Title Page
 Corrections and addenda
 Specimen of Herero folk-lore, written...

Group Title: An English-Herero dictionary : with an introduction to the study of Herero and Bantu in General
Title: An English-Herero dictionary
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072642/00001
 Material Information
Title: An English-Herero dictionary with an introduction to the study of Herero and Bantu in General
Physical Description: lv, 569 p. : ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kolbe, F. W
Publisher: J.C. Juta
Place of Publication: Cape Town
Publication Date: 1883
Subject: English language -- Herero -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
Herero language -- English -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
Genre: dictionary   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by F.W. Kolbe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072642
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07783988

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
        Page xl
        Page xli
        Page xlii
        Page xliii
        Page xliv
        Page xlv
        Page xlvi
        Page xlvii
        Page xlviii
        Page xlix
        Page l
        Page li
        Page lii
    Corrections and addenda
        Page liii
        Page liv
        Page lv
        Page lvi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
        Page 544
        Page 545
        Page 546
        Page 547
        Page 548
        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
        Page 557
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 561
    Specimen of Herero folk-lore, written down from the mouth of a Herero by the Rev. J. Rath
        Page 562
        Page 563
        Page 564
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
        Page 568
        Page 569
        Page 570
Full Text









-I.t.. ?F : ARI~E A




MANY years ago the late Dr. W. I. I. Bleek expressed the wish that
I should write a Herer6-English or English-Herer6 Dictionary. After
his premature decease I was reminded of the suggested task and urged
to undertake it, by his relative and assistant, Miss L. C. Lloyd, who,
beingg in charge for a time of the Grey Collection, showed much zeal in
endevouring to add to its treasures new specimens of African litera-
ture. lince, therefore, by the providence of God, I have been laid
aside bya throat complaint which has prevented me from going on
with active nissionary work, I thought I might try now what, for
want of leistre, I could not have attempted before.
The sources ":or which I have drawn, besides turning to account
my own experience in Damaraland and subsequent spccidl studies in
Bantu, are the following-which I desire gratefully to record :
1. Grundzige ein r Grammatik des Herer6, nobst einem Wirter-
buche." By the Rev. Dr. C. H. Hahn. A supplement to the above
work in manuscript, containing a considerable number of new words
and phrases, vas kindly placed at my disposal by Dr. Hahn.
2. A man, script Herero-German Dictionary (to which is appended a
manuscript German-Herero vocabulary), by the Rev. J. Rath, of the
Rhenish Missionary Society. A copy of this dictionary is preserved in
the Grey Library. The work abounds in Ilerero sentences, written
down from the mouth of the natives, many of which I have used as
illustrations in the present volume. Mr. R1th kindly lent me the
original, for which, as no book may be removed from the Grey Library,
I feel particularly grateful.
3. A Herero-Englishl vocabulary, by the Rev. H. Brinclier, appended
to his IIerero Readi-jg-book.
4. A manuscripts by the Rev. J. Irle, containing a number of new
IIrero words, as wk1e as new meanings of old words, illustrated in
some instances by expl atory sentences from the mouth of the natives.


5. The Herero Pilgrim's Progress, translated by Mr. Brincker.
6. The New Testament and tile Psalms, translated into Herero by
Revds. H. Brincker, Dr. G. C. Bitter and G. Viche.
7. Contributions to the Grey Library (some of which have been
printed in the South African Folk-lore Journal), by Revds. H. Beider-
becke, Dr. G. C. Biittner, E. Pane.ert, Dr. C. H. Hahn, J. Rath, and
G. Viehe.
In the revision of the work, I have been assisted by the Rev. H.
Brineker, of the Rhenish Missionary Society, who, having laboured
among the Herero for about twenty-five years, is perfectly familiar with
their language and speaks it fluently. Mr. Brincker first went through
the manuscript (except the Introduction), and afterwards read alLtle
printed sheets as they were issued from the press and sent to hin from
time to time for comment : hence the rather long list of Corigenda
and Addenda. I acknowledge with gratitude his numerous valuable
corrections, suggestions and additions. For the statements and views,
however, set forth in the Introduction, as also for the etymological
and ethnological remarks interspersed in the dictionzy-, I alone am re-
The examples have b3en selected with much care. Nearly all are
from the mouth of the natives, as written down by the Missionaries of
the Rhenish Missionary Society (the only Society working in Damara-
land). A few examples from the New Testament and other publica-
tions will easily be recognized as such, and coming as they do from
the pen of good Herero scholars, they will at any rate b 'of value, in
so far as they show how the word in question is used. The literal
translation by which almost every example( is followed will, I hope,
prove acceptable to the student.
A good deal of what has been said in the, Introduction will, I fear,
not be appreciated by al ; but as, according to Goethe, "he who pro-
vides much is sure to suit many," I trust that what is passed over by
some will be acceptable and helpful to others, especially to those who
desire to have a clearer insight into the organism of the Bantu
languages, and into the strange phenomena they p resent. As to the
remarks on what may be called the philosophy ofj language, my aim
has been to give a clear though brief statements laws and principles
which I believe to be founded on plain fa7 s, and to have been at


work in Bantu from the earliest times. Hence, without pursuing the
subject into details, I have epitomized results which have been arrived
at only after a long process of induction, putting them forth as an
overture, so to speak, and leaving the further development of the
ide is and the full working out of the various themes to the future.
Should the present dictionary meet with a favourable reception, and my
life be spared, I intend writing another small volume on the origin,
laws and forms of Herero, and I shall then have an opportunity of
communication; also that part of the material prepared for the Intro-
duction which, for want of space, I am now compelled to keep back.
The importance of the study of the South African languages can
scarcely be over-rated. It is perhaps not too much to say," writes
Dr. Bleek, that similar results may at present be expected from a
deeper study of such primitive forms of language as the Kafir and the
Hottentot exhibit, as followed at the beginning of the century, the
discovery of Sainskrit, and the comparative researches of Oriental
scholars. The origin of the grammatical forms, of gender and number,
the etymology of pronouns, and many other questions of the highest
interest to the philologist, find their true solution in Southern Africa"
(preface of Bleek's Comparative Grammar of South African lan-
guages, page 8, and quoted in Max Miiller's Lectures on the Science
of Language, vol. II, i age 12).
Perhaps I mry be allowed here to supplement what I have said in
the dictionary about an important word, Ka-runga, and also about
another, otyi-huro, of which I now see reason to give a different
The derivation of olyihuro (see City, Town, Treasure) from huura, to
capture, make booty, is probably not the true one ; it is more likely
that otyihuro (wealthy place, rich town, treasure) comes from an
obsolete verb hura, to heap up, allied to huza (in otyihuze, treasure),
and that therefore the proper meaning of otyihuro is : store-place, a
place where valuable things are stored up, hence wealthy town, and
also wealth, treasure.
As to Karunga (name for God), it is satisfactory to state that the
etymology of this word given on page 238, has been unexpect dly cor-
roborattd by the Rev. W. Griffith, of the London Missionary Society,
lwho is labouring among the Waguha, Central Africa. The article in


this dictionary on the names for God was already printed when the
following came to hand :-
"The abode of the dead is called Kalumngu, and to this place both the
body and the spirit goes. It is only after a lapse of time that the
spirit enters a remoter abode called Kalungu Kahansi (=Kalungu
beneath ?), from which it does not return to pay earthly visits. When
pointing to Kalungu as a place, they point to the earth beneath our feet,
and the entrance to the place is through a cave called Kibagwa (cf.
Herero otyi-pakua, burial place, r. paka, to bury). When asked where
this cave is, they point towards the south, and say it is somewhere
in the direction of the country of Marungu ; but about this location
there is diversity of opinion."
About the state of the soul in the spiritual world the Waguha say
little. A person of good character, on his entrance to Kibagwa, which
means his death, is besmeared all over with chalk to indicate his purity
and innocence, and is led to a place where he meets with the spirits of
his forefathers, and of all those who have preceded him. An ndogi (a
dark one ? of. Herero toka, to be dark)-a man who is the type of all
evil-finds the entrance to Kibagwa too narrow for him, and is caught
and besmeared all over witl charcoal and ashes to indicate his guilty
nature. On the duration of this future state of the soul the native
says nothing : but as the punishment to an ndogi is invariably death, it
is natural to conclude that the spirits of the bad are similarly put out
of their spiritual existence, while the spirits of the good continue to
exist in Kahungu." (Chronicle of the London Missionary Society,
September, 1882.)-Now, making allowance for the confused notions
entertained by the several Bantu tribes as to its location, thus much
seems plain from the evidence reaching us front such widely separated
quarters as Otyivanda in Western and Uguha in Central Africa, that
Karunga (=Kalunga, Kalungu) primarily means dwelling place
assigned to happy souls after death," Elysian fields, Paradise, hence also
Paradise personified, God, equivalent to our "l immel," Heaven, which
is also used for the Sovereign of Heaven, as e.g. in the following :-
" After thou shalt have known that the Ileavens do rule" (Dan. iv. 26);
" I have sinned against Heaven" (Luke xv. 21) ; The will and high
permission of all-ruling Heaven" (Milton).
There is another word in the dictionary, Oium-lUuna, plur. Ova-luuna


(see Bushman) on the derivation of which I would just throw out a
hint. This name, also pronounced and written Omu-kuinaand Omu-kuena,
probably comes from the Ilottentot plural noun Khoikhoin=Khoe-
k,:hovena=Qeun or Q'unu, the proper name for Hottentots in general.
For, the Hottentots call themselves Kikoin or Khoikhoin (commune
pluralis) in the Nama, Khwel.hweno (com. plural objective) in the
eastern dialect, according to Dr. Van der Kemp, Qeuna or Q'una in the
Cape dialect, according to the Colonial Records (p. 110), and Kolbe"
(Bleek).-The Wa-kuna and IWa-twa said to exist in the so-called
" land of the Dwarf immigrants," in Central Africa, will, in all pro-
bability be found to be none other than Hottentot and Bushman tribes.
On the first page of the Introduction I notice, with regret, the
omission of a word : any other known language should be any
other known Bantu language."
[ should be obliged if Icerero scholars would kindly point out to me
any error or omission they may detect in this dictionary. But in the
case of a new word or a now meaning of an old one it is of the utmost
importance that the whole sentence should be written down in which
subh a word occurs. It is only then that we can catch the true meaning.
Feel much pleasure in mentio iing the encouragements 1 have me;
with from various quarters and in various ways. My special thanks are
due to Sir Bartle Frere and his accomplished daughter, Miss Frere,
who, from the commencement, took a lively interest in the publication
of this dictionary; to the Colonial Government and Legislature for
generously supplying the necessary pecuniary aid ; as a'so to a small
number of subscribers and kind friends, of whom I m1y be permitted
specially to mention the Rev. W. Thompson, of Cape Town; the late
Mr. P. D. Morgenrood, of Wynberg ; and Mr. H. Beard, of Claremont,
who have cheered me with substantial support.
And now, in closing, I desire above all gratefully to acknowledge the
goodness of God in giving me, in the evening of my life, sufficient
health and strength to complete the present work. With all its imper-
fections, I still regard it as a contribution towards a great end; for
though I shall probably not live to see it, it is yet certain that the
African Bantu family of languages is destined to play an important
part in the philology of the future.

CAPE TOWN, September 4, 1883.


OTYI-HERER6 is one of the finest and most original idioms of the
great African Bantu family, and is spoken in Damaraland by the
Ovaherer6 or Damaras, the Ovatyimba (literally outcasts), and,
with some slight dialectical variations, also by the Ovambandieri
(Ovambanderli) or East-Damaras. It is an important link in
the chain of primitive African languages" (Lepsius), "richer
in classes of nouns than any other known language (Bleek),
and a mere glance at the annexed tables will suffice to show that
its wealth in pronominal forms is truly marvellous, and probably
without a parallel in the whole realm of language. I fully agree
with the Rev. Dr. C. I. Hahn, when he says that "this particular
language, being one of the most primitive and purest of the
Bantu family, must needs throw much light upon the kindred
idioms which by contact with foreign nations such as Gallas,
Arabs, Hottentots, &c., have more or less either lost or crippled
some of their original grammatical forms, as well as changed in
many instances the original meaning of the words."

Herero an Agglutinative Language.
2. Morphologically, or, in respect to that form which languages
of different families may have in common, the Herero belongs to
the agglutinative class. The principal root of a word cannot,
as a rule, become modified by inflections ; it remains intact, whilst
the several relational or formative elements are agglutinated to it.
With the exception of a few monosyllabic verbs a Herero root, in
whatever form or relation it may appear, retains its first and
principal vowel, as for instance, kuia, bind:-
kuteye = bind ye ;
kakute = go, bind ;
okulcuta = to bind, or, binding;

okukakuta = to bind at some distant place;
okuhakuta = not to bind, or, not binding;
okuvekuta = binding them ;
me kutu = I bind, or, I shall bind ;
mba kcutu = I bound ;
mba kutire = I have bound;
kutisa = cause to bind ;
kutura = unbind, loose ;
kutuka = be unbound, or, get loose of itself ;
rikuta = bind oneself;
kulasana = bind one another;
kutua = be bound;
omukuta = a bundle;
otyikcutu = a family, properly tie, bond.

Primeval Laws of the Vowels.

3. Now there is good reason for the vowels thus tenaciously
holding their own in Bantu. Though, of course, the consonants
are the bearers of the radical sense of the root, the vowels are by
no means unimportant : they have each an inherent power to modify
the sense in such a way that from a single theme a more or less
numerous group of roolwvrds springs into existence. I wish it to
be distinctly understood that I am not speaking now of such
vowel changes as man, men ; foot, feet; bind, bound, bond (" um-
laut, ablaut"), but of a change of vowel which produces an
entirely new root, as will be exemplified further on.
It may still be observed in Herero, at any rate to a very large
extent, that originally the vowels were applied according to definite
laws which modify the meaning of a root in regard to space and
4. The vowel a gives a root the by-meaning on or along the
ground, on the surface, flat, level, horizontal-wide, broad, ex-
tended, stretched out-abroad-far, distant, absent-straight,
in a line-together-and the reverse, scattered, spread.
Any action, motion, or condition, naturally inciting a hori-
zontal gesture, falls within the sphere of a. In some cases,
however, a has a general or neutral meaning.

5. The vowel i signifies in, inner, inside, hidden-in, present
- within and from within, out without, outside-out of
the way, at the side, aside-out of the straight line, aslant-in,
6. The vowel u has the power of pointing upward to motions
and actions in the air which would call forth, as a natural gesture,
the lifting up of the arm. U means up in the air up, upward,
vertical, perpendicular-over-hence, as over a river, through-
overflowing, full-before, in front, ahead-and the opposite,
aback, behind-up, erect-rising, high, great, large-above-and
from above, downward, down-under, below-bowed down, bent,
,curved, round.
7. The primitive vowels have not, however, in all cases retained
their original purity ; a, in a number of roots, has become e; i,
too, often sounds like e; and not less frequently do we find u
changed into o.
8. This is not the place to enter into details, but I may just
give a few examples to show the working of the laws of the
vowels in the formation of roots.
The radical meaning of the Bantu root KANDA (with its
offshoots hand, yanda, anda, &c.) is to run, to go.
Pronounced with the vowel a this root means in Herero to run
or go together, to congeal (Icanda); to go on (or strike) the
ground, to tread firmly, to stamp with the foot on the ground, to
stem, &c. handa ; cf. Zulu kanda, to strike, beat) ; to run or go
fast, far, out of sight, disappear, cease, end (yanda or anda).
With the vowel i the root appears in the intransitive and
transitive verb tyinda (kinda) = to go out, to remove, leave a
place or pasturage as nomads, hence also to carry a burden (cf.
Zulu sinda = to be heavy, oppress with weight) ; hinda or shinda
= to cause to go out, to send ; ,,. ,.' or henda = to go out of
the straight line, to be awry, aslant.
And with the vowel u (o) we get the meanings to run or go
over, to be full, complete (kcunda) ; to go over or through, as
over or through a river, to go through the grass, leaving a track,
or, to go through with a sharp instrument, to cut, to saw, to
sunder (conda ; cf. Zulu gunda ; and konda, sonda in uom-J ondo,
i-sondo = track, trace).
b 2

Or let us take the root PATA and its nasalized or strengthened
form PANDA, which likewise mean to go, to run.
pata, v.t. & i., to shut, prop. to run or go together, of two,
parts, or to cause to go together ;
pita, v.i., to go from within, to go out;
puta, in put-ara, v.i., to stumble, properly to go, run or
move downward to the ground ;
panda, in pand-eka, v.t., to bind, properly to go together or
to cause to go together;
pinda (Zulu), v.t. (to step out and in), exchange places, re-
turn like for like, retaliate ;
punda, v.i., to move downward, come down, descend. See
the author's pamphlet, The Vowels, &c." (Cape Town:
J. C. Juta), and his paper in the "Transactions 'of the
South African Philosophical Society" Vol. II., Part II.

Pronominal Concord.

9. The chief characteristic which distinguishes the Bantu
languages from other agglutinative tongues consists in this, that
they are preeminently prefix-pronominal-that is : the names for
all things, created or fabricated, are thrown into about a dozen
distinct classes, human beings forming one class, animals and
things resembling them a second, objects with a waving or flap-
ping motion, such as trees, plants, lakes, rivers, the wing-like
finger(rows) and lips a third, rising, high, long objects a fourth,
things in general a fifth class, &c., each of these classes of nouns
being characterized by a formative prefix ; and as the correspond-
ing pronouns are radically identical with this prefix, a regular
pronominal correspondence or concord is the result, as, for ex-
ample :-
oka-ti oka-ti/i ke ri pi? oko-nga
stick a little one it is where it this
= where is the little stick ?-it is here ;

otyi-na otyi-liti tyi ri pi ? otyo-hi
thing a little one it is where? it this
=,where is the little thing ?-it is here;

ova-natye ova-titi ve ri pi? ouo-mba
children the little ones they are where? they these
= where are the little children ?-they are here.

The Noun.-rormative Prefixes.

10. The formative prefixes of the noun are all monosyllabic, as
Lca-, ru-, tu-, &c., but in some cases two monosyllables have been
welded together in a similar way as the Chinese fu-mu = father -
mother = parents, in order to form a kind of dual which may
still be observed in Herero, as we shall show hereafter. But such
compound forms have, in the lapse of ages, lost one or two of
their letters, and are now pronounced as simple monosyllables,
mu-, ma-, Zon-, &c.
11. The original form of the Bantu prefixes may-in addition
to comparing the parallels in the several idioms-be determined,
at least approximately, by a careful study of the whole stock of
corresponding pronouns and pronominal particles. A. Hovelacque
remarks :-" The mother-tongue of this great family (Bantu) is
utterly unknown, but it may possibly yet be restored in all its
essential grammatical and lexical features." (" Science of Lan-
guage," p. 59). This hopeful view of the study of Bantu I
believe to be well founded.
12. The process would be somewhat as follows:-We know
that some of the formative prefixes, though now seemingly sim-
ple, are in reality compound forms: because we can trace their
history in the corresponding demonstrative pronouns which have
been so beautifully preserved in Herero. According to a fixed
law in Banta the consonant of the pronoun must originally have
had a place in the corresponding prefix, and if the prefix was a
double one, that consonant must have belonged to the first part
of the compound prefix.
This law can be proved from many traces of compound prefixes
which still exist in Herero. For example :-
e-ruka, anger: ovi-e-rulca, prile
omu-inyo, breath, soul: oru-mu-inyo, air, breeze.
Now, in the case of such compound forms as ovi-e-, oru-mu-,

the pronoun corresponds to the first part of the compound pre-
fix, viz. :-
e-ruka in-di = anger this
ovi-e-ruka im-bi = pride this
omu-inyo im-bu-i = breath this
oru-mu-inyo in-du-i = breeze this
oru-vio in-du-i = knife this
oka-ru-vio in-ga = little knife this.
13. It is by following this law that we arrive at the primitive
form of the prefixes. Let us take the first prefix omu-. Its
corresponding demonstrative pronoun is ingui. But ngu could
not correspond to omu-, unless omu- had formerly had the con-
sonant k in its first syllable-and thus we arrive proximately at
KU-MU for the original form of omu-. Similarly we get the
primitive form KA-MA for oma- (VI), because the correspond-
ing demonstrative pronoun of the latter prefix is inga ; KI-MI
for on-, om- or in-, im (IX), and PU-MU for o-mu- (III),
because their corresponding demonstrative pronouns are respec-
tively indyi (= ingi) and imbui. (Cf. tables of Prefixes and
Pronouns and the author's article, "The Bantu Prefixes," Cape
Monthly Magazine, December, 1870).
14. Our induction is collaterally strengthened when we find
that here, on purely pronominal ground, both the South African
families, the prefix-pronominal Bantu and the suffix-pronominal
Hottentot, do meet and are really one, though lexically they are
as widely separated as two families of speech possibly can be.
If we compare the Khoikhoi (Hottentot) nominal suffixes with
the Bantu prefixes, we observe that in the former thefirst part of
the full form exists, whilst the second part is dropped (-kha
[!Kora -ka] instead of KA-MA), and that in the latter (Bantu)
the second part of the full form has been retained, whilst the
first syllable has been elided (ma- instead of KA-MA ; mu-
instead of KU-MU), as, for example :-
Herero: ome-wo (KA-A--iho = the pair of) eyes;
Hottentot : mu-ka or mu-kha (mu-KA-MA), masc. dual,.
two eyes (from mu = to see)-
and we observe further that, as in Bantu, so also in Hot(entot,.


Representing the simple and compound formative prefixes of the
noun in Herero. The Roman numbers, here as elsewhere,
refer to Dr. Bleek's Comparative Grammar of South African


oKOU- s. XV (
oK O- s. XV[If


s. V
s. XI

oTU- pi. XII

oPO- s. XVI
oU- s. XIV

oVA- pl. II
oVZ- pl. VI[I
oU- pi. XIV




oMVA- pl.
oN- s.
olU- s.

TA oZON- pl.
TL KA (-)
T,- (-)


PA (-)
PI \ oML- pl. IV
PU onMU- s. III









the first syllable of the originally compound form reappears in
the corresponding demonstrative pronoun :-
Bantu: KA-ma-iho, eyes
Hottentot: mu-kha(iMA), two eyes ;
Bantu: in(i)-ga. these (orig. two)
Hottentot : ne-kha .. these two.
For brevity's sake, KA-MA, as prefix in Bantu, naturally
dropped its first, and as suffix in Hotteutot, its second syllable.
But in the Hottentot pronoun KHUM (sa-lhum, si-khum,
I person masc. dual, allied to KUM, sa-kcum, si-k/um, I person
masc. plural) the full primitive dual form KU-MU (parallel u-
form of KA-MA) has, with the exception of the final vowel u,
been preserved. (For the Hottentot pronominal forms see
Bleek's Comparative grammar and Tindall's grammar of Na-
15. These classifierss" of the Bantu noun (as the nominal
prefixes might be called) are nouns themselves, obsolete primitive
nouns. They are of very high antiquity, no doubt as old as
language itself. They invariably press to the front and take the
lead in Bantu, extending their sway over all parts of speech.
They are at once the scaffolding by means of which the language
was first built up, and the pillars on which it now rests. In the
primitive language they must have had a wide range of meaning,
something like the breathing, living, walking, running one ; the
dead one; the stretching one; the rising, high, long one ; the
flying, flapping, waving one, &c. That the Bantu prefixes and
the corresponding identical pronouns are very old, may also be
inferred from the remarkable fact that their radical forms have
no other bnt the three primitive and pure vowel sounds a, i, and u.
16. Nor did these ancient words spring into existence by chance.
We observe that breathing, living, running, walking beings were
represented by gutturals (and palatals) ; objects moved by the
wind, as trees and other waving or flapping things, e.g. wings,
the wing-like finger-rows, lips, lakes, rivers, by labials; and dead,
motionless things by dentals (and linguals) ; whilst for mother or


female the labial m was retained, all of which tends to show that
the Bantu "primitives (prefixes and pronouns) were created in
beautiful harmony with the laws of nature. And let these not
be regarded lightly. The simple laws of nature are the laws of
nature's Creator, and it has been well said by Herder that the
origin of language is divine in so far as it is human. (See
table II).

Gender.-Sexual Dual.

