fo I took him
home along with me.
Now though I was pretty well cured of my ram-.
bling to fea again, yet I could wifh my boat, which
had colt me fo much trouble and pains, on this iide
the ifland once more, which indeed was imprati-
cable ; and fo I led a very retired life, living near a
twelvemonth.in a very contented manner, wanting
for nothing except conversation. As to mechanic
labours, which my neceflities obliged me to, 1 fanci-
ed I could, upon occasion, make a tolerable carpen-
ter, were the tools I had to work withal but good.
Besides, as I improved in my earthen ware, I con-
trived to make them with a wheel, which I found
much eafier and better; making my work fhapeable,
which before was rude and ugly. But I think I was
never fo elevated with my own performance or pro-
je&, as for being able to make a tobacco-pipe, which
though it proved an aukward clumfy thing, yet it
was very found and carried the fmoke perfectly well,
to my great fatisfaftion.
Alfo I improved my wicker ware, making me a-
bundance of neceffary baskets, which though not very
handsome, were very handy and convenient to fetch

things home in, as alfo for holding ray- fteresi: btr-
ley, rice, and other provisions.
My powder beginning to fail, made me examine
after what manner I flould kill the goats or birds to
live qpi, after it was all gone. Upon which I coin
trivet many ways to enfiae the gpats, and fee if I
could. catch them alive, particularly a ile-goat with
young. At laft I had my defire ; for making pit-
falls and traps, baited with barley and rice, I found
one morning in one of them an old he-goat, and in
the other three kids, one male, the other two fo.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could no
bring him away. But I forgot the proverb, Thi
hunger will tame a lion: For had I kept .him thret
or four days without visuals, and then :given hkik
fome water with a little corn, he would have bfe
as tame as a young kid. The other creatures bound
with ftrings together. But I had great difficulty be4
fore I could bring them to my habitation. It wa*
fome time before they would feed, when throwiti
them fome corn, it fo much tempted them, that they
began to be tame ; from hence I concluded thst ti
I designed to furnith myfelf with goats flefh, when
my ammunition was fpent, the tamely breeding them
up like a flock of heep about my settlement was!thi
only method I could take. I concluded alfo I man
separate the wild from the tame, or elfe they woqd-
always run wild as they grew up; and the beft' *W
for this was to have fonme inclofed piece of groutiy
well fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep then
fo effe~ ually that thofe within might not break oqt,
or thofe without break in. Such an undertaking
was very; great for one pair of hands; bat as them
was an bhfolute neceffity for doing it, my firit oar
was to fnd a convenient piece of ground, where-thr -
was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water ,w0
drink, and cover to keep them from the fun.

But here I began madly, pitching upon a piece of
meadow land fo large, that had I inclofed it with
infinite pains, this hedge or pale muft have been at
left two miles aEout. Indeed had it been ten miles
I had time enough to do it in; but then I did not
consider that my goats would be as wild in fo much
compafs as if they had had the whole land, and
consequently as difficult for me to catch them. And
this thought came into my head, after Ihad carried
on, I believe, about fifty yards; when I resolved to
inclofe a piece of ground 50o yards in length and
ico in breadth, sufficient enough for as many as
would maintain me, till fuch time as my flock ir-
creafed, and then 1 could add more ground. Upon
which, I vigorously prosecuted my work, and it took
me about three months in hedging the firft piece; in
which time I tethered the three kids in the beft part
of it, feeding them as near me as poffible to make
them fan;iliar: And indeed very often would I carry
Some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed
them-out of my hand; by which means they grew
fo tame, that when my inclofure was finished, and I
had let them loofe, they would run after me for an
handful of corn. This indeed answered my end;
and in a year and a half's time I had a flock of about
twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years after
they amounted to three-and-forty, besides what I had
taken and killed for my futtenance. After this, I
inclofed five several pieces of ground to feed them in,
with pens to drive them into, that I might take them
as I had occasion.
But fiill I had additional bleffings, not only in
having plenty of goats flefh, but milk too, which in
my beginning 1 did not fo much as think of: And
indeed, though I had never milked a cow, much lefs
a goat, or feen butter or cheefe made, yet after fome
eflays and mifcarriages I made me both, and never
afterwards wanted.

How mercifully can the Omnipotent Power com-
fort his creatures, even in the midft of their greatest
calamities How can he fweeten the bitteref provi-
dences, and give us reason to.magnify him in dun-
geons and prifons What a bounteous table was here
fpread in a wildernefs for me, when I expected no.
thing at firft but to perifh with hunger !
Certainly a (foic would have filed to have feen
me at dinner. There was my royal Majefty, an abfo-
lute prince and ruler of my kingdom, attended by
my dutiful fubje&s, whom, if I pleaded, I could ei-
ther hang, draw, quarter, give them liberty, or take it
tway. When I dined, I seemed a king, eating alone,
none daring prefume to do fo till I had done. Poll,
as if he had been my principal court favourite,, was
the only person permitted to talk with me. My old
but faithful dog, now grown exceeding crazy, and who
had found no species to multiply his kind upon, con-
tinually fat at my right hand; while my two cats
fat on each fide of the table, expe&ing a bit from my
hand, as a principal mark of my royal favour. Yet
thefe were not the cats I had brought from. the
fhip ; they had been dead long before, and interred
near my habitation by mine own hand: But one of
them, as I fuppofe, generating with a wild cat, thefe
were the couple I had made tame; whereas the reft
run into' the woods, and grew fo impudent as to re-
turn and plunder me of my stores, till fuch time as I
fhot a great many, and the reft left me with this at-
tendance. And in this very plentiful manner did I
live, wanting for nothing but conversation. One
thing more indeed concerned me, the want of my
boat. I knew not which way to get her round s.
island. I resolved one time to go along the flt.e-iby
land to her; but had any one in England met fuch a-
figure, it wbuld either affrighted them, or made them
burft into laughter: Nay, myfelf could not but fuaile