17. In reference to grammatical gender, Herero and its kindred
idioms, in their present stage of development, must be classified
with genderless languages. The formative prefixes of the noun
and their corresponding pronouns represent persons and things,
but take no notice of the distinction in nature between male and
female. The prefix mu-, for example, and its corresponding
pronoun u mean simply man, person, and are used for both males
and females indiscriminately. So Bantu grammarians generally,
and very properly, speak of personal gender, comprising males
and females and of a neuter gender for things. There are, however,
unmistakable indications in the Bantu languages to show that
originally they possessed real grammatical gender, viz., one distinct
feminine class, and also what may be called the sexual dual
or combined gender, i.e. male and female united-persons and
things which appear in pairs, as husband and wife, brother and
sister, the right and left arm, the two eyes, the two lips, a pair of
sandals, &c., being looked upon and spoken of as male and
female united in one. A faint shadow of this curious feature of
the primitive language of Bantu still attaches to the prefix oma-
VI, whose dualistic nature has been observed by the Rev. J. Rath
(see Bleek's Comp. grammar, p. 200). But wd venture to go a
step further. If oma- VI originally was a dual prefix, the law of
analogy forces us to the conclusion that omu- I and on- IX par-
take of the same nature, for their respective corresponding pro-
nouns show a very near relationship to those of oma- VI, a
relationship, indeed, so close that it amounts to radical iden-
tity. This will be clearer after a glance at the following
examples :-



oma- (KA-MA) oma-olco, arms (orig.
dual, male and
female, i.e. right
and left arm).
on- (KI-MI) on-gombe, ox or cow
(orig. dual, ox
and cow).
omu- (KU-MU) omu-ndu, man, per-
son, male or fe-
male (orig. dual,
male and female).

e (KA)


i (KI) in-dyi

u (KU) in-gu(i)

18. There are, besides the dualistic tendency of the prefix
oma-, some other traces to be found which seem clearly to indi-
cate that, though the sexual dual has been lost in Bantu, the
primitive intuition underlying it, is not quite obliterated from
the mind of the people. Thus omu-lena (KU-MU-TENA) at
present a singular Herero noun of the first class, means male-
female-relative, brother-sister or sister-brother, Germ. "geschwi-
ster," and can only be applied to a brother who has a. sister, or
to a sister who has a brother. The original meaning of the word
must have been brother-and-sister (sexual dual), at present it
means brother of a sister or sister of a brother. Another instance
we have in Sesuto (and probably other dialects) where the right
hand or arm is called the male (letsogo le letona) and the left the
female hand (lelsogo le letshegali).
19. It is only of late that another point, bearing on the
evidence respecting the sexual dual, has become clear to me. It
would appear that the two constituents of the IX prefix on- (in-),
viz. KI + MI (= HI + NI) are identical with the Bantu names
for (thy, his) father (HI) and (thy, his) mother (NI). I cannot
dwell upon this, to my mind, very strong and conclusive evidence
here, but even a brief hint may be helpful and serve as a way-
mark to the inquiring student.
The n in the prefix on- or in- (IX) and the n in the primitive
nouns nyoko (thy mother), ina (mother, his mother) are identical,
and the personal and demonstrative pronouns i, ndyi (IX) and

tyi, hi (VII) are radically the same as hi, father (properly he,
the living one," also male).
It is plain that iho, ihe (r. hi), thy, his father, and nyoko, ina
(r. ni), thy, his mother, are not derivative but primitive nouns,
and therefore of the same nature as the nominal prefixes and
their corresponding pronouns, for they do not suffer a formative
prefix to be placed before them, but only allow the demonstrative
particle o- (o-iho ; o-ihe ; o-ina-not omnu-iho ; omu-ih ; omu-
,ina) like the demonstrative pronouns o-ingui (I) ; o-indyi (IX) ;
o-ihi (VII), &c.
The following is a brief analysis of the primitive nouns in
question. It will suffice for our purpose here to give only the
Herero forms.
HI = KI = father, male :-
hi-a-Kandambd, father-of-K. (cf. Father in the dictionary);
iho o oo-iho (O-I-HI-A-U = father of thee), thy father ;
ihe or o-ihe (O-I-HI-A-E= father of him or her), his or
her father.
NI = MI = mother, female :-
nyolo or o-nyoko (O-I-NI-A-KA-U = mother of, and be-
longing to, thee), thy mother ;
ina or o-ina (O-I-NI-A ... = mother of ... ), (his or her)
mother (cf. Mother in the dictionary).
The final a in ina is properly the sign of the genitive like the
a in hia (= father of... ) : -i-n(i)-a-Kandambt = mother of K.
The prefixed o- (orig. KU, U) in o-iho, o-ina, &c., and the pre-
fixed i (orig. KI, HI) in o-i-ho, o-i-he; i (orig. MI, NI) in
o-i-n'a, Kafir u-ni-n'a, are properly demonstrative pronouns,,
or articles.
The pure root for the name father is thus HI (- KI) and that
for mother NI (= MI), and these very roots KI + MI reappear
as the constituents of the compound prefix on-, in- (KI-MI IX).
21. And we may further observe that the demonstrative pro-
noun of the VII (K1) class, i-HI which is identical with the
first part of the compound prefix of the IX (KI-MI) class, has
assumed exactly the same form as HI, father. For it must not
be overlooked that, in an etymological point of view, we have in

the VII class the singular of the IX (originally dual) class. A
few examples with make this clearer :-
Otyi-puka i-hi VII (full original form KI-PUKA INI-K1)
= this (wild) animal;
on-gombe in-dyi IX (KI-MIl-KOMBE INI-KI-MI) = this
ox or cow, originally this ox and cow, cattle-pair. Now if
the ancient grammatical gender were still in force, tli-kombe ihi
(KI-KOMBE INI-K1) would mean this head of cattle, or, this
male head of cattle, and n-gombe ii (MI-KOMBE IEI-MI) this
mother or female head of cattle, cow.
22. We arrive thus at the following result:-
in- (IX prefix) = KI-MI = male-female
father, mother,
male female
Now if KI-MI (IX) means father-mother, or, what amounts
to the same, male-female, KU-MU (I) and KA-MA (VI) must
fundamentally have the same meaning ; but we observe this
difference that in the primitive language KU-MU (I) was applied
to human beings, KI-MI (IX) to animals, and KA-MA (VI) to
living or fleshy things in general which appear in pairs, as the
arms, the legs, the female breasts, &c. At present II (hi, i-h-o,
i-h-e; yi-hl-o, yi-s-e, &c.) and NI (ni-oko, i-n'-a, ni-n'-a, &c.),
originally animal father and mother, are in use for father and
mother generally.
23. We may here observe that, as to meaning, we have exactly
the reverse of what we noticed in the Chinese fu mu = father-
mother = parents. Fu is father, mu. is mother, fu mu parents ;
but neither fu nor mu is used as a root in its original predica-
tive sense" (Max Miiller). In Herero hi (KI) is father, and
ni (MI) mother, hi-ni (KI-MI) father-mother = male-female ;
but hi and ni are only used separately in their original sense ; in
their combination as compound formative prefix (in-, KI-MI IX)
they have become an "empty form in Bantu.

The Double Principle of Motion and Gender.
24. Thus, as in the formation of the verb a two-fold principle
has been at work, motion and space or locality, so the double
principle of motion and gender pervades the whole domain of the
Bantu noun and pronoun. But in both, verb and noun (and
pronoun) the law of motion is first in importance. In the for-
mation and classification of nouns the law of motion first asserted
its right, and after that the principle of gender came into play.
To make my meaning clearer. In the primitive language all
breathing, living, moving beings, whether male or female, were
treated alike. They were spoken of indiscriminately as living
beings or creatures. Viewed separately, a young man and
a young woman, a young male and a young female
animal might be designated by the same name, meaning the
living one, the living thing. It was only when these living
beings or creatures, in mature age, appeared in pairs that the
grammatical distinction of gender was resorted to and the forms
of the sexual dual were used, denoting male and female united.
Now, if one of the united pair had to be named separately,
the form of the common gender (KU, K, KIA) was used for
designating the male, whilst the distinct feminine form (MIU, 3I,
MA) was applied to the female.
And as to inanimate things, primeval man, in viewing and
naming them, did not ask, is the thing in any way like a male,
big, strong, hard, active, or like a female, smaller, weaker, soft,
passive "-questions belonging to a later period-but "is the object
like a living thing (with life, blood, as arm, leg, ear) ;" or, "is it
waving like wings or branches, moved by the wind ;" or, is the
thing motionless, dead (like bones, horns, stones)." The single
horn, for example, of a one-horned rhinoceros would not suggest
to him the idea of gender, he would simply call the isolated horn
a dead one or a dead thing, but observing, on many other animals,
two horns standing together, the second one would appear to him
as the female or mate of the first, and thus comparing them to a
married couple, he would accordingly classify the pair of horns,
though lifeless objects, like pairs of living beings, in one of the
classes of the sexual dual.

25. It would thus appear that, after all, there is something of
real gender in the Bantu languages, but it is hidden. The original
meaning of the dual prefix the being (or thing) and its mate,'
or male and female,' having been lost in the long lapse of ages,
the idea' male or female' was substituted, and so it happened
that the dual prefix was applied to males or females indis-
criminately, in the same way as also our man (Germ. mensch,
pron. man) denotes man in general, 'male and female' but also
' male or female.' We have in the Bantu idioms the germ of
what in various ways, is more extensively developed in sex-
denoting languages. It is not impossible that in the former the
much-discussed question of grammatical gender will find its
solution. The transferring of the distinction of natural gender
to lifeless objects arose perhaps originally simply from the circum-
stance that some members of the human and animal body and
other things (eyes, ears, arms, sandals, &c.) appeared in pairs and,
being looked upon as male and female, were consequently
thrown into the same division with the latter. At this
early stage of development of gender the ancient Bantu language
was arrested in its growth and became stereotyped; but other
(sex-denoting) languages, whilst dropping the sexual dual, or re-
taining only a shadow of it in the common dual, extended the
idea of gender to all objects whatever, no matter whether they
appeared in pairs or not." (From the author's aforementioned
article "The Bantu prefixes").

Hausa-a Connecting Link.
26. A connecting link between the (at present) genderless
prefix-pronominal Bantu family and the sex-denoting class of
languages we have in Hausa. This widely-diffused African
language was originally a Bantu idiom. But from some cause or
other its pronominal system was terribly shaken, nay almost
entirely destroyed. Nothing was left of the primitive grand
structure but the prefix ma- VI, its corresponding demonstrative
pronoun nga and a few other vestiges. In this state of decay it
was, by some mysterious power, inspired with new life, and whilst
retaining the usual Bantu way of distinguishing natural gender
by the terms in use for male and female, it assumed the form of


a sex-indicating language, forming a distinct feminine class for
animate and inanimate things (human and animal females, sun,
earth, world, wind, countries, &c.) by the ending -nia (abbrevi-
ated -ia), no doubt identical with (Hausa) inma, mother (female),
Zulu u-nina, Herero ina, ni(oko). The final a in (Hausa) -nia
is properly the sign of the genitive, as in Herero hi-a ... (father,
properly father of...) and in-a ... (mother, properly mother of ...).
It is extremely interesting to observe in Hausa the transition first
from a primitive sex-denoting (primitive Bantu) to a genderless
(present Bantu) and then again from a genderless to a sex-indi-
cating stage.
The Plural.
27. In order to facilitate the finding of the plural (for which
see table IV) the noun has been generally indicated by a hyphen
separating the formative prefix from the stem in this manner:-
omu-ndu, man ; ova-ndu, men ; omuz-ti, tree ; omi-ti, trees, &c.
In doing so I have in one or two instances been placed under the
necessity of sacrificing principle to expediency and practical con-
siderations. The prefix of ombua, dog, onyanda, small cattle,
osena, orphan (the ninth [N-] prefix in Bleek's Comp. Gr.) is
not o-, as some hold it to be, but on-, om- ; and o- only before h,
s and n. In separating prefix and stem ongombe, ombanda ought
therefore to be written on-ngombe, om-mbanda; but as this is
rather an awkward way of spelling, and also as I had decided
to conform to the orthography adopted in Herero literature, I
have put the hyphen between the initial o and the rest of the
noun (o-ngeama, lion; o-mbua, dog, &c.) But it is certain that
the letters m in ombua and n in ongeama are as essential as m in
omundu (man) and in oneva (water), and in forming new words
the rule should be strictly observed that the prefix on-, om- (plur.
ozon-, ozom-) can assume the form of o- (plur. ozo-) only before
h, s and n or ny.

The Primeval Law of the Plural.
28. As to the original correspondence of singular and plural,
it is evident that, in some measure, it has been disturbed,
which is especially owing to the circumstance that in some cases

the dual form has been substituted for the plural and that in other
instances two or more classes of nouns have coalesced. There can
be no doubt that a number of plural forms which existed in primi-
tive Bantu, have been lost.
But they can be restored. It appears to me that it is still possi-
ble to discover, in Herero, the principle upon which all the corre-
spondences between singular and plural in the primitive language
were based. The primeval law of the plural would seem to have
simply consisted in this-that the consonant of the singular
form was aspirated and strengthened.
If the first Bantu ancestors had possessed a grammar, the rule
for forming the plural would have read something like this :-
In order to indicate the plural or a number of persons or things,
aspirate the consonant of the singular and pronounce the word with
greater force.
Thus if ka meant the living one, kha or khha denoted a number
of living ones; if ti was the name for a dead body as e.g. a tooth,
a bone, a stone, thior thhi conveyed the idea of a number of such
dead bodies ; and if pu signified the waving one (as a branch, a
wing, a wave, &c.), the plural must have been something like
phu or phhu. Something like it-for it is, of course, impossible
to determine the exact primitive sound ; we can only detect this,
that originally throughout, in each case, the plural was formed
by aspirating and strengthening the consonant of the correspond-
ing singular. Later when the primeval law of the plural became
obsolete, a reaction took place : the massive plural forms collapsed
by their own weight and softened down--khha (kcha) to tya (za),
ya, wa, va, ba, a, &c. ; khhu (khu) to /yu (tshu, tu), yu, wu, bu,
&c. In these and similar shapes the plural forms appear at present
in Bantu, which, however, cannot be shown here in detail. The
plural of ru, li (TU) XI, originally thu or thhu is now (in
Herero) it XII and in the corresponding demonstrative pronoun
su; both the singular and the plural have lost a grade of the
original power, tu having been weakened to ru (lu) and thhu to
tu or su. The present plural prefix vi- VIII (wi-, hi-, iy-, i-)-
to add another instance-is only a weak remnant of an original
khi or khhi, the plural of ki VII (tyi-, si-, y-, i-). See table II.
29. It will be noticed on table II that, as far as the consonants


are concerned, five primitive regular correspondences of singular
and plural have been preserved in Herero. All other known Bantu
idioms have only four, the correspondence between oka- XIII and
o(v)u- XIV being not found in them (see Bleek's Comp. grammar,
p. 288). The following are the primitive regular correspondences
in Herero:-
oka- (KA) XIII o(v)u- (KHU) XIV
otyi- (KI) VII ovi- (KHI) VIII
omu- (KU-MU) I ova- (KHA) II
on- (KI-MI IX oso-n- (KHA) X
oru- (TU) X1 oit- (THU) XII
Irregular correspondences are:-
omui- (PU-MU) III omi- (PI-MI) IV (orig. dual)
e- (T, KA) V
ou- (PU) XIV oma- (KA-MA) VI (orig. dual)
olcu- (KU) XV )
oru- (TU) XI ozon- (TI-MI) X (orig. dual)

The Original Classification of Nouns restored.
30. Table II.-This table is an attempt to restore the roots of
the Bantu primitive pronominal system ; to shew the original
classification of nouns, based on the principle of motion and
gender ; and to exemplify the primeval law of the plural.
In so far as the primitive pronominal system is concerned, the
table is incomplete, for it only gives the roots of the pronoun and
does not shew how the forms of the first and second person, by
means of the vowel laws, evolved from these roots. I had drawn
up a separate larger table to illustrate that process, but as its
explanation would take up more space than I can afford here, and
as besides there are a few details which are not yet quite clear to
me, I shall not insert it now. But I hope to be able to communi-
cate it at some future time. There is sufficient ground to believe
that the whole primitive pronominal system of Bantu can be restored.


Indicating (1) the approximate full primitive form and number of the Bantu formative prefixes of the
noun, (2) the roots of the pronoun, (3) the primeval law of the plural, and (4) the classification
of nouns in primitive Bantu.

Common personal and masculine Male-female, couple, pair Common personal and masculine

Breath, life : spontaneous motion.
Man; animal kingdom, &c.
KA (oka-), XTII (e-)V KCA-IA (oma-) VI KILA (ova-), II (ozo-n) X
KI (otyi-) VII KI-MI (on-) IX KIll (ovi-). VIII (ozo-n) X
KU (oku-),XV (oko-) XVII KU-MU (imu-) I KIU (ou-, ovu) XIV

Wind, air : waving motion.
Vegetable kingdom, &c.
PA (o-po-) XVI PA-MA PHA
PI PI-MI (omi-) IV PHIl
PU (on-, ovu) XIV PU-MU (omu-) III PHIU (on-, omu) XIV

Death, solid matter : absence of motion.
Mineral kingdom &c.;
also stretching, and, with the vowel u, rising, high, long things.

TI (e-, r-ri) V TI-jMI (ozon-) X Till
TU (oru-) XI TU-M1U THU (Atu-) XII


mother, female, mate, home, place, &c.

MU (,mo.) XVIII MiU

NOTE.-The forms in Italic Capitals are hypothetic, those in antique type are the Bantu prefixes as they still
exist in IIercro. They arc followed by the numbers which they have in Bleek's Comp. grammar. Some of the
hypothetical forms can still be traced in the domain of the pronoun and pronominal particles ; some, as MA, MI,
are embodied in the compound forms of the sexual dual ; whilst the rest have either coalesced with other classes
or entirely disappeared. The in o:o-n- (as plural of on-) is a phonetic variation of r, originally klh (cf. Herero
ori- and the identical Zulu izi-). Omi- IV (PI-M-I) may possibly be a mutation (" umlaut ") of onem- II
(IU-MU), for it only occurs as plural of the latter.


Present Classification of Nouns.

31. Table IV presents a full view of the classes of nouns in
The prefix omu- (sing.) and ova- (plur.) naturally take their
place at the head, as they represent human beings, persons of
both sexes.
They are followed by on-, om-, o- (plur. ozon-, ozom-, ozo-),
on- being preeminently the prefix for names of animals-on-gombe,
ox or cow ; on-du, sheep ; on-geama, lion ; on-gue, leopard ; om-
bua, dog, &c.-and things resembling them or relating to them,
as on-nyama, meat ; on-dambo, trace, track.
After this, omu- (plur. omi-) as the pr fix for trees and other
waving, wing-like objects-e.g. omu-nue, finger(row), as resemb-
ling a branch or wing ; omu-na, the (united) lip, from the flapping
motion ; omu-vare, a sheet of water, a lake ; omu-ramba, torrent,
river, from the motion of the waves-takes its appropriate place.
In the e- class (plur. oma-) two or three classes of nouns must
have coalesced. E- may be called a singular par excellence, being
originally the singular of a dual (oma-). E- means, in the first
place, one of a pair. Hence it is used to denote single things
(and persons), as e-rike, a single one, one alone ; e-paha, one of
the oma-pala, twins ; e-naoti, neck, &c. ; also unique, imposing
things (and persons), as e-kazendu, a stately, properly unique
woman, in distinction from omnu-kazendu, woman generally; e-yona,
a fat lamb, in distinction from on-dyona, lamb (cf. Dr. C. H.
Hahn's Herero grammar, p. 11, and Mr. Rath's remarks in Dr.
Bleek's Comp. gr. p. 200). But e- represents also creeping, stretch-
ing, lying, in-lying, eye-like, round things ; and lying, motionless,
dead things, as e-tupa, bone ; e-oe, stone; ehi, ground, earth ; e-hecke
sand; e-lende, a piece of ice, &c. As therefore the E- class
includes the mineral kingdom and as moreover the plural oma- is
in general use for liquids of any kind, I have placed e- so as to
immediately follow the representative of the vegetable kingdom
The prefix oru- (plur. otu-) must necessarily join e-, for in so
far as e- represents the original DI (li, ri) class, these two prefixes
stand in close relationship to each other. The oru- class includes,

like the e-(ri) class, inanimate, solid things, but chiefly such
as rise or climb up (oru-eli, creeper; ora-era, cream ; oru-uima,
dust ; oru-kumlbambura, dust-column in a whirlwind); which are
,of large size, properly rising high (oru-uua, rock) or which are
long (oru-u, reed ; oru-tetI, row ; orn-tfindo, train of travelling
nomads ; oru-sepa, sinew, thread).
And now follow the neuter prefix otyi- (plur. ovi-) for things
in general, the diminutive oka- (plur. ou-), the abstract (and
personal) ou-, and the infinitive (but also personal prefix) oku-
(plur. oma- or oma-kun-) which fitly close the row of prefixes
possessing corresponding plurals, though etymologically the three
forms oka-, olyi- and olku- ought to be placed at the head. Indeed
it must be distinctly understood that the above arrangement of
the prefixes and classes of nouns is, on the whole, only of a
practical nature in accordance with their present respective uses
in the language. The classification of nouns in primitive Bantu
was based throughout on the principles of motion and gender
and must have been something like the arrangement on table II
which the student may compare.
32. The relation in which a noun stands to the other parts of a
sentence (case) is indicated in Herero by prepositions, properly
pronominal particles which originally referred to near or distant
localities. Their proper meaning is that (place = there), this
(place = here), and the relations to, from, by, of, &c.,
originally expressed by vowels, are at present merely implied.
Hence a preposition may have two opposite meanings, as ku = to
and ku = from, because ku means simply there, and to or from are
reserved in the mind of the speaker. It is, as if we were to say
in German : er geht da" (instead of dahin ") and er kommt
da" (instead of daher"), or in English: take these things
there my father (instead of to my father), or, snatch the things
there the man (instead of from the man), the nature of the verb
indicating in each case whether (there)to or (there)from is meant.
In dealing with the Bantu prepositions and particles it is of great
importance to bear this in mind. Thus we have in Herero, onyu-
ng tuca k'ezukco, lit., the pot put there(on) the hearth, and


onyungu isa k'ezuko, lit., the pot take (there)from the hearth.
In nga ko nga hino = unto this day, lit., from there to or till -
here, the preposition nga (originally a demorstrative pronoun
with the force of that [distant place]) means both from and to.
When coming into contact with the noun, the case elements
frequently drop their vowels or otherwise silence the initial vowel
of the noun.
33. The principle particles used in forming the cases are :-
ku or k' = to and from, prop. there(to or from) : give these-
things to my father (or, to the man) ovina mbi yandya ku
tale (or, k'omundu), lit., things these give there(to) -
(my) father or, there(to) the man ; take these things
away from my father (or, from the man), ovina mbi yeka
cu late, or, k'omundu. I may here mention that, for the
dative, the relative form of the verb is used as well; see For
in the dictionary ;
a (originally ka) = there(of), sign of the genitive : the knife
of my father, oruvio ru a tate, lit., the knife it or that -
there(of) (my) father ; the knife of the man, oruvio ru
(-) omundu or ru'omundu (the a being suppressed) ;
i (originally ki) = (here)out of, or (here)by, by : we have
been sent by our father, tua hindua i tate ; we have been
sent by the man, Iua hindiua (-) omundu (instead of i
omundu) ;
na, n' = with (instrumental) : na tale = with (through the
instrumentality of) the father; n'oruvio = with the
The vocative is formed by eliding the initial vowel (omundu,.
man), 'mundu o man.

34. Adjectives take the same prefix as the nouns to which they
refer ; thus a tall man is called omu-ndu omu-re, a man, a tall one ;
a large house, on-dyuo o-nene, a house, a large one ; a sharp knife,
oru-vio oru-tue, a knife, a sharp one, analogous to the Germ. die
stimme die rufende," &c. Adjectives marked in the dictionary
with a hyphen, as -ua, good, -vi, bad, may freely be used with the
prefixes of all classes of nouns ; some adjectives however retain as

a rule their own peculiar prefix, as, omu-ndu e-kara, a fat person ;
omu-ndu otyi-rangaranga, a perverse, obstinate one. For the com-
parative of adjectives see -Er and More in the dictionary.

The Pronoun.
35. The pronouns in Herero are, as has been stated before,
repetitions-sometimes modified or abbreviated repetitions-of
the formative prefixes of the noun : hence what has been said
regarding the original form and the nature and meaning of the
prefixes applies also to the pronouns. This regular correspondence
between the noun and pronoun in the several classes produces
what has been called a pronominal alliteration or concord. It
is, however, clear that the Bantu concord is not a principle," as
is held by some, but simply the outcome and natural consequence
of a principle which consists in this, that a noun in Bantu is
represented by one of its constituent parts, namely by that part
which may be termed its personal element (cf. Bleck's Comp. gram-
mar, pp. 104, 105). A literal rendering of a few sentences will
place the working of that principle and the true character of the
pronouns clearly before the mind. The parts lost by the wear and
tear of ages are printed in common Roman type.
The great man appears, omundu omunene u munika; the
large bone appears, etupa enene ri munika ; the large flame ap-
pears, orrurumo orunene ru munika.

a man
a bone

a flame
u- ndu
ing (the)inte
air ligent(p-i
ted or united

Literal rendering.
omu-nene u
a great one lhe
e(RI)-nene ri
a large one it
oru-nene ru
a large one it
original form and literal
ku-mu- nene
1- the living (the) great
ir erect pair (pair or
d or united united
one one)

ku-mu munika
t the living appears
erect pair
or united

the livi
erect p
or unit


ri- tupa ri- nene ri munika
the inner (the) hol- the inner (the) large the inner appears
dead one low (one) dead one (one) dead one
ru- rurumo ru- nene ru munika
the high, (the) blaz- the high, (the) large the high, appears
rising ing (one) rising (one) rising
dead one dead one dead one
36. The tables of the several classes of pronouns will, 1 hope,
be found sufficiently clear without much comment.
The demonstrative pronouns in Herero consist of simple pronouns
(identical with the formative prefixes) with the prefixed demon-
strative particle in- (im-, i-) which in some instances has acted
like a guardian and kept the Bantu pronoun more primitive (in
Herero) than it is found elsewhere" (Bleek).
The forms of the possessive pronoun have been placed in a
manner so as to enable the student to master their otherwise per-
plexing number with ease. From the two rows given, the whole
number in Herero (not less than three hundred and fifteen
different forms) may be constructed at a glance. It will be seen
that the possessive pronoun consists of three parts which mean
it-of-his ; they-of-hers ; it-of-mine ; she-of-yours, &c., the a
in the middle (in some cases blended with other vowels) signifying
of (or more properly that of) as e.g. my child, omuatfie u-a-ndye,
properly child it-of-mine ; their children, ovanaye v'-a-uo, lit.,
children- they- of- theirs, &c.

The Verb.-E adicals.
37. A verbal root in Herero always ends (like the roots of pro-
nouns) in a vowel and consists generally of two syllables (properly
two monosyllabic roots welded together into one) as lona, beat;
muna, see ; hinda, send. These dissyllabic verbs often drop their
final vowel, as tyit', do ; et', bring ; mun', see, and are then pro-
nounced as monosyllables, like the Chinese king (ascend), yik
(change), tap (answer) or English send, hang, julmp, &c. There
are, however, also a number of true monosyllabic verbs in Herero,
as i, to go ; ka, strike ; pa, give ; ta, die, &c. No true radical
verb ever exceeds two syllables.


38. In this dictionary the verb has been given in the form of
the imperative of the second person singular-tona, beat ; hinga,
drive ; yanda, cease, from which the infinitive is formed by pre-
fixing oku-, as, okiutona, to beat; okuhinga, to drive; okuyanda, to
cease. In the indicative mood (the simplest and most primitive
form of the Herero verb) the final (affixed) a frequently gives
way to the radical vowel cf the first syllable, as, me lono, I beat ;
me hingi, I drive, which however can only occur in genuine roots,
not in derivative or denominative verbs. This change of the
final vowel has been note in this way-tona, -o; hinga, -i;
luJga, -u.
39. Of the conjugations of the verb the following are still in
force and at the free disposal of the speaker, or, in other words,
they may be formed from the simple form of the verb, as occa-
sion requires.
Reflexive form Ru- :--r.ila, bind : rikuta, bind thyself; me
rikutu, I bind myself.
Causative form -ISA :--enda, go, walk, travel: yendisa, cause
to walk, lead ; me yendisa, I lead.
Relative or objective form -IRA (-e) or -ERA, -INA, -ENA:-
hinda, send : me hindire, I send for, or, instead ; tuna, prepare :
mave tunine, they prepare for. The sign of this form is also
much used as a directive, signifying to and from, as hitira mo,
enter into, in distinction from hila mo, enter in ; zira (r. za)
ponu mbena = begin from that spot.
Reciprocal form -SANA :-pura, ask : purasana, ask each other;
suvera, love : they love one another, mave suverasana ; cara, be :
karasana, be to each other, stand in relation to each other.
Other forms have become stereotyped, of which the most im-
portant are the following :-
Frequentative and also inversive form -URA, -URURA, -O0A,
-ORORA, -UNA, -UNUNA, -OWA, -ONONA (= much, often, again) :-
kolut, wash: kohora or kohorora, wash much, again and again,
wash clean; kuta, tie : kulura (= tie again, i.e.) untie, undo,
loose ; pata, shut : 'paturura (= shut again and again, i.e. reverse
the act of shutting), open.


Second causative form -IKA, -e ; -EKA, -e :-rara, sleep : rareka,
cause to sleep ; yuva (yuii) cut : yupika, sharpen ; yanda, cease :
yandeka, annihilate.
40. As to the tenses, their character and scope will be better
understood, if it is borne in mind that in the Bantu family the
original close connection between time and space or locality is more
visible than perhaps in any other family of languages. The
notions of time and space are very closely associated in the Bantu
mind. Thus ua vera may either mean, he is lying ill at some
distant place, or, he has been ill for a long time, he is seriously ill.
41. In forming the tenses in Herero two pronominal local
particles are chiefly used, ma = here, present (and future), and
a = there, farther off, distant, preterite, past (but also present).
These particles were originally demonstrative pronouns, ma re-
ferring to a noun of the now extinct (feminine) MAA- class (see
table II) and a to some lost or obsolete noun of the KA- class
(XIII), signifying space, extent, distance (cf. the obsolete noun
KA-TI, preserved in pokati, Zulu palcati, pa-kati = by the space
between, "beim zwischenraum," i.e. "zwischen," between). These
particles are glued to the pronoun and verb in the following
manner (see table V) :-
matu i, we go, we are going, or, we are on the point of
going, we shall go (properly ma tl i, here we go and are
going on) ;
atu i, we went, were going, we go (properly a tu i, there, at
some distance, we go = Germ. "da gehen wir," a form
much used in narration, as it places something past as
present before the mind). As a means far, distant, this
form is also used as a negation, for atu i may also mean,
we do not go, properly we are far from going (see Not in
the dictionary, and compare also the particle ka, which is
the full form of a, and which likewise signifies there at
some distance," and also "not," properly far off, far
from it) ;
tma i, we went, but also, we are still going, we go (properly
tu a i, we there go);


tua ia (or ya), we went long ago, or, we travelled a great
distance, &c. (properly ui a i a, we there go there
far off.
There are a few verbs before which a becomes e, as e.g. ya,
come : ye ya, it came, or comes, not ya ya ; ie kura, he is full-
grown (instead of ua kaira). Before reflexive verbs this takes
places regularly, thus, mbe rikoho, I washed myself (not mba
42. In the case of the perfect tense, -ire (-ine, -ere, -ene) is
affixed to the stem, and here the rules of true vowel harmony are
strictly observed in Herero, a, e, o being followed by -ere, or,
after m, n, ny by -ene, and the vowels u and i by -ire or -ine,
which the following examples will make plain:-
Pafa, shut : me pata, I shut, mba patere, I have shut; kama,
squeeze out : me kama, I squeeze out, mba kamene, I have squeezed
out ; veta, throw : me vele, I throw, mba vetere, I have thrown ;
hena, run away : me hene, I run away, mba henene, I have run
away; rota, dream: me rolo, I dream, mba rotere, I have
dreamt ; tona, beat : me tono, I beat, mba lonene, I have beaten ;
pita, go out: me piti, I go out, mba pitire, I did go out ; sina,
smother: me sina, I smother, mba sinine, I have smothered;
suta, pay : me sutu, I pay, mba satire, I have paid ; tuma, send
me tuime, I send, mba tumine, I have sent.
43. The subjunctive, potential, and optative future change the
final vowel of the verb into e-k-ara, sit : raera ovandu ve kare
pehi, lit., tell the people (that) they (may) sit down ; ungura,
work : me vanga ngave ungure, lit., I will, that they work;
rira, become : aa rire otyandye lit., oh that (it) were or might
become mine.

The Passive.
44. The passive voice is formed by the easy way of inserting
the vowel ui-hinda, send : hindiua or hindua, be sent ; hindire
(perf.), have sent: hindirue, have been sent ; tona, beat : me
tonua, I am being beaten; mba loneua, I was or am beaten, mba
tonenue, I have been beaten.


45. The accent, in Herero, is generally on the last syllable of a
word, but also, in many instances, on the penultimate.

Foreign Words.
46. As to foreign words, I have only inserted those which
would seem to be indispensable, and have marked them with an

47. The orthography adopted by the Missionaries of the
Rhenish Missionary Society has, on the whole, been adhered to.
With the exception of a few modified letters it agrees with
Lepsius' Standard Alphabet.
The pronunciation of the vowels is as in German or Italian.
The double vowel is long-aa as a in father, ee as e in obey, ii as
i in pique, machine, oo as o in hole, uu as u in rule. The vowel
u often sounds as the English w; also o in some cases : oma-oe
oetu (our stones), for example, is pronounced oma-we wetu (o-etu,
w-etu being merely a phonetic variation of the more correct
form y-elu). In a few verbs and pronominal forms the radical
vowel is very short, something like the Hebrew sh'va. As the
sign usually employed to denote short vowels could not be had
here, I have marked them by an apostrophe (h'a) or placed them
in parenthesis.
Of the consonants g (ng) is always hard as in gold; h is a
strong spirant (hh), but this letter may also be pronounced as the
aspirated sibilant sh without altering the sense ; s sounds like th
in through, but is also pronounced as the English s ; z repre-
sents the English th in the ; y is never pronounced as a vowel:
whether it appears singly as in yata, raya, or in digrams, as in
lyala, handya, lyatya, it has always the consonantal sound as in
the English words year, young. The letters f and I only occur in
a few foreign words.
T, d and n, in distinction from t, d and n, are modified letters.
In Herero literature they are now generally marked with a curve
underneath, but as this kind of type was not at my disposal, I


followed the mode adopted by some in transcribing or writing
Indian and Polynesian languages, and put a common Roman
letter instead of an italic--panda, tura, hana. The modified
n slightly differs from the common n in having a stronger
dental element in its pronunciation, though in some words it
would seem to be an obtuse ny (the y being suppressed) ; t is a
medial sound between the English I and th (in the) ; d is z or th,
softened by a prefixed nasal, and sounds like ndz (ndth), the
lisping being almost entirely suppressed. Thus a foreigner
will be understood if he pronounces panda (refuse) like panda.
It ought, however, to be stated that the nicety of pronun-
ciation in the case of the letters t, t, n, n is not observed by all
the Herero missionaries and among those who mark the distinc-
tion, a perfect agreement has not yet been come to : hence a few
inconsistencies in regard to these letters were almost unavoidable
in the present work.
There is a second modification of the letter t which sounds
like ty, tsh in such words as /vende (tyuende or ishuende = go),
tua (tyua or tshua = put), tuara (tyuara or ishuara = carry
away), but that is not marked in Herero books.

Herero Folk-lore.
48. Otyi-herero cannot be regarded as a key to literary treasures,
it must be studied simply for its own sake, as the object, not as the
medium of research. There is, in the Grey Library, a small
collection of Herero Folk-lore, about thirty traditionary tales,
written down from the mouth of natives by Mr. Rath and others,
but they are only in so far of interest and real value as they aid
us in the study of a form of speech more primitive than our own
and in the very words of which we find embedded fossil poetry "
and fossil history." There runs through the whole of the
copia verborum of the Herero and kindred idioms a rich vein of
humour and true poetry, whilst the analysis of a number of words
gives us glimpses into the primitive history of the Bantu nation.
Hence every effort should be made, especially now that Central
Africa is becoming accessible to us, to gather up the remaining
fragments of Bantn folk-lore, ere it be for ever too late. See
APPENDIX and Dr. Bleek's Reynard the Fox," pp. 27-29, 90-94.


Relation to Polynesian Idioms.
49. The importance of the study of Herero is much enhanced
by the fact that the Bantu family stands in something like a
sisterly relationship to the numerous Malayo-Polynesian idioms.
Dr. Bleek affirms, on the strength of grammatic identity, that
"the Papuan, Polynesian and Malay languages are related
to the Bantu languages (see Comp. Grammar of South African
languages, p. 143). But there is this marked difference,
that the African Bantu has preserved the ancient structure and
the original characteristic features of the mother-tongue much
better than her Polynesian sister, a fact probably attributable to
the peculiar almost prison-like formation of the "dark continent "
whose barren, and to a great extent inaccessible shores afford
little facility for national intercourse. The Negro race," it is
well remarked by Sir Bartle Frere, seems for ages past to have
been shut up in the Interior of Africa under conditions which
nearly excluded external civilizing influences." And those very
conditions must also, as a matter of course, have proved a for-
midable barrier against foreign destructive influences in regard to
language : hence the wonderful originality, fulness and beauty of
form, preserved in Herero and kindred languages of Southern
and Central Africa.

Lexical Affinity with other Families.
50. In conclusion I would call attention to the striking lexical
affinities between Bantu-Polynesian and other families, especially
the Aryan languages. Or is it possible that coincidences like
those (in 8) between Herero yanda, anda and Sanskr. anta,
Goth. andeis (=to go far, out of sight, to cease, end), between
Herero hinda or shinda and Icel. send (= to go out or cause to
go out, to send), between Bantu konda, gunda, sonda and Aryan
sundro, sundr, sundern, sondern, &c. (= to go through, to divide,
cut, sunder) and a hundred similar instances should be merely
accidental ?
That the Bantu family is not isolated or without a common
bond," is no new idea. Bantu grammarians and lexicographers
are not.wanting who allude to this question with more or less


emphasis. But they generally fall into the mistake of believing
that the Bantu languages have borrowed from the Semitic" or
"are largely indebted to other ancient tongues." This is obvi-
ously an error. As far as the roots are concerned, no family of
languages can be said to be largely indebted to another. Stray
words will, of course, be found here and there, words which have
wandered from one class of languages to another : but as to the
ground-work, each family of languages is as old and stable as the
rest. There are primitive universal root-words which are of
equal antiquity in whatever family they may be found. It would
be a great mistake to derive, fur example, the Herero verb konda
(= to go over or through, to cut through) either from Hebrew
kud (= to pierce, wound, destroy) or from English cut (0. Sw.
koitt, Icel. kuta) : the fact is, the root kut- (kot-, kzcid-, kond-)
is a primitive universal root, meaning to go over or through
(hence also to cut through), and will be met with in some shape
or other throughout the world in every family of language. If
the pronoun of the first person singular sounds in English I
(German ich, 0. Germ. ih, Goth. ik), in Herero ndyi (ngi, i), in
Hebrew ano-ki, an-i, and that of the corresponding plural in
English we (0. Sax., Dan., Swed. wi), in Makonde (Bantu) we-
pa (pa = here : we-pa = we here ; cf. Herero mbi = m-vi, I,
but originally plural, we), the reason is not, because the Aryan,
Semitic and Bantu languages have borrowed these forms one
from another ; but each family derived them independently from
the common stock of the "one language and one speech" of
primitive mankind.
The experience I have gathered in Africa leads me to endorse
unreservedly the principle laid down by Gesenius in his Hebrew
grammar (German thirteenth edition) where he says (p. 3) that
the agreement between a large number of Semitic and Indo-
European rootwords is owing to the circumstance that the forma-
tion of the roots belongs to the earliest time before the separation
of the several families of speech had taken place. Der
ground ist, weil die wurzelbildung in die friiheste zeit gehurt, wo
die sprachstiimme noch nicht gesondert waren : die grammatische
conformation der sprachen dagegen erst in spitern epochen vor
sich gegangen ist." And also Prof. Max Miller holds.that "it

is possible even now to point out radicals (in the Turanian,
Semitic and Aryan branches of speech) which under various
changes and disguises, have been current in these three branches
ever since their first separation." (Lectures on the Science of
language, p. 387). This I believe to be the true attitude for all
Comparative philologists to assume. By a continued observation
of facts for a period extending over thirty years, I have arrived
at those results which I have briefly stated in the aforementioned
paper in the Transactions of the South African Philosophical
Society," of which I may be permitted to give a few extracts here.
"To have the thousand-fold varieties of human speech reduced
to a few large families, is doubtless a great achievement in modern
philology. Still the craving of the thinking mind for something
more remains. We are not satisfied with mere divisions and
classifications, whilst we are wanting a stand-point from which
we may discover their bond of union : we feel the separate circles.
drawn by comparative philology to be too narrow, and wish for
one large enough to embrace all the families of human language;
a natural desire, sometimes even expressed by some of those
workers who, for want of laws to guide them further, rigidly
adhere to the principle of grammatic identity.
Let our remarks not be misunderstood. They are not intended
in the least to detract from the importance of the principle just
mentioned. The principle of grammatic identity will, as far as
the classification of languages is concerned, ever be acknowledged
as a true one; but it is obvious that, if the grammatical struc-
ture be the only foundation on which comparative philology can
operate, any endeavour to trace nnd demonstrate the unity of
language must be considered as futile, especially for this reason
that the isolating idioms have substituted syntax for grammar,
and thus dispense with the grammatical frame-work altogether.
A broader foundation must be laid and a wider sphere drawn in
which all families of languages can unite.
This is desirable ; but is it possible ?
I venture to answer that there is good reason to believe it is
possible. A careful study and analysis of Bantu, and especially
a proper knowledge of the powers of the vowels, will furnish us
with a new method of Word-comparison, a method unshackled

by the different grammatical superstructures ; a method which
goes in a direct way to the body of language, and which there-
fore may be called the DIRECT 3ETHOD of word-comparison, or
also, as it springs from a knowledge of the primeval laws of
the vowels, the VOWEL-METHOD. I shall, of course, in this brief
paper not be able to do justice to the subject; many questions
in connection with it I must leave untouched and unanswered,
but the outlines of the basis on which the method rests, and of
the method itself I hope I may succeed in describing in a few
(1.) No true root-word stands isolated in language : it is a
member of a family, in close relationship to a more or less numer-
ous group ; and each group of roots is, whatever individual
difference there be, pervaded by one general idea. We have
thus, in universal etymology, to treat a root-word as in affinity
and relation to the whole group. We do not compare isolated
root-words in the several families of speech : we confront genera
with genera, species with species.
(2.) The classification of roots into genera and species is effected
by ihe vowels. In a genus we have root-words with the vowels
a, i, u and kindred shades of sound, but a species comprises only
roots of one primary vowel and its kindred sounds. Thus in
Herero the genus PA-TA would comprise roots as the following
-pata, patha, vatha ; pita, pitha, fitha, vera ; puta, pota, putha,
pura ; whereas a species would be confined to pata, pah/a, &c., a
second species to pia, pilha, &c., and a third to puia, putha, &c.,
though even these species may require subdivision.
(3.) Now each genus in Bantu-Polynesian is pervaded by one
leading idea, generally to go, to move, to run, to stretch, &c., the
vowels modifying the sense, as has been stated before ( 3), pro-
ducing, as a rule, opposite and seemingly conflicting by-meanings,
such as up and down, in and out, &c., and wherever we find the
same phenomenon in other Jhmilies of speech (however imperfectly
the roots may. have been preserved) there we discover true relation-
ship and .,;! .."
51. For example. In glancing at the pages of a Polynesian
v cabulary I am struck with the frequent occurence of the root
tuba which means to go through, to make a hole, and which

resembles in sound and sense the Latin tuba, English tube. In
Herero e-tupa is bone, evidently named so from its being hollow
and like a pipe, for the kindred word top-ora means to bore, and
in Zulu the root tuba has the same radical sense as in Polynesian,
namely to go through. Now these coincidences are certainly re-
markable, still they may be entirely accidental. In order to be
quite sure that the Bantu-Polynesian tuba is identical with the
Indo-European tuba some stronger evidence is required than a
mere resemblance in sound and sense. Here the vowel-method
comes to our assistance and enables us to verify our identification.
Having the primeval laws of the vowels for a guide, we reason
thus :-If tuba in Bantu-Polynesian and Indo-European be the
same root, it must needs occur in both families in a modified form
and sense. Tuba must necessarily appear in its nasalized or
strengthened form h l--ba, though by the wear and tear of ages
it may have been reduced to tuma, toma, tama, tema, rumna, loma,
suma, tlm, &c., and as the vowel u (or o) gives a root not only
the by-meaning (over or) through, but also up, upward, high,
above, and from above i.e. downward, down-lupa, tuba, tIa, loba,
tiomba, lomba, tuma, loma and kindred forms must in both fami-
lies, besides to go through, to be hollow, have also such meanings
as to go up, to mount, to rise, to swell ; to go from above, to go
down, to descend, to stoop, and to cause to go down, to bring
down, to subdue, &c. Ncw this is exactly what we find both in
Bantu-Polynesian and Aryan, as will be seen from the following
a) to go up, or cause to go up, to rise, to be hih ;
b) to go over, or cause to go over (as e.g. over a river i.e.)
through, to press through;
c) to go from above, or cause to go from above, i.e. down.

a) TUPA = to go (or cause to go) up, to rise, to be
BANT : dubvza, dubula, shoot as into ears, bud (Zulu);
topalala, stand upright (Setshuana) ;

tumba, be of great size, be raised, high, be full, preg-
nant, swell, abound, be rich (Herero) ;
tumba, swell, be full, become large (Zulu);
-tumba, height, elevation, swelling (Herero) ;
isi-dumbo, greatest size, bulk (Zulu) ;
tomba, sprout, spring up, shoot, bud (Zulu);
on-domba, top, summit, crown (Herero).
POLYNESIAN : tupu (to rise), grow, increase (New Zealand);
tubu, to spring up, to grow, to arise from (Tongan);
tubu, to spring up, increase, grow (Fijian) ;
tumu-tumu, peak, summit, top (Tongan) ;
tomo, project, jut out, exceed in size (Tongan);
toma, proud, vain, or pride, vanity (Tongan) ;
tomo-tomo, top of the canoe-mast (Tongan).
ARYAN: top (A. Sax., Dutch, Fries., Dan.), the highest part of
anything, crown, summit;
tupho (cause to go up), raise a smoke (Gr.) ;
dhlip (to go up), to smoke (Sanskr.) ;
stup, to heap together (Sanskr.);
stupa, a heap (. .n..) ;
tomb (Gr. tumbos), grave, heap, mound.
b) TUPA = to go (or cause to pass) over, i.e. through,
to bore, &c.
BANU : tube/a, to go through, to creep through (Zulu) ;
in-tuba, an opening between rocks; an opening, as a
window (Zulu) ;
isi-tuba, something like a passage (Zulu);
topora, to repeatedly go through with a pointed instru.
ment, to bore, make holes (Herero) ;
e-tupa, bone, properly a bored object, a pipe, tube
POLYNESIAN : tuba, a hole or opening, an entrance (Tongan);
ka-tuba, an opening, as a window, a door (Tongan);
ka-tuba, door, window (Fijian) ;
tuba qi, to make a hole (Tongan).
ARYAN: tubus, tuba, a long hollow cylinder, a pipe, tube

c) TUPA = to go from above, or cause to go from above,
i.e. down.
BANTU: toba, stoop, bend or bow down, as the body; cause to
go down, bring down, subdue, foment, soothe, ap-
pease, humble, lower, &c. (Zulu) ;
tumba, bring into submission, conquer, capture, take
captive (Zulu);
tumba, subdue, bring down, reduce, as a swelling by
fomentation, manage people, train, &c. (Herero);
rumba, rumbira, to bend the bow (Herero).
POLYNESIAN : topa, tomber, crouler, dichoir, rouler, succomber,
descendre (Marquesan) ;
thuva, to stoop, bow down (Fijian);
lomi, to push and keep under (Tongan) ;
lomi-lomi, to punish captives after war, to quell, &c.
lomia, to quell, put down (Tongan).
AYAN : stupa, to go downward, to be precipitated (Swed.);
stupian (A Sax.), stoepen (0. Dutch), to bend or bow
down, to submit, &c., to stoop ;
tumba, to come down, to fall (Icel.);
tumble (A. Sax. tumbian), to come down suddenly;
doom (A. Sax. dom ; 0. II. Germ. tom, tuom),
judicial sentence, penal decree, condemnation ;
tame (A. Sax. tamian ; Icel. temia; Sanskr. dam;
Latin domo), to subdue.
It must be left to future researches to ascertain to what extent
the relationship between the several families of speech can be
traced. Bat as to the existence of a close lexical affinity between
Bantu and Aryan there can be no doubt. It is true, the Bantu-
Polynesian languages are agglutinative and prefix-pronominal,
whilst those of the Indo-European family are inflectional, but this
only shows that the former are in an earlier stage of development
and much more primitive in form than the latter. As to their
origin, both families are alike; they are based on the same
principles, and their respective radicals can, by the process of
the vowel-method, be traced to one common source.



[The Kongo, Mpongwe and Kihiau forms are taken from Bleek's Comparative Grammar. The lost
prefixes are marked (-)].





ei- cy-


O-, om-
sin- (shi-)
o-, om-
in-, i-
a-, am-
ez-, e-
i-., y-





Va- (wa-)

ki-, dshi-
hi-, vi- (wi-)


omu- s.
omn- s.
ova- p
on- S.
oZo-n- p1
ozon- p'
omu- s.
omi- 1p
e(ri)- 8.
e- s.
oma- ipl
oru- s.
otu- pi
otyl- s.
ovi- pl
oka- s.
ou- pi
on- pS
ou- s.
oku- s.
opo- s.
oko- s.
omo- s.






Herero Prefixes and Classes of Nouns.

1. oVMU- 1

3. oN. IX
). MU- Ill

7. E- V

9. oBU- XI

11. oTYI- VII

13. oKlA- XIII

14. oU- XIV

15. oKlV- XV

1 oPO- XVI
17. oK.O- XVII
18. olMO- XVIII


omu-ndu, man, male or female 2. ,VA- II o
u-amlbanq, stranger o
o-tate, father o
on-gonbe, ox or cow 4. oZO-N- X o
om-bi, hare oZO-M-
o-hi, fish oZO-
omu-ti, tree, plant 6. olXe- IV
omu-nuer finger
e-oe, stone 8. olA- VI
e-7o. eye 4. DME- o
e-palia. one of a twin pair
oru-uet,n rock 10. oTU- X IT
oru-twya, vein. sinew, string oZON- X
otyi-na. thing 12. "VI- V 11
otyi-jnikae, wild animal
oka-.a, little thing 14. ",U- XIV V
oka-Mfty/', infant
ou-ta, bow 8. oMA-"- VI
ou-ndMu, humanity
oku-tai, ear 8. oMA- VI
oku-ti, fiell, country oma-k/-.
oku-:ura, to hear, hearing

opo-na, a place near
oko-nm, place farther off, distant locality
omo-na, inner or present place or locality


va-/ad7, men. people
v-ui a an / u, strangers
re-tate, fathers
zon-goimbe, cattle
zom-bi, hares
'zo-hi, fishes
'mi-ti, trees, plants
mi-lnu1, fingers
ma-oi,. stones
me-ho. eyes
ma-j//td, twins
tu-,ua. rocks
*ZO(n)-s jw thread
'vl-na. telling
.vi-Jpufta. wihil animals
'u-e1n, little things
u-,n-t/r, infants
OmLa.-l-t. shows

,ma-ti. cars
>ma-k~u-i, tickls. countries





Herero Personal Pronoun.



ndyi, mibi, (i)




yr, e






9", e

1 ku

1 l,


nanmi, paint.

onc', e nc

uey, e, (i/C



oni, no
o iro



on. a



lta (-c)
itu (-i)
Wff. (-i')

11a (-c)
,ra (-t')
ya. ia (-e)
rua (-e)
ra (-e)
,ri (-,e)

tua (-.)
./a (-,)
rla (e)
ka, (.(')
kta (-e)
via (-e)
k(a (-e)
(Cnu (.e)


e me
atis 'iitiitu
u nMla

aU neia

a1 viaze
am 911t
art maria
ari maria

a c'l mnutr
ati iiiniatn
ttyi imatyi

ake ,innt Ike

aki mak
ape iacin '
aC/ 1i 'Miiil it
ak It wnaklu

I pers. sing.
II pers. sing.
III person.
1. comu-
2. ova-
3. on-
4. ozon-
5. omu-
6. omi-
7. e-
8. oma.
9. oru-
10. otu-
11. otyi-
12. ovi-
13. oka-
14. ou- s.,
15. oku.
16. opo-
17. oko-
18. omo-


Herero Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns.


ami, I (i)ngui
oce, thou (,:,.,.
W/I', e, he, 'he (I2)ngvi
eti, we (i)mba

(' ', you
ono, they
1. omu-
2. ova-
3. on-
4. ozon-
5. omu-
6. omi-
7. e-
8. oma-
9. orn-
10. otu-
11. otyi-
12. ovi-
13. oka-
14. o.-
15. oku-
16. opo.
17. oko-
S18. omo-

(i) )uba
(i)wqyqli rfe-liegui
(i)i/mba, ono-i2ba2
(i)wldn i, ogo-ndyi
(i'inda, :o-n.lda
(i)mibui, ouo-mbui
(i iabi, orio-mbi
(i)ndi, oro-ndi
(i)/ing, 0oo-nf/a
(i)ndui, (orne-fldni
(i)s.i, otwo-sui
(i)hi, otgo-hi
(i)mtbi, oriio-.bi
(i)nq, oku-nya
(i)mpn bi, ono-mibut
(it iok(u)n-'i/( i
(;, .'*.. opo-mbal
(i)nyUi, oko,-ngfui
twil, ontona-ulti

21bil lit

11l (it 21
nln i

'n f/, t1inl
ni ihni



itch 21(1

m11 /12 in

22 1 i /It21
ntiii,, (

21/] 2211111



nyu 22 1gwa (.c)
linma nywa (-e)

itqit mawot inbuqun a (-')

Inbu1 Iilaiiii mbu tu (-I,)
ti (2 naa nytia (-I,)
wtqil marc glyna (-e)

ndum nze nda (.t,)
li~l( 221(2:2' ndnu ( i)
111112 in/nm1bu (.I,)
7nhi ,nnri wo/Pa (-t)
'111i 'maci ?I da (-e')
'linmac i (-,)
widl 9111121 wdwn (-e)
hi m(til fltual (-I,)
tyi in1in lyitya (-e,)
Inhi mari bia (-e)
kit niafke h/iy (-c)
midh~ 2l0 v v/Ne(

knin wtiia bku/u (-i,)
])Iin/in p/n i unt (-c)

khm ',hkit ku/na (-I,)
W0n1 MnM11 munow (-c)






anmi, I
iore. thou
eye, he, she
1r4tr, we
enri. you
onoe, they
1. omu-
2. ova-
3. on-
4. ozon-
5. omu-
6. omi-
7. e-
8. oma-
9. oru-
10. otu-
11. otyi-
12. ovi-
13. oka-
14. ou-
15. oku-
16. opo-
17. oko.
18. omo-


Herero Determinative and Interrogative Pronouns.


omini otyingeai oami t poruandetl
omnini o/ ty/inllre orr poer iige
:un1inii ot inigeyr /ele po! r Mi
o ife i ng!ini/ ciH tr etc or uctu
nti'li /ot/inilrion elle i/o pruieli 1I
omlini otyingcye alul poliri
orn1i otit nu i/tO atr/e pj' e1a
oini ot/yingilo!' aiih l ior' a j iiiu
orni otyfin!o:o a'ehe ipon'wo
oiinili Iotlingalo auie p ri'a
ore/ii t otlingario a rihe oria rio
orini ot/ingero arihe porittero
oeni otyingrn lache poruao
ormini ot lil yatrio arvuhe fiormarlno
otuini otlyingatuo atuhie poraituo
otyini otfyi'nll/yfo utyihe porit!/o
eirinti otyingrio arihe fortwriio
okeni otyingiko akeih foruuako
ouinli otyingouo auhe portauoo
okuini otyingokblo akuhe porwakwo
openi otyinloyo apeke poruaupo
okuilni utlinlqoko akuke poruako
om(liti otyitngonuo amahe poruawnw


(a,)an i (i)wne
(61)11111 \ (c ( Ii11
(o)a ll/i (o;)rne

(o)ani (,)rine
(o)a.ni (o)rwne

(o),ra0 l (o)rene
(a)ra i (1.)r1ne
(,)ani (),neC

(o) .ua ni (o)ine e
(o):anl (o):ene \ W"
(o)anni (o)t(1e'
(o) riati (o)rine
(o)rani (o)trine
(o)/ani (o)uene
(o)ruani (o)rune
(o)tuani (o)tirune
(o,tyani (o't!/ine
(o)rifani (o)rine

(o)kuani (o)kine
(o)oani (o)p(ne
(o)yani (o)YPene
(o)kwani (o)kwne
I (o )mene
(o)mnai ) (oym.en

- --~---------

___ ---


Herero Possessive Pronoun.









ky -
]6 /


-nta /ir




= my:

= our:

= t/hy :

= yIlr :

onm-atiyc h 1-anidye, my child
ora.-natye r-andyr,n my children
ont-glombe y-oandyel, my ox
ozon-qonmbr z-and/yu, my cattle
onl?-fti 1-rfl. our tree
onli-ti ri-ftl, our trees
c-oe i'-rtu. our stone
olia-on u-ct/i (or -l'tlt). our stones
oru-rio ru'-.o. thy knife
ofu-rio tul-o/r. thy knives
ofyi-tymtla ty-ofri' thy vessel
or i-h r--tta ri,!, thy vessels
okla-ti h-rI/', your stick
om-ta I-reitu, your bow
nkui-ti ku-enu, your country
nlo-na/ p-enu, your near place
oko-ita /L-einu, your distant place
onto-na n/Lu-c it, your present place

TABLE VIII-(Continued).