at my habit, which I think, in this place, it is very
proper to describe.
The cap I had upon my head was great, high, and
fhapelefs, made of a goat-ikin, with a flap or pent-
houle hanging down behind, not only to keep the
fun from me, but to foot the rain off from running
into my neck, nothing being more pernicious than
the rain falling upon the fleih in thefe parts. I had
a ihort jacket of goat-fkin, whofe hair hung down
fuch a length on either fide, that it reached to
the calves of my legs. As for thoes and ftockings, I
had none, but made a refemblance of something, I
know not what to call them; they were made like
bufkins, and laced on the fides like fpatterdafhes,
harbaroufly shaped, like the reft of my habit. I had
on me a broad bel of goat-fkin dried, girt round
.with a couple of thongs infead of buckles; on each
of .which, to fupply the deficiency of fword and
dagger, hung my hatchet and faw. I had another
belt, not fo broad, yet fastened in the fame manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it,
under my left arm, hung two pouches, made alfo of
goat-fkin, to hold my powder and fhot. My basket
I carried on my back, and my gun on my shoulder,
and over my head a great clumfy ugly goat-Ikin
umbrella, which, however, next my gun, was the
moft neceflary thing about me. As for my face, the
colour was not fo fwarthy as the mulattos, or as might
be expected from fuch a perfon as I, who took fo
little care of it, in a climate within nine or ten de-
grees of the equinox. At one time my beard grew
fo long, that it hung down above a quarter of a
yard i but as I had both razors and fciffars in tore,
1-cut it all off, and suffered none to grow except a
,large pair of Mahometan whifkers, the like of which
I had feen worn by fome Turks at Sallee, not long
enough to hang a hat upon, but of fuch a mon-

trous fize, as would have amazed any in England to
have feen.
But all- this was of no confequence here, there
being none to obferve my behaviour or habit, and
fo without fear, and without control, I proceeded
on my journey, the prosecution of which took me up
five or fix days. I firft travelled along the fea.fhor-
diretly to the place where I firft brought my boat
to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; but .now, hav-
ing no boat to take care of, I -ent oer the dand t
nearer way, to the fame height that I was before
upon; when looking forward to the point of *ht
rock which lay out, and which I was forted to
double with my boat, I was amazed to fee the fea 1
smooth and quiet, there being no ripltng motion or
current, any more than in other places, whidk
made me ind&ed ponder fome time to imagine the
reason of it, when at laft I was convinced how it w~ia
which was this ; the ebb fetting from the r*t, iatd
joining with the currents of waters from foie great
rivers on the Ithre,.muft be the octa&a= of AMtib .
pid firearms; and that conflebq tly, as ttwil~ebst
more weftwairdly, or morefemthwat0t fo the 6Crnt
came the nearer or went the kftherfraiit Ore.> .
fatisfy my curiosity, I waited :thie til evewig, whet
the tide of ebb being made frtam the rbkt, 1 plaintda
perceived the current again as Wefofe, wth this dih
ference, that it ran farther off, near hatf a league from
the fhore; whereas in my expedition it fet qvite ep-
on it, furioufly hurrying me and my canoe a'og with
it, which at another time it would not hate domes
And now I was convinced that, by obferving thie'eh
bing and flowing of the tide, I might eaicy bing iy
boat round the island again; but when I began t
think of putting it in prafice, the remembranetit
the late danger I was in ftrck me with fuch hevow4.
that I changed my resolution, which was more '~4ft,
*tough more laborious and this was to miake aio.

there canoe, and fo have one for one fide of the island,
and one for the other.
Here I think it very proper to inform my readers,
that I had two plantations in the island; the firft
was my little fortification, fort, or castle, with many
large and spacious improvements; for by this time
I had enlarged the cave behind me with several little
caves, one within another, to hold my baskets, corn,
and firaw. The piles with which I made my wall
were grown fo lofty and great, as obscured my ha-
bitation,; and near this commodious and pleasant
settlement lay my two well cultivated and improved
corn fields, which kindly yielded me their fruit in
the proper feafon. My second plantation was that
near my country feat, or little bower, Where my
grapes flourished, and where, having planted many
takes, Imade inclofures for my goats, o ftrongly
fortified by labour and time, that it was much
stronger than a wall, and consequently impofiible
for them to break through. As fpr my bower itself,
I kept it constantly in repair, and cut the trees in
fuch a manner as made them grow thick and wild,
and form the mnoft delightful fhade. In the centre
of this ftood my tent thus ereaed : I had driven four
piles in the ground, spreading over them a piece of
the fhip's fail, beneath which I made me a fort of
a couch, with the fkins of the creatures I had flain,
and other things; and having laid thereon one of the
sailors blankets, which I had faved from the wreck
of the thip, and covering myfelf with a great watch-
coat, I took up this place for my country retreat.
Very frequently from this settlement did I ufe to
vifit my boat, and keep her in very good order; and
fomretimes I would venture in her a caft or two from
ihore, but no farther, left either a strong current, a
sudden ftormy wind, or fome unlucky accident,
should hurry me from the ifland as before. But now
I entreat your attention, while I proceed to inform n