Herero Possessive Pronoun,


1. omu.
2. ova.
3. on-
4. ozon-
5. olmu-
6. omi-
7. e- -
8. o'na.
U. orU-
10. otu-
11. otyi-
12. ovi.
13. oka-
14. ou-
15. oku-
16. opo-
17. oko-
18. omo-







t /'-




-a ruo
-ar Iio


= his :
= their:
= his. its :
= their ;
= its :
= their:
= its:
= their, its :
= its:
= their:
= its :
= their, its:
= its :
= its, their :
= its :
= its:
= its:


omnu-anye i-e, his (or her) child
orta-ilnait r-a(o, their children
on-ya !-/Iao. his, her, its horn
ozon-ya z-nao. their horns
onImu-e w-anuo, its root
om i-ze vi-a rio. their roots
'-he r-aro, its eye
omcl-ho o-ao, their eves
orln-ti iii ru-aruo, its body
otul-t tnui-atwo. their bodies
oti/i-kano i its lid
ori-kamo ri-ar'u, their lids
oka-r.ri k-ako, its little hole
ow-yere u-auo, its glory
oku-pe pra hu-akuo, its winter
opo-na p-apo, its near place
oko-na ku-ako, its distant place
omo-na niu-amo, its present place

I _



Afternoon.-For omahatenya read omuhatenya; okahdkana is
chiefly used with the prefixed particle opo : op'-okahdkana.
Agreement.-Add onkuenda komuee ; okuzuvasana (na).
Backbone.-Read om-ongo, plur. omi-ongo.
Bear, n.-For onyu read ongu.*
Berry.-Ongulmi = ongiindi.
Bespatter.-Slander, asperse, yamba.
Bleed.-Read whilst the blood trickles," &c.
Brother.-Read or brothers alone, i.e. brothers of a sister:
take it to your brothers, lnara k'oc'atena kuoye (said to a
Build.-For otyirumbi read otyirumbu.
Bust e.-For okthakcana read okuhaliahana.
By.-Read preceded by the passive voice of the verb."
By (and by).-Read ma ended ama sora.
By nam e.-Add ekonidokcro.
Cactus.-Add ovi-j~dombo.
C aross.-For orahera read oruhira.
C atastrophe.-Add olgiondo.
Clove n.--Nominyapi = nomiapli.
Cold (catarrh).-Catch cold, n'esuru ; loora esuru ; t'esuru.
Come (down, go down).-For plitkruaka read pakacrukca : omeva
ya pukuriuku .
Common (ordinary).-Read epaha ra huatruka.
Dawn, n.-Enyuku= ./I. ,..
) e vour.-For nina, -i read nina, -a.
Dishonoured.-The meaning of nmua ni is probably mua ni
(vi)? i.e. what have you been doing, &c. (cf. ku nia vi).

Disinclination.-For oundingue read oundingue.
Distance.-Owfl era: they fired at each other from a great
distance, va yumbana omarera.
Divest.-Read ua sic po orakuao.
Divine.-For -oukuru read -oumulkuru.
Early.-Read me tyirua ame hulnyire.
Either.-For rtre read rire.
Evening (about sunset).-Strike out omuihi or."
Expulsion.-Add okuramberua 2pende.
Extensible.-Add nanunzna: the thing is extensible, olyina
tyi nanunulia.
Eye (ball).-Read onduinga ; oldungutayerera (the latter word
means also partial blindness).
Fall (slip off).-Read a rire y'e ritata pehi.
Fatal (deadly).-Read olyizepe.
Feed.-For za rtre read za rire.
Fermentation.-For ma suru read mae suru.
Fire-wood.-Omuova = omooa.
Fleshliness.-Read (or, ozonmuma z'onyama).
Flicker.-Yimlgay/ifia = ..
Gloom.-For omuzororema read omuzorozema.
God.-Read otyihimie i .1,'!, h' ha tyiukua. A plural for Alukuru
may be formed (in analogy with ooKarunga) by prefixing
oo-: oo0Mulkru = gods.
Imprudence.-For otyinbambcanlo read otyibimnbamnga.
Inattention.-For okaparuse read olapuruse.
Influence.-Read na'ndeygu for n'andenyu.
Join (hands).-Read hondyasana make.
Ledge.-Read or-olngora, plur. ol-ongora.
Lynx.-Add onguirira.
Male.-Ondu ondcuezti = onduezu y'ondu ; onyombe onduezu =
onduezu y'ongon:be.
Man.-Read from ri ga, weakened form of ltnga = to build,
Meagre.-Read (mua hiti erambu).
Measure.-Read ue ve hire omaih/i ok-ulika.
Meet.-Read lut hakaee Wo'omauszeu.
Mi x.-BRungarluga = .: .:r-' *,


Mortal.-For omute read omuti.
Offende d.-For rihumbu read riyumbu.
Outgo (ontstrip).-For omuise read omuise po.
Powder.-Read tya rire os~uungu.
Present.-For ofyiyandycro read otyiyandyera.
Put (for).-For tyitera read tlitira.
Ransom.-For oviniiluhiro read ovionguturiro.
Real.-For ka 'mlli read ka 'muli.
Rear.-For hungu, -u read lhuyga, -I.
R omove.-Ricka or riyel'a.
Rend.-P-lJet or pezurmu.
Rub.-For omwrihu mau "lana, read omuriu, &c.
Scald.-Add nyosa n'omeva omapyu.
Scribe.-For y'omamlba read y'omambo.
Scurf.-For ovinyuti read oin.yutii.
Singer,-For ouwitimp 're read omuimbure.
Spirit.--he literal meaning of tyangovasi, properly tya-k'-
ovasi(si), may also be say or think after (the manner of)
images, i.e. think in images, imagine, fancy."
Suspicious.-.l/.... ondluri: the man looks suspicious, can-
not be trusted, onmundu ma munikisa onduri.
Take (convey, carry) to a distance.-Ruramisa : take the cattle
far into the field, let them not remain near, ruramisa ozo-
nyanda, a ze kara popezv.
Therefore.-For I" .' read lyindire.
Unique.-For .saia : peke read sana peke.
Utter.-For e omambo read ma tic omambo.
Walkin g-stick.-Add okl-honine.



A, art. The want of an indefinite
article in Otyi-herer6 is supplied
by the initial o- in the formative
prefixes of the .noun, as omu-,
otyi-, oer-, &c.; see Table of Pre-
fixes. The o- is inseparable, but
it is frequently suppressed, as
eg. in the vocative case: (man
e=omu-ndt), o man! mnidu.i.
Aback, adv. Behind, konlbunda;
see Backwards, Back ;
to be taken -, to be suddenly
checked, unexpectedly baffled,
disappointed, taken by surprise,
himua ; hinisina; hihimuka ;
kunmua: I was taken aback,
anmi.mba k2ominue, lit., I-I-was
astonished; kiumisica.
Abandon, v.t. As a work, an
enterprise, goods, practice, &c.,
isa:' that they might aban-
don building the town, kitya va
t'okuisa okutunga otyihuro, lit.,
that- they- be movedto leave off-
building the town ; and they
forsook all their things, are isa
ovina viauo avihe, lit., and they
left- things theirs- all; tan pehi:
they abandoned their customs,
ono va tua pehi ,, ,' ...
viauo, lit., they-they-put-down-
customs- theirs;

-, forsake, desert, as friends one
another, parents their children,
esa (mba'sire) : do not forsake
me, o ndu'esa, lit., not you- me
abandon ; why did you abandon
him ? oee o muesire l.;-. ? lit.,
yon-you- him abandoned- what
(for); yaara: she has abandoned
her husband, ua yaara omuru-
mendi uc, lit., she laid (aside) -
husband- hers;
-, throw away, yilmbrahi, or
imbirahi; nackaura;
give up, surrender, let go,
relinquish, properly, do away,
put away, entiussocrn," (hence
also take away), ye'a, -e : the
lion has abandoned the man
(whom lie pursued), ongeama ya
yek' onindtu, lit., the lien-he-
has relinquished-the man ; (cf.
Kafir yektu=rclinquish).
Abandoned, p.9. Left, for-
saken, isiua: oto va isina=
they-they-are abandoned;
-, rejected, thrown away, yi-
mbirahina : ovina va iahahanka,
mnavit'okuinmbibrahiua, lit., things
-they- are very bad,-they-must
be thrown away, abandoned.
-, a. Wicked, -runde; omurunde;
bad, -vi; omuii; very bad, omnvi


tyinene; bad, filthy, ombondi:
a filthy person, abandoned to
vice, omundu ombondi;
- to, given over to, riyandya ku.
Abase, v.t. To bring down,
Throw down, uisa kehi; yarura
-, humble, make low, susu.-
Abash, v.t. To astonish, amaze,
--, depress, dispirit, Icumisa;
yardarisa; yumanisa;
-, make ashamed, pa o-honi;
tisa o-honi ;
-, confuse, confound, discon-
cert, purvkisa.
Abashed, p.p. or a. Confused
with shame, t'o-honi: the child
is abashed, omuatye ma t'ohoni;
-, confused, purukca: he is
abashed, confused, ua purulka
-, confounded, peua o-honi: he
is abashed, confounded, eye ua
peua ohoni, lit., he-he-has been
given-shame ;
-, very timid, n'omburuma: he
is a very timid man, n'onmbu--
runma, lit., he -with dread, terror.
Abate, v.t. To lessen the power
and force of, visa pehi;
-, to mitigate, subdue, as a
swelling, pain, tumba, -u;
-, to calm, poreka, -e; uocisa ;
-, as pride, to humble, susu-
-v i. To decrease in strength,
hakauka; to feel very weak
from old age, yaruka m'ehi=
to return to the earth'
-, to decline, fail, puira, e: my
strength is abating, failing,
omasa oandye mae fpuire;-, ua

pehi: the pain has abated,
omityise via u pehi = pain-it-
fallen-down ;
-, of a storm, of passions, pora,
-o; ua pehi; uokca: omazenge oe
ka ya uokere =wrath-his-not-it-
Abbreviate, v.t. To shorten,
szsuparisa; to cut through or
off, konda, -o: be short, cut
your speech short, konda omambo,
lit., cut through or off-words=
hungira omambo omasupi, lit.,
speak- words- short.
Abdomen, ng Op-e-hu'ri; oma-
Abduct, v.t. To take or carry
away, uara ;
-, by fraud, tuara n'ovi-neya;
-, by violence, tuara n'ou-tue,
or, tuara n'oma-sa; to take
away by force, yecka, -e.
Abduction, n. Oku-t uara; o-
ndyekero ;
-, by fraud, oku tuara n'ovi-
neya; okcu-yeka n'ovi-neya;
-, byviolence, oku- tuara n'ou-
the; okti-tuara n'oma-sa.
Aberration, n. Deviation, turn-
ing aside from the straight line,
okiu-yepa, with the prep. na:
(*'.i ,i1 .ll'.,i .l.. l r,' it,'. '.I l = tlrn-
ing aside with or from the road
'-the right one;
-, wandering, erii.i *.. "t-,'t7,-
-, from moral rectitude, oku.-
tyita oma-u-vi;
-, of the mind, insanity, oku-
puru/ca ozo-ndunge.
Abet, v.t. To incite, stir up, in a
bad sense, tika, -i: why do you
incite me (to discontent, grumb-
ling)? mo ndyi pilci tyikce lit.,.
yon-me-incite-what (for);



-, give counsel, advise, put up
to, popa, -o;
-, set on, instigate, hownfaiza;
set on, as a dog, hingira ko: set
on the dog, hingira ho oimbua;
cf. Encourage.
Abhor,v.t. Nyengura: abhor
that which is evil, .; ,, ... -. ...
ouvi, lit., abhor or hate yc-cvil;
cf. Hate ;
-, be disgusted with, yaukisiua:
I hate deceit and abhor it, mbi
tonda ovineia n'e yaukisiua vio,
lit., I- hate-falsehood-and I-am
disgusted-by or from-it;
-, n'eyc/u : we abhor thee, tu
n'e ayu k'ove, lit., we-with dis-
gust-to thee.
Abhorrence, n. Omu-nyrngua-
tima; e-yayu: you make us
abhor you, mo ti pe eyayu, lit.,
you- us-give-disgust.
Abide, v.i. To stay, remain,
tarry, kara pehi; abide with us,
kara pehipt ete, lit., sit or stay -
on the ground-by or with-us';
vombd: I am going to.stay a
long time, me kanomnba;'
-, to dwell, reside, tura ;
-, wait for, expect, undya, -2u;
by a purpose, agreement, &c.,
pandera (-e) po.
Abiding, a. To be continuing,
karerera po: for here have we
no continuing city, orondu
i monamui ka itu n'ot1/ihuro tyi/fi
karerera po, lit., for-here-not-
we-with a city-which-is abid- i
ing ;
-, to be firmly settled, zilkama;
-for ever, karerera po nga ko
mga aruhre.
Ability, n. 'Oku-sora; okca-
sorna; oma-sorero; [

-, skill, wisdom, cleverness, ou-
-, good understanding, ozo-
ndinge ozongahn or ozombua;
-, aptitude, dexterity, ou-2iuuke.
Abiquas-trce, n. (Tamarix ar-
ticulata), omu-ng cati.
Abject, a. Worthless, cast away,
-inbirahia; -
-, low, mean, hta a low, mean
fellow, an abject, a slave, omu-
tua ; olyimborimbo: I am an
outcast, an insignificant person,
ouami otyimborimbo;
-, a mean scoundrel, moni:
you are a despicable fellow, ove
moni; mean scoundrels, ovandu"
moni; of. Baseo Vile.
-, despicable, -yalrise,
Abjection, Abjectncss,n. A
mean and low state, lowness in
rank and appearance, onu-tua;
on-nyake; ou kurula.
Able; a. -Sore; sora.; an able
man, omnund onmlsore, or
omundu va sora, lit., man-he-
able ; 'oma-sorero: he is able,
i ni'omasorero, lit., he with
ability i
-, expert, omupiuke.
Ablution, n. Oma-kohero.
Abnegate, v.t. Pa/ana.
Abode, n. Stay, remaining,
tarrying, oku-kara ppehi; dwel-
ling, ok0u-tura; habitation, oma-
turiro; or-ulo ; cf. House;
Abolish, v.t. To put an end to,
yandek/J,-e; to do away with,
isa kIc: he has abolished their
evil practice, va isa ko ondyiliro
yauo ombi, lit., he- has taken-
away- doing- theirs- evil.
abominable, a. -Vi; -yaucise:



abominable things, properly dis- many things, oina mavi takavarvt
Sgustingthlii ...''. ... ..'i.r,. .. =ovina vi tN p'oviyaya,- lit.,
-, shameful, -ohoni: shameful things- they -reach-by stubbles,
things, ovinaviokoni=ovina, mbi chaff, there are as many as grass
taisa' (ta) ovandu ohoni, i.e., and chaff ;
things which make people feel -, be many, -ingi;
ashamed; -, the interjection hAd=largc
.-, filthy, lewd, ombondi. number, multitude, abundance,
Abominate, v.t. Nyengua (v. is often used: what a large
Sdp.) ; to feel aversion to, number ovingi, had.
yaukua (v. dep.); yaukirua ko; About, prep. & adv. Near to,
t'czia. pu: about the door, p'omuvero;
Abomination, n.,0tyi-yauiise; popezu; poperu na; hereabout,
o-ndyaukiro ; see Disgust. opomba ;
Aboriginal, a. First,- enga; -'to, atpoint, on the point, opo
Sold, ancient, -kuru. p0ok; po poJ'u- : the sun was
Aborigines, n. Beginners, ova- about to rise, eytva ra ri pa
ute;. first cultivators, ova-kune pokupita, lit., the sun he -was -
ovatenga; first dwellers, first about-to come out; hara: I
inhabitants, ova-ture ovatenga; was about to get ready, mlba
-, oveni ovakoaterua v'ehi orini har' okurongera ;
(orv'okui okcuini)=-born owners -, nearly, approximately, ma-
of the land orcountry. ngiara: the number of the'men
Abort, v.. 'Tirahi(perf. tirahire) was about five thousand,
e-zumo=to throw out the fetus; otyivarero lyovaruvendu iya
imbirahi (perf. imbiraMire) e- karira mangara omayovi yetano,
zumo: she has had a miscarriage, lit., number of the men it was
esumo ua imbirahi. -about-thousand-five;
Abortion; n. Ocku-tirahi (e- such and such a time,
zumo); or, oku-imbirahi (e- ngambenomba or ngungambeno:
zumo); fetus, otyi-mumbumbua; yesterday about this time I came,
of animals, o-nguza; oru-ngnza ngungambeno erero m be ere, lit.,
(properly, bare skin,. skin or about this time-yesterday-I-:
body without hair), came ;
Abortive, a. To fail, paruisa; -, in the sense of concerning, in .
to be futile,invain,omuncgandyo; reference to, can be expressed by
to be abortive, spoiled, in vain, the.relative form of. the verb,
nyonokla pehi (e-zuim) : ezumo -ira, -e; -era, -e; (after m, n, ny)
ra nyonokere pehi, lit., (the fruit -ina, -e; -ena, -e: let us ask about
of) the belly-it-spoiled, to the our things, ngatu pur-ire ovina
ground, fig., the thing has been vielu, lit., that we ask about-
abortive, has failed, things-ours ; they quarrel about
Abound, v.i. Taklavara: the oxen, mave patafn-ene ozongombe,
things abound, there are a great lit., they-contend about-cattle;



to set a work, put one's hand
to, tla ko ;
to dwell round -, tuar olt-pati
na: they dwell round about us,
mave tura otupati na ete, lit.,
they dwell -ribs- with-us, i.e.,
they are living round about us,
as the two rows of ribs enclose
the body.;
to be -, be doing, kara (ri)
pu: what are you about ? what
are you doing ?" ee mu ri pu
tyike? lit., ye-ye-are-by-what;
to go round -, kondoka;
kondoroka : go round about the
house, 'kondorocka ondyo ;
to move -, riangqd;
to lead -, rianyisa;
to lead -, around, kondorora;
to lead -, take with'one as a
companion, tuara pamue na-:
he leads his wife about with
him (as a companion on. the
journey), ma tuara omuakazendu
pamne na ye, lit., he-carries
(his) wife- together- with -him.'
Above, prep. adv. a Kombanda:
the sun is above, overhead, eyuva
ri ri kombanda yetu, lit., the
sun-he-is-on the covering-of
u ns=above us;
all, kombanda yovina avihe
-, as at the top of a pillar, pro-
perly at the head, k'otyiriu.
Abreast, adv. Side by side,
oibaralana na; kIara oru-pati:
we are next to each other, tui
kara orupali, lit.,'we-are-row
of ribs = side, we are side by side;
-, opposite to, over against,
- ohunga na.
.Abridge, -v.t. To shorten,
susuparisa; to cut through or

off, make short, konda, -o; cf.
Abroad, adv. Outside, out of
doors, p)endye ; p'- ..... ';
kotklosi: he is abroad, ua i
kotalkosi, lit., he is gone to
sides, outside = ri p'omandcye ;
to be -, at large, to *stay away
long, vandama: he'is abroad,
on a journey, stays away long,
mna :avandamnu ('vandqmna=to lie
flit, stretch, rest,- idle about,
ioar, ramble about) ;
to go -, to travel, kulca: he is
gone abroad, iae kuka ; we have
gone abroad, tue kit/ca.
Abrogate, v.t. See Abolish.
Abruptly, adv.. Suddenly,
tlyimanga ;' kamanga : all of a
sudden, mokamanga nai, "or
mokamIanyga keom.e.
Abscess, n. E-sena: the
abscess is getting ripe, matter is
collecting, eseaa ra pembe, maria
et' outaikha, lit., abscess-it-
becoming whitish, -it -brings or
produces matter; omn-suro;
see Tumour. .
Abscond, v.i. Slip away, hena,
-c; conceal bneself, rihoreka,- e;
yunda,-u: where will he con-
ceal himself? ma iaadi e p)i?
lit., he-will hide-where.
.Absence, n. Oku-hakara mo
(ko or po); oku- kara kokure.
Absent, a. Not here, ka .... po,
ko or mo : he is absent, k' e )po
(ko or mo), lit., not he-hef ;
they are absent, kave mo (po or
ko), lit., not-they-here ; he is
Absent, va i (porive), lit., he -
gone (somewhere) ; to be far off,
karna kokure; yenda kdlcure,
yenda kotukosi: they are absent,



far off, va ire kokulre; they-
have gone far ; they are absent,
abroad, va, ire kolukosi=vre ri
p'omandye ;-from, kokcre nit.
Absolution, n. Forgiveness,
o-ndyesiro ; oku-zeonbira.
Absolve, v.1. Forgive, isirct, -e;
cf.- Forgive.
Absorb, v.t. To consume, finish,
mana; to swallow, devour, nina;
to devour, consume all, kurura,
mana: he has absorbed, finished
all, va kjcrura va mana, lit., he-
has scraped-has finished.
Absorbed, p.p. Consumed, fin-
ished, done, kvruika or k'oroka :
the things are all consumed,
orina via kurIuka,- lit., things-
they-scraped, the last" is con-
sumed = via mainuka, papau,
ipma (see Consumed) ; swal-
lowed up, nina ;
-, wasted, dried up; as water in
a well, puira, -e;
- in thought, puruka : -he is
absorbed in thought about his
affairs, omundu ua nprukire
orina, lit., man-he-puzzled
about-things; onqamena, -e:
why is he so absorbed inthought ?
omndui ma ongamene like ? lit:,
man-he-collects (his thoughts)
for-what ; (onga in ongania=
to heap up, gather, collect).
Abstain, v.i. Rityaera, -e (ki);
k 1ara n'omui-ungltima, rihuminia,
-e (ku): he abstains from things,
keeps aloof from them, eye me
rihnmine ck'ovina.
Abstemious, a. N'omu-ungiu-
tima: he is abstemious, eye it
nomuiingutima ; see Abstain.
Abstinence, n. Omu-ungutima;
ome-rikhininino k'ovina.

Abstract, v.f. To draw out,
homnona;.' to separate, pangu-
nina ;
-, purloin, horeka ovina -okv-
-, a. Distinct, peke ; difficult,

Absurd, a. Foolish, cyova; in-
'sipid, -hahu; to be -, as
words, hiaha1ka: you speak ab-
surd things, omambo ooye ya
hahaunka, lit.,words- yours they-
are absurd=omaa-mbo omahahu
or oku-hungira ehandu (absurd
Absurdity, n. Ou-yova; insi-
pidity, ou-h uah; o-nondodze:
the man is full of absurdities,
omuida u 'n'ozondondooze, lit.,
man-he-with absurdities.
Abundance, n. O-ndyoura : the
rain brings abundance, ombovra
ya rok' ondyovra, lit., shower it -
rains abundance (of grass, meat,
milk) ; -, fulness, o-mburiro;
-, riches, oru-tiumbo. -
Abundant, a. To be -, fira-
vara; -ingi, huL
Abundantly, adv. T
okltika; okulakavara.
Abuse, v.0. Maltreat, talumisa ;
- with words, tukana; ya-
mburura; nanisa n'omambo.
Abyss, n. Oru-tyiva.
Acacia, n. A description, with
blackish bark, without thorns,
the wood being used for making
pails, ominu-ama; -
-, a bush with white 'bark and
sweet resin, om u-ngongomui;
-, camelthorn (acacia giraffac),
hard wood, leaves favourite food'
of the giraffe, reaches the height
of an oak tree, omu-mbonde;



-, coffee acacia, seeds used as a
substitute for coffee, olyi-mbrukuIi
or .,l, -,,..1 .,,d ;
-, description of, onzm-hiviri-ka;
-, black bark, long white
thorns, oru-su ;
-, dwarf -orusu, or,'i-/'i,,,,-

-, "wacht-een-beetje," omu-
Accede, v.i. To approach, tn-
mbuka ko; to arrive at, vaza ko;
to consent, itavera (-e) ko;
agree to or with, uana na.-
Accelerate, v.1. To hasten,
hakahana; hackaanisa; to for-
ward, advance, further, riamisa.
Accept, v.t. Take, receive, ka-
mbura: lie accepted it gratefully,
ve lyi kamburire n'omutina
omuiit, lit., he it accepted-
with a heart-good, fine, grate-
ful; accept it on my account,
ngamnburira nai;
-, consent to, itavera (-e) ko ;
agree to, uana na ;
-, receive with pleasure, be
pleased with, n'oruyatlo mu : I
accept him, am pleased with
him, mbi n'orilyato mu ye, lit.,
I-with taste-in-him ;
-,. take, grasp, as something
thrown, to a present, if
thrown by the giver, to inter-
cept, yakura; cf. Receive; Take.
Acceptable, a. P1.-i-._, grati-
fying, -tyale; to be -, iyata
ku ; to make --, tyalisa ku;
-, good, opportune, -na; -inbua;
okokua; welcome, ya nava: the
rain is very. acceptable, ombaura
ye ya Inaua, ind6, lit., 'rain-it-
comes well nay, verily ; it Jis
very welcome ;

-, Dutch "gewild," vangua :
an acceptable sacrifice, ombu-
nguhiro ndyli vangua.
-, inlerf. Ocu-hepa : very ac-
ceptable, many thanks okunene
okukhepa! lit., great want, or
much needed (standard Herer6
phrase for expressing thanks).
Acceptably, adv. I ,.!..,/.r
ku; in an acceptable manner,
properly with a good heart,
n'omu-tima omunia.
Access, n. Admission, entrance,
oma-litiiro; approach, oma-tu-
Accessible, a. Kamniahla: o-
ndyuo i ri ckamuaha=the house -
it- is- open, accessible.
Accession, n. Increase, addi-
tion, oku-ueza cko; oma-ueziro..
Accident, .n. Misfortune, otyi-
onga; hurt, harm, otyi-po; peril,
death, oku-ta.
Accidentally, adv. Ohei;
ohamure; ohamnuzemba; ose-
ngine : we met accidentally, lua
hakaene osengine.
Acclaim, v.i. Applaud, praise,
anga ;
-, consent to, be pleased with,
itavera (-e) ko ;
-, to applaud by clapping
hands, tona (-o) oli-kuise.
Acclamation, n. 0-ndangero.
Acclivous, a. Rising, hilly,
n'omi-ru : the road is hilly, has
ascents, ondyira i n'omiru or
Acclivity, n. Ascent, omu-ru
(dimin. okla-muru) ; o-ndunda ;
omnu-.ulckiraC ; oma-yero.rkiro.
Accommodate, v.f. To suit,
adapt, sasaneka, -e;
- oneself to circumstances,



ritua po ; ripetisa omaini;
rizara: I accommodate myself
to my poor circumstances, ami
me riz.ara 'i'ousiona, lit., I-I-
bear or conduct myself-with
Accompany, v.t. Tcika, -e;
yenda pamite.
Accomplice, n. Omut-nandyo
pamaue.; they are associates in
crime, va uana n'ondyo imue,
lit., they have united with
guilt-one ;-in murder, omu-
zepe pamue (n'omukuao) ; they
are associates in the crime of
murder, va uana kuimue okJuzepa
omuidu, lit., they-have united-
together- killing the man.
Accomplish, v.t. Finish, mana;
lfla (-i) paYpu (pa filled or completed)': he has
finished, ua tyili, (aia mana), pa
pu; finish it, I,;'. pepoe, lit.,
make -(that) it- be complete;
-, fulfil, wisa.
Accomplished, pp.p TyiUha,
papit: they (the things, mat-
ters) are accomplished, via tyifua
palp, lit., they-aire done-com-
pletely, exhaustively ;
-, fulfilled, completed, mamiuka:
:when the years of his service
were accomplished,' ozombura
z'olukarere ute yi za manuka, lit.,
years of service his when -
they were finished, accom-
plished ;
to be -, complete, perfect, pa
p2a (mape pu) ; it is all done,
finished, pa pua (pa puire rare) ;
it will all be done, finished, ex-
"hausted, mcape pu.
-, a. Elegant, -ua; -renga ;
complete, -pve.


Accord, v.l. To give, grant,
yaindya ; pa (pe,pere).
-, v.i. To agree, iuana: we
do not agree, ka lu illana;
tuara k mve : we agree, har-
monize, maht h/cara ckmue=
hua i k'umwe, lit., we-carlry-to-
gether, we walk together; ha-
Accord, n. Harmony, union,
agreement, oru- tano; okziha-
tcgana;. o-ihange (peace); oku-
kara nonmue (to be one).
Accordancee, n. Or-uamno (na).
According g, prep. Ku, k': (nor
rewarded us) according to onr
iniquities, k'omariounde oelu ;
pInota : according to thy word,
pungapa qlangaa omamnbo ooye,
lit., according as it writes-
words thine; y.inga: according
as we hope in thee, lyinga amanu
ndldyu ov'e, lit., according as-
we expect, wait for- thee.
Accordingly, adv. Nai; otyi.
Accost, v.1. iea (ha, Iee, heere),
followed by ro or po : he ac-
costed a woman : ta heere
p'omukilazendv ; kungurira, -e :
they accosted the men, ouo va
kuyngurircovar: i -.. 7,,liit..thy-
they- addressed or accosted- the
Account, v.t. To reckon, com-
pute, vara ;
-, esteem, yzicka, -e; tata; tia
ko olyi-varero ;
for, prop. answer to (inquiry),
sziira, -e (ko).'
Accoun t, an. 'Number, enumera-
tion, olyi-varo; ofyi-varero ;
-, register of debts and credits,
a book, e-mbo ;
-, narrative, e-hiagi;


-, information, oku-liepura;
omahepuiriro ;
-, value, estimation, olyi-varo:
(teach him) that he may honour
the chief, ng'a tie k'olyivaro
k'onmunolna, lit., that he-may
put- to account to the chief ;.
on that -, ondu kokutya ; opo ;
opu; 2';
on of, for the sake of, on be-
half of, mu: he suffered on their
account, ua toorere olyipo- mu o,
lit., he-took up -harm, damage -
out of-them ; cf. For.
Accountant, n. Omu-vare.
Accoutre, v. To equip for war,
'rongera, e; rongerisa.
Accoutrement, n. Ovi-roinge-
Accumulate, v.t. Tula, -u;
gather, vonga or onga, -o ; heap
up, collect, oronganisa; gather
riches, tumba, -u2; tumbarisa.
, v.i. Uomba: here. they (the
filthy things, mud) settle, accu-
mulate, omit vi kauomba, lit.,
here they remain behind (at
the bottom).
Accumulator, n. Omu-tulte;
omu-oronganise; of riches,
Accumulation, n. Of riches,
oru-tumebo; olu-tumbara;
-, a mass, a multitude, many,
of many things, ovi-mibujnba
viovina ;
of rain water, e-rindi; omu-
vare (uomeva).
Accuracy, n. Ou-hirona.
Accurate, a. -Hirona: an accu-
rate, exact person, one who is
particular about dress, &c., omu-
hirona ;

-, ombiaze: omundu ombiaze=
ngu zar' ovina vie naia, lit., a
person accurate who uses -
things-his -properly (of. Par-
-, as to work, -nangongo or
n'ongongo: an accurate worker,
omu-nangongo; things worked
with accuracy, ovina vi n'ongo-
ngo, lit., things they with accu-
racy ;
to be in the management of
working people, to look after
them, to be exact, kongonona;
- in regard to truth, -alyiri;
-semba: a truthful man, omundu
uatyiri; a true, accurate story,
chungi ralyiri or ehungi esenmba.
Accurately, adv. Okainya (=
little hair) : cut accurately,
straight, taura okaizya, lit., di-
vide little hair; work acou-
rately, fta po okainya, lit., put-
by-littlehair; ; ai; nuhirona ;
osemba : work accurately, u-
agurac naia (or nouMiroina, or
Accursed, p.p.' Sengia; rovna:
ua roua p'ouanga, lit., he-is ac-
cursed-by poison of witchcraft;
see Curse.
Accusation, n. Olyi-lkuinino;
okl-pa ozondyo.
Accuse, v.t. Kiuminina, -e;.
to bring to light, horora ;
to inform, report, denounce,
hepura ;
to falsely, kuiminiia n'ovi-
neya; impute guilt,pa ozo-ndyo;
lutiira, -e: you accuse me of
words (which I did not utter),
To' ,, l, ktfire omambo, lit.,
you me ie, pack, burden for-



Accustom, v.t. Iiririsa; to be
accustomed to, irira, -e;
the state of being accustomed
to, otyi-iririra ; oma-iririro.
Ache, v.i. To have pain, n'omu-
hihaimo; hiamnua ; 'letara: my
heart is aching, grieved, omu-
tima uandye ua letara, lit.,
heart- mine-it-burns.
Ache, n. Omu-hihamo; otyi-
hihamia; okui-hiamua: I have
a headache, nmba hihamua olyi,
uru, lit., I suffering head;
headache, ocku-t'otyiuru;
-, pain, properly disease, ill-
ness, omu-tyise ;
-,illness, felt through the whole
body, oku-uca ezimui: the man
is aching all over, his whole
body is in pain, he is very ill,
omundu ua i ezimnui, lit., man -
he-fallen- wholly, entirely.
Achieve, v.t. To accomplish,
lyita (-i) pajl ; to acquire, to
obtain, miuna, -iu.
Acid, a. -Ruru; seasoned, as-
tringent, -yake/: vinegar, omeva
omcayake, lit., water-sour ; sour
fruit, ovilkuria oviyake.
Acidity, n. Ou-ruru; *....-...,.
Acknowledge, v./. Zenibrctrka:
I acknowledge it, me tyi zemnbu-
ru/ka wi ;
-, as gifts, itavera k'ovi-ya-

Acquaint,- v'.. Make known,
fyivisa; to inform, hkepra;
vaera, -e.
Acquaintance, n. Knowledge,
okc-flyhia ; familiar knowledge,
oku-rilyiua (na); ome-riliiviro
(na); -, a person well known
and trusted, omu-rilyine (na) ;
one of the same age, mate, e-r ura.

Acquainted, p.p. To know (a
person), fyica: I am acquainted
with him, amimbe mu tliaa uri,
lit., I-I-hii -know-just; fami-
liarly known to, rityica na: I
am well acquainted with him,
trust him, me rityiua na ye,
I-know myself- with- him; see
Acquiesce, v.i. To be quiet,
muina; to bow to, submit to,
rihumina, -e (k') ;. to consent,
iavera ko.
Acquiescence, n. Quiet sub-
mission, e-pondo ; olcu-kcara n'e-
pondo ; ou-nyimna ; ocku-mina :
he acquiesces, submits quietly,
omunduu n'epondo = I n'ou-
nyima; consent, olcku-iavera ko.
Acquire, v.1. Muna, -u; miunma
(-e) o0 ; see Gain; Procure;
to riches, -umba, -u; tu-
mbisa ; tumbarisa ;
to heap up, together, tufa, -u;
to labour, qwgvura;.
Acquisition, n. Addition, okcu-
anything acquired or gained,
olyi-na tyi ,i..,i, muninuap'otyi-
kuao, lit., thing-if-it-is found
or got-by another (thing);
-, property, oul-hi.
Acquit, v.t. Isa or yesa; isira,
Acquittal, n. Olkuyesa; o-
Across, adv. Tiakana; Iyakana;
yadtaana : omunti miau yaccakana
omulkuao, lit., tree it goes a-
cross -the other.
Act, v./. d i. To do, tyifa, -i:
you act like a lunatic, mo tyiti
fyimana wa vere orunidumba, lit.,



you do or act- like- yon sick -
lunacy ;
-, to cause to, -isa (causative
form of the verb) : (pala=shut)
pat-isa, to do shut, to cause to
shut, to act shutting;.
-, to work, ungura ; to labour,
struggle, kondya, -o ;
-wrongly, make a mistake,
commit a fault, tataiza;
-well, nobly, sora;-fairly,
with equity, porapora ;
-like, pretend, risenginina (-e)
ayo : it (the animal) acted like
a jackal, ye ,; ,..,'I',,,,' ago
onibandye, lit., it-gave itself the
appearance- as if -a jackal;
-treacherously, -ueererka, -e;
clandestinely, .,,. iu;
-frivolously, be cowardly, &c.,
Act, n. Oti/i-ngyura; -, law,
Somn-hingo; o-veta.*
Actio i. Oku-tyita; o-ndyitiro.
Active, a. Ombandi: an active,
energetic person, omundu o-
nibandi; -painle ; to be -, pa-
ndiara ; paima ; n'ekanyi.
Activity, n. Ou-pandi; 'e-plpqa ;
. oku-hakahana; e-kangi: he is
active, it nW'ekangi, lit., he-with
activity ; on-paime,
Actuate, v.t. Hakahana; ha-
ikahanisa ; nyingtanyi-igisa : to.
actuatea person,'-7,, ,Ii ,' r .r ;-
nyisa omundu. .
Actuated, .p. HaRkahanisiua;
,, ,,,;,,,,,,,, ,,;,,;,;, I.,a .
A,. o t., s,. S.irp, -tue; iua, lu
the heat is acute, penetrating,
prop. cutting, onmuenya ca tu;
(if on its highest, va tua); -yuve;
to be skilful, -clever, shrewd,

Acuteness, n. Sagacity, ou-
nongo ; cunning, omi-le; sharp-
ness of intellect, ou-tue;'ome-
rizemburukiro omatue = sharp
Adapt, v.t. To fit one thing to
another, sanekca, -e ; puisa.
Adapted, p.p. Pua: it is not
adapted, ka fyi na lkpua, lit.,
not-it-with-being suited ; -,
yenda kumue : k nafyina kuenda
kunmue (a'otyiluao), lit., not-it -
with- going -together (with the
other), i.e., the things are not
suited to each other=ovina cka
vi sana, lit., things-not-they
Add; v./. Ueza, or neza po or
1ko: one day is to be added,
yuiva rimue mari veziua ko, lit.,
day-one-it-td be added-there-
(to), viz., to the other days;
hoha, -o; hohiza; iua po. add
honey (to the medicine) that he
may not loathe it, fia p'outyi
op'e ha lira, lit., put-by honey-
that- he- not-fear, or loathe ;
add an armlet (in selling), lua
ko ongoho, lit., put-to or in ad-
dition-an armlet ;
-heap up, mix, vanekia, -e;
as to the length of a thing,
vozera, -e: lengthen it that it
may be long enough, vozera i
r'ire onde, lit., add for- (that) it -
be-long (enough).
Adder, n. E-su.
Addict, v.t. To apply oneself to
habitually, riiririsa; ritla ko,
k'; riyandya ko, C'.
Addicted, p.p. Irira,-e; ritua
ho, k'; riyandya ko, ,'.
Addition, n. -Hohe, or -hohize:
things which are added, or



which are given and received Adherence, n. Oku-pandera
over and above, oi-ho ovi-lol o vi- po; oiku-rikult ko; oku-kalca-
hoize ; --ueze ; otyi-ueze; lera ko ; ok-ucana; fidelity, oa-
-, oku-tuma cumue, or oku- lakame.
uaneka kumue; Adhesion, 1. Oku-kakaterak o;
-, as to numbers, in counting, attachment, olk-rilkuia ko;
oku-vara kumue. union, oku-uana na.
Address, v.f. To speak to, hu- Adhesive, a. Thick, sticky, as
ngira, -e; mhngirisa: address the thick milk, imgande ; oma-
man, 1huanirisa omiorumendu; soloroke ; -, extensible, tena-
heva, hea (hee, here) ko or po: cious, n'oruaze.
he accosted a woman, va heere Adieu, adv. Farewell, kara o,
p'omunkazendu; passive, heua ; or, kara *a2na=stay, remain or
harshly, kanyaera: he ad- be well.
dresses his companion harshly, Adjourn, v.f. To put off to a
speaks hard words to him, ma future day, rareka, -e: he 'has
ianfyaera omukuao. put it off for a day, va rareke
Adept, n. Q-nongo ; omu-nazo- eyj'va rimue, lit., he-has made
ndunge ; ing n'ozondaunge, lit., sleep-day-one.
(one) who-with intellect ; nyu Adjudge, v./. To decide, pa-
hita mo (m'olyi-uyyura), lit., .npioa ; panguanai/f..
who- enters into- (in work) : he Adj udg c en t, n. Ok u-pa-
is skilled in that work, ?ta ltla n1lwa ;. o-mbanuriro : to pass
mo,. id lit., he-enters-into- judgment upon, okwlyila o-
verily. mbanguriro.
Adequacy, n. Sufficiency, oku- Adjure, v.f. To put to an oath,
yencta ; o-nlyeeneneho ; okua- make one swear, yanisa.
endla kumue; oku-fa pamue; Adjust, v.t. T6 put things in
oku-teka pamue ; oku-sekasaca order, aright, tuna, -u ;
p'olyina (ofyikuao). to put right, to fix, zika, -i;
Adequate, a. Sufficient, to be to make straight, right,;se-
sufficient, yenena, -e; enough, mban'i.a.
opu ... (-o, -/yo, -ro, &c.) : there Admin iste'r, v.l. To give, pa,
is enough (water or other pe; yadlya; "
liquids), opuo ; the food will to give to drink, hira;
suffice, ovikria mavi yenene, to medicine, hlira omu-ti;
lit., food-it (will)-suffice. to dispense, distribute, Hia, -e;
Adhere, v.i. To stick or cleave manage, tuna-u, tnitna, -e.
to, kakalera (-e) ko -, rifuta, Administration, n.' Olyi-u-
-u : I adhere to you, me riklca nlgara (/y'okrarere) =work (of
k'ove, lit., I bind myself to service, office .
you; pandera (-e) po: we ad- Admirable, a. Causing ad-
here to you, matuf andere p'ove, miration, himisa : it is ad-
lit., we-firmly stick-to you. mirable, tyi hhimia omundu, lit.,



it- causes or makes wonder a rituIa, -Zu: she has adorned
person ; herself, ue ritunu.
-, good, beautiful, handsome,: Ad-orned, a. Zare: one that
-v( ; ereiga : a handsome man, adorns himself, omui-zare; -zara:
o wndut erenfga ; a handsome an adorned, beloved one, omu-
house, ond/yvo erenga. zara ; -zareza : one adorned
Admiration, i. O-nymuinio ;i by others, omu-zareikha.
okui-k'nmita ; oku-himua. A Adornment, n. Olli-zaro ; otli-
Admire, .t. To wonder, himua, zarua ; -zara ; -zarva ; omu-
perf. himimne (v. depon.) ; aro(the ornament worn) omu-
kumcwa, perf. hIuminoie (v.depon.) s'ara (the wearing of certain or-
Admission, n. Entrance, oma- naments) ; ou-renga.
hiliro ; access, oma-humlbkiro : Adroit, a. To be clever, skilfnl,
he gave us admission, ve It pe shrewd, 'noniopalra : sora; he
omaionbtubkiro, lit., he-us-gave- is very skilful, wu sora ua la.
access. Adulation, ni. E-ialt; ora-
Admit, v.l. Tocause to enter, hiuaraka ;
hilifsa .pa o"i-U-litai: lie ad- hypocritical -, .'-...,'..;
mitted him, vt mui pea hite, lit., cringing, fawning, omu-taka-
he-him glae that he might: lira.
enter; see Allow; Acknowledge. Adulator, n. Flatterer, ngu
Admix, v.l. Jlian-i ; uaneria, -e. nt'ohkalharaka ;
Admlonish, /./. To warn, pofpa, false flatterer, omu-na-lavivi;
-o ; rof/(a, -o. cringeling, nq/un 'omu-iakalyira.
Ad monition, a. Otku-popa ; Adult, i. Omu-ndu ugue .ura:
She is an adult, ue /,tra, lit., he
Ado, ,i. Stir, bustle, tumult, is grown up.
o1ul-.oung, a orti-osa ; noise, Adul ctrer, Y. Omu-1Raliane u-
oru-karo ; ori't-k'ihau. orZ,"'o--s breaker of marriage ;
Ad opt, v.. As a child, iva p'omat- an immoralman, omat-v'ak'ire; an
aiye : he adopted him (the boy) immoral woman, omu-i'akirua;
as a child, .ue mu isire p'omu- oml-koronrdu.
alec ; see Take ; Receive. Adultery, n. Okru-lkahtua ku-
Adoption, i. Oku-isita ) p'o- oruklpo ; of husbands or males
muaije. only, oru-klamburo ; to commit
Adore, v./. Esteem, yosika, -e: I -, katluka oruk0apo ; vakira ,
honour him, me mu !/oz'ikce; lata ; of'females, vakirua; or other
-, worship, bow down, rikola, crimes committed by people of
-o ; rilroltamien, (tko, k'). the same house or place, olyi-
Adoration, n. OkiC-rikotamena; ikotonyo.
ome-rilaisio (k'). Advance, v.i. YoIl/a, -o (rare);
Adorn, v.t. Zara; zare/a, -e; lta haondya ; riama.
po ou-renga ; tuna, -u ; to -, v.l. Yondyisa ; kaondyisa ;
oneself, riara ; rizareka, -e ; riamisa.


Advance, n. Oma-riameno ; -, nanga: you gave me bad
in -, ira (-e) 2pehi: collect seeds advice, ve 2nd!ii natlere navi,
in advance for future use, ozo- lit., you me advised badly ;
ndui t/ilt ira pehi, lit., seeds-do advise me what to do, ndyi
for-on the ground, i.e., before- nangera, kul/a im lyili, lit., me-
hand, in advance. advise that do ; he has mis-
Advancement, a/. Oma-ria- led us, ue tI niaqera kc'oui'i,
meno. lit., he-us-has aldised to to
Advantage, n.. Payment, bene- evil;
fit, o-ndyambi; -, warn, admonish, pop/a, -o ;
profit, fortune, ou-iwlona ; ronga, -o.
gain, oku-muniina po : that is to Adviser, n. Omni-nange ; oiiml-
my advantage, it is gain to me, pope ; omu-ronaqe.
me munmine po otyina yiiri, lit., Advocate, v.. To plead, yanma ;
I-find-thereby- thing-truly ; tuna, -u :- plead my cause, tuna
to take of, oku-riratera na : otyijosa Iyandye, lit., adjust-
I take advantage of it, me rita- quarrel-mine ;
tere na tyo, lit., I-help myself- -, defend with words, iyuamu-
with-it. kura ; speak for, h/iriii-iria, -e.
Advantage, v.1. To help, pro- Advocate, a. Onmu-hl hiirire;
mote, valera, -e ; yuImw. intercessor, omu-liakmai; plead-
Adversary, n. Onu-ncita ;i er, onm-nyamnl'ur.e.
omiu-tonde; owm-rambe ; omu- ABriel, a. Oltyi ninyio=of the
nyengunre ; omu-nalyipo (na) ; air, belonging to the air; high,
omu-kluramene. elevated, -tongame ; olilongamne,
Adversity, n. E-lpnobo ; ovi- tongama.
rui ; e-puti; olyi-oiya : he is Afar, adr. Kokn'e; okukaseka;
unfortunate with his sheep and far off, indistinct, ondutri: I
goats, they die away, a n'ollio- saw them far off, indistinctly,
nga n'ozonqyanda, lit., he-with mbe e n muonhi onltiri;
adversity with cattle; on-hut- at a great distance, as viewed
mandt ; bad luck, e-ponyo ; see from a height, ehinge..
Misfortune. Affable, a. Omiliarolpit; -kozu;
Advertise, rv.. To give infor- ongozu : an afftble person, omu-
mation, lieplra; to make known, nthi ongozu ; to be -, kozuiij)ra.
tyivisa. Affability, aj. (entleness, ou-
Advice, n. O-mlbopero; oma- kozu ; civility, friendliness, ozo-
rongero. d. Iyora; -, charm, o-niune.
Advise, ve.. ongonowna : go to Affair, n. Business, work, olgi-
to some one who is able to give ungura; concern, matter, thing,
you advice, luende ku rive qagu olgi-nm.
ma sora olrunongonona, lit., go- Affect, v.t. To influence, draw,
to-some one-who-he able to nau ;
advise; to the heart or feelings,




move, ninga, -i ; ningisa ; rtkt-
nda komu-lima- =shock the heart:
this matter affects me, shocks
me, grieves me, olyina hi matyi
rianda J'omulima 1vafndf1e, lit.,
matter-this-it rushes, springs -
at heart-mine.;
to act upon, -isa (causative form
of the verb) ;
to aim at, endeavour after, seek,
aspire to, paha ;
-, make oneself this or that,
riti/ita, -i ; rizara ; to make a
show, risera, -i ; to put on airs,
ngara : do not affect to be a
chief, o nqgara ore omuhona, lit.,
not you-appear or affect-you-
chief; risenginina, -e: you put
on airs as if you were a chief,
mo risengqiine Iao omuthona,
yon-give yourself the appear-
ance as if chief ; -, feign,
pretend to be, huna, -u; cf. Pre-
Affectation, n. Ok u-riyila;
oka-rizara ; olu-htuna ; okru-
Affection, a. Love, oru-suvero.
Affectionate, a. To be -,
zera, i: he is very affectionate
towards them, me ve zerire f/i-
nene, lit. he-them-desires for-
much ; to love, suvera, -e.
Affinity, 9. Relationship, on-
zamumue ; relation to each other,
as of things that are like each
other, oku-sana; to take after,
olcu-sisa ; oku-sisin : ya si.ilua
ihe=it (the animal) takes after
the father ; sometimes also ap-
plied to children: ua sisi omuatlye
=the child takes after him,
properly he causes the child to
take after him.

.Affirm, v.t. Raera fyirilyiri:
I assure you, me 7cu traere tyiri-
lyiri, I you tell truly, truly;
testify, lwo ononoa;
-one's innocence, yayunua.
Affirmation, n. Oku-raera
tyirityiri; declaration, oku-ho-
ngonona ; swearing, oku-yana ;
see Oath.
Affix, v.i. Hondy)a, -o ; lwndye-
ra, -e ;
-, nail to,.papera, -e;
fasten to, as something flat to a
wall, vandisa;
fasten to, as a. skin to the
ground, with pegs, vavera, -e;
put to, tua 1ko; cf. Add; 'At-
tach; Fasten; Fix; Unite.
Afflict, v.I. Pamisa; hihamisa;
anlamisa ; Ikumisa.; ramba; pa-
misa omu-inlyo: they have often
afflicted me, re ndyi pamisire
omninio olhingi, lit., they-me-
did press life or soul-often.
Afflicted, p.p. or a. Ningisa
o-ndlyenda = moving, exciting
pity : the person is afflicted,
ommndu ma ninqis' ondy'enda,
lit., man- he-moves, excites-
compassion ;
-, -hihamua ; hihacmisiaa.
Affliction, n. OUrk-ingisa
onlyenda ; oma-u-zev ; ohru-tyi-
2td(t ol-zen.
Affluence, v. Wealth, oru-
tumbo ;
a rich village, a wealthy place,
ofii-huro ;
-, plenty, oku-lravkara ; ou-
ingi ; ovi-na oringi, hue.
Affluent, a. Wealthy, -humbe ;
to be abundant, lakavara; tu-.
mbara : ovinl via hlmbara, lit.,-
things they- abound.


Afford, v.t. To give or grant, verb) : after whom does he in-
*yandya ; ,to 'bring, yield, pro- quire ? ua pirire an.i? lit., he-
duce, eta. inquires for or after-whom.
Affright, v.t. Urumisa ; lirisa. Afterbirth, n. Oru-kaitu; oty'-
Affrigh ted, p.p. Tir'. ou-omla ok'-onima (lit., that about the
(o-omac) ; nyanuaka ; n'ombu- anus) : she dies of the (not re-
ruma: I am affrighted, startled, moved) afterbirth, ua t' oiyoko-
mbi n'omburunma = mba enducla nima ;
omakcuiya, lit., I am walked up-- of animals, oru-ani.
on-(by) thorns = I shudder from 1 After-mourning, n. Om u-a-
head to foot, as if my whole! mbo.
body were pricked with thorns. Afternoon, n. About noon,
Affront, v.t. Pindilisa; londa,. omu-lenya ;-, abouttwoo'clock,
-o ; tukacna; Iundisca; latumist ; omu-halte e/a ; between three and
pa (pe, pere) o-hama. four, oma-lhd~klria, or oka-hd-
Affront, n. Insult, ou-oru ; a- kana ; about five o'clock, oma-
buse, oku-tukalna; ill treatment, peta.
ok:u-lafumisa; offence, okcu-lu- Afterpains, a. Ozo-lhahane. .
ndisa; o-hama: ue ndyipe o- Afterward, Afterwards, adi.
ihacna, lit., he-me-gave-offence. Kombuinda:' I shall send you
Affronted, p.p. Yumba (-u1) this letter afterwards, embo ndi
o-hama; nyengua: he is affront- m e hin!i k'ore kombunlda, lit.,
ed, insulted, feels hurt, eye ua word-this-I send-to you-after-
yumnbu ohamac=uance? y ua. wards; komltbiuola ma sorac=
Afoot, adv. In motion, -action, afterwards or later-he-(will) be
olckriama ; o1ku-nyinganyinga. i able (to do it) ;
Afore, adv. See Before. to act -, later than others,
Afraid, a. Tobe-, ti:.a a; uruma seinai, -e: he pierced the ox
mikica ; tamnica ; yandukaa; afterwards, after others, ua
to be timid, cowardly, muma- senine oksutuaera (ongombe), lit.,
para ; to be terrified, tir' ou- he- was last-piercing (the ox) ;
oma (o-oma). -,' rukr'ii or rauklru iambano:
Afresh, adv. Anew, again, ru- the rain will come afterwards,
kuao: to return to something i omblra maci ya rlukuru, lit.,
or to resume some action, yaruka rain it (will) come at some
ko rukuao. t i future time.
After, prep., a. 4 adr. Behind, Again, adv. Iltbauao: do (it)
komnbwida ; again, fyift rlkucao ; poruktao :
to go-, to follow, kogaoreract, -e; he did it again, va lyliire poru-
to follow a lost living thing, to kfuao ;
follow a track, teza, -e ; parve: turn aside again, yata
-, k': after the manner, k'o- parve posio yond ira, lit., step-
Smuthingo ; again aside the road.
-, ira, -e (relative form of the Against, prep. Ku ; k': it (the




mouth of the wicked) is opened
against me, tya paluruka ku
ami, lit., it opened against -
me ; put it against the house,
hia k'ondyuo ;
-, na: I have a few things
against thee, amni bi n'ovina
outiti na ove, lit., I with
things few with- thee ;
-, ira, -e (relative form) pehi:
the chiefs spoke against me,
ovahona va hungiry ami pehi ;
to act -, strive -, make a stand
-, resist, pirvka ; pirukira, -e ;
refuse, panda ; cf. Opposite;
Agape, ad,. or a. Okuyahamisa
otyinyo : he stands agape, with
the mouth wide open, va lyiti
ama yahamisa otyinyo, lit., he -
does he having opened wide -
the mouth.
Agaric, n. See Excrescence.
Age, n. Years, ozo-mbura ;
being of -, full-grown, full -,
ou-nene; okeu-kra: he isof age,
ve khura ;
old -, okcu-kurupa ; o-nguru-
piro ; oma-kvrupiro ; high -,
old womanhood, ou-kurukaze.
Aged, a. Omunene: I am be-
coming aged, ami mba rire omu-
nene, lit., I-I-become-great ;
to be -, kurupa; n'omayuva :
he is aged, e u nomayuva, lit.,
he-he- with days;
to be -, grey, white, otyiuru
arire osunda, lit., head-become-
blossom; olyinru fya hara ozo-
ndi, lit., head- it- gets -grey hair.
Agent, n. A person who acts or
works for another one, ngu ma
vngura m'oruveze ru'omundu
varue, lit., who he works in

the room- of a man- another; or
ngu ma hepere ovakuao=one who
procures things for others.
Aggravate," v.t. To make
heavier, zeuparisa ; to add, in-
crease, ueza ; ueza po ; tuapo ;
-, make matters worse, zunda;
Aggress, v.i. To be the first (to
attack, fight, transgress), tenga
po (okurwiika, okcurva, okcuka-
Ag rieved, p.p. Pained, Mha-
mua ; sorrowful, (y)umana.
Aghast, adv. Okcuira ou-oma (o-
oma); oku-uruma.
Agile, a. To be -, himbahimba;
to be -, quick, hakahana : the
man is quick in working, omu-
ndu ma ungura an'a hakalana,
lit., the man he -works and
he-is quick ; -, ombandi.
Agility, n. Oku-hakahana ; ou-
Agitate, v.f. Zunganisa: he
has put the whole village in
commotion, va zunganisa onga-
nda aihe, lit., he- has stirred up-
village- the whole ;
-, stir up, excite, rungisa;
-,properly to put in a blaze,
-, stir up, awake, pendura.
Agitated, p.p. Rungana they
are agitated about the war, va
runganene ovita ;
to be for, envy for, be con-
cerned ov jealous for, pikira, -e;
to be -, troubled in one's mind,
restless, anxious, kandakanda.
Agitation, n. Commotion, tu-
multuous noise, oku-zungana ;
oku-rungana ;
-, stir, blaze, oku-rundisa;



-, wildness, unmannerliness,
properly- effervescence, omu-
yeru: she is wild, unmannerly,
wanton, u n'omuyeru, lit., she-
with effervescence.
Ago, adv. Rukuru; a few days
-, omarero : we have seen him
a few days ago, or one of these
days, tue mu munine omarero
nga, lit., we him have seen -
days past-these ; I came a few
days ago, mbe ya omarero nga ;
not many days -, omaharero;
long -, rukuru komeho.
Agony, n. Wrestling, oku-ko-
ndya; extreme pain, omu-hi-
hamo omuzeu ; oppression in the
chest, anguish, oku-pamisiua
m'orukoro; pangs of death, o-
senda: he is in agonies, in his
last struggle, u n'osenda.
Agree, v.i. To be equal, seka-
saza, or teka pamue;
-, unite, be one, uana (na);
iuana: we do not agree, ka tu
ia (i) kumue=go together :
that they did not agree, tyi ye
ha ire kunue, lit., that they -
not-went-in one, together ;
-, tuara omi-tima kumuie=
sorasana : you cannot agree, ka
mu na kusorasana, lit., not -
you with can together, i.e., you
cannot get on together.
Agreeable, a. To be acceptable,
tyata (ku) ;
beautiful, erePga; -ua; -mbuta;
pleasant in manners, affable,
omuhtarapu ; n'o-nyune;
mild, gentle, -kozu; ongozu;
kozupara ;
consistent with, vana (na);
suitable, osemba.