you of a new but moft furprifing fcene of life which
here befel me.
You.may fuppofe that after I had been here fo
long, nothing could have been more amazing than to
have feen a human creature. But one day it hap-
pened that going to my boat, I faw the print of a
man's naked foot on the fhore, very evident onr the
fand, as the toes, heel, and every part of it. Had
I feen an apparition, in the moft frightful manner, I
could not have been more confounded; my willing
ears gave the ftriceft attention. I caft my eyes a-
round, but neither could fatisfy the one or the other.
When I proceeded alternately to every part of the
fhore, fill it was all as one ; neither could I fee any
other mark, though the fand about it was as fufcep-
tible to take impreffion as,that which was fo plaialy
camped. Thus, truck with confusion and horror, I
returned to my .habitation, frightened at every buah
and tree, as taking .theo for amn ;. and being pof
feffed with the wildePt ideas, got over I cannot tell
how. But that night my eyes never closed though
farther from danger, when even then I formed nem
thing but the moft difinal imagination, thinagiit
miuft be the markof the Devit's foot which I adl
feen ; for otherwise how could aty mortal body coam
to this island ? And if fo, where was the flip that
tranfported them ? And what figns of any other foot-
teps ? Though thefe feemed very strong reafons fe.
fuch a fuppofition, yet (thought I) why should th6
Devil make t'ie priqt-of his foot to no purpose, as4
can fee, when he might have taken other ways to have
terrified me ? why should he leave his mark on the
other fide of the island, and that too on the fand,
where the urging waves of the ocean might foo n
have.erafed the impreffion ? Surely this ationi is not
confiftent with the fubtilty of Satan, faid I to ikp,
(elf, but rather muft be fome dangerous creature
foAewld favage of the main land over against aei

that, venturing too far in the ocean, was driven here
either by the violent currents or contrary winds; and
fo, not caring to ftay on this defolate island, was
gone back to fea again.
Happy was I in my thoughts that no favage had
feen me in that place, yet much terrified, lef, hav-
ing found my boat, they should return in numbers
and destroy me, or at ieaft carry away all my corn,
and deftroy my fock of tame goats : In a word, all
my religious hopes vanifhed, as though I thought
God could not protect me by his power, who had fo
wonderfully preferred me fo long.
What various chains of Providence there are in the
life of man How changeable are our affecions, ac-
cording to different eircumftances ? We love to-
day what we hate to-morrow; we (hun one hour what
we feek the next; and this was evident in me in the
moft perfpicuous manner; for I, who before had fo
much lamented my condition, in-being banished from
all human kind, was now almost ready to expire,
when I confideree that a man had fer his foot onl this
defolate ifland : But when I considered my ftition of
life, decreed by the infinitely wife and good provi.
dence of God; that I ought not to dispute my Crea-
tor's fovereignty, who had an undoubted right to go.
vern and difpofe of his creatures as he thinks conve-
nient; and th;,t his juftice and mercy could either
punish or deliver me: I fay, vwhen I considered all
this, I comfortably found it my duty to trult fincere-
ly in hi:n, pray ardently to him, and humbly refign
myfeif to !iis divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, thefe words pf the
facr d. writings came again into my mind, Call upon
me in the daQ of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou fhalt glorify me. Upon this feiite-ice, rising morg
cheerfully from my bed, I offered up my prayers in
the moft heavenly manner; and when I had done, tak-
ing up my. Bible to read, thefe words appeared firt '

aosltBseo caUseto Ft
In my fight: Wait on the Lord, madbe f gt d cltc,
.ind e fall Jflrngthen thj bM-; mf, Ifaiyn t"he
Lord. Such divine comfort did this give me, as tb
remove all caufe of fadnefs upon that oceafion.
Thus, after a world of apprehensions and fears,
for three days and nights, at laft I ventured out. of
my caftle, and milked my goats, one of which was
almost fpoiled for want of it. I iet, though in .
great fear, vifited my bower, and milked my flodes
there alfo; when growingbolder, I *ttn down to
the flore again, and meafuriig the print of the fdot
to mine, to fee whether, perhaps, I myfetf had not
occasioned that mark, I found it mu dh fuferiot iht
largenefs; and fo I retumrnehome poffeed with th.
notion, that ether fome men had 'beei afhore, o
that the island mufl.be inhabited&; and therforej that
I.might be furprifed before ws was rwae.
Struck with a feto anand more-ttrible feiw feve-
ral thoughts eo security cameinto. nrbyrind ; and tat.
night I was firft propefing-to cut down ny incid-
fures, and turn my tanie cattle wild :into the woods
that. the enemy might. not find their, and frqtirent
the island in hopes of the fame. Secondly, I wa ~or.
digging up my' cotn fields, for the very fame teafti.
and laftly, I concluded to detnowfh my boett, 1i
feeing fuch a place of humar- contrivance, thet.ai .
come farther and attack me in my little dcatie. .
Such notions did the fear of danger ffggeft unto
me, and Ilooked, I thought, like the nfotnfunate-
King Saul, when not orlly oppref-l.e by, tle Pih L -
tines, but alfo forfaken by God hidnfelf; 'And a'
ftrange, that a little before having eiitiely refiiglt
miyfelf to the will of God, I should now have foitL -
te confidence in him, fearing thofe more-wvor i g
kill this fading body, than him who could deftroyri
inhnottal foul.
SSei~p was an utter fthanger to my eyes that night'.
t.nature, fpent and tired, fubmittcd to a fiknt-.-