Agreement, n. Oru-uano.
Agriculture, n. Oku-ungura
e-hi ; o-ngunino.
Agriculturist, n. Omu-kune;
ngu ungura e-hi=(one) who-
works-the ground.
Aground, adv. Run -, as a
ship, properly, stick fast,. kaka-
tera (-e) ko.
Ague, n. See Fever.
Ah, Aha, intey. Tyok !=tareye,
oonga !
Ahead, adv. Komurungu ; ko-
Aid, v.t. Vatera, -e; yama; liza.
Aid, n. O-mbalero ; o-ndyamo ;
Ail, v.i. To feel pain, hihanua;
to be ill, vera, -e.
Ailing, p. A sickly person, al-
ways -, omlu-Lerandu ; an -
one, omu-ndu ondyuhua = man
(as a) fowl.
Aim, v.t. To level, as a weapon,
prop. to measure, saneka, -e;
to intend, to design evil, to
mean, to mark one, with evil
intentions, ianda ;
to at, try to find out by cross-
questioning, kondonona ;
to at one, lie in wait for,
Iyera, -e ;
to at something, determined
to have it, rarakana : I aim at
that wagon, I must have it, me
rarakana etemba ;
to be taken with, to like, to -
at something, nongua (v. de-
pon.): they aimed at it, va no-
ngua na tyo, lit., they longed
for, were taken-with-it.
Air, n. Oru-mu-ingo : he fears
the air (as one suffering from
eye-disease), ma fir' orumuinyo;



-, properly breath of the sky,
oiyi-muinyo Iy'eyuru ;
-, appearance, affected manner,
oku-risenginina (ayo) ; oku-
ngara ; of. Affect ;
open -, in contradistinction to
house, home; oru-panda (pro-
perly herd, kraal, yard, roofless
Akin, a. Allied by blood, -za-
mumue ;
partaking of the same proper-
ties, -mue (one) ; tyimue : this
is akin to the other, otyina hi
tyi ri lyimue na ihi otyikuao, lit.,
thing this it is one with -
that- other one.
Alacrity, n. Oku-paima ; ou-
patye; ou-kahu; oku-viara; oku-
Alarm, v.t. Awake, rouse from
sleep, pendura ; to call for help,
kua, ku : I call for help, me ku,
or, me k'o-gzo (ku o-ngo) ; they
call for help, mave kcu ozo-ngo ;
call to arms, collect warriors for
action, sekamisa ovi-ta, lit., raise
a troop of warriors.
Alarm, n. O-ngo : I sound a-
larm, me ku ongo, or me k'ongo ;
-, oric-karo : ovandu mave ku
orukaro ruokuta, lit., people -
they scream- alarm or in a state -
of death or distress.
Alas, interj. Oue, plur. oueye.
Ale, n. Ome-va omaruru (=li-
quid-bitter) ; o-mbiera.*
Alert, a. Watchful, ekangi; kara
katumba ; active, industrious,
ombandi ; -paime ; pandipara ;
painm ; vigilant, looking right
and left, yevdeva ;
-, quick, brisk, smart, himba-

Alertness, n. Ou-paime ; ou-
pandi ; e-pupa ; ou-patye.
Alien, n. Omu-ndu nozonganda,
stranger, lit., a man of (or be-
tween, travelling between) the
Alienate, v.t. Hahaura: you
have alienated my child from
me, ove ue ndyi hahaurire p'o-
mualye uandye, lit., you you .
me-spoiled or brought into dis-
repute by child mine;
-, to do away with, yeka, -e.
Alight, v.i. Punda, -u; pu-
nduka ; rauka.
Alike, a. Resemble, sana;
-, sisa, -i : the father and son
are alike, omuita ua sisiua ihe,
lit., son he is made to resem-
ble (by) the father ;
-, teka : they (the things) are
alike, vi tekapamue= vi ta pamue.
Aliment, n. Food, ovi-kuri ;
nourishment, o-mbaruriro.
Alive, a. N'omu-inyo : he is
alive, u n'omuinyo, lit., he-with
life ; did you touch him (the
deceased), whilst he was alive ?
va kambura n'omuinyo ? lit,,
you grasped, touched -with life;
to be kept -, to be spared,
huya, -u: is he still alive ? inga
ma hupu ? lit., still-he-spared;
to keep -, hupisa ;
-, lively, merry, bustling, as a
crowd, ingana.
All, a. Every one, or the whole
number, -he : all men, ovantdu
avehe; everyman,omundu auhe;
all things, ovina avihe ;
a person who accommodates
himself to all men and all things,
who makes himself all things to
all men, e-Iaya.



-, n. &< adv. The whole, all, Alligator, n. O-nyoka y'omeva
everything, alyihe opu 1yo, opu (Otyambo e-oka l'omeva) =wa-
yo, &c. : this (sheep) is all I ter-serpent.
have, oyo tyinge opuyo, lit., this- Allot, v.t. Distribute by lot,
same or very (sheep) all (I cast the lot, veteran, -e;
have) ; omutundu: all of them -, distribute, deal out, tia, -e;
(the tribes), omutundu uavio, -, cut, apportion, konda, -o ;
lit., body or the whole of them; -, give, grant, yandya.
at -, nopu ; swear not at all, Allotment, n. Part, share, oru-
k'o nopu mo yana ko=not you- kondo ; o-mbembera ; oru-mbe-
at all-you- swear-not. mbera.
Allay, v.t. To quiet, soothe, Allow, v.f. Yesa; esa: allow
pacify, suvisa, poreka, -e; visa me, ndy'esa ;
pehi; -, suffer, connive, properly
to soften, assuage, mitigate, look, overlook, tara: he suffered
larareka, -e; no man to do them wrong, k'a
-, assuage pain, by applying a tareie omundu ama lyi/i outue
poultice, tumba, -u. ku uo, lit., not he-looked (con-
Allege, v.t. Declare, affirm, ho- nivingly) -man -he-doing vio-
ngonona ; lence- to them; cf. Let; Suffer.
-, adduce, mention, tamuna: Allude, v.i. To refer to, to men-
you alleged something, va ta- tion, tamuna : he alluded to it,
munine omambo, lit., you men- eye ua tamunine, lit., he he -
tioned-words ; mentioned (it).
-, bring forward, make clear, Allure, v.. To tempt, rora, -o;
prop. spread out, nyaneka, -e. -, decoy, hemena, -e : I allure
Allegory, n. E-saneke; omu-ano. the child, cause it to draw near,
Allegorize, v.i. Hungira oma- by voice and gestures, me he-
mbo omasaneke = speak words mene omualye ; hemena ozongo-
comparing. mbe=allure the cattle (to the
Alleviate, v.t. To make light, water);
(pu)12parisa ; -, draw, nana; -, cause to
to assist, help, vatera, -e; yama; come near, tumbura : allure the
to assuage, mitigate, soothe, child to come near you, omuatye
larareka, -e ; tumba, -u. tumburira k'ove, lit., child- cause
Alliance, n. Oku-hanga : I to approach-to you.
form an alliance with them, me Allurement, n. Oku-Ihemena;
hanga ku uo, lit., I join to temptation, oma-rorero.
them; oru-uano; oku-uana; we Alluvial, a. To form by allu-
are in alliance, connected with vion, to float on, pupa, -u;
each other, maiu iuana ; they -pupiro: alluvial ground, e-hi
formed an alliance, va uana epupiro; earth and other sub-
Icumue, lit., they united to- stances floated on, ovi-pupiro.
gether. Almighty, a. Zeuzeu; ngu



n'omasa aehe (=who-with pow-
er all).
Almost, adv. Tyimuna;
toward, near, kuta: near day,
almost morning, kuta k'omu-
huka ;
nearly, on the point, opo poku- :
almost dead, on the point of
dying, opop'okukoka; mangara:
almost a whole year, mangara
ombura imue aihe ;
-, hara : I had almost fallen
down, mba hara okuiia, lit., I -
wanted- to fall; it is almost like
the other, (thing), resembles it
closely, otyo tya kar' okusana,
lit., this (thing) it desires to
be like, to resemble.
Alms, n. Oty'-oty'-ari (=that
of kindness) ; plur. ovi-otyari.
Aloe, n. Otyi-ndombo.
Aloft, adv. Kombanda.
Alone, a. Peke: he is alone, ui
ri peke ;
-, erike : I am alone, the only
one, ouami erike;
quite -, tin (interj.) : I am
quite alone oami erike, tin!
-, adv. Erike (cf. Privately):
I went alone, mnba ende erike;
-, exclusively,porva-: I alone,
ouami poruandye ; you alone,
ove poruoye ; he alone, exclu-
sively, eye porue, &c. ; for his
name alone is excellent, orondu
ena re poruaro ndi ri kombanda
lyinene, lit., because- name- his-
exclusively which is high -
very ;
-, apart, peke : he stays alone,
ma kara peke ;
-, separately, by oneself, a-
lone, without aid, ri- ... -ira
omuini: she wrote it alone (no

one helped her), eye onmini ngue
rityangere, lit., she herself -
who wrote for herself ; you
build alone (we have nothing to
do with it), ritungira omuini,
lit., yourself build for-yourself ;
to let -, esa.
Along,prep. By the side-of, near
to, okosio, kosio ; oposio, posio ;
mekuma ; pekuma; omene, mene:
along the beach, mene (omene)
-, adv. To lie, move, stretch
along, rangavara : go alongside
the river, rangavara n'ondondu,
lit., stretch along with the ri-
ver ; varama : go alongside the
mountain, varama n'ondundu.
Aloof, adv. At a distance, ko-
kure; at some little distance,
kokure katiti; katiti;
separate, apart, peke;
not approaching, ka... tumbuka:
they keep aloof, ka ve n'okutu-
mbuka, not they with ap-
proaching ;
stand or keep -, prop. withdraw
from, rihumina, -e (na): I keep
aloof from this matter, me rihu-
mine n'otyina hi.
Aloud, adv. Okuzuvara: speak
aloud, hungira okuzuvara=
speak audibly ;
to talk aloud, make a noise,
vosa, -e.
Already, adv. Ngahino: they
are far off already, ngahino za
kaseka, lit., already they at a
distance ; I thought, you were
perhaps asleep already, me tya,
nani ngahino mua rara, lit., I-
saying, thinking, perhaps al-
ready- you- asleep;
-, inga: they are coming al-



ready, inga mave ya=already -
they- come.
-, okuvaza; fyinga;
(-) : has the man come
into the village already ? omu-
ndu monganda om'e ya, p6 indg,
lit., man in the werf here (al-
ready) he come, or not.
Also, adv. Uina : he also built
houses, ozondyuo ua tungire uina,
lit., houses- he- built- also;
-, rukuao : he also belongs to
us, eye ouetu rukuao, lit., he -
ours too; give me also such a
thing, eta indi orandye rukuao,
lit., bring, give that that of
me too, as you give to others,
give also to me ;
-, na, n': take an equal in-
terest in your people, whether
they be near or far off, n'okokure
ku n'ovoye, lit, also the distance -
it with yours, viz., your land,
property, people (proverb).
Altar, n. Oku-ruo, pl. oma-rvo.
A place in front of the chief's
house where the sacred fire is
kindled and kept burning by
the ondangere (priestess), gene-
rally the chief's eldest unmarried
daughter. In going on a jour-
ney or hunting expedition, also
in establishing new villages, the
Ovaherero take brands or coals
of this sacred fire with them ;
-, o-altari.*
Alter, v.t. To make a change
in, alter one's work, make other,
tyila parue ;
-, change the appearance of,
-, transform, lyitklisa.
-, v.i. To become different,
to vary, henga, -e ;

to be transformed, lyilvka ; cf.
Alteration, n. Having a
changed appearance, oku-henga;
transformation, oku-lyituka.
Altercate, v.i. Posa, -e; pa-
tana ; patasana ; i'ozo-mbaia :
they are quarreling, ve n'ozo-
m bata=mave pose=nmare pata-
sana ;
-, ningasana oma-mbo : they
have a dispute, va ningasana
Altercation, n. Oku-posa ; oku-
patana; ozo-mbala; e-sasa : the
people are contentious, ovandu
ve n'esasa, lit., people they -
with contradiction ;
-, oku-ningasana omambo.
Although, conj. Nanga : you
will not receive, although you
ask him, ka mu na kupeua, na
nga mu kuimbu, lit., not you
with being given although -
you pray ; nanda : although
you may say, nanda mu lya;
nandaze : nandaze no pura, ma
muina uri, nye, lit., though you -
ask, he remains quiet not-
withstaiiding,- very (quiet).
Altitude, n. Highest point, o-
wonga ; o-ndomba ;
-, exaltation, &c., oku-tongama;
o-ndongamo (or-a); elevation, as-
cent, oma-yerurvkiro; o-ndunda.
Altogether, ade. Without ex-
ception, -he: speak altogether,
hungireye amuhe ; mumue ;
kuimue: they laughed altogether,
avehe va yorere kumue, lit., all-
they-laughed-at one ;
-, wholly, omiutundu: the people
altogether, omutundu u'ovandu
=body of the people, the people



as a body, altogether=ovandn
avehe Icumue (or mumue) ;
-, without any one being able
to escape (as when attacked in
a cave or corner), otyikoyo: the
people were killed altogether,
not one escaping, ovandu va
t'ofyicoyo, lit., people they -
perished (being shut up in) a
cave or corner; we killed the
lions altogether, iua zep' ozo-
ugeama oyikcoyo.
Always, adv. Aruhe ; for ever,
aruhe nga aruhe ; aruhe nga ko
nga aruhe = all time from -
there, now-till-all time.
Am. See Be.
Amalgamate, v.i. Uana na.
-, v.t. Uaneka (-e) kumue.
Amass, v.t. Tumba, -u; tumbisa;
oronganisa; see Accumulate;
Collect; Gather; Heap.
Amaze, v.1. CKumisa ; himisa.
Amazed, p.p. Kumua ; himua;
Amazement, n. Oku-kumua;
oku-himua ; oku-uruma.
Ambassador, n. Omu-himdual
Ambiguity, 9. O-mbikauwmda;
okcu-kokorarekca omambo.
Ambiguous, a. Omu-hendi; to
be -, kockoarecka oma-mbo; or,
pockali k'ori-rara.
Ambiguously, adv. Pevari:
you speak ambiguously, ore mo
hu uireperari==you -you-speak-
by two or double.
Ambitious, a. To put -oneself
forward, riula, -u ; to have self-
respect, ri/ynicka, -e ; riindyi-
ka, -e.
Ambuscade, a. Otyi-uererekero
(attack by surprise) ; e-tyendye

(conceahnent, lying in wait) :
they are lying in ambush, ve
n'etyendye, lit., they- with am-
buscade ;
-, ambush, olyi-/yendyerekero
=oiyi-na mu mave tyendyereke
ovandu, lit., concealment, lying
in wait=thing- where -they- lie
in wait for-men.
Ambush, v.i. To lie in wait for
the purpose of attacking by sur-
prise, tyendyereka, -e.
-, v.f. Tyendyerekisa.
-, n. E-tyendye ; otyi-tyendye.
Amend, v.t. Tuna, -u; heal,
-, v.i. Veruka'; see Improve.
Amiable, a. Charming, n'onyu-
ne: an amiable person, omu-
ndu u n'onyune =man he or
she-with charm;
-, attractive, n'ouhoro : she
is very amiable, attractive, eye u,
nomuhoro ; see Lovely ; Kind;
Amicable, a. See Kind; Oblig-
ing ; Peaceable; Gentle.
Amid, Amidst, prep. Pokati:
amidst the people, pokali k'ova-
ndzu=by the midst of the peo-
ple ; = mocati: amidst the
things, mo7kai k'ovina.
Amiss, a. Wrong, faulty, -vi;
mnbi; or, ngara -vi=seemingly
wrong : this man has done no-
thing amiss, ingui k'a tyilire
olyina tyilyi ugara otyivi, lit.,
this (man) not he has done -
thing which appears bad; that
is amiss! uaparuisa= you failed.
-, ade. Navi: you take it
amiss, mo ndyi zuvire navi, lit.,
you-me-hear for-evil; because



ye ask amiss, orondu lyi nmamu Amulet, n. Otyi-na ly'ouanga.
kumbu nav.i, lit., because-that- Amuse, v.l. Nyandisa; nanisa;
ye pray badly ; see Play ; -, cheat, yovisa ; to
to act -, make a mistake, tata- keep back, to act insincerely,
iza : if I have done amiss, tyi kamisa ; n'osevauko.
mba tataiza=if I blundered; Amusement, n. Oma-naneno;
you are mistaken, ove ua tataiza see Fun ; Pastime.
=uaparuisa = ue ya posio yo- Ancestor, n. Omu-kuru ; ihe
ndyira=ove u ri m'omutumba, omukuru.
lit., you you act amiss, blun- Ancestor-worship, n. See
der; you fail; you- come- beside Worship.
the road; you-you-are-in the Anchor, n. Otyi-ankera.*
downs, sandhills. Anciently, adv. Korwkuru.
Ammunition, n. Gunpowder, Ancients, n. Ova-nene; ova-
o-sire ; omi-riro. kuru.
Amnion, n. The innermost And, conj. Na, i' : eyes and
membrane, surrounding the fetus ears, omeho n'omatui; I and you,
in the womb, oru-kutu. ouami na ene ;
Among, Amongst, npep. Po- in connecting verbs the radical
kati; mokati; mu, mo, m': here form of the pronoun is used:
are diseases amongst the people, come and see, indyo u tare, lit.,
muno mu n'omifyise m'ovandu come-you-see=come and see ;
=here there are diseases a- or the participial particle amna:
mongst the people; I am the they (the wild beasts) go about
town-talk, mba korua m'ovandu, and roar, imaci rianga amavi
lit., I am being spoken of a- vandara, lit., they go about -
mong the people. they roaring, properly whilst
Amorous, a. Huura: he is in they roar=and they roar; you
love with a girl, ua hiurua can stay with them and enjoy
omusuko, lit., he- is captivated yourself, mo sora okukdara pu vo
(by) a girl; they are in love amo nyanda, lit., you can -
with each other, va huwrasana; stay-by them-you being-glad
see Love. =and be glad ;
Ample, a. Yenena (-a or -e) : -, a in arire : they arose and
there will be ample room for all wentfaway, va sekama a rire tyi
of us, oruveze rua enena (or vai, lit., they-rose-and it-was -
enene) ku ete atuhe, lit., room- that-they-went;
it-ample-to-us-all. so, thus, n'olyi;
Amplitude, n. Ampleness, oku- -, nu, generally at the com-
enena ; oma-yeneneno ; ovi-ye- mencement of a sentence : and
neneno. ye now therefore have sorrow,
Amply, adv. Oku-yenena ; oku- nu ene mu n'oruhoze nambano,
takavara, hud ; tyinene. lit., and ye ye with sorrow -
Amputate, v.t. Konda, -o. now ; but also at the end of a



sentence to round it off: just
let us go, matu i vari, nu, lit.,
we- go- certainly- and or just ;
- if, nu tyi: and suppose it is
stolen, am I then the thief ? nu
lyi tya vakua, ouami are? lit.,
and if it is stolen -(am) I then
(the thief).
Anecdote, n. E-hungi ; omu-
Anew, adv. M'oupe.
Angel, n. Messenger, omu-Mi-
ndua ; -, omu-engeli.*
Anger, n: Oma-zenge; oma-
pindi ; omu-pia; e-ruka ; ovi-
eruka; e-hakaoko (=shaking of
the arm, threatening with the
Angry, a. To be -, pindika, -e:
he is angry with the man,
ma pindikire omundu ;
-, sikaulka; pama (pressed to-
gether); pic, pi : he is angry,
orukoro rua pi, lit., chest it -
burns; I was angry, mba pia
m'orukoro = I burnt in the
chest ;
-, to be in, a passion, t'oma-
zenge : he is angry, furious, in
a passion, va t'omazenge = he
perishes of wrath=u n'onganja
oiyindandi ;
-, n'omazenge: I am not angry
with them, hi n'omazenge na vo,
lit., not I with anger with them;
-, excited, vexed, yeruka.
Angle, n. Corer, oyi-koro ;
-, anything bent, -kolo ;
a hook, oka-pele (=a little thing
bent) ;
fishing -, oka-ngoorero.
-, v.i. To catch fish, pata
oma-hundyu (or ozo-hi).
Anguish, n. O-mbamisiro y'o-

mutima=pressure of the heart;
-, terror, o-mburuma ;
-, -irise; oku-humbirisa ; see
Agony ; Grief.
Animal, n. Not tamed or do-
mesticated, otyi-puka ; dimin.
oka-puka ;
water (except tortoise and
frog), e-hundyu ;
- with a shortened horn or ear,
o-huhurn ;
-, killed to counteract the effects
of witchcraft, o-huhure; see
Cattle ; Sheep ; Goat, &c.
Animate,v.t. Yarura omu-tima ;
humina ; zeuparisa.
Ankle, n. Otyi-ngombue; otyi-
ngorongonyo (Mbanderu).
Anna-tree, n. A description of
acacia, in size like an oak, with
soft wood, omu-e.
Annex, v.f. Hondya,-o ; hondye-
ra, -e (co) ; hondyisa.
Annihilate, v.f. Yande/ca, -e.
Annihilator, n. .Omu-yandeke;
a spoiler, robber, inurderer, cruel
fellow, omu-nyone;
a leader, as in robbery and mur-
der, e-honga ; e-hongora.
Announce, v.l. Give notice, in-
form, hepura ;
cause to be heard, understood,
make known, tlivisa;
-, tondoza ; betray, rondorora;
ronudora: ombua nmai rondora
ovaenda, lit., the dog he be-
trays, announces -travellers;
-, call, invite, &c., kunda, u:
Icakunde omambo mn'ozonganda
=go announce the words in
the villages.
Annoy, v.t. To vex, pindikisa ;
bother, kendeca, -e ; cf. Vex.



Annoyance, n. Oku-pindikisa;
oku-kendeka ; see Vexation.
Annually, adv. Ozo-mbura
Annul, v.t. See Abolish ; Anni-
Annunciation, n. Oma-ku-
Anoint, v.t. To put unctiouns
matter on the head, luirisa:
anoint the man, tuirisa omundu;
-, rub over with grease, hua
(hu, huire) ;
-, smear, as the whole body
with grease, vava (n'otyize or
Anointed, .p. To be -, Iui-
Anointer, n. Omu-tuirise.
Anointing, n. Oku-iuirisa;
Another, a. -Kuao; -arue:
another man (of equals), omu-
ndu omukcao ; (of strangers),
omtndu uarue ;
one (recipr. f.), -sana : they
love one another, mane suvera-
Answer, v.t. To respond to a
call, ilavera, -e: ouami ngu mba
ilavere, lit., I who-I answered
=it was I who responded to the
call (by calling out uo !) ;
-, rejoin, reply to a question,
zira, -s.
Answer, n. E-raka (properly
tongue, voice) ; e-ziriro ; oma-
Ant, n. O-m buka ; onm-klere-
nye ;
large kind, backpart of the body
red, sting painful, o-ndende ;
white -, termite, o-lhu ; when
winged, o-hu-mnburi;

red -, also mite, oru-vingo.
Ant-bear, n. 0-ndyimba; o-
Ant-hill, n Oiyi-tundu.
Antagonism, n. Struggle, oku-
kondya; opposition, hindrance,
oku-tyaera; hostile opposition,
enmity, ovi-ta (na).
A-ntagonist, n. Omu-naviia.
Antelope, n. Game, otyi-puka
(erring, wandering animal) ;
dwarf-antelope, reddish colour,
of the size of a goat, houses
in mountains, o-seni, or oka-
seni ;
a description of -, much re-
sembling the roe, found on the
flats, o-mbambi;
-, not generally known, of the
size of the Gemsbok, o-mbengu ;
the Eland (oreas canna), o-ngara-
ngombe (from mnara.=to seem, or
kara=fat, and ongombe=cow:
o-ngara-ngombe = animal like a
cow, or fat cow), first called otyi-
heile = the unknown animal,
though, according to some, the
otyiheiue is different, only re-
sembling the Eland ;
the Hartebeest (the caama),
the Gemsbok (A. oryx), o-rndno;
the Steinbok (calotragus cam-
pestris), ombuindya ;
species more frequently met
with in travelling, are the Gnu,
otyi-mburu (in herds), combin-
ing the elegance of the horse and
(arising from its mane) the
fierce appearance of the lion;
the Kudu, o-horongo (strep-
siceros kudu), with an ox-like
body and graceful spiral horns ;
and, in large herds, the lovely



Springbok, o-menye (A. Eu-
Anthem, n. E-imburiro.
Anticipate, v.t. Tyiza: hehas
anticipated me, wa tyiza ami;
he anticipates him, me mu tyiza,
lit., he-him-forestalls ;
-, hakaenisa: I anticipated
him, mba haakaenisa na ye, lit.,
I caused to meet with -him ;
-, precede, preoccupy, sia, -e:
I anticipate you, me mu sie pehi,
lit., I -you- leave- behind ;
-, come before, ya komeho ;
-, preclude, prevent, hinder
(by preoccupation), lyaera, -e;
-, foretaste, rora (-o) komeho ;
-, go beyond, outflank, &c.,
heverera, -e; see Outrun.
Antidote, n. Omu-timbupilisa
ou-zuvo = medicine which -
causes to go out-the poison ;
to give an -, in order to coun-
teract the effects of poisoning,
connected with witchcraft, oku-
huhura; if repeated, okuhuhu-
Antipathy, n. See Aversion.
Antiquity, n. Olo-ru-luru-
Anus, n. O-nima ; o-nusu ; o-
mbunda ; posteriors, o-ngavaha;
Anxiety, n. Oku-kandakcanda;
oku-kara n'omburuma ; oru-
viringo ; see Restlessness.
Anxious, a. Kandakanda; to
make -, humbirisa ; urumisa ;
to, &c., vamna tyinene ; zera
(-i) tyinene : I am very anxious
to know, ami mba vanga tyinene
okutyiua, or, mba zeri lyinene
okutyiua, lit., I want much -
to know, or, I-desire, &c.

Any, a. 4- adv. -Rive: any man,
omundu rive ; bring any sheep
(the same which), kraete ondu
yorive; anywhere, korive, or
kuorive ;
-, -he : bring any you find, eta
atyihe tyi mo munu ;
- thing, tyike : have you any-
thing ? mu na yike ? = you -
with what ; we have nothing,
ka tu na lyike=not we with -
what; otyi-na ; oka-na; ovi-
na : he has returned luckless,
disappointed, he did not find
anything, ua kotok' eponyo, k'ea
munu ovina, lit., he returned -
(with) ill luck not he found -
one, thing, (-) : and if
there be any one to untie, &o.,
nu tyinangara pe na ngu ma
kutura, &c., lit., and-if-it (the
place) has (any one) who he -
(will) untie.; I am not looking
for any thing, hi na fyi me paha,
lit., not I with (any thing) -
that I seek.
Apart, adv. Alone, distinctly,
peke ; separately, ohozohozo : they
went out apart, one after the
other, va piti ohozohozo.
Ape, n. Baboon, o-ndyima.
Aperture, n. 0-ndovi.
Aping, n. Especially if poor
people want to ape the rich,
wearing good clothing and rags
promiscuously, &c., kara n'o-
haitelera : they are aping the
rich people, ve n'ohailelera.
Apex, n. O-ndomba ; o-honga.
Apologize, v.i. Ask pardon,
implore, rilekra, -e; riarikanena,
-e (lku).
Ap ost a cy, n. Oku-poka (ko, cku).



Apostatize, v.i. Poka.
Apostle, n. Omu-hindua; omu-
Apparel, n. Otyi-zaro ; omu-
Apparently, adv. Ngara tyi-
muna : seemingly it is our wag-
on, matyi nyara tyimuna elemba
retu, lit., it seems as if wagon-
ours ; mangara ; tyimuna : ap-
parently in that direction the
report of a gun was heard in the
night, tyimuna outuku kIua po-
sere ondyembo, lit., seemingly -
(at) night-there in that quarter-
sounded-a gun ;
-, evidently, okumunika; fyi-
kuriho : apparently you are a
human being, fyickuriho ove omnu-
Appeal, v.i. To turn to, to lean
on for help, riyameka, -e (k',
ko, ku).
Appear, v.i. Seem,. ngara : he
appears to be ill, mangara ua
-, of objects when coming in
view, munika, or taima : ondiu-
ndu ya munika, lit., mountain -
it-in sight, appears ;
-, show oneself, riraisa.
Appearance, n. Oku-munika ;
showing oneself, making one's
appearance, oku-riraisa;
-, the reverse of being real,
oku-ngara ;
false, feigned, or strange, sus-
picious -, foreboding evil, okiu-
huna: the ox (catching itself
with the horns in a thong) makes
a strange appearance, indicating
evil, ongombe mai hunu ;
by intervals, when something
is now visible and then again

disappearing, ondende; of.
Show; Likeness; Manner.
Appearing, n. Oma-munikiro;
-, visibility, the bright side,
shone upon by the light, o-
mbaera: he is now visible, ua
yarukire k'ombaera, lit., he-has
returned to brightness, visi-
Appease, v.l. To cause to rest,
suvisa; to calm, poreka, -e; to
quiet, muinisa; to make peace,
unite, hanganisa ; to loosen, re-
move (what hinders), kutyurura.
Append, v.t. Hondya, -o; ho-
ndyera (-e) ko; hondyisa.
Appetite, n. O-ndia: he has
appetite, u n'ozondia ; hunger,
oku-t'ondyara; excessive, vora-
cious -, omu-yavandyara ; de-
sire (general), o-nduma; o-
Applaud, v.t. To praise, tanga;
- with the hands, tona (-o) otu-
kuise: they applauded them (by
clapping hands), v'e ve tonene
outkuise, lit., they them beat -
applause with hands.
Applause, n. Oku-tanga; oku-
lona olu-kluise.
Applauder, n. Omiu-tange.
Apple, n. Of the eye, o-nduinga;
Applicable,a. See Suit; Suit-
App ly, v.t. To suit to, sasaneka,
-e ; sanelca, -e ;
- to, speak to, address, hea (hee,
heere), followed by iko or po :
he applied to his chief, ua here
Appoint, v.t. Tua ko: I ap-
pointed, niba tire ko; it was
appointed, tya taiia ko ;



to speak, order, raera, -e ; to
command, raya ;
to some office, set over, pro-
perly to fix, zika, -i ;
-, fix, as a day, hea (hee, heree:
on the appointed day, eyuva
nda heua, tyi re ya, lit., day-
which- was meant or appointed -
when- it-came;
-, set apart for some particular
use, pakura;
-, to will, to determine, to re-
solve, vanga: who are appointed
to die, mba vangua okuta, lit.,
who-are willed (passive), ap-
pointed by the will of others to
Appointment, n. Law, oma-
rayero; e-tuako.
Apportion, v.t. Tia, -e: give
Each one of them a proper por-
tion, lia mockai kcauo osemba, lit.,
divide between them -right; I
apportioned, mba iere; cf.
Carve; Divide.
Appreciate, v.t. Tyunika, -e ;
vara -zeu : I have appreciated it
very much, mbe tyi varere ondeu,
lit., I it counted- weighty, im-
Apprehend, v.t. Take, ka-
mbura; lay hold of, takamisa.
-, v.i. To mean, suppose, hea,
ha (iee, heere): as I suppose, or,
as I apprehend, otyi mba hea;
to think, tya; lyangovasi;
to perceive, lyiza; to fear,
Apprise, v.t. Give notice,
vareka, -e; inform, hepura
make known, tyivisa.
Approach, v.i. Tumbucka: he
approaches the chief, ma tumbu-
kire k'omuhona ; utuka : he ap-


preaches boldly, ma utuka o-
-, advance to, move on, riama;
-, come very near reach, vaza:
it shall not come nigh thee,
k'ove ka tyi vaza ko, lit., to
thee-not-it-reach-not ;
-imperceptibly, oavara, vavara,
or oauara.
Approbation, n. Pleasure in,
being pleased with, oru-tyato
(mu) ;
applause, commendation, oku-
tanga; support, oku-tiza.
Appropriate, v.t. To claim and
take as one's own, isapo (omuini):
he appropriates it for himself,
we tyi isa po oty'e omuini, lit.,
he it takes away as (for)
him-self or owner; I appropriate
this as my own, otyina me tyi
isa p'otyandye = thing I it -
take away as mine (cf. Selfish) ;
- clandestinely, yuma, -u;
-, set apart, yapura.
-, a. Suitable, fit, proper, -pue.
Approval, n. Oru-tyato (mu);
oku-itavera (kco).
Approve, v.i. Itavera,-e: I ap-
prove of your doing, mba itavere
k'ondyitiro yoye, lit., I answer,
consent-to doing-yours.
Approved, a. Tried, faithful,
&c., omupiuke ; piuka;
-, able, omusore; sora ;
state of being -, tried, oma-
piukiro ("bewihrtheit").
Approximate, a. See Near;
Next; Approach.
Apron, n. Oru-hira; oru-heke ;
- of men, in front and behind,
- of girls, long thin strips of
leather, otu-vanda.


Ar bite r, n. Omu-pangure.
Arbitrafe, v.i. Pangura.
Arbour, n. Otyi-randa ty'onmii;
otyi-randa; o-ndanda; omu-tara
(constructed of stakes).
Arch, n. A bow, curve, as in a
building, a vault, omu-tutu ;
an ill-formed -, "ungleiche
w8lbung," oru-vango.
Ardent, a. (Full of) fire, omu-
riro ; n'oupyu ; eager, active,
ombandi; see Violent; Fierce;
Ardour, n. Warmth, fervency,
omu-riro; ou-pyu; zeal, oriu-
kondyo ; affection, oru-suvero.
Are. See Be.
Argue,v.i. Rejoin, reply, zira, -i;
debate, dispute, patasana ;
to carry on noisy talk, posc, -e;
to make clear or manifest, ia-
ndyrurua ; tyinyukisa;
to show, prove, raisa.
Argument, n. Reasoning, de-
bate, ozo-mbata.
Arid, a. Ongaango; onguruhu:
okuti ongaango, or, okuti ongu-
ruhu=dry, barren country.
Aright, adv. Osemba ; naua.
Arise, v.i. From sitting, sekama;
from lying, sleeping, penduka ;
-, overcome weakness, make
oneself strong, kangama ;
-, raise oneself, yeruruka ;
-, ascend, ronda, -o; cf. Rise.
Aristocrat, n. Omu-nandengu
=respected person; a great man,
omu-ndu omnunene.
Aristocracy, n. Respectability,
o-ndengu ; greatness, ou-nene ;
- in Herer6land: the clanships
called Ova-kueyuva and Ova-
kuenambura= people of the sun
and people of the rain.

Ark, n. Of the flood, o-ndyuo
yomeva=house of the water ;
-, inthe tabernacle, otyi-kaise.*
Arm, v.i. Rongera, -e.
-, v.t. Rongerisa ;
-, defend oneself, riyizikiza.
Arm, n. Of the body, oku-oko;
e-kmon ;
right -, oku-oko okunene ;
left -, left side, oku-moho ;
oku-oko okurimba ;
shortened -, stump of an -,
on or in the arms, m'omake: the
child is in the man's arms,
omuatye u ri m'omake oomundu,
lit., child it is in the hands -
of the man ;
-shaking= threatening, clinch-
ing the fist, e-hakaoko.
Armadillo, n. O.ng0aka.
Arm-let, n. A flat metal, gene-
rally iron, band, o-ngoho ;
metal ring, of thick, generally
iron, wire, oru-huaka.
Arm-pit, n. Oku-apa, or oko-
apa ; plur. omna-lcoapa.
Armour, n. Omu-rongero ; ovi-
yane ovizeu.
Arms, n. Ovi-ruise ; ovi-yame.
Army, n. Otyi-mbunmba; ovi-la;
oma-vita ;
-, prop. swarm, e-klzeze : eku-
zeze r'ovita = swarm, troop of
Around, adv. On all sides,
kozosio: dig around the tree,
sa kozosio zomnuti, lit., dig- at
the sides-of the tree ;
-, ozongogonona : cut around,
konda ozongngogonna ;
walk something, kondoroka;
-, otyitengerera : they stand
around (something, around in a



circle), ve kcurama otyitengerera
(of. tengerera=soar, flyin a cir-
cle like a bird of prey) ;
-, otupati; see Round; Circle.
Arouse, v.t. Rouse, awaken, stir
up, excite, pendura ; -, startle,
yandimuna ; to anger, pi-
ndikisa; rungisa.
Arrange, v.0. Put in order, ad-
just, hangiza : ave ha hangiza
ovimbalcutu = they (had) not -
arranged- (their) apronstrings;
-, oronganisa: arrange the
things, put them in order, make
everything complete, oronganisa
ovina; the things are arranged,
in order, ovina via orongana ;
-, adjust, tuna, -u ;
-, put to rights, clear away,
&c., perura.
Array, v.t. Get ready, arrange,
tuna, -u ; equip, rongera, -e;
dress,. huikica, -e; adorn, za-
rekra, -e.
-, n. Equipment, oku-rongera
dress, omu-zaro ; see Ornament.
Arrayed, p.p. Arranged, tunua;
equipped, rongerua ; dressed,
huikikua ; adorned, zarekcua.
Arrest, v.t. Seize, kIambura
seize the thief, kambura erunga ;
-, capture, huura ;
-, check, stop, tyaera, -e.
Arrival, n. Oku-ya; oku-vaza;
at a place with the purpose
of settling permanently, o-ndye-
rerdrero (from ya=come, q.v.).
Arrive, v.i. To come, ya, pret.
ere: the people are coming,
ovandu ve ya; the travellers ar-
rived yesterday, ovaenda ve ere
erero, lit., travellers they came -
yesterday ;
at, reach, vaza ;

-, come at, properly touch,
tuna (-u) ko ;
-, tukuruka ; the wagons have
arrived, omatemba ya tukuruka,
lit., the wagons-they- returned;
of. Return.
Arrogance, n. E-handu ou-
handu ; ou-rangaranga; e-hipa.
Arrogant, a. To be -, eta e-
handu : he is arrogant, ma ef'
ehandu, lit., he brings (forth),
produces- arrogance= u n'ehipa;
-, otyirangaranga.
Arrow, n. Otyi-ku ; omu-zi; e-
pova; entirely of wood, oru-
hongo; sharpened, without an
iron point, o-hongo.
Arrow-point, n. Otyi-kuti-
rirua; -, long-shaped, of iron,
o-heo; -, harpoon-like, omu-zi.
Art, n. Skill, ou-nongo.
Artery, n. Omu-sepa.
Artful, a. Skilful, oowngo ; see
Cunning ; Deceitful
Artfully, adv. Skilfully, n'ou-
nongo; deceitfully, n'ovineya;
Article,n. Piece, thing, otyi-na:
a fine article, olyina ohamba.
Artifice, n. Cleverness, contri-
vance, ou-nwngo ; cunning, de-
ceit, e-liku ; onwa-tiku ; ovi-neya.
Artisan, n. 0-nongo ; omundu
As, conj. 6 adv. Tyi; otya tyi=
like as : do as we do, tyita otya
iyi malu tyiti=do-like-as we-
-, otya: I got them as pay-
ment or reward, mbe ze perue
otya ondyambi, lit., I them was
given as payment ;
-, tyimuna : he steals away,
disappears secretly, va ended tyi-


muna okuvaka, lit., he- goes-as-
-, tying : omakaya oandye ya
ta, ehi tyinga ri ri otyongua, lit.,
tobacco (plants) mine they -
are dying, ground as it- is -
brackish; as the smoke vanishes,
so thou wilt scatter them, omu-
ise tyinga u hanika otyinga mo
ve hana, lit., smoke-as-it-scat-
ters-so-thou- them-scatter ;
-,punga: as they have been
told, so it happens to them,
punga va raerua, opunga ma.ve
tyitua, lit., as-they-were told-
just so they are done (to) ;
punga ua lyangere, lit., just as-
he-wrote ;
-, na : I as well as you, na anmi
na ove=and-I-and-you ;
- long, ngunda, nganda;
- it were, tyimnno : we were
as those that dream, tua kara
tyimuna dvarote, lit:, we were -
as it were-dreamers;
- if, ayo: I saw him in my
dream, as if he were alive, mbe
mu munine m'oruroto ayo 4
n'omuinyo, lit., 1 him saw in
the dream as if he with life ;
of. If;
-, (-) : it (the water) ran as
a river, oo ya pupire ondondu=
it-it- ran (-) river.
Ascend, v.i. Ronda, -o: it (the
smoke) ascends up to the sky,
mau rondo k'eyuru ; cf. Rise.
Ascendency, n. Power, autho-
rity, oma-sa; ou-vara; oru-vara.
Ascension, n. OkAu-ronda; oma-
Ascent, n. Omu-ru; o-ndu-
nda ; oma-yerurialiro.
Ascertain, 0.t. Nongownona;

inquire, pura ; inquire closely,
searchingly, kondonona; to in-
form oneself, riyivisa ; to hear,
understand, learn, zuva (zuii,
Ascribe, v.t. Pa (pe, pere):
you take us for fools, mo tupe
ouyova = you-us-give, ascribe-
folly ;
-, yand ya: yandyeye omasa
ku ye, lit., give or ascribe ye -
power- to him.
Ashamed, a. Be ashamed, prop.
be dying with shame, t'ohoni :
he is ashamed, ua tohoni; you
(or he) ought to be ashamed,
na s'okut'ohoni; honipara ; n'o-
ioni: are you not ashamed ?
k' 'o ohoni-? = not you with
to make one -, tisa ohoni;
he feels much ashamed, u n'o-
mupalalyira vombua ondyenda,
lit., he-with tail drawing in-of
a dog-a strange one.
Ashes, n. Omu-lue ; hot -, the
same as heated fireplace, otyi-
Ash-coloured, a. -Kuize: a
grey, ash-coloured female os-
trich, o-mbo okakuze;
-, -kcuve; to be -, properly,
covered with dust, kuva, kuii.
Ashore, adv. K'omuklro (uo-
meva kokur'are).
Aside, adv. Kosio; posio : do
not turn aside, o yepe posio=
not you go out of the way- aside,
do not wander ;
, ekoro: don't stay aside,
a mu kara k'ekoro, lit, not-ye-
stay-at the corner, aside ;
-, omakoromakoro : mave ioma-
koromakoro = they -go- crooked-


ly, aside, out of the line, not again, after having been awake,
properly in a row ; tIaererua.
-, oltimbembera ; orupali ; Aslope, adv. Kurunjgua : the
move -, !epa, -e; henygur- road runs downward, aslope,
ha ; hihizirka ; viruka ; vru- ondyira mai kurungula ; see
kira, -e; Aslant ; Oblique.
Ask, v.1. Pura : he inquires Aspect, n. Omu-rvngu.
about it, ma pura ko=he asks Asperse, v.n. Yamba.
there (-about); I ask you, me Aspersion, n. Oku-yamb;
pu11 ove ; omi-hi.
-, pray, request, ningira, -e : Asperser, n. Omu-yambe.
for whom do you ask ? mo Aspirate, v.i. Stirat, -e (mo,
ningir' e ani ? lit., you move zo).
(pity) for whom ; from whom Aspire, ..i. Pa1a : he aspires
do you ask or beg ? mo niigqirer after the cnieftainship, ma paha
ku ani ; we ask of you, mate ouhona;
nigiirj k'ov ; -, pursue eagerly, rarakala,.
-, pray, kumba, -u; -, en- Aspiring, a. One who minds
treat, implore, rihekah, -e ; rihe- high things, omu-p pono01qony0o-
kena, -e : I ask or entreat in ngo.
vain, me ri/ekente p'eoe, lit., I- Assail, v./. Riaisa ; with
ask or entreat of a stone (a words, harsh language, reha, -e:
person hard as a stone); you assail me with harsh words,
-, inquire searchingly, cross mo rele omambo omazeu mu ami,
questions, nongonona ; kondo- lit., you throw- words heavy-
nona. in-me ; cf. Attack.
Aslant, a. f adv. -Yendi; o- Assassin, n. Omu-zepe (omni-
lndendi ; ohendi ; nda).
to be -, henma, -e ; heindma : Assassinate, v.t. Zepa, ;
you put the pot aslant, on one vandeka, -e.
side, wa hetlnamis' onyungyu= Assault, v.1. Ris.a ; pumamra
you-cause to be aslant-the pot (-e) mo ; treacherously, wure-
=ua iihentekle ounyuif/f ; ItPda- rceka, -e : he acts treacherously
ma : on!yugau ya findama, lit., in beating the man, ma u'ure'ke
pot-it-stands obliquely: omueze omundm okilonia.
i lenlama =m1oon0 -it-oblique, Assegai, n. E-nq/a; for
i.e., it is new moon ; dramatic purposes, P-loher; a
-, yei'hana ; pikama ; tyika ; large -, cli,'-lr,,b,. ; a small
to hold or put aslant, yendeka, -, with wooden handle, o-
-e ; heidleka, -e ; hendamisa. hlviantla ; entirely of iron,
Asleep, a. ,j- adv. Rara : he is omu-mbuera ; -, a very deadly
asleep, ma rara ; to fall -, ha weapon of that kind, omu-rmra.
rara : he falls asleep, ma ha Assemble, v.i. Vonga, -o ; or,
rara= lie -goes -sleep; to f!al-- onga, -o ; oinara : the people



are assembled, ovandu va ongara pangurura) m'omaIna ye/to,
=va onyo klumue. lit., sheep divide in names
-, '.1. Von qa, -o ; or, onga, -o : (classes) -five.
who has called you together ? Assuage, rv.. Tarareka, -e;
mua ongqoa i ani, lit., ye-are as- fonba, -u ; pore,'ca, -e.
sembled- by-whom; vongarisa ; -, v.i. Pora, -o.
onarisa ; angiza. Assume, v.t. To take upon one-
Assembly, n. O-mibongarero; self, as e.g. authority, hitira
- for counsel, oty-ira. mo ; see Enter (upon) ; Claim ;
Assent, r.i. Respond, i/avera, Arrogate ; Usurp ; Suppose.
-e (ku) ; agree to, uana (/a). Assurance, n. Oku-riiua ;
Assent, n. OnU-itaverero (ku) ; ome-rifyiviro ; -, confidence,
ornu-tllafo (mn). omu-tima omnqyeda ; ou-/ain ;
Assert, r'.. Zikamisa (oma- -, firmness, ou-/I ahe.
2nbo) ; hongonona. Assure, v./. Raera (-e) tyiri/yiri:
Assertion, aj. Olcu-l-ongonona ; I assure you, me ku raere tyiri-
okiu-zi/kamiisa omambo ; oma- /yiri= I -you-tell-truly-truly ;
zilcamisiro ; oku-fna po ou-natu see Assert.
or ou-kombokombo = asserting Asthma, n. Oku-pam/ a m'oru-
(with good reason). koro: I am suffering from short
Assist, v.t. Yama ; valera, -e ; breath, from oppression on the
hilanrasona : they assist each chest, mnba plcna m'ornkoro, lit.,
other in the work, they work I -squeezed-in chest; feeling of
together, 9nave hanigasacna p'o- oppression in the chest, after
lyinnygra hi, lit., they unite running, pulling or other exer-
together by work this ; cf. tion, olyi-hilru.
Help. Astonish, v.l. Himnisa.
Assistant, n. Omu-yaime ; omi Astonished, p.p. Kumua: I
vaCere. am astonished, m/ba /kumua ; he
Associate, v.i. Uanai (na) : do makes big eyes, what is he
not associate with bad people, o astonished at ? 2na hlipra omehio,
ana n'orarundpe, lit., not you u/ ktuminiue tyi/e? lit., he -
unite with wicked men; kara opens wide-the eyes-he-aston-
pamue na. ished at-what ;
-,1 Companion (of the same -, hinma ; iminisicia.
age), mate, e-1ora : my coin- Astonishing, a. -Himise.
rade 'I.utra'ndye! (contracted Astonishment, n. 01u/-kimcua;
from ekitra r'andye) ; -, v.-apa- okcu-hinua ; o-nif/guino.
miue (ma), plur. ov'-apalm(e (na); Astray, adi'. Okupunka ; to go
see Friend ; Partner. -, to err, putka ;
Assort, r.f. Divide into parts,, to lead -, pnkisca.
pangiira ; pangur/fra: separate Asunder, ad'. Apart, pe/e;
the sheep into five parts (or mo//kati: the mountains divide
troops), ozondu pjangura (or the earth asunder, form a valley,




face each other, ozonhndlu za reason-their's- all-it-done for ;
ia ehi mokati; see Break ; Cut; the bottom, klehi;
Divide ; Separate. first, komeio ; tla (-?') omk-;
At, prep. Mu, m' look at me, tenga oku- : orutenga ; ikorv-
lara 9mu aii = alr u i ; tenga ; see First
they laugh at me, mave yoro miu last, oritsenina ; seminal, -e ;
ami; he is at the place, u ri seeas"
m'otiironffo, lit., he is in the Athirst, a. T onyola ; kamba ;
place ; varata.
-, at the side, posio; mel-uima ; Atone, ,.i. To make satisfaction
-, Ip, p' : put it down at the for moral debt, \o expiate guilt
door, tua p'onnm'ero ; or, fua by payment, .sua,-u ; suhira, (-e)
pIekum-a romuiriro; o r '0 p won will ato e for it, mo
- kA, k' : lie is at your right slhire po; I shal make you
hand, a ri lkoAk nei, klo'=t=he atone for it, ?A ku s". isire po;
is-at riglit arm-yours ; he made himself paid for (the
- point, on the point, po oka-- ; crime), ve risu.isire po;
hara (sec About); -, reconcile, become reco ied,
-, to be at it, to be at some make peace, hangana; causat e,
work, be indnstrious, pan':ipra : hganMi.a.
he is always at it, mnapalndlpatra, Atonement,n Oklu-mutira(po);
or, ina paniIleir po ; oku-lhafligana; oma-hanganeno ;
-,to be at one, harass, molest peace, o-hange.
him, kandaiiia ; Attach, rv.. To tack to, stitch

- once, now, this moment,
k'am awnga ; ni'olama ingac : /1'-
nmbano ;
- this time, nlgambeno ; nya-
inbenontba ; angif/ambentmba ;
- dinner time, omi7ueniya, ori-
kuria iyi nmari rina = noon, -
food wen it is eaten ;
- one effort, at once, not at in-
tervals, not passing between,
olyikando /nimul : take the
things out at once, at one ef-
fort, ovina iwa mo m'ol/ikando
tilim lie;
- his pleasure, pumnac ma raya,
lit., just as lie-commands ;
- large, freely moving about,

they are their wits end, ozo-
nd'unge :a'o azehre ape pa, lit.,
1) 2

to, affix, liondya, -o; hondyera
(-e) ko ; hontdiisa ; to make
cleave to, akcatlerisa (ko).
-, '.i. To adhere, be attached
to, kaimbiona ko; hkralera 1o :
you are attached to me, mo
kaamIer'e koami = you cleave -
to me ; to stick to, pandera (-e)
p0 ; to adhere to, stay long with,
as a faithful companion, hare-
rera, -e ; to join, hondya (-o)
Attack, r.. Rush at,plnmaera,-e;
- vehemently, throw oneself on
the ranks of the enemy, ruiika
(r. rvia) = mol/t, -o : ngatit monr,
lit., let us- press down, crush
(the enemy at the first attack,
let us press a breach in the line);
-, fly at, ihua: he attacked


them, ua tucire mu vo = he -
flew in or at them ;
-, fight, hurt, ruisa: the ox
attacks people, ongombe mai rids'
ovandu, lit., ox -he-fights-men;
-, hem in, hangatena, -e : -
people attack each a-
ndu va hangaIen; the ox at-
tacks him, ongontbe ya hangafene
ku ye, lit., ox e attacks at -
him; I hav ben attacked, ami
mba hangatenea
secretly, a dog, without
barking, e ena, -e or -a
cumni y, suddenly, by sur-
prise, ye dyereka, -e.
Attain vdt. Reach, vaza; see
Reach; Obtain ; Procure.
Att unable, a. Vazeua: it is
ot attainable, ka tli vazeua.
Attempt, z'.t. Rora, -o.
Attend, r.f. To wait upon,
karera, -e ;
to look after, larera, -e;
to nurse, to take care of a
patient, hunga, -u : attend to
the sick person, hung' onmwere;
to, nurse with trouble and
care, pepera, -e ;
-, doctor a sick one, verukisa ;
panga ;
-, mind, heed, takama; ritarera,
-e ; rikarera, -e.
-, v.i. To listen, hearken, be
attentive, puratena, -e ; pela
oma-tui ;
to business, tuna : (nomads)
who only attend to cattle, mbe
tutu ind ozonyandla uri ; pa-
nAera p'orli-unyura.
Attentive, a. Pet oma-lui;
puratena, -e ;
-, obliging, regardful, omuha-
)ritm ; omupaimne ; of. Listen ;