pofe the next morning; and then, joining reason
with my fear, I considered, that this delightful and
pleasant island might not be entirely forfaken, as I
might think; or that the inhabitants from the other
fhore might fail either with design or neceffiry by
crofs winds; and if the latter circumstance, they de-
parted upon the firft opportunity. But itill my fear
occafioned me to think of a place for retreat, upon
an attack. I now repented that I had made the door
that came out beyond my fortification; but refolving
to make me a second, I drove between that double
row of trees, which I planted about 12 years before,
federal piles, thickening it with pieces of timber and
old cables, and strengthening the foot of it with
earth, which I dug out of my cave. I alfo made me
even holes, wherein I planted my mufkets like can-
non, fitting them into frames resembling carriages.
This bipg finished with indefatigable industry, for
a great way every way I planted flicks of ofier-like
wood, about twenty thousand of them, leaving a
large fpace between them and my wall, that I might
have room to fee an enemy, and-that they might not
be sheltered by the young trees, if they offered to
approach the outer wail. And indeed farce two
yeais had pafled over my head, when there appeared
a lovely fhady grove, and in fix years it became a
thick wood perfealy impaffable. For my safety, I
left no avenue to go in or out; instead of which I
fet two ladders, one to a part of the rock which was
lowland then broke in, leaving room to place ano-
-ther ladder upon that ; fo that when I took thofe
dqwn, it was impoffible for any man to defcend with-
out hurting himself, and if they had, they would
till be at the outside of my outer wall. But while I
took all thtie measures of human prudence for my
own preservation, I was not altogether unmindful of
affairs: To preferve my Rocks of tame goats, that
the enemy should not take all at once, I looked out

for the moft retired part of the ifland,.which was the
place where I had, loft myfelf before-mentioned, and
there finding a clear piece of land, containing three
acres, surrounded with thick woods, I, worked fo
hard, that in lefs thaq a month's time I fenced it fo
well round, that my flocks were very well fecured
in it, putting therein two he-goats, and two fhe ones.
As this labour was occafioned purely by my fear-
ful apprehensions, on account, of, feeing the print of
a man's foot; not contented with what I had done,
1 searched for another place towards the weft point
of the ifland, where I might alfo retain another flock.-
Then methought 1 perceived a boat at a great distance
in the fea, but could not poffibly tell what it was for
want of my perfpeaive glafs. I considered then it
was no firange thing to fee the print of a man's foot;
and concluding them cannibals, bleffed God for my
being caft on the other fide of the island, where none
of the favages, as I thought, ever came. But when I.
came down the hill to the thore, which was the S. W.
point of the island, I was not only amazed, but per-
fealy confirmed in my opinion; for the place was
spread with fkulls, hands, feet, and bones of human
bodies and then I perceived a, pace like a circle, in
the midft of which had been a fire; about this fire
I conjecaured thefe wretchie, fat, and unfiaturally fa-
crificed and devoured their fellow-creatures.
The horror and loathfomenefs of this dreadful
fpedacle both confounded my fenfes, and made me
discharge the violent disorder from my ftorach. So,
that when I had vomited in a very exceffive manner,
I returned towards my habitation, and in my way
thither sheddingg floods of tears, and falling: down on-
my beaded knees, gave God thanks for making my
nature contrary to thefe wretches, and delivering me
folog out of their hands.
.1 .though reason and my long residence here
bha44 d me, that thefe favages never came u tn
D 6-

the thick woody parts of the country; and that I had
no occafion to discover myfelf, who was fo perfe&ly
concealed from them yet fuch an abhorrence did I
Rill retain, that for two years after I confined myfelf
only to my three plantations; I mean my caftle,
country feat, and inclofure in the woods. And when
in this solitary life, my dreadful apprehensions began
to wear away, yet my eyes were more vigilant for
fear of being furprifed, and I was cautious of firing
my gun, left being heard by thofe creatures, they
should proceed to attack me ; but refolving manfully
to lofe my life if they did, I went armed with three
pistols ftuck in my girdle, which, added to the de-
fcription I have given of myfelf before, made me
look with a very formidable appearance.
And thus my circumstances for fome time re-
mained very calm and undifturbed. When I com-
pared my condition to others, I found it far from
being miserable: And indeed would all perfons com-
pare their circumstances, not with thofe above them,
but with thofe innumerable unhappy objeas beneath
them, I am fure we should not hear thofe daily mur-
murings and complaining that are in the world. For
my part, I did not want many things: Indeed the
terror which the favages had put me in fpoiled fome,
inventions for my own convnenencies; one of which
was really very ridiculous, except I could accomplish
it, and happy it was they hindered me from putting
it in pracice. My design was to brew me fome beer,
when I had neither calks sufficient, nor could make
any, to preserve it in; neither had I hops to make it
keep, yeaft to make it work, nor a copper or kettle
to make it boil. Perhaps, indeed, after fome years,
I might bring this to bear, as I had done other things:
But now my inventions were placed another way
and one was, how I might destroy fome of thefe can-
nibals, when proceeding to their bloody entertain-
aents i and fo facing a vidim from beith~gl ri~ced_

ROsrNsoN CRVsoe. 8S
he might after become my fervant. Many were my
contrivances for this purpofe, and as many more ob.
jeiions occurred after I hatched them for when I
contrived to dig a hole under the place where they
made their fire, and put therein five or fix pounds of
gunpowder, which would confequently blow up all
thofe that were near it; why then I was loth to fpend
fo much upon them, left it should not do that certain
execution I could defire; and but only affright, aid
not kill them. Having laid this design afide, I pro.
pofed to myfelf to lie privately in ambufh, in fome
convenient place, with my three guns double loaded,
and let fly at therh in the midft of their dreadful ce-
remony; and having killed two or three of'them at
every {hot, fall upon the reft suddenly with my three
pistols, and not let one mother's fon escape i and fi
much did this imagination pleafe my fancy, thaitl A
to dream of it in the night-time. To put my deigi
in execution, I was not long seeking for a place very
convenient for my purpose, where, unfeen, I might
behold every action of the favages. Here I placed my
two mufkets, each of which was loaded with a brace
of flugs, and four or five fmaller bullets, about the
fize of piftol-bullets; the fowling-piece was charged
with near a handful of the largest fwan-.flot anai
every piftol .were about four bullets. Ad thu, all
things being prepared, no sooner 4tiVi the we.l
come light spread over the elementUS.0i a fiar
refr/hed with wise, as the Scripture has it, would I
iffue forth from my castle, and, from a lofir hill, three
miles diftant, view if I could fee any invads aup-
preach unlawfully, to my kingdom. But having wai-
ed i vain two or three months, it not onlyew
very tirefome to me, but brought me into fome con-
fideration, and made me examine nmyfel *hat right
Ilhad to kill thefe creatures in this manner ? ,
'fi(arged Ito my!felf) this unnatura- cftom .of
4diWat be a fin ofiri C Heaventic it belongs to th

Divine Being, who alone has the vindiaive power in
his hands, to shower down vengeance upon them ;
and perhaps he does fo, in making them become one
another's executioners: Or if not, if God thinks thefe
doings jufi, according to the knowledge which they
conceive, what authority have I to pretend to alterthe
decrees of Prov:dence, which has permitted tiefe ac-
tions for fo many ages, perhaps from almost the be-
ginning of the creation ? They never offended me,
what right have I ihen to concern myfelf in their
shedding one another's blood ? And, as I have fince
known, they value no more to kill and devour a cap-
tive taken in war, than we do to kill an ox, or eat
mutton. From hence it followed, that thefe people
were no more murderers than Chriftians, who many
times pu: whole troops to the fword, after throwing
down their arms. Again I considered, that if I fell
upon them, I should be as much in the wrong as the
Spaniards, who had committed the greaitef barbari-
ties upon thefe people, who had never offended them
in their whole lives as if the kingdom of Spain was
eminent for a race of men without common compaf-
fion to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a prin-
pal fign of the moft generous temper. In a word, I
concluded never to attack them, whofe numbers
might overpower me ; or that fome efcaping, might
bring thousands to my certain deftruaion; nor fa
much as to fhow myfelf, which might oblige me even
to a neceffary duty of defence. And indeed religion
took their part fo much as to convince me how con-
trary it was to my duty to be guilty of shedding hu-
man blood, innocent as to my particular, whatever
they are to one another i and that I had nothing to
do with it, but leave it to the God of all power and
dominion, as I faid before, to do therein what feem-
ed convenient to his heavenly wifdom. And there-
fore on my knees, I thanked the Almighty for deli-
vering me from blood-guiltinefs, and begged his prio
tetion that I might never fall into their hand.,

Thus, giving over an attempt which I had rafhly
begun, I never afcended the hill on that occasion af-
terwards; only I removed my boat which lay on the
other fide of the island, and every thing fuch as they
were that belonged to her, towards the eaft, into a
little cove, that there might not be the leaft ihadow
of discovery of any boat near, or habitation upon the
island. And then my caftle became my cell, keeping
very retired in it, except to milk my fheagoats, and
order my little flock in the wood, which was quite
out of danger; for fure it is, thefe favages never
came here with expectations to find any thing, and
consequently never wandered from the coat ; and as
they might have federal times been on fhore, as well
before as after my dreadful apprehenfionsj I looked
back with horror to think, in what a fate I might
have been, had I suddenly met them flenderly armed,
with one gun only loaded with Imall fhot; and how
great would- have been my amazement, if, instead
of feeing the print of one man's foot, I had perceived
fifteen or twenty favages, who, having once fet their
eyes'upon me, by the fwiftnefs of their feet, have
left me no poffibility of efcaping. Thefe thoughts
would fink my very foul within me, fo that I would
fall into a deep melancholy, till fuch time as the con-
fideration of my gratitude to the Divine Being mov-
ed it from my heart: And then I fell into a contem-
plation of the fecret fprings of Providence; how
wonderfully we are delivered, when we are infenlible
of it ; and when intricated in uncertain mazes- or la-
byrinths of doubt or hefitation, what fecret'hint $hall
diref us in the right way, when we intend to go ont
of it; nay, perhaps, contrary to our bulinefs,~fenfe
or inclination. Upon which, I fixed within me thi.
as a certain rule, never to. difobey thofe fec'et im-
preffions of my mind to the acting or not acting.
pani thing that offered, for which I yet could affign no
ran. Y Bt lt it be how it will, the advantage of tho

conduct very eminently appeared in the tatter part
of my abode on this island. I am a stranger in deter-
mining whence thefe fecret intimations of Providence
derive; yet, methinks, they are notonly fome proofs of
the converfe of fpirits, but alfo of the fecret commu-
nications they are fuppofed to have with thofe that
have not paffed through the gloomy vale of death.
As in thefe many anxieties of mind, the care of
my prefervation put a period to all inventions and
contrivances, either for future accommodations or
conveniences; fo I never cared to drive a nail, chop
a ftick, fire a gun, or make a fire, left either the noife
should be heard, or the fmoke discover me; and,.
upon this account, I ufed to burn my earthen ware
privately in a cave which I found in the wood, and
which I made convenient for that purpofe; but the
principal caufe that firft brought me here was to
make charcoal, fo that I might bake and drefs my
bread and meat, without any danger. While I was.
cutting down fome wood for this purpofe, I perceiv-
ed a cavity behind a very thick branch of under-
wood. Curious to look into it,.I attained its mouth,
and perceived it sufficient for me to ftand upright in
it; but when I had entered and-Tk a further view,.
--~-'two-reling~ inning eyes, like flaming ftars, seemed
to dart themselves at me, fo that I made all the hafte
out that I could, as not knowing whether it was the
Devil or a monster that had taken his refidence in
that place. But when I recovered from my furprife,
I called myfelf a thoufand fools, for being afraid to
fee the Devil one moment, who had now lived al-
moft twenty years in the moft retired folitude;
and therefore, refusing all the courage I had, I
took up a flaming firebrand, and in I rushed again;
when not having proceeded above three fteps, I
was more affrighted than before ; for then I heard
a very loud figh, like that of a human creature irt
the greatest agony, fucceeded with a broker noife,.

4tN61 eUCMLoE. 89
resembling w6rds half exprefed, and then a broken
figh again. Stepping back, Loud i (thought I to my.
felf) where am I got ? Into what enchanted place
have I plunged myfelf, fuch as are reported to con-
tain miferable captives, till death puts an end to their
forrow ? And indeed fuch a great amazement was I
in, that it ftruck me with cold fweat ; and had my
hat been on my head, I believe my hair would have
moved it off. But again,'encouraging myfelf'with
the hopes of God's prote&ion, I proceeded forward,
and, by the light of my firebrand, perceived it to-be
a monftrous he-goat, lying on the ground gaping
for life, and dying of mere oMl age. When at firft I
Airred hihn, thinking to drive him out, the poor an.
client creature ftrove to get upon his feet, but was not
able; fo I even let him lie fill, to affright the fe-
vages, should they venture into this cave. In the
mean time I looked round me, and found the place
but mall and thapelefs; at the further fide of it I
perceived a fort of an entrance, yet fo low as muft
oblige me to creep on my hands and knees to it i
when, having no candle, I fufpended my enterpie
till the next day, and then I came provided with fir
large ones of my own making.
When uponmy handsand feet I had creepeihrogh
the trait, I found the roof rofe higher up, I think,
about twenty feet ; but furely mortal never few fuach
a glorious fight in this island before The roof and
walls of this cave refleteda hundred thoufandlights
to me from my two candles, as though they were
indented in with fining gold, precious (tones, or
fparkling diamonds. And indeed it was the moft
delightful cavity or grotto, of its kind, that could'be
defired, though entirely dark: The floor was dry
and level, and had a kind of gravel upon it; no
naufeous venomous creature to be feen there, neil
their any damp or wef about it: I could find no
fault but in the entrance, which I thought might hb

very neceffary for my defence, and therefore as re-
folved to make this place my moft principal maga-
zine. I brought hither two fowling-pieces and three
mufkets, leaving only five pieces at my cattle, plant-
ed in the nature of cannon. In a barrel of gun-
powder, which I took out of the fea, I brought a-
way about fixty pounds of good powder, which was
not damaged; and thefe, with a great quantity of
lead for bullets, I removed from my caftle to this re-
treat, now fortified both by art and nature.
Surely it is no wonder, if at this time I thought
myfelf like one of the giants of old, who were aid, to
live in caves and holes among the rocks, inacceffible
to any but themfelves, or, at left, moft dangerous to
attempt; fo that now I defpifed both the cunning
and strength of the favages, either to find me out or
to hurt me.
But I muff not forget the old goat, who caused my
late dreadful amazement: The poor creature, gave
up the ghoft the day after my difcovery and it
being difficult to drag him out, I dug his grave, and
honourably entombed him in the fame place where
he departed, with as much ceremony as any Welfh
goat has been interred about the high mountain Pen-
I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my
reign, and much easier were my thoughts than for-
merly, contriving federal pretty amufements and di.
versions to pafs away the time in a pleasant manner.
By this time my pretty Poll had learned to fpeakEng-
lifh, and pronounce his words very articulately and
plain, fo that for many hours we ufed to chat toge-
ther after a very familiar manner, and he lived with
me no lefs than twenty-fix years : 1fy dog, who was
nineteen years old, fixteen years of which he lived
with me, died of mere old age: As for my cats,
they multiplied fo faft that 1 was forced to kill or,
drive them into the woods, except two or three


which became my particular favourites. Besides
thefe, I continually kept two or three houfehod kids
about me, which I did learn to feed out of my
hand, and two more parrots which would talk indif-
ferently, and call Robinfon Crufo, but not fo excel-
lent as the firft, as not taking that pains with them.
Several fea fowls I had alfo, which having grounded,
I cut their wing, and growing tame, they ufed to
breed among the low trees about my castle walls; all
which were very agreeable to me.
But what unforefeen events suddenly destroy the
enjoyments of this uncertain fate of life, when we
leaft expea them i It was now the month of Decem-
ber, in the southern folftice, and particular time of
my harveft, which required my attendance in, the
fields; when going out pretty early one morning,
before it was day-light, there appeared to me, fro0
the fea-lhore, a flaming light, about tv miles from
me at the caft end of the island, where I had ob
served fome favages had been, as bEfore, but not ok
the other fide; but to my great afflition, it was on
my fide of the ifland.
Struck with a terriblee furprife, and my ufual ap
prehenfions that the favages. would perceive my im-
provements, I returned dire&ly to mny aftle, pulled
up the ladder after me, making all things look, as
wild and natural as pofiibly I could. In the pe
place I put myfelf in a poftre of defence, by loading
my mulkets and piftols, and committing myfelf td
God's protediiom, refolving to defend. myflf tillnyai
lateft beath' After two hburs pace, impatirn-fo
intelligencei I fet my ladder up to the fide of the
hilt where.there, was a fat place, and then pulling
the la4der after me, ,fcended the top, where, laying
myself ona my belly, with my perfpedive glafs .I
peel-pWd no lefs than nine naked favages, filing.
rgro ) fimall fire, eating, as 1 fuppofed, human
fle,. with their two canoes haled upon thQre,.wua

- 9

ing for the flood to carry them off again. You ean-
not eafiy exprefs the consternation I was in at this
fight, especially feeing them near me; but when I per-
ceived their coming muft be always with the current
of the ebb, I became more eafy in my thoughts, be-
ing very fully convinced that I might go abroad with
security all the time of flood, if they were not before
landed. And indeed this proved juft as I imagined,
for no fooner did they all take boat, and paddle away,
but the tide made north-weft. Before they went
eff they danced, making ridiculous poftures and
gestures, for above an hour, all ftark naked, but
whether men or women, or both, I could not per-
ceive. When I faw them gone I took two guns upon
my shoulders, and placing a couple of pitols in my
belt, with my great fword hanging by my fide, I
went to the hill where at firf I made a discovery
of thefe cannibals, and then faw there had been three
canoes more of the favages on thore at that place,
which, with the reft, were making over to the main.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when go-
ing. to the place of facrifice, the blood, the bones,.
and other mangled parts of hAman bodies, appeared in
my fight; ard fo, fired with indignationI was fully
refolved to be revenged of the firft that came there,
though I loft my life in the execution. It then ap-
peared to me that the vifits which they made to this
island were not very frequent, it being fifteenmonths
1 before they came again; all this time I was very un.
eafy, by reason of the difmal apprehensions I had of
their furprijing me unawares; nor dared I offer to fire
a gun on that fide of the island where they ufed
to appear, left taking the alarm, the favages might
return with many hundred canoes, and then God
knows in what manner I should have made my end :
And thus I was a year or more before I ever faw any
of thefe devouring cannibals again.

RO20NS4" osasO 93
But to wave this the following aoc' iear which.
demands attention, for a while eluded the forc
of my thoughts ip revenging amyflf oa tlbfe, hea.
It was the 16th of May (according to my wooden
kalendar) that the wind blew exceeding hazd, accom-
panied with abundance of lightning and thunder all
that day, and fucceeded by a. very airny eight.
What occasioned this I could not imagine; hut ta
the feeming anger of the.heaveusn made ie havwcre
course to-the Bible, whMfif I'was ferionfly pondering
upon it, I was fuddenly alarmed with th;,noife of a
gun, which I conjewured was fised upoy the e.an.i
Such an unusual furprife made me ftart up i aa mi.
nute, when, with my lkider, afoending the ma.uA
tain as before, that very moment a gah ff fire pre.
faged the reportof another gun, which. I .pre ial
heard, and found it was from that part ,of the fea
where the current drove me away. Icouldnotthen"
think otherwise but that this muft be a fhipwi dii'
trefs, and that there were the melancholy signals for
a fpeedy deliverance. Indeed, great was my forow
upon this occafion, but altogether vain and fruitlefa
However, I brought together all the dry wood that
was at hand, and making a handsome pile fet it, on
fire on the hill. Certain it was, that they plainly
perceived it by their firing another gun as fooa as
it began to blaze, and after that federal nmo~from the
fame quarter. All the night long did I kLepup this
fire ; and when the air cleared up I perceived fame-
thing a great way at fea dire~Lly eaf, bat could& ao
diftinguith what it was, even with my glafs, by rea.
fon the weather was fo very foggy out at fea.
ever, keeping my eyes direly fixed upon it0, .u4 p%
ceiving it not to ftir,.Iprefently concluded it iuil he
a fhip at anchor ; and fo very hafty I wHa to-.befa
tisfied, that, taking my gun, I went to the fouth eaft

part of the island, to the fame rocks where I had been
formerly drove away by the current; in which time
the weather being perfectly cleared up, to my great
forrow I perceived the wreck of a ihip caft away
upon there hidden rocks, which I found when I was
out with my boat, and which, by making a kind of
an eddy, were the occafion of my prefervation.
Thus, what is one man's fafety is another's ruin;
for undoubtedly this fhip had been driven on them
in the night, the wind blowing strong at E. N. E.
Now, had they perceived the island, as I could not
imagine they did, certainly, instead of firing their
guns for help, they might rather have ventured in
their boat, and faved themselves that way. Then I
thought that perhaps they had done fo upon feeing
my fire, and were caft away in the attempt; for I
perceived no boat in the fhip. Again, I imagined,
that perhaps they had another veffel in company,
which, upon final, faved their lives, and took the
boat up. Or, laftly, that the boat might be driven
into the main ocean, where thefe poor creatures
might be in the moft miserable condition. But as all
thefe conje&ures were very uncertain, I could do no
more than commiferate their diftrefs, and thank God
for delivering me in particular, when fo many perifh-
ed in the raging ocean.
When I considered ferioufly every thing concern-
ing this wreck, I could perceive no rooni to fuppofe
any of them faved : I cannot explain, by any poffible
force of words, what longings my foul felt upon this
fight, often breaking out in this manner: Oh that
there had been but two or three, nay, even one person
faved, that we might have lived together, converted
with and comforted one another And fo much were
my defies moved, that when I repeated there words,
Oh! that there had been but one! my hands would
fo clench together, and my fingers prefs the palms of
my hands fo clofe, that had any foft thing been be-

tween, they would have crushed it involuntarily,
while my teeth would strike together, and fet agairtft
each other fo strong, that it required fome time for
me to part them.
Till the laft year of my being in this ifland, I ne-
ver knew if any had been faved out of this fhip or
not, and had only the affliaion fome time after to
fee the corpfe ofa drowned boy come on fhore at the
end of the island which was next the fhipwreck :
There was nothing on him but a feaman's waiftcoat,
a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue
linen (hirt, but no particular mark to guefs what
nation he was of ; in his pocket were two pieces of
eight and a tobacco-pipe, the laft of which I pre-
ferred much more than I did the firft. And now the
calmnefs of the fea tempted me to venture out in my
boat to this wreck, not only to get something necef-
fary out of the fhip, but perhaps fome living creature
might be on board whofe life I might preserve. This
had fuch an influence upon my mind, that imme-
diately I went home and prepared every thing necef-'
fary for the voyage, carrying on board my boat pro-
vifions of all forts, with a good quantity of rum, frefh
water, and a compafs. So putting off, I paddled the
canoe along the fhore till I came at laft to the N. E.
part of the ifland, from whence I was to launch into
the ocean ; but here the currents run fo violently,
and appeared fo terrible, that my heart began to fail
me, forefeeing that if I was driven into any of thefe
currents, I might be carried not only out of the
reach or fight of the ifland, but even inevitably loft
in the boiling furges of the ocean.
So oppreffed was I at thefe troubles, that I gave
over my enterprise, failing to a little creek on the
fhore, where stepping out, I fat me down on a ring
hill, very penfive and thoughtful. I then perceived
that the tide was turned,and the flood came on, which
made it impra&icable for me to go out for fo many,

hours. To be more certain how the fets of the
tides or currents lay when the flood came in, I af-
cended a higher piece of ground, which overlooked
the fea both ways ; and here I found, that as the
current of the ebb' fet out clofe by the fouth point
of the ifland, fo the current of the flood fet in clofe
by the ihore of the north fide, and all that I had to
do was to keep to the north of the island in my
That night I repofed myfelf in my canoe, covered
with my watch-coat inRtead of a blanket, the hea-
vens being my tefter. I let out with the firft of the
tide full north, till I felt the benefit of the current,
which carried me at a great rate eaftward, yet not
with fuch impetuofity as before, as to take from me
all government of my canoe ; fo that in two hours
time I came up to the wreck, which appeared to me
in a moft melancholy manner. It seemed to be a
Spanifh veffel by its buildings, ftuck faft between two
rocks; her ftern and quarters beaten to pieces with
the fea, her mainmaft and foremost were brought
off by the board, as much as to fay, broken Ihort
off. As I approached nearer, I perceived a dog on
board, who perceiving me coming yelped and cried,
and no fooner did I call him, but the poor creature
jumped into the fea, out of which I took him al-
moft famifhed with hunger and thirft ; fo that when
I gave him a cake of bread, no ravenous wolf could
devour it more greedily, and he drank to that de-
gree of freth water that he would have burft himfeif
had I suffered him.
The firft fight I met with in the fhip were two
men drowned in the cook-room or forecaftle, in-
clofed in one another's arms: Hence I very probably
fuppofed, that when the veffel truck in the form,
fo high and inceffantly did the waters break in and
over her, that the men, not being able to bear it,
were ftrangled by the constant ruling in of thl

waves. There were several calks of liquor,, Dl-.
thr wine or brandy I could not be pofitiv .wib'
lay in the lower hold, as were plainly perceptihbi bef
the ebbing out of the water, yet were too'lar eTe .
me to pretend to meddle with: Likewifel ptrcirjn8
fevcral chefs, which I thought might belong-toithe
feamen; two of them I got into my boat, without
examining what were in them. Now, had the fteri
of the fhip been fixed, and the fore-part broken
off, certain I am I should have made a very pof-
perous voyage ; finc by what I after found in thife
two chefts, 1 could not otherwise conclude but that
the fhip mult have abundance of wealth on board::
N'y, if I mult guefs by the course the fleered, fte
mult have been bound from the Buenos Ayres, or the'
Rio de la Plata, in the southern part of America, bo-
yond the Braiils, to the Havannah, in the Gulph of
Mexico, and fo perhaps to Spain. What became of
the reft of her failors, I could not certainly-tell; and
all her riches fignified nothing at that time- toany
body. ;
Searching farther, I found a cafk, containing'aboat
twenty gallons, full of liquor, which with fonie !.
bour I got into my boat: In a cabin were federal
mufkets, which I let remain there, but took away
with me a great powder-horn,with about four pounds
of powder in it; I took alfo a fire-fhovel and tongs,
two brafs kettles, a copper potato make chocolate,
and a gridiron, all which were extremely neceffary
to me, efpccially the fire-fhovel and tongs. And
fo with this cargo, accompanied with my dog, Icame
away, the tide serving for that purple; and: the
fame evening, about an hour within night, I 4ttain-
ed the island, after the greatest toil and fatigue ima-
That night I repofed my wearied limbs in e
boat, refolving the next morning to harbourpwhae'
had gotten in my new' found fubterraneous gpoap;

and not carry my cargo home to my ancient castle.
When I had refreflied myfelf, and got all my effeas
-on fhore, I proceeded to examine the particulars :
And fo tapping the cafk, I found the liquor to be a
kind of rum, but not like what we had at the Brafils,
nor indeed near fo good. At the opening of the
cheft, federal things appeared very ufeful to me; for
instance, I found in one a very fine cafe of bottles,
containing the finest and beft forts of cordial waters:
Each bottle held about three pints, curioufly tipped
with filver. I found alfo two pots full of the choiceft
fweetmeats, and two more which the water had ut-
terly fpoiled. There were likewise federal good
shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and about a dozen
and a half of linen white handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths, the former of which were absolutely ne-
ccffary for wiping my face in a hot day; and in the
till, I found three bags of pieces of eight, about
eleven hundred in all; in one of which, decently
wrapped up in a piece of paper, were fix doubloons
of gold, and fome fmall bars and wedges of the fame
metal, which, I believe, might weigh near a pound.
In the other cheft, which I gueffed to belong to the
gunner's mate, by the mean circumstances that at-
tended it, I only found fome clothes of very little
value, except about two pounds of fine glazed pow-
der, in three flafks, kept, as I believe, for charging
their fowling-pieces on any occafion. So that, on
the whole, I had no great advantage by this voyage.
The money indeed was as mere dirt to me, ufelefs
and unprofitable, all which I would have freely parted
with for two or three Englifh pair of fhoes and tfock-
ings things that for many years I had not worn,
except lately thofe which I had taken off the feet- of
thofe unfortunate men I found drowned in the wreck,
yet not fo good as Englifl fhoes, either for eafe or
service: And having found in the feamens chefts
.about fifty pieces of eight in rials, but no gold, I