-, watchful, observant, epafye.
Attendant, n. Servant, proper-
ly waiter, omu-karere.
Attention, n. Intelligent ob-
serva ii, o-pawt- ;.
-, listening to, oku-peta omatui
ko ; n'onduviro : he pays no at-
tention, k'e n'onduviro = not
he with hearing; oma-zuvati:
pay attention, listen attentively,
Iara n'oma-zlwalui = be with
hearing ears ; -, o-ndyevatui;
to call to, hongaiza; cf.
Care ; Courtesy.
Attire, n. Dress, ornament, omu-
zaro ; olti-zarua ; olu-renga.
Attract, v./. Draw, namte;
charm, n'o-niune ; captivate,
fascinate, iuura, hurisa ; cf.
Charm ; Captivate.
Attraction, n. O-iyiune; see
Charm ;
-, omu-horo : the things have
attraction, ovina vi n'omnhoro.
Attractive, a. Nomuhoro ; no-
Attribute, v.1. To give, ascribe,
pa, pe : mo idyi pe ourunga =
you me give, impute theft,
i.e., you take me for a thief.
Audacious, a. -Penda : but if
lie was not himself audacious,
nungetuari eye ndaklcu zka 'mu-
peula nai, lit., but he if -not-
audacious -thus ; ombande ; hi
n'omburunma = not with fear;
fearless, W'ou-kahu ; impudent,
A u d a c i o u s y, adv. Onqahukiro:
he speaks fearlessly, boldly, ma
iihtagire ongahukiro.
Audacity, n. Courage, bravery,
ou-penda ; fearlessness, firm-
ness, ou-kaht ; boldness, impu-



dence, e-fakaoko; ou-ra)fnara-
Audibly, adv. Okauzuvara:
speak audibly, hungira okiuzu-

A u gm e n t, v./. Tuaor oIezta po, ko.
Augmentation, n. Addition,
oku-lua po; oku-neza po (or ko);
-, that which is added, onm-
ezsirua po ; ovi-ezirwa po.
Augur, v.i. Vuiaa, or (u)u/ka, -iu:
I have a presentiment that a
lion will get among the cattle,
me vku ozonyanda kulia maze
rumatua, lit., I augur cattle -
that they will be bitten.
Aurora, n. Of..'- ...... (lyi
mai)e lyi, or, iq'okzu-tya).
Aunt, n. The father's sister, o-
hongaze ; younger sister of the
mother, iny/angu.
Auspicious, a. Paa, pu.
Auspiciously, adv. iNoklpua.
Austere, a. -Tue: an austere
person, omundu omuitiu.
Aut h or, n. First beginner, foun-
der, omu-ute; a writer, omnu-
Authority, a. Power, oma-sa,
o -vara ; oru-rara ;
-, greatness, ou-nene ;
-, show of power, sway, bold-
ness, &c., oly-era : he speaks or
has spoken with fearlessness,
authority, ua Ihunira ol/'era ;
-, seriousness, ou-p)tkrt u1ue.
Autumn, n. The latter part of
summer, ola'-rooro.
Avail, v.i. To aid, ratera, -e;
to be of use, hladuza ; see Use.
Avarice, n. Ou-ruva ; ot-rvUa-
ndu ; ou-kopo ; ou-korokope.
Avaricious, a. Norkopo ; anou-
korokope ; omturuavancl ; q(au

lma rurapara ; to be -, ruva-
para ; see Stingy ; Grasping ;
Avenge, v.l. Rirumba, -u; su-
tisa ; reflexive, risauisa (mo) =
to take satisfaction for an of-
fence : you are to give satisfac-
tion (for the injury done), me
rsisia nm'ore, lit., 1 shall make
myself paid out of you.
Avenger, a. Omin-rirnumnbe.
Aver, v.f. Rqera (-e) lyirfyiri;
Averse, a. To have a feeling of
loathing towards, yaukta : I
dislike him, am imbe mn yauvkua,
lit., I him dislike ;
to be to, unwilling, declining,
pilkama ; sindhrara ; Ira ifavera,
-e: k'e naknitlarera ko = not
he- with consenting not, i.e.,
he does not consent to, is averse
to ;
to refuse, panda; to hate, fonda,
-o ; nyaenguia.
Aversion, n. E-yaqn (followed
by mo) : we dislike you, Iu
n'e/ay u m'ore, lit., we with
dislike, aversion in you ; you
make the people dislike you, mo
hia mo eyayu m'orandu, lit.,
you put in or between aver-
sion into people (by your rude
-, e-sindi ; e-zia ; o-ndi : he
has an aversion to food, as from
surfeiting, na t'ondi; cf. Loath-
ing ; Dislike ; Obstinacy ; Per-
verseness ; Unwillingness.
Avert, ev.. Screen, protect, cover,
1y/izikiiza = fi/rikiza ;
-, stop, turn off, lya-ra, -e ;
-, guard, watch, lyerera, -e.
Avoid, v..t/ i. Yepa, -e; -some


one (relative form), yepera, -e : end'eZ-tgi, lit., he -travels-hard,
he avoided me, ua !eppere ami = strong eye, i.e., keeping awake.
he turned aside for me ; Award, r./. To decide, judge,
-, evade, pen/a, -e ; pan-mga.
-, move out of the way, ciriuka : Aware, a. To know, ti/ia : I
'irulkira, -e; hJeng ultrh ; to am aware of the nnmtter, mba
make a turn in the road, ho- yilua, or, mbe n'oinrityiiro
nygoan't ; m'olfyina iti ;
-, quit, leave, isa ; to be -, conscious of, rii (ri-i,
-, as suspicious, bad people, &c., refl. = self know) I am not
huimiburuka ko = move away aware that I used bad words,
from : avoid them, Inlimburuleye amni lhi ri ku/lla mba tukana,
kl no. lit., I not I self know that -
A v o w, a. /. To declare, hitonJgona; I used abusive words.
to insist on, maintain, pander Awany, adt. Po or ko : take
(-e) po ; to acknowledge, con- away, isa po, or, i:a l.o, properly
fess, riliep)uia. take there (-from); come away,
Await, r.f. Uiadya,- ; uliira, i 'a po or za ko : away with you !
-e (= wait for) : lie is waiting saklo ; plmr. zako/e e
for them a long time, me- ml to be -, absent, ka ... po or ho:
mu 'lire orure, lit., he them they are away, absent, Ira re o;
waits for, expects-long time. the cow is away, lka i ko, lit.,
Awake, t'.. Pendtra : awake not.- it- here = ongoi be Ia i,
the servants, peadura orakarere; lit., the cow she gone
-, rouse, without its being in- -, gone, id, i: lie is away, is
tended that the sleeper should gone, mt i; they are (far) away,
get up, prop. startle, yandi- rai ia (ya) = ra ka.se.a = they -
i auin. distant; we go away, leave the
-, v.i. Awake and rise, pe-: place, cle mait i:
nduka ; take -, alienate, take by force,
-, startle, be roused in a start- i/eha, -e ;
ling way, yanlimuka ; make oneself -, run -, de-
-, to get -, to stretch the camp, heji, -e ;
limbs, rinana ozo-nyaayo ; to go -, to go far, 1kaseka ;
to keep -, kara lkaltmba (see turn -, turn round, ringinlrura
Watch); by itself, rinqi/rtka :
keep -, hold oneself strong, turn -, turn off, defend, screen,
overcome sleepiness, kanglama ; lyiiriki.: = t/i'iiza
to sit up, be watchful, yedlera ; move -, make room, huwnburu-
to be wakeful, keep -, elaqii rka (active, humburura);
or 'hangi ( = hard, firm, watch- -, ai: work away, ungura uri;
ful eye) : lie travels the whole fire away, rela (-e) wi;
night through, without a wink cast -, (y)imbirahi (perf. [y]i-
of sleep, ma ended k(lagi, or, ima mbircakire) ; nazuara.




Awe, n. i.' a-,'rimna; olCu-zezera;I
-. fear, o-ndiir'o ; to stand in
-, to be awe-struck, uruma.
-, r.f. Tirisa; urtmnisa; zezerisac.
Awful, a. -Urtni~i ; -tirise.
Awhile, adv. Kailii: wait a-
while, kuramca kalili = wait a
little (while) ;
-, ngunda: I wait awhile,
mni ngund' ame kilrama ; you
wait awhile, ove ngutul' amo
kurama; he waits awhile, eye
ngiund' amna kurama; (pret.: anmi
nwund'e kurama; ove njugnd'o
1/urama; eye nyuad'a Zurnima
= ami mend'e 1". ; ove mond'1o k.;
eye mand'a k.); negative: Ishall
not wait awhile, e ngqund'e kara-
mua, you shall not wait awhile,
o nyund'o Ikurama ; he shall not
wait awhile, a ngund'a ikurama.
Awkward, a. Unmnanered, un-
toward, naughty, pikapicka; fana-
lana; clumsy, weak, oli/inyundi;
,'oomlyundi; unhandy, not skil-
ful, ka sora, or ha sora.

Awkward n ess, n. Untoward-
ness, perverseness, ou-mbiia a;
omnu-yeru; weakness, clumnsi-
ness, ou-gnundi ; inability, oku-
Awl, n. O-ndungo.
Awry, a. -Yendi: it is awry,
oblique, Iti ri (ort)-yendi; -,
ohlendi; ondy!endi ; to be -,
lyika ; pilkama ; yenutma ; he- .
ndama ; cf. Aslant.
Axe, n. E-Lkuva ; -, iron instru-
ment for hollowing out, e-fokore;
oru-koroo ; -,usedlike a plane,
c-tiika; pick -, oili-ke; see
Ax-handle, n. Omu-pine.
Axle, Axle-tree, n. O-dsa.*
Ay, Aye, adv. Yes, yea, an-swer-
ing in the affirmative, i or ii
(pronounced with a slight nasal
twang); expressing assent, iyd.
Aye, ar/v. Always, ever, aruhe;
for ever, ariuJce nya arulle, or,
arluhe nga ko na/rt ullhe = always -
from now till always.

Babble, '.i. Ty/ckeha ; tyaka- Bachelorship, n. Ou-komobe.
fyaka; tyalkaura; (y)ondyorora ; Back, n. E-tambo ;
rendura: (y)ovana ; to indulge a crooked -, hunch-, .-,* '.I-
in noisy talk, rokoha ; dli ;
to between ; see Meddle. one with a broken, hollow -,
Babbler, n. Omu-loto; oimu-ndu n'omui-namine ; or i'o-cngdbo :
olyitCakanyo; omun-ondyorore; o- he has a broken, hollow back,
mui-re/i (idi/e. it )'o0/g(lmbo=u 0 n'o0utnamiinC ;
Babe, Baby, n. Omu-tariona ; at the -, kombunda; konygofte;
male -, omu-vena; sucking to turn one's to another,
child, omu-nyame. turn away from him, pa (pe,
Baboon, n. O-ndyima; dimin. pere) e-fambo : he turns away
oka-ima. from me, eye Ie ndyi pe efambo,
Bachelor, n. An unmarried per- lit., he he me gives (his)
son, male or female, o/lmu-kombe. back;


-, as of a chair, to lean on, Backside, n. 0-ngolue; at the
ofqi-uama. -, kongolwu y- ..
Back, v.t. To support, 1lia ; to Backslide, v.i. To relapse, wan-
protect, yamia. der, puka ; to apostatize, poka.
Back, adv. To come from, Backslider, n. Omi-puke ;
to return, kotoca ; apostate, omu-poke.
to go to, return to one's Backward, Backwards, adr.
home or former state, yaruka ; Etambo and plur. omalambo : he
to give -, to return, yarmra ; went in backwards, ua hitire
to turn -, yaruka kfomblikd ; elambo = he entered back
to look -, lara ikombula. they went in backwards, ra
Backbite, e./. Yamba : he hiire omalambo;
slauders his fellowmen, ma ya- -, ombuilia ; oldonya : he lies
mlba orakuao ; on the back, ua rara ondlonya=
-, kara n'o-nikoniko : he is a he lies back or backwards ;
backbiter, u n'onikontiko = he -, "i,* b/...,.-: he fell back-
with backbiting ; i wards over, ua uire onIlyeidye ;
-, Ilara e-raka : he that back- -, olyihahambiunta, or olyihehe-
biteth not with his tongue nor mbutila : he goes backward like
doeth evil to his neighbour, a crab, ma ende otyi/elhembiuda;
i7g(u a I ara erakat na flyii ouri cf. Behind ; Backpart.
k'omuktuao, lit., who not car- B Backward, a. Slow, late, be-
ries- tongue- and does-evil to hind, -roze ; oltizerae : a slow,
fellowman; backward person, omnn'lu olyi-
-, whisper, hokiora. zene ; a slow ox, keeping at
Backbiter, a. Onm-yambl ; the back of the herd, ongomli,
whisperer, omu-holkorise ; false oft!qiene ;
accuser, omu-kuminiae (orineila to be -, slow, nyonganyonga ;
or ovizeze) ; -, ngu ?'oniko-' nyongoha ;
n i"o. in recovering froni illness, of
Backbiting, n. Oma-yamIbe an infant in learning to walk,
(slander words) ; o-ndlamlbo ; &c., oruapomla.
oma-inlyambo ; oma-ku-Amninoi Backwardness, n. E-seno ; e-
ooriee/a, (false accusation); alo ; otlyi-zenge.
oma-hokorisiro whisperings) ; Bacon, aj. Pork, o-nyama y'o-
o-mbikauida (double-dealing); mbiltla=flesh of a pig;
-, o-mikoniko; ozo-huculu. the solid fat, growing on the
Backbone, n. Omu-ngqo; plur.' flesh of the giraffe and other
omi-ano0. game, cut off in pieces like
Backpart n. Hinder part, ol/i- bacon, and generally claimed
koiNtdmbunda ; -, back, pos- by the successful hunter, oru-
teriors, otyi-hahambulwda : eye! lonea, or olyi-tlamuleaya.
a, wire otyilthambundica, lit., iBad, a. In quality, and morally,
lie -he -fell-(on his) posteriors. -vi (-mbi): a bad individual,



omundu omuvi; bad meat, o- Bake, v.l. To make loaves, pro-
lamna ombi ; anything -, oftqi- perly to flatten, vanda;
vi ; that is bad oloklui ; very to bread, &c., tereka, -e ;
bad indeed olrkouri li/ineno ; to bricks in a kiln, properly
-, without taste, as food, or to harden, kaingura.
void of sense, as a speech, -hahn Baker, n. Nq/ n ma tfereke o-mbo-
(cf. Insipid) : rolo* = who he bakes- bread,
- sour milk, oma-ror'omuni i.e., one who bakes bread; omu-
onut-ere omaOoronmui ': iereke omnboroto = baker of
thoroughly -, spoiled, hahavkla; bread.
too bad ih, i.i, (interj.); Balance, v.0. To hold or keep
morally -, wicked, -rucide steadily, evenly, yamna: balance
omu-ru/nd1; the pad (on your head), yanyja
to be -, wicked, n'oi'i ; n'ou- onjgata (see Pad), keep the ongat~
rImae : he is a. ad, wicked in an even position that the
fellow, v n'ouri or u n'ourunide; water carried thereon may not
to have health, to be sickly, run down upon your head ;
weak, ot/ingiudi. to -, make equal, to weigh, to
Badge, /. Ol/i-haf.o. measure by weight, simeka, -e ;
-, v.. HRlak. SIanrera, -e.
Badger, 1. O-here; o-ndolo. Balance, a. Equilibrium, oi'u-
Badly, ad. Ya'vi: you work yanga ; -, scales for weighing,
badly, mo Iungara nari. o011i-sanelekro.
Badness, n. Ou-ri; a bad thing, Bald, a. N'e-uu: lie is bald, u
ol/i-vi ; wickedness, oii-runde ; niPeu1U.
ou-vi. Balderdash, n. Talking non-
Baffle, v.1. To play the fool; sense, oku-fyeirkha;r olku-renmicla.
with, to mock, deceive, oreka, -e ; Baldness, u. E-uun : partial-,
to elude, by artifice, shifts or bald spots on the head, e-paru.
turns, likura Bale, n. 0-huto.
to cause to fail, pa'irisa ; -,v.1. Tomakeupinabale, hula,
to confuse, pitruklti.sa; -u ; to shrink together when
to confound, defeat, lona ; feeling cold, literally to make
to thwart. frustrate, tyaera, -e. oneself up in a bale, riula,, -u.
Bag, 1t. O-ndqalu ; a small -, Baleful, a. Full of misery, ex-
oka-atl ; citing pity, niigisi o-Idyenyda;
a of a large size, olyi-lendelko ; full of mischief, pernicious, dead-
a hard dry skin -, or anything ly, n'olyipo ; n'ozonloioze : he
making a rustling noise, olyi- is a pernicious fellow, u n'ozo-
urulcute ; ;ii'ondoze ;
a platted or woven -, e-kulrt. -, bad, hurtful, -ri.
Bait, n. Ol/i-hemeneno; allure- Balk, v./. See Baffle: Disap-
ment, okt-hemeIna ; temptation, point; Thwart.
oku-rora. Ball, 2. O-hanga.



Ballad, n. Story, e-htinri ; a olyi-kere : bank of a river, olyi-
story for singing, omut-roro. kere tI/'ondondu :
Balloon, n. E-balona.* -, edge, brink, oli/i-fqene ; oru-
Bamb oozle, v.t. Yovisa ; vo- tyene ; oyi-hkoro ;
via ; voua, -o ; (v)ovel ', -e. of a river generally, onite-
Band, n. A tie, ribbon, oru- kcwro; omu-na oldondod = lip
vanda, or oru-mbanda ; of a river.
ties, fetters, e-pando or plur.oma- Bankrupt, a. Unable to pay,
pando : he is bound, fettered, emptied, ranla on /icqa : va ra-
n n'epando = ma pandelkua ; mdere oungjuiaa, lit., he-bought -
-, a united row or number of (with) an empty bag (on credit,
men or cattle, a herd or corn- but will never pay).
pany of people, oru-panda; ol/i- Bankruptcy, n. O-niinga,
mbcnmba ; probably (o-mliqahi) o-ngicnga=
of men sent out to recon- empty bag ; o1ut-rtndaa oniginga.
noitre, hence also or troop of Banner, it. Color, olyi-rara;
traders, hunters, robbers, orIt- flag, o-nqtyuti, or o-ig/ityu y'orita.
khongo : the people are collecting Banquet, n. Ome-k/andi.
in a troop (for the chase, war, Banter, v.1. i/c'J r, -e.; niye-
or a trading expedition), orandu kcrera, -e; nunicsa.
va skramis' orukcongo, lit., people- Banter, i. O-ncyekervro ; o-nle-
they do rise or raise troop or kion iero: he is full of jokes,
band ; ovandul va endle orv1konqo, n?.' ,,,,,, q, 1.,.
lit., men they go or travel Ban n s, a. Okle-zwiariwa.
(in) a troop ; Bantling, ,. See Infant ; Child.
of warriors, robbers, ori-lt. Baptize, Vc.. l'capetilc.
Band, v./. Hanqu ; hangliuec. Baptism, n. O-mbapeli'.smo.*
Bandage, .. Olka-papul (used Bar, v./. As a cattle kraal or fold
e.g. by women in confinement, with a pole or branch, yezera,
dimin. of olgi-pacpu = a piece -e ; to hinder, lI jlrra, -e.
of a skin). Bar, ia. Olyi-yrezere ; olyi-papeko.
Banish, r.t. Ramba, or, rambc'ra Bare, a. Naked, mut'u ; orei-
(-e) i' .. ,. njtI::u ;
Bane, i. Mischief, ot-ri; otyi- head, aldlness, r- la ;
po ; ruin, oiki-ta. spot on the head or skin, as
Baneful, a. -17 (-mbi) ; nolipFo; b)y buniing, &C., e-pari : he has
yona, -o. a bare spot on his head, t n'e-
Bang, n. Omnbosiro (tyi. mayi Ipanm k'otlyu re ;
lono parakala) = noise (when- -, empty, lio=kh rce ta : I am
it- strikes "parakata", prob. bare, possess nothing, mbi ri
mimetic of the noise of a lyo=nf.ba kritcka ; the field is
stroke). i buite bare, there is no grass left,
B ank, n. A mound of carth, an okhl-ui klta kIru'Ika, lit., the field-
embankment or side of a river, it-is shaved;



-, stripped, tl/aara : I am bare, Barking, n. Oku-yuinira.
without covering, Itbiri tilaara; Barley, Ori-qiarasa.*
-, wanting ointment, not shin- Barn, n. Olyi-pviko ; oru-puiko.
ing from grease, grey, having Barrel, n. Olyii-horo.
the appearance of a Hill-damara, Barren, a. Of animals, male
-k u. ; and female, onilandli ;
a field, (ohi-li.) o-mlan(a o ; of men, male and female, omnu-
- foot, ohmna : the man is ifandyli, but also oafland/!i ;
ibarefloo, onmundiu r ii 'h1 nam ; -, oruniuini : a barren sheep,
-, wild, empty, -kturuitlu. ondu oruni//uini ; yomanua ;
Bareness, Ou-nigtJrlnt;, nla- romonona : more than once the
kedness, olmu-su; o-herda: he cow has been expected to calve,
fled naked, left all behind, va but she remains barren, ongombe
iutalh o/heir = va .seu of 'aara; mai romonona (also the cow has
-, want of ointment, o-i0nyze: bad, watery milk).
u ai'onyijUe = he with bareness, Barrenness, /. Ori-lranga ; of-
he is bare of ointment ; nandyi;
-, want of hair on the skin, of the field, o-ngaango ; o-
or0t1-it/uza ; aurithli.
-, want of growth, wilderness, Barricade, n. A strong fence,
o-iiijuantfo. orut-mbo.
B arely, adh. Porui...(porua(/go, Barrier, n. Olyi-tyareroo.
porayoo, &c.); iri; see Scarcely. Barter, v.l. Pimlba, -i ; pinba-
Barg'ain, n. lcana okvuralnda : .ana ; raiula.
we have finished the bargain, Base, a. Bad, -ri (-mbi); wick-
tlta Irnia tha iaia = we- buy- ed, -runde.
in', selling-we-finished ; Base, n. Bottom, opo-paclei : at
a good -, good hick, o-igamnibuii; the bottom or base, pona popJ -
to give into the -, hoha, -o: he kehi :
gave one into the bargain, Ia -, place to stand on, to be
holu're inmi. Erected on, oila-lr(aniiino ;
Bark, n. Ofqi-lalu; inner -, -, lower part of anything, ot/i-
orat-ha; omu-huira (the latter unda ;
being used for twisting cords). -, foot of a mountain, o-/henqo
Bark, v.i. Yulkira, : the dog yonidiiuu.
is good for nothing, he does not Base-born, a. Illegitimate in
bark, ombua kra i yu/kire, ka i birth, e-kombez:umioo; cf. Bastard.
noriinqitjra, lit., the dog not- Baseness, n. Badness, ou-vi;
he barks not he with works wickedness, on-runde.
or use; to be barked at, guthirua: Bashful, a. N'ohoni ; t'ohoni:
what am I barked at for ? fyi the child is bashful, omuatye ui
uba /uk'irua gnai, muba tilli ? inokoni, or, ma t'ohoni ;
lit., if 1 am barked at thus -, n'omburna : lie is timid or
I- did (what, to deserve it ?). bashful, u n'ombutorua.




Bashfulness, n. O-lhoni; 'Bathe, c.i. Rikrohla, -o; (cf.
-, timidity, omna-itgena : omit- Swim) ; to moisten, lyatyia.
patlayira; see Shame. Batter, r.t. To throw down,
Basin, n. A vessel, dish, &c., cause to fall to the ground, uisa
olyi-ala; I rhi; to push, strike against,
-, pond, pool, e-,rindi; in a peri- yumlura; -, throwdown, nata;
odical riverbed, olii-zera ; ot/i-i fala pehi : he shot or struck
sema ; ]himl down, ue mt la/a pehi=he-
water -, Dutch kolk," con- him struck flat on the ground.
training water, in a rock, or in a Battle, t t Ofy i-rua; olk-rva-
dry riverbed, e-o ; nn
a deep valley, mountain -, olii- plac2, field, oly'-omaruiro.
huo. B awl, v.i. Raraera, -e ; 1ra, -u;
Bask, e.i. ol, or ota, -o : I am randara.
basking in the sun, mine ool Bav, n. O-mbaie ;
(rquta, lit., 1 scoop, lade out to keep at -, pirnua ; causative,
(the warmth of) the sun. pirura : the dogs cause the ox
Basket, j. A hamper, ol/i- to take a stand and keep them
hanla ; oval-shaped -, made at bay, ozombua za pirira o-
of roots, orn-ako ; flat -, nmombe ; ongfombe ya pirukac =
orit-nyura ; milk -, olyi-ko- ox it has taken a stand, faces
mona ; its pursuers, keeps them at bay.
-, generally, o/i-mbamba : Bayonet, n. E-nfqa r'ondyembo.
nmd are you not going to buy a Be, v.i. Ri (no imperative): so
basket and take (carry) her (thle he it! prop., so it is o!/mi ku ri
little girl) with you therein ? nait lit., thus-it-is (or be) -so;
mn I ka mu ni1akukaranda o/qi- where is he? i ri pi-; where
mbamba n'a'ir mu mue mui are they? re ri pi; and then I
Iorere ? lit., and cnt ye-with went, a rire li/i mba i (abbrevi-
going to buy a basket and ated, ae iyi mba i) = then (it) -
forthwith therein ye her was that I went
take with (you) there (-in). (subjuict.) might or be-
Bas tard, n. Offspring of parents come, rira, -e : I want you to
of different colour, a mulatto, go, niya rie ore nyu mca ended,
otyli-londo ; lit., that it be you who he-
illegitimate child, e-kombezumo, goes; let their e be light, nyacpe
(contracted from e-ui/no=preg- rire onyerera ; might it be
nancyand omu-kiombe=spinster: mine! ac rire olyamndy!e = oh
ekombezumo = spinster preg- that (it) be or become mine;
nanicy). -, kara (prop. sit, stay ; cf.
Bat, n. O-ndiri. Sit, Stay): be brave, be a hero!
Bath, n. Ome-ra omakohe ; oma- kara epenla or kara ombande ;
olhore ; place for bathing, oma- it is not in its place, 1k i kara,
1:'ohero. a i ko, lit., where-it -(usually)

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs