Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Afrikaans - Engels
 Tekens en Afkortings
 Afrikaanse Spelreëls
 Back Matter

Group Title: Woordeboek: Afrikaans-Engels, Engels-Afrikaans : en die jongste spelreels van die akademie.
Title: Woordeboek Afrikaans-Engels, Engels-Afrikaans
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072640/00001
 Material Information
Title: Woordeboek Afrikaans-Engels, Engels-Afrikaans en die jongste spelreels van die akademie
Physical Description: 2 v. in 1 (xxix, 716 p.) : ;
Language: Afrikaans
Creator: Kritzinger, Matthys Stefanus Benjamin, 1896-
Steyn, H. A ( Hendrik Abraham )
Publisher: Van Schaik
Place of Publication: Pretoria
Publication Date: 1943
Subject: Afrikaans language -- English -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
English language -- Afrikaans -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
Genre: dictionary   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072640
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13527320

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Afrikaans - Engels
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Tekens en Afkortings
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Afrikaanse Spelreëls
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
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        Page xxx
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    Back Matter
        Page 391
        Page 392
Full Text

nr fi))brjRl

deur T. KRIEL
van die Bothsabel6 Opleidingskool.
'n Boekie wat bale nuttige diens sal doen by die lei
Sothotaal. Onmisbaar vir almal wat die taal van die natural
wil leer verstaan.
Prys 4/6 -

met 'n verklaring van die betekenis en die Engelse ekwivalent,
Twaalfde, hersiene druk.
Prys 5/- -

deur dr. H. A. STEYN.
Hierdie boek bevat die verklaring van 10,000 woorde en is
'r poging om die leerling van 'n goedkoop woordeboekie te voor-
sien. Slegs die woorde waarvan die kind die betekenis ver-
moedelik nie sal ken nie, is opgeneem. Die werkie sal onge-
twyfeld die kinders kan help om hulle taal better te verstaan.
Prys 4/-

Duits-Afrikaans EN Afrikaans-Duits
deur dr. GUTSCHE, dr. SCHULZE en dr. STEYN.
1050 bis Prys 10/8.
Dis die mees volledige en met die meeste sorg saamgestelde
Duitse Woordeboek.








Dr. H. A. STEYN, M.A., M.ED.,

Dertiende hersiene en uitgebreide druk


Die woordeboek is gedruk op paper wat
spesiaal vir hierdie boek in Suid-Afrika ge-
maak is.

- Gedruk in Pretoria en uitgegee deur -
J. L. van Schaik, Bpk., Uitgewers, Pretoria.



Daar Afrikaans so'n buitengewone vordering gemaak het, dat hy vandag
aanspraak maak op sy regmatige plek naas Engels in ons tweetalige land, is
die behoefte aan 'n Afrikaans-Engelse en Engels-Afrikaanse woordeboek bale
begryplik. Maar dis 'n dringende behoefte dit word veral in die skool
gevoel en onmiddellike voorsiening is noodsaaklik.
Dis egter eers na sterk aandrang van verskillende vrinde dat.ons besluit
het om hierdle sakwoordeboek saam te stel.
Ons gee hier net die noodsaaklike. Met die oog op die beperkte ruimte
het ons getrag om hoofsaaklik grondwoorde te gee. Teveel samestellinge en
afleidinge kon nie opgeneem word nie. Tegniese terme en idiomatiese uitdruk-
kinge moes ons agterwe6 laat. Aan die ander kant het .ons weer woorde
opgeneem wat in die woordelys van die S.A. Akademie vir Taal, Lettere en
Kuns nie gevind word nie, omdat die woordelys nie trag om volledig te wees
nie. Dan het ons ook aandag geskenk aan bale gebruikte vorme van skrywers.
Immers die taal is 'n lewende organisme en waar groei is, is 'n keurslyf mis-
plaas. Tot ons spyt kan ons die gewysigde spelreels nie opneem nie, omdat
die Akademie dit nog nie in druk uitgegee het nie. Die spelling gevolg is
egter die van die Akademie.
Daar is enigsins afgewyk van die metode in ander woordeboeke gevolg.
Waar 'n selfstandige naamwoord en 'n werkwoord of byvoeglike naamwoord
dieselfde spelling het, is net een woord gegee, b.v. haat (s) hatred; (w) to hate;
of bly (w) to stay, remain; (b) glad. Die rededele is egter aangedui deur die
letters tussen hakies.
Dankbare gebruik het ons kon maak van die volgende boeke, o.a.:
Patriot Woordeboek,
Kaapsch-Hollandsche Idioticon van Dr. Mansvelt,
Africanderisms van Rev. Pettman,
Handy Vocabulary van Hunt,
Afr. Duitse Woordelys (Cap-Hollandisch) van Dr. Hoogenhout,
Nederl. Eng. Woordeboek van Elffers & Viljoen.
Nederl. Eng. Woordeboek van C. J. van Rijn,
Nederl. Eng. Woordeboek van ten Bruggencate,
Nederl. Eng. Woordeboek van Kramer,
Engelse Woordeboek van Chambers.
Ons betuig ons hartlike dank aan dr. T. H. le Roux van die Transvaalse
Universiteitskollege vir sy inleiding en gewaardeerde wenke.
Ons opregte dank ook aan mnr. F. H. Duvenage, B.A., van Steynsburg
vir sy hulp wat ons baie op prys stel.
Van welwillende beoordelaars sal ons graag op- en'aanmerkinge ontvang.
As hierdie boekie lets mog bydra ter bevordering van Afrikaans sal wel beloon
wees die

Pretoria, BEWERKERS.
Potchefstroom, Maart 1921.


Daar dit nodig geword het, weens die wysiging in die spelling van vreemde
woorde in Afrikaans, om hierdie woordeboek te hersien, het ons van die
geleentheid gebruik gemaak om die grammatiese uitgange, soos in die
Woordelys van die Akademie en die uitspraak, soos in die groot Woordeboek
van Kritzinger, Steyn, Schoonees, Cronj6, ook in hierdie uitgawe aan te bring.
Die grammatiese uitgange van onredlmatige woorde en die uitspraak in die
Engels-Afrilaanse gedeelte is aangegee volgens die jongste uitgawe van die
Oxford Concise Dictionary. Die boek is teens ook aanmerklik uit-
gebreider as sy voorgangers.
Ons het 'n dankbare gebruik gemaak van die resente uitgawes van
bestaande woordeboeke.
Aan die hand van die Stellenbosse ooreenkoms het ons die spelreels
Ons is dank verskuldig aan dr. J. G. A. Arndt van Bloemfontein vir
waardevolle suggesties en aan dr. P. de V. Pienaar van Johannesburg vir
ienke in verband met die uitspraak van Afrikaanse klanke.

Oktober 1933.


Hierdie nuwe druk is 'n hersiening van die vorige een. Nie alleen is feile
verwyder en meer betekenisse bygevoeg nie, maar 'n paar duisend nuwe
woorde het bygekom.
December 1942.


Verboe vorme van woorde word tussen hakies aangegee en in vet letter
direk na die woord gedruk.

(1) Strepies: -, -. 'n Strepie vervang die woord soos hy staan: Nipper-
tjie, op die -, beteken: op die nippertjie.
Na selfstandige naamwoorde beteken dit: voeg die letters) by
die woord vir die meervoud: eend (-e) = eend, eende; dame (-s) =
dame, dames; kind (-ers) = kind, kinders. Twee letters of letter-
grepe voorafgegaan deur strepies beteken die woord het twee meer-
voude: leeu (-e, -s) = leeu, leeue, leeus; as (-se, -te) = as, asse,
aste. Na byvoeglike naamwoorde en bywoorde gee dit te kenne: voeg
die letters by vir die trappe van vergelyking: lelik (-e, -er, -ste) =
lelik, lelike, leliker, lelikste. Na werkwoorde beteken dit: voeg,
vir die verlede deelwoord, ge voor die woord: loop (ge.) = loop,
geloop; voeg ge tussen die dele van die woord: weggaan (-ge-) =
weggaan, weggegaan; herhaal die woord: vervat (-), = vervat,
vervat; werkwoorde op -eer mag die voorvoegsel ge h6 of nie;
varieer (ge-, -), = varieer, gevarieer, varieer.

(II) Kolletjies Orals waar die spelling van verboe vorme verander,
word sulke veranderings voorafgegaan deur twee kolletjies; orgaan
(..gane) = orgaan, organe; musikaal (..kale, .kaler, -ste) =
musikaal, musikale, musikaler, musikaalste.

(III) Ronde Hakies: (). Ronde hakies om 'n letter of letters in 'n woord
beteken dat die woord met of sonder daardie letters) gespel word:
feit(e)lik = feitelik of feitlik; gemeng(d) = gemengd of gemeng.

(IV) Vierkant Hakies [ ]. Vierkant hakies om 'n woord of letter beteken
dat die woord selde so gebruik word, gewoonlik net by groot klem
of oordragtelik: arm [-e], -er, -ste: arme word selde gebruik.


b = byvoeglike naamwoord. tw = telwoord.
bw = bywoord. vgw = voegwoord.
my = meervoud. vs = voorsetsel.
s = selfstandige naamwoord. vw = voornaamwoord.
tussenw. = tussenwerpsel. w = werkwoord.


Die Afrikaanse Spelling wil:
(1) die algemeen gebruiklike uitspraak in beskaafde Afrikaans weer.
(2) by die Vereenvoudigde Nederlandse Spelling (V.N.S.) aansluit en
nie onnodig daarvan afwyk nie;
(3) sover moontlik gelykvormig wees.

Bostaande grondbeginsels geld mutatis mutandis vir elke spellingsisteem
wat nie konsekwent foneties is nie. En daar 'n spelling in die eerste plaas vir
die publiek en nie vir taalgeleerdes bedoel is nie, kan dit nooit strong foneties
wees nie. Maar dan is dit 'n regmatige eis dat dit veral prakties moet wees,
en dit kan in die geval van Afrikaans alleen bereik word op die grondslag van
bogenoemde algemene beginsels.
Dit is verder duidelik dat hierdie beginsels mekaar aanvul, maar dat hulle
ook ten dele met mekaar in stryd is. Waar hulle in stryd met mekaar kom,
moet wat die swaarste is, die swaarste weeg. Hier word hulle nader verduidelik,
en die toepassing daarvan in die praktyk met voorbeelde toegelig. Vir.besonder.
hede moet die verskillende spelreels en die Woordelys geraadpleeg word.
Eerste Grondbeginsel. Die Afrikaanse klankstelsel toon nog groot
ooreenkoms met die van Nederlands. Daarom is dit begryplik dat die Afri-
kaanse spelling eweneens groot ooreenkoms met die Nederlandse sal toon.
Waar egter in die algemeen-beskaafde Afrikaanse uitspraak duidelike
afwykinge van die Nederlandse uitspraak voorkom, word die afwykinge ook
in die reel in die Afrikaanse spelling weergegee. Gevolglik word o.a. die
Ndl. sch, z en v (tussen 'n beklemtoonde en 'n swak beklemtoonde klinker)
in Afrik. vervang deur sk, s en w (vir sover die w in die Afrik. uitspraak nog
gehoor word). Ons skryf dus by. skaap, skoen, skoon teenoor Ndl. schaap,
schoen, school; sang, so, sorg teenoor Ndl. zang, zo, zorg; grawe, lewe,
slawe teenoor Ndl. graven, leven, slaven; maar slavin nes in Ndl.
Weens die duidelike verskil tussen die Afrik. en die Ndl. uitspraak skryf
ons dus in afwyking van die V.N.S. o.a. during, harsings, hoof, karring,
lus, mus, oggend, oomblik, soggens, stip, yster, ens., hoewel die volgende
spelling met die V.N.S. sou ooreenstem of-anders nader daaraan sou staan:
doom of doren, hersens, hoofd, karn, lust, muts, ogtend, oanblik of ogen-
blik, sogtends, stipt,- yser. Dit geskied dan in stryd met grondbeginsels (2)
en (3), want naas hierdie gevalle kom dieselfde grondwoord voor in fleksie-
vorme, samestellinge en afleidinge wat weens hul geringer bekendheid of om
water rede ook al nader san die Nederlandse staan of selfs daarmee ooreen-
stem, sodat dieselfde woord nie altyd in al sy vorme op dieselfde manier gespel
kan word nie. Aansluiting by die V.N.S. kan dus nie konsekwent deurgevoer
en die reel van die gelykvormigheid nie strong gehandhaaf word nie. Teenoor
harsings staan hersenskim; teenoor hoof het ons hoofde, hoofdelik, styf-

hoofdig, ens.; teenoor lus weer lustig, lusteloos; teenoor oomblik kry ons
o0dienaar, oe(n)skou, oenskynlik, teenoor stip staan stiptelik, stiptheid.
Dit is nie net by vreemde woorde waar ons die grondbeginsel van die gelyk-
vormigheid dikwels geweld moet aandoen nie. Absolute spellingkonsekwensie
word deur die taalontwikkeling self onmoontlik gemaak.
Waar verskillende vorme van dieselfde woord in algemeen-beskaafde
gebruik bestaan, daar word die verskillende vorme ook erken. Hier kan
alleen die gebruik uitmaak water vorm op die duur sal seevier. Dikwels
is dit nie uit te maak water van twee, soms meer vorme die gebruiklikste is
nie. In sulke gevalle is die erkenning van dubbelvorme onvermydelik. Die
alternatief is om tussen twee of meer vorme te kies, en dit kan alleen min of
meer willekeurig geskied. Daarom skryf ons aalwee naas aalwyn, aartappel
naas ertappel, deuntjie naas duintjie, dubbeltjie naas duwweltjie, ken naas
kin, m6re naas more, n6i naas nooi, soep naas sop, soetjies naas suutjies,
vlees naas vleis, wasser naas waster, ens. Daar bestaan veral 'n groot ver-
skeidenheid van werkwoordelike wisselvorme, waarvan die volgende as voor-
beelde kan dien: bied, biee of bie; droog, droe of dro; geloof, gelowe
of glo; klaag, klae of kla; leef of lewe; ploeg, ploee of ploe; skryf of
skrywe; sorg, sorge of s6re; spoe, spoeg, spu of spuug; terg, terge of tire;
weeg, wee of wee, ens. (Vir die behandeling van die verskillende soorte
van wisselvorme vgl. die volgende paragraaf, III.)
Ooreenkomstig die eerste grondbeginsel word afwykinge van die
,,algemeen-gebruiklike" Afrikaanse uitspraak dus nie in ons spelling erken nie.
Daarom skrywe ons by. baie, bietjie, bobotie, hekel, kleedjie, sosatie en
nie baiing of banja, biekie, boebotie, hiekel, kleidjie, soesatie nie.
Volgens bogenoemde beginsel moet die uitspraak nie alleen ,,algemeen-
gebruiklik" wees nie, maar ,,algemeen-beskaafd" om as norm vir die spelling
te dien. Daarom skryf ons by. agent, amandel, gemeente, gesig, goewer-
ment, grawe, huis, magtig, pension, perskes, terpentyn, turksvye, vinnig
en nie agint, amangel, gemeinte, geseg, gowermint, grou, heis (of hys),
magtag, spensioen, sperskies, tarmtyn, sturksvye, vinnag nie.

Tweede Grondbeginsel.-Waar die Afrikaanse uitspraak nog groot oor-
eenkoms met die Nederlandse vertoon, wyk die Afrikaanse spelling om
historiese en kulturele redes nie onnodig van die V.N.S. af nie. In ooreen-
stemming met hierdie beginsel behou ons by. ei naas y, al stel hulle, nes ei
en ij in die V.N.S., dieselfde klankverbinding voor, soos in veil naas vyl,
feit naas fyt, lei naas ly, Mei naas my, peil naas pyl, reis naas rys, steil
naas styl, wei naas wy, ens. Daarom behou ons ook f naas v al stel hulle
anders as in die V.N.S., by ons dieselfde klank voor, by. in fat naas vat,
fee naas vee, fell naas veil, fel naas vel, fier naas vier, fonds naas vonds,
fors naas vors, frank naas vrank, ens. In sulke gevalle was ons meestal verplig
om die betekenisverskille kortliks tussen hakies aan te dui.
In ooreenstemming met die tweede grondbeginsel skrywe ons verder
aambeeld, aambeie, aamborstig, aarbeie, aasvoel, hamel, hamer, ook,
ens., hoewel die vorme met 'n kort klinker, nl. ambeeld; ambeie, amborstig,
arbeie, asvoel, hammel, hammer, ok in Afrikaans baie gebruiklik is. In
hierdie gevalle het die reeling veral die prakliese voordeel dat dubbelvorme
daardeur vermy word. Dieselfde geld van spelling soos ekspres, konstabel,
krioel, padda, passabel, sabel, spandabel, stadig, ens., hoewel in Afrikaans
dikwels aspres, konstawel, kerjoel, parra, passawel, sawel, spandawel,
starig, gehoor word..

Derde Grondbeginsel. Hierdie algemene reel eis dat dieselfde woord
of woordelement sover moontlik altyd op dieselfde manier geskryf moet
word, m.a.w. dat by die spelling van die grondwoord en sy samestellinge,
afleidinge en fleksievorme sover moontlik rekening gehou moet word met
die gelykvormigheid. Daarom skrywe ons by. nie hant, rip en stat nie, maar
hand, rib en stad met die oog op hande, handel, handig, ribbe, ribbebeen,
ribbetjie, stede, stedelik. Aan die ander kant skryf ons in afwyking van die
V.N.S. krap, krip, lit, stat (Kafferstat) na die voorbeeld van krappe, krippe,
little, state, ens. Daarom skrywe ons ook ent naas end met die oog op
ente naas einde(s), eindig, ens. 'n Woord soos perd kry ooreenkomstig
die eerste grondbeginsel 'n ander klinker as in Ndl., maar 'n d soos in Ndl.
en soos in die meervoud perde (volgens grondbeginsels 2 en 3), hoewel die
Afrikaanse uitspraak sou eis pert (enkv.) en pare (my.).
In ooreenstemming met die grondbeginsel van die gelykvormigheid skrywe
ons by woorde met klinkers wat verswak het of besig is om te verswak tot 'n
swak beklemtoonde e meestal die ouer en voller vorm. Daarom skrywe ons
by. stoffasie en nie steffasie nie, met die oog op stof, stoflik, stoffeer; skadu-
wee, en nie skadewee nie, met die oog op skadu, skadusy, oorskadu; senu-
wee, nie senewee nie na die voorbeeld van ontsenu, senulyer, senusiekte,
ens. Daarom skrywe ons ook in samestellinge daardie, daarnatoe, hierdie,
hoeveel,.soveel, ens., en nie darie, danatoe, hierie, hoevel, suffel nie.
Maar in baie gevalle is die samestellende dele so verswak in klank of
verbleek in betekenis dat die verwantskap met die grondwoord heeltemal nie
meer gevoel word nie. Daar is natuurlik allerlei grade van verbleking van die
verband. Gevolglik kry ons vol en verbleekte vorme van dieselfde woorde
naas mekaar in samestellinge. Daarom skrywe ons oorheen en voorheen,
maar naas soheentoe ook soontoe; naas bowendien kry ohs boonop en
boontoe. Sulke verbleekte samestellinge is by. almal, heeltemal, summer
(naas somaar), soos, water, ens.
Ook hier weer is absolute spellingkonsekwensie onmoontlik: die bestaan
van wisselvorme naas mekaar is 'n natuurlike gevolg van taalontwikkeling.


Ter will van die oorsigtelikheid gee ons hier 'n kort samevatting van die
vernaamste soorte wisselvorme en van die manier waarop hulle behandel is
en in die Woordelys aangedui word. Vir meer besonderhede verwys ons
daarheen en na die verskillende spelreels.
(1) Die gewone gevalle van wisselvorme eis nouliks 'n nader verklaring.
Ons gee by. ken of kin en in alfabetiese volgorde verderop kin of ken.
Dit is vanselfsprekend dat party wisselvorme dan wonder aparte letters
gevind sal word, soos aartappel of ertappel wonder A en ertappel of
aartappel wonder E. By ander weer word die alfabetiese volgorde nie
geraak nie, soos in die geval van m6re of more. Kortheidshalwe
skrywe ons by. so(e)p i.p.v. soep of sop, maar om die naslaan te ver-
gemaklik, word so'n woord na gelang van die alfabetiese volgorde
op verskillende plekke aangegee..
By samestellinge word die wisselvorme (asook die meervoudsvorme)
nie noodwendig herhaal nie, aangesien hulle reeds by die grondwoord
aangegee is. Naas saad kry ons by. saat met die oog op die meer-
voudsvorme sate naas sade. Maar in ou samestellinge gee ons gewoonlik
alleen die ouer vorm, by. radbraak, hoewel die selfstandige naamwoord

in Afrikaans gewoonlik rat, ratte is. Dit hang natuurlik enigsins van
die aard van die geval af. Dit is nog 'n rede waarom by samestellinge
nie altyd wissel- en meervoudsvorme aangegee word nie.
Soms bestaan daar by sulke wisselvorme betekenisverskille. Die
gebruiker van die Woordelys sal nie alle onderskeidinge aangedui vind
nie, maar moet onthou dat dit 'n spellinglys is virpraktiese doeleindes
en nie 'n grammatika of woordeboek nie.
Werkwoordelike wisselvorme soos skryf of skrywe word by same-
stellinge meer konsekwent aangegee, omdat die vorme eintlik buite
die fleksie staan, d.w.s. hulle tree nie net by die verbuiging of ver-
voeging op nie. Dit word ook by ander vorme buite die fleksie gedaan,
soos by bespieeling naas bespiegeling, eienaardig naas eigenaardig,
goal naas gogel, loanstraf naas logenstraf, ens.
In ander gevalle was dit onprakties om by samestellinge alle wissel.
vorme op te neem. Woorde saamgestel met bo of bowe, mede of
mee, na of naar, oop of ope, oor of ower, saam of same, tei of teen,
kan as voorbeelde hiervan dien. In 'n Woordelys wat ten opsigte
van spellingkwessies prakties wil wees, kon ons alleen leading probeer
gee en nie na volledigheid strewe nie.
(2) Verlede deelwoorde van werkwoorde op -eer word in die Woordelys
alleen aangegee in die vorm met ge-, by. gealieneer, geinformeer,
geprotesteer, hoewel daar ook vorme sonder ge- voorkom: aliEneer,
informeer, protesteer. Al is hulle nie opgeneem nie, word sulke
ge-lose vorme tog erken.
(3) Byvoeglik gebruikte verlede deelwoorde kan dikwels (soms na gelang
van die betekenis) voorkom met of sonder 'n slot-d; in die verboe
vorm lry hulle altyd -de. Daaromn skrywe ons in sulke gevalle kort-
heidshalwe bv. besorg(d), -de, geleer(d), -de. (Vgl. die spelreel oor
slot-d, Reel 22.)
(4) Bale byvoeglike naamwoorde word sowel verboe as onverboe gebruik,
meestal met verskil van betekenis, by. die aim man, maar die arme
drommel. In sulke gevalle het ons gewoonlik die e-tjie tussen hakies
geplaas, by. arm, (-e).
(5) Byvoeglike naamwoorde op -lik en -loos, bywoorde op -lik en -liks
en selfstandige naamwoorde op -ling en -nis kom dikwels voor in vorme
met en sonder die swak beklemtoonde e voor die uitgang. Faktore soos
gevoelswaarde, Nederlandse invloed, nadruksaksent en titmiese else
deurkruis die realmatigheid van die klankwette. (Vgl. Reel 13.)
(6) Byvoeglike naamwoorde op -g het dikwels fleksievorme en afleidinge
met of sonder g, by. hoog, hoe of hoge; hoer of hoger. Hoewel
die Woordelys alleen die vorme sonder g aangee, word hier nadruklik
gekonstateer dat die vorme met g as gelykgeregtigd erken word. (Oor
die verskillende klankwaardes van die g binne of buite die fleksie
vgl. Reel 24.)
(7) Byvoeglike naamwoorde, veral byvoeglik gebruikte verlede deelwoorde,
vertoon ook wisselvorme in hulle trappe van vergelyking, by. geslepe;
geslepener of meer geslepe, geslepenste of mees geslepe. Sulke
wisselvorme bet ons hier en daar aangegee, maar nie konsekwent nie.
Dit het trouens niks met spelling te doen nie; vir die behandeling
daarvan moet 'n grammatika geraadpleeg word. Die gebruiker van die
Woordelys moet dus nie uit die afwesigheid van sulke wisselvorme
aflei dat hulle nie bestaan of nie erken word nie.

(8) Naas ouer vorme soos bedelary kry ons nuwe Afrikaanse vorme soos
bedelry. In die Woordelys gee ons dan sulke wisselvorme aan as volg:
bedel(a)ry, ens.
(9) Die meervoudsvorme van selfstandige naamwoorde (of hulle wissel-
vorme het of nie) word in die reel net by die grondwoord aangegee, nie
konsekwent by samestellinge nie (vgl. (1) bo), en by verkleinwoorde is
dit meestal onnodig. In die gevalle van dubbele meervoudsvorme soos
by bed, bedde of beddens; vrou, vroue of vrouens; volk, volke of
volkere, ens., word die verskillende vorme soms kortheidshalwe as
volg aangegee: bed, -de(ns); vrou, -e(ns); volk, -e(re). In ander
gevalle is die aanduiding noodsaaklik omslagtiger, by. opmerking, -e
of -s.
Daar bestaan wisselvorme, soms met verskil van betekenis, wat oor-
eenkomstig die derde grondbeginsel ( I, 3) as volg aangedui word, by.
saad of saat, sade of sate. Wanneer die verskille so vasgegroei is dat
ons feitlik met twee aparte woorde te doen het, dan word hulle geskeie
van mekaar behandel, by. lid, lede en lit, little; stad, stede en stat,
state. In 'n nuwe samestelling soos Kafferstat kry ons dan net die
vorm -stat.
Selfstandige naamwoorde op -g, soos dag, filoloog, oog, ens., kan
twee meervoudsvorme h6: dae of dage; filoloe of filologe; oe of
oge (met verskillende klankwaardes van die g). In sulke gevalle word,
nes by die byvoeglike naamwoorde dp -g (vgl. (6) bo), weens die groter
mate van gebruiklikheid, weens die skryftradisie en die neiging van die
taalontwikkeling alleen die vorme sonder g in die Woordelys aangegee,
hoewel ook hier weer die vorme met g as gelykgeregtigd erken word.
By vreemde woorde, by. die op -cus en -ur, word ter will van die
konsekwensie die vreemde en die verafrikaanste vorme (in die enkv.
sowel as in did my.) naas mekaar aangegee, by. botanicus, botanic
of botanikus, -se; maximum, maxima of maksimum, -s. In die
praktyk kan dit beteken dat iemand by. sal skrywe historikus in die
enkelvoud en historic in die meervoud; dit is dan 'n verafrikaanste
enkelvoud en 'n vreemde meervoud. Maar ter will van die kon.
sekwensie gee ons die twee soorte vorme parallel aan. Spelvorme soos
historisie word nie erken nie; hulle is bastervorme. Eintlik is vorme
soos kriticl ook bastervorme; met die oog op die gevestigde tradisie
is enkele (so min moontlik) daarvan egter ook erken. Vorme soos
historikusse sal miskien in die skryftaal voorlopig nog geen byval vind
nie; in die spreektaal is hulle baie gebruiklik. En waar hulle uit die
aard van die saak veral in die spreektaal van min of meer ontwikkelde
person voorkom, kan hulle volgens ons eerste grondbeginsel ( I,
1 bo) nie geweer word nie. Hulle staan trouens op een lyn met meer-
voudsvorme soos factotums of faktotums, kworums of quorums,
kwotas, museums. Vreemde woorde op -cus en -um word dan
behandel ooreenkomstig ons indeling van vreemde woorde in die
algemeen (vgl. klas (c) van IV).
(10) Ten slotte het ons te doen met 'n groot aantal dubbelspellinge, waar
die verskille nie op verskeidenheid van uitspraak berus nie, maar op
die feit dat naas die vreemde ook 'n verafrikaanste vorm voorkom
(vgl. klas (c) van IV). Of ons by. spel auteur of outeur, exami-
nadus of eksaminandus, historicus of historikus, lorgnet of lornjet,

thermometer of thermometer, het met die uitspraak niks uitstaande
nie. Dit is alleen 'n saak van ,,vreemd" of ,,verafrikaans". Die beginsel
waarop dit berus, word wonder die verskillende spelreels verduidelik
en meer bepaald in die volgende twee paragrawe.

Woorde van vreemde oorsprong word in drie klasse verdeel, en ten opsigte
van hulle spelling word die volgende algemene beginsels toegepas:
a) Verafrikaanste, algemeen gebruiklike woorde word volgens die gewone
Afrikaanse spelreels geskrywe, by. agurkie, andoelie, apteek, aspaai,
bagasie, bakatel, baklei, basaar, bobbejaan, dagga, dosyn, eksamen,
ekskuus, ekspres, ferweel, flennie, foeter, forseer, frikkadel, graweel,
hoeka, horries, informasie, jokkie, koerant, koerasie, koevert,
kommando, konsensie, konsert, lantern, lemoen, likkewaan, lourier,
mielie, moesie, murasie, n6i of nooi, patrollie, pennie, piekniek,
piering, plantasie, poeding, pous, presies, prinsipaal, reisies of resies,
renoster, sarsie, sel, segment, sertifikaat, serwituut, sikspens, sosys,
sous, spesiaal, sukses, tamatie, tameletjie, tarentaal, tjap, tjoekie,
trippens, trollie, vabond of vagebond, ens.
(b) Wildvreemde en moeilik verafrikaansbare woorde behou sover moont-
lik hulle vreemde spelvorme, by. abattoir, active, aula, autochthoon,
auxiliair, boulevard, camouflage, carnivora, cautie, chthonisotherm,
eiitheton, fauna, garage, genie, genre, gentleman, heraut, ichthyo-
saurus, jingo, patois, phthisis, prestige, Renaissance, reservoir,
restaurant, rugby, sandhi, trottoir, trousseau, whisk(e)y, xylol,
ypsilon, ens.
(c) 'n Tussenklas van woorde, waarby twyfel bestaan of hulle wonder (a)
of (b) val, word op twee maniere geskrywe, 'n vreemde en 'n Afrikaanse
skryfwyse, by. affaire of aff&re, applaudisseer of apploudisseer,
applause of applous, architek of argitek, auteur of outeur, caf6 of
kafee, cessie of sessie, clausule of klousule, cognac of konjak,
diphtheritis of difterie, echo of eggo, examinandus of eksaminandus,
failliet of faljiet, gymnasium of gimnasium, historicus of historikus,
katechismus of kategismus, luxe of luukse, pause of pouse, paviljoen
of pawiljoen, phylloxera of filloksera, sergeant of sersant, sirkulaire
of sirkulare, thermometer of thermometer, thesaurie(r) of tesourie(r),
vanille of vanielje, zol1ogie(s) of soilogie(s), ens.
Opm. 1. Waar daar in die geval van vreemde woorde tussen die vreemde
en 'n verafrikaanste spelling gekies kan word, daar word in
ooreenstemming met die spellingpraktyk van die oorgroot
meerderheid van die skrywende publiek die voorkeur aan die
verafrikaanste spelvorm gegee.
Opm. 2. Vir verafrikaanste woorde met i in 'n oop lettergreep, vgl. Reels
7 en 8.


Uit die voorgaande blyk dat vreemde woorde van klas (b) en die vreemde
vorme van klas (c) in die Woordelys sal verskyn in 'n spelvorm wat so na as
moontlik by hulle oorspronklike skryfwyse staan.

By die verafrikaanste woorde van vreemde herkoms van klas (a) en by die
verafrikaansing van woorde van klas (c) word die vreemde spelling gewysig
na die voorbeeld van die skryfwryse van bekende, gebruiklike, inheemse woorde.
Waar, wanneer en in however dit gebeur, kan nie hier volledig behandel word nie,
maar sal wonder die afsonderlike spelreels sover moontlik verduidelik word.


Ons gebruik die gewone lettertekens. Die aanwending van letters met
onderskeidingstekens soos 6, 4 en 6 sal wonder die verskillende spelreels be.
handel word.


1. In oop lettergrepe word die klinkers a, e, o en u gewoonlik nie ver-
dubbel nie, by. maat maar mate, been maar bene, sloot maar slote, minuut
maar minute.
Opm. 1. Hierdie algemene reel geld nie vir die e in oop eindlettergrepe
en in bepaalde fleksievorme en afleidinge nie (vgl. die reels hier-
Opm. 2. Deeltekens word gebruik waar dit nodig is om lettergrepe van
mekaar te skei, by. byvoeglike naamwoorde op -ieel kry net in
die verboe vorme deeltekens en werkwoorde op -ieer net in die
afleidinge: finansieel, kommersieel maar finansiule, kom-
mersiele; differensieer, subsidieer maar differensiering, sub-
2. In oop eindlettergrepe word die klinkers a, 6 en u nie verdubbel nie,
die e daarentee wel, by. karba, ma, pa, padda; buro, duo, foto, kommando;
balju, parvenu, senu, skadu; maar gee, see, tee, twee.
Opm. 1. Vreemde woorde van klas (b) en die vreemde vorme van klas (c)
met die e behou die enkele 6 met die aksentteken (accent aigu);
attach, caf6 (naas kafee), cong6.
3. (a) Die meervoud van selfstandige naamwoorde met 'n a in 'n oop
eindlettergreep in die enkelvoud behou die enkele a en kry (nes in die V.N.S.)
'n meervoudsuitgang 's, as die klemtoon op die a val, by. karba's, ma's, pa's.
(b) As die klemtoon egter nie op die a val nie, is die afkappingsteken
onnodig, bv. oumas, oupas, outas, paddas.
(c) Die meervoud van selfstandige naamwoorde met 'n o of 'n u in 'n
oop eindlettergreep in die enkelvoud verdubbel nooit die klinker nie en kry
altyd, nes die my. van woorde op -i, 'n afkappingsteken, by. biuro's, duo's,
foto's, Hugo's, kommando's; alibi's, Chiappini's; balju's, parvenu's.
4. Woorde met 'n dubbele e in 'n oop eindlettergreep behou in same-
stellinge, afleidinge, verkleinings- en verboe vorme in oop lettergrepe die
dubbele e, behalwe voor 'n volgende e; dus: seekus, teepot, tweeloop;
onbetreebaar, seewaarts, senuweeagtig, tweede, tweedens, tweeheid,
tweeling, weduweeskap, weedom; seetjie, tweetjie, weduweetjie; maar
geer, geery, see, twee, tweerlei.
Opm. 1. Ooreenkomstig Reel 1 (kyk VII, 1) skrywe ons oorsese as
verboe vorm van oorsees (nie 'n afleiding van oorsee nie).

5. Vreemde woorde met 'n 6 (vgl. Reel 2, Opm. 1) behou in hulle
vreemde vorm die 6 en in hulle verafrikaanste vorm ee (behalwe voor 'n
volgende klinker) en kry g'n afkappingsteken by die meervoudsuitgang nie,
bv. attach, attaches; caf6, caf6s of kafee, kafees; caf6tjie of kafeetjie;
cong6; dinee, dinees, ens.; maar naas die verafrikaanste vorm kafeien
(met 'n enkele e voor 'n volgende klinker) skrywe ons die min of meet inter-
nasionale spelvorm cafeine, net soos caseine (naas kaselen).
6. (a) Verkleinwoorde van selfstandige naamwoorde met 'n enkele
o of u in 'n oop lettergreep verdubbel nie die o of u nie, by. kommando,
kommandotjie; balju, baljutjie.
(b) Verkleinwoorde van selfstandige naamwoorde met 'n swak beklem-
toonde a in 'n oop eindlettergreep verdubbel ook nie die a nie, die met 'n
beklemtoonde a wel, by. mammatjie, oumatjie, oupatjie, paddatjie,
pappatjie; maar maatjie, mamaatjie, paatjie, papaatjie.
Opm. 1. Maatjie is dus die verkleiningsvorm van ma sowel as van maat.
Opm. 2. Soos in Ndl. kry ons blaadjie, gaatjie, paadjie, vaatjie, ens.,
as verkleiningsvorme van blad, gat, pad, vat.
Opm. 3. Vir verkleiningsvorme van woorde met 'n dubbele e vgl. Reel 4
7. By die skrywe van die I-klank moet ons twee groot klasse van woorde
onderskei wat ons ru-weg kan noem (1) Afrikaanse woorde (Reel 7) en (2)
woorde van klassieke oorsprong (Reel 8). Die eerste klas omvat alle woorde
van nie-klassieke oorsprong wat van Nederlands in Afrikaans gekom her,
sowel as die woorde wat direk in Afrikaans onteen is, by. aan inboorlingtale
(Hottentots en Bantoe), Oosterse tale (veral die sogenaamde Maleis-Portugees)
Engels en Duits. Die tweede klas sluit in die woorde van Griekse en Latynse,
sowel as die van Franse en Italiaanse herkoms. Hierdie woorde kom in die
meeste van die Europese tale voor, het 'n min of meer internasionale karakter
en is in die real via Nederlands in Afrikaans ontleen.
Vir die ,,Afrikaanse" woorde, soos bo aangedui, geld as vaste reel dat
die i-klank oral s (in oop sowel as in geslote begin-, middel- en eindletter-
grepe) deur ie voorgestel word: bokmakierie, bolmakiesie, fiemies, giegel
(naas giggel), grieseltjie of krieseltjie, hadjie, leder(een), iegelik, iemand,
iewers, impie, kammalielies, kielie, kiepersol, kierang (naas kurang),
kierie, kiesel, kiewiet, kriebel of kriewel, krieket, liederlik, mielie, nie-
Smand, niewers, piekel, pienang, piering, piesang, siebie, s(j)ieling, skielik
(naas skierlik), stiebeuel, tiekie, tiemie, wiebel, wierook, ens.
Opm. 1. Verkleinwoorde behou volgens die grondbeginsel van die een-
vormigheid die spelling van die grondwoord: baadjietjie, balie-
tjie, briefie, ertjietjie, koppietjie, mandjietjie, pinkietjie, ens.
8. Vir die sogenaamde ,,klassieke" of ,,internasionale" woorde geld as
reel dat die i-klank
(a) in die oorgroot meerderheid van geslote lettergrepe en van
oop e i n dlettergrepe eweneens deur ie voorgestel word: ano-
niem, asiel, elektries, flottielje, formasie, Israeliet, kosmopoliet,
miniem, parasiet, plesier, profesie, professie, projektiel, sinoniem,
subtiel, tragies, vanielje (naas vanille), vaselien, ens.
Opm. 1. In enkele woorde staan i in 'n geslote lettergreep (soms met
'n spelvorm met ie daamaas): chic (naas sjiek), himne,
illustreer, sinjaal, sinjaleer (naas signal, signaleer), souvenir
(naas soewenier).

Opm. 2. Hoewel nie van klassieke oorsprong nie, kan ,,internasionale"
woorde soos derwisj, emir, fakir, fetisj, hasjisj ook by die woorde
van Opm. 1 hierbo genoem word.
Opm. 3. In 'n aantal minder bekende woorde staan I in 'n oop eind-
lettergreep: alibi, alkali, carbonari, charivari, confetti, gummi,
macaroni, pari, rosaki, sandhi, spaghetti, spermaceti, vermi-
celli, ens.
Hiertoe behoort ook Latynse meervoudsvorme op -1: catalog,
papyri en veral die op -ci: botanici, fonetici, historic, music,
politics, ens.
(b) in lettergrepe wat in die grondwoord of onverbod vorm geslote is,
maar deur verbuiging of afleiding met die Afrikaanse uitgange -e, -er,
-erig en -ig oop word, nog met ie weergegee word: anonieme, elek-
triese, Israeliete, petieterig, plesierig, projektiele, subtieler, tragiese,
Opm. 1. Let op dat woorde soos Israeliete, parasiete, Semiete volgens
die reel (soos in (b) hierbo) geskrywe word (verboa vorme met
die Afrik. uitgang -e), maar Israelities, parasites, Semities
(afleidinge met die vreemde uitgang -ities).
(c) deur i voorgestel word in oop begin- en middle llettergrepe
wat nie wonder (b) hierbo val nie: albino, ammunisie, appendicitis
of appendisitis, embrio, families, fisies, fisika, fisikus, kilo, klandisie,
kondisie, kritiek, krities, kritikus, liriek, liries, lirikus, liter, notisie,
petisie, polisie, posisie, suspisie, titel, tradisie, ens.
Opm. 1. Kort saamgevat kom die i/ie-reel hierop neer: Behoudens uit-
sonderinge (soos in die genoemde voorbeelde) word die i-klank
altyd in Afrikaans met ie weargegee, behalwe in oop-, begin-
en middellettergrepe van woorde van klassieke oorsprong en
daar alleen wanneer die i nie deur Afrikaanse buiging of afleiding
oop geword het nie.
9. (a) Lang oop e, i, o en u word in oop lettergrepe geskrywe met 'n
kappie bo die klinker: affEre, bare (ww.), h8, k6rel, 18, s6, wereld; wie
(naas wigge, my. van wig), g6 (in sy g6 is uit), m6re (naas more), n6i (naas
nooi), s6e (naas sogge, my. van sog), s6re (naas sorg(e) as ww.); brfens,
rfens (naas brugge, rugge, ens., my. van brug en rug).
Maar in geslote lettergrepe kry die klinkers nie 'n kappie nie: kers,
perd, stert, ver (bw.).
(b) Volgens ons derde grondbeginsel skrywe ons ook & in geslote letter-
grepe, wanneer die klinker in verboe vorme in oop lettergrepe te staan sou
kom, by. militer, ordiner, popular, primer, sker na die voorbeeld van en
in ooreenstemming met militere, ordinare, popul6re, primare, skEre.
Opm. 1. Ons skrywe 8 in plaas van ai in (1) sterk verafrikaanste woorde
soos afflre, sirkulere (naas affaire, sirkulaire), maar behou ai
in vreemde woorde soos air, clairvoyante, mondaine, prairie,
en (2) in die uitgange van gebruiklike en maklik verafrikaansbare
woorde soos militer, ordin6r, popular, primer, ens., maar
behou ai in die uitgange van wildvreemde en moeilik verafri-
kaansbare woorde soos auxiliair.
Opm. 2. Ons skrywe ook bl&r, gebler, k8s (met 6 in geslote lettergreep).
Opm. 3. Ons skrywe e in die woordjies d& en nk.


Opm. 4. a, 6, e en 6 tree ook op in vreemde woorde van klas (b) en in
die vreemde vorme van klas (c): debacle (naas debakel),. d-
pache, dep6t, ens.
10. (a) Die au van Ndl. woorde word altyd vervang deur ou: blou
grou, nou (Ndl. blauw, grauw, nauw).
Opm. 1. In eiename en daarmee gelykstaande woorde word au behou:
Augustus, AustraliE, Litaue, Rautenbach.
Opm. 2. Ook in die klanknabootsende woord mia(a)u word die au
(b) Die au van vreemde woorde van klas (a) word vervang deur a, o
of ou, al na gelang van die uitspraak: agurkie; sosys; lourier, pous, pouse,
Woorde van klas (b) behou au: aubade, autochthoon, auxiliair, cautie,
fauna, ichthyosaurus; en woorde van klas (c) kry ou naas au: auteur of
outeur, auto of outo, causaal of kousaal, causatief of kousatief.
11. Volgens die tweede grondbeginsel word Ndl. ei in Afrik. behou:
lei, steil, wei (Ned. leiden, steil, weiden); maar Ndl. ij word in Afrik. ver-
vang deur y: ly, style, wy (Ndl. lijden, stiji, wijden).
Opm. 1. Soms tree ei op naas ee (met of sonder verskil van betekenis):
bleek naas bleik, teken naas teiken, vlees naas vleis.
Waar die verband met die Ndl. vorm nie meer gevoel word
nie en nuwe aanknopingspunte met werkwoordelike vorme in
Afrik. ontstaan het, skryf ons y: byt, gryp, sny, stryk (Ndl.
beet, greep, snee, streek in op streek komen).
Opm. 2. In vreemde woorde behou y die klankwaarde van i: cynies
(naas sinies), python (naas piton), typhus (naas tifus).
12. Nes in die V.N.S. gee ohs die Ndl. ij in uitgange waar die verband
verbleek en die klank verswak is, soos in -lik, -liks, ens., deur i weer: belang-
rik, dergelik, eerlik, jaarliks; maar waar die klank vol is, word y behou:
bosryk, desgelyks, soortgelyk, talryk.
Opm. 1. In ander verswakte vorme kry ons gewoonlik e: besonder,
betyds, dikwels, korswel, maar byvoorbeeld.
13. (a) Voor die uitgang -lik word die swak beklemtoonde e gewoonlik
net geskrywe na:-
(i) b, d, w: onhebbelik, duidelik, afskuwelik.
(ii) ft, gt, kt, pt, st: skriftelik, stigtelik, bedektelik, stiptelik, geeste-
Opm. 1. Verskillende faktore deurkruis hier die working van die klank-
wette (vgl. die paragraaf oor wisselvorme). Ons kry by. ook
sonder e: duidlik, respektieflik (naas respektiewelik), ens.,
en omgekeerd met e: berispelik, feitelik (naas feitlik), triom-
fantelik (naas triomfantlik), ens. Daarom gee ons in die Woorde-
lys by. duid(e)lik, feit(e)lik, triomfant(e)lik.
(b) Voor die uitgang -ling word die e dikwels geskrywe: boeteling,
drenkeling ellendeling, lammeling, skipbreukeling, smekeling, stommeling,
Opm. 1. Ook hier kom enkele wisselvorme voor: liefling naas lieweling,
sterfling, naas sterweling, suig(e)ling, swerfling naas swerwe-
ling; en na 'n r vorme sonder e: bekeerling, hurling, kleurling,
leerling, ens.

(c) Voor die uitgang -loos word dikwels e geskrywe: grondeloos,
klakkeloos, roekeloos, troueloos; maar (soms mnet verskil van betekenis):
nameloos of naamloos, smakeloos of smaakloos, souteloos of soutloos,
werkeloos of werkloos, ens.
Opm. 1. Woorde met 'n letterlike, konkrete betekenis kry gewoonlik
nie 'n e nie: naatloos, pynloos, rookloos, rymloos, spoorloos,
(d) Voor die uitgang -nis word meestal e geskrywe: bekentenis,
getuienis, gevangenis, ontvangenis, verbintenis, verdoemenis, vermoeienis,
ens. Na 'n r kry ons alleen vorme sonder e: hindernis, kommernis, treurnis,
wildernis. En na f skyn die vorme sonder e baie gebruikliker te wees:
begrafnis. Ook hier tree dan weer wisselvorme op: droef(e)nis, erf(e)nis,
(e) Die uitgang -erig behou gewoonlik sy e: houterig, slaperig, vakerig,
ens., behalwe na 1, m, ng voorafgegaan deur 'n swak beklemtoonde klinker:
bedelrig, knobbelrig, korrelrig, krummelrig; wasemrig, doringrig, horing-
rig, toiingrig of toienrig.
Opm. 1. Byvoeglike naamwoorde op -Im en -rm word gereken tot die
wat eindig op -m voorafgegaan deur 'n swak beklemtoonde
klinker: skelmrig; armrig, warmrig.
14. (a) Waar die Ndl. voorvoegsel voor- in Afr. verswak is tot ver-,
word dit ook so geskrywe: veral, vernaam. Die voorsetsel word geskrywe
vir: dis vir jou. Maar waar dit as voorvoegsel en nie meer as voorsetsel
gevoel word nie, spel ons ver en skrywe dit aaneen met die volgende woord,
terwyl die voorsetsel natuurlik apart staan: vereers, vergoed, verlaas, verlief
neem, verniet, vervas (teenoor vir eers, vir goed, vir laas, vir lief, vir niet,
vir vas).
(b) In 'n aantal verswakte vorme word 'n afkappingsteken gebruik in
plaas van die verswakte klinker. Die Ndl. een (lidw.), geen, het en zijn
word 'n, g'n (naas die vol vorm geen), 't (bv. hy is aan 't oes, en s'n (naas
die vol vorm syn of syne, vir manlik en vroulik, enkelvoud en meervoud
gebruik: dis Jan s'n, dis ma s'n, dis ons s'n).
(c) Naas die selfstandig gebruikte s'n (syn of syne) kom die besitlike
gebruikte se voor. Ons skryf dit vir manlik en vroulik, enikv. en my.: pa
se pyp, ma se hoed; die man se geld, die meisies se klere.
15. (a) Vokaalverbindinge soos ae, ee, eie, eue, ie, iee, oe, oee, ue,
uie, ens., ontstaan deur die wegval van d, g, w voor 'n swak beklemtoonde
e, kry kappies om lang oop klinkers aan te dui en deeltekens om lettergrepe
te skei, waar dit nodig is: dae, drae, vae; gelee, gene, leer, nee, reel,
reen, seil, seen, verlee; ee, lMend, leer, l1erig; breier, reier, weier; beuel,
leuen, teuel; wie; bedriee, bier; droe, oe, vermoe, voel; koeil, ploee;
brfe (my. van brug), rue (my. van rug); rue (naas ruwe, verboe vorm van
ru); beduie, ruie, tuie, ens.
Opm. 1. Ou sametrekkinge wat al in Ndl. voorkom, kry egter g'n deel-
tekens nie. Vandaar leer (Ndl. leader) en leer' (Ndl. ladder)
teenoor leer (Ndl. leger) en seel (Ndl. cedel of ceel) teenoor
seel (Ndl. zegel).
Opm. 2. Die Afrikaanse tweelettergrepige verbinding ae kry geen deel-
teken nie: behae, dae, maer, swaer, vae. Aangesien die ver-
binding in vreemde woorde egter soms twee-, soms eenletter-
grepig is, word in die eerste geval deeltekens geskrywe: dode-
kaeder, heksaeder, tetraeder teenoor by. Caesar, quaestor.

(b) Sametrekkinge van die voorafgaande klinker en die e vind plaas voor
-nd of -nt in dieselfde lettergreep: aand, afdraand, opdraand; geleentheid,
geneentheid, recent, verleentheid; ondeund; moondheid, moontlik.
Opm. 1. Dit gebeur ook in enkele ander vorme waar die verband al ver-
bleek is: oomblik teenoor oenskynlik, gereeld (bw.) teenoor
Opm. 2. Verkleinwoorde volg die voorbeeld van die grondwoord: reeltjie,
voeltjie, ens. Ons kry dus reentjie van reen en reentjie van
Opm. 3. Waar die verband nog sterk is en kultuurinvloede meewerk,
kry ons onsamegetrokke vorme: Almoendheid, alvermoend,
geseend, ens. By neEntien, neentig staan die n en die t in aparte
lettergrepe en het ons buitendien die voorbeeld van nee.
Opm. 4. Sametrekking vind ook plaas in teen (naas tee), jeens en weens,
en in samestellinge van die eerste woord.
(c) Waar sametrekking plaasvind in oop lettergrepe, word die klinker
geskryf volgens die gewone reels hierbo (met verdubbeling al of nie, soos die
geval mag wees): drae of dra, jae of ja, klae of Ida, vabond (naas vagebond),
wa (snw.), wae (ww.); Ze of e (ww.), gee, mee, vee (ww.), wee of wee; biee
of bie, vliee of vlie; bo (naas bowe), droe of dro, glo; ploeE of ploe, spoe
of spu (teenoor spuug); rye of ry.
Opm. 1. Die snw. wa het as my. waens; die verkleinwoord word dan
geskryf waentjie.
16. Ndl. woorde op -eng en -enk word in ooreenstemming met
gebruiklikste beskaafde uitspraak in Afrikaans in twee klasse verdeel:-
(i) Uitsluitlik met e: engel, Engels, meng, skenk (in die betekenis
van ,,gee"), wenk (Eng. ,,hint").
(ii) Uitsluitlik met i: bring, dink, hingsel, skink (Eng. ,,pour"), wink
(Eng. ,,beckon").
Opm. 1. Dit is duidelik dat ons hier te doen het met grade van verafri.
kaansing en kultuurinvloede. Die sterk verafrikaanste woorde
met 'n konkrete betekenis het gewoonlik i, die minder sterk
verafrikaanste e. Daarom kry ons ook wisselvorme. Bring en
dink verskyn by. in samestellinge en afleidinge dikwels as breng
en denk: opbrengs naas opbrings, voortbrengsel; bedenklik,
denkbaar, denkbeeld.
17. Waar Ndl. e in Afrik. afwissel met i voor m en n daar word die
i-vorm nie erken nie, dus alleen: agent, end of ent, gemmer, rem, swem,
Opm. 1. In gevalle waar die i-vorm die algemeen Ndl. vorm is, word dit
naas die ander erken: kin of ken, win of wen.

18. (a) Waar b en d in verboe vorme, soos ribbe, winde, gehoor
word, maar in die onverboe vorme as p en t uitgespreek word, skrywe ons
tog b en d in die onverboe vorme: rib, wind. As p en t daarentee algemeen
in die verboe vorme gehoor word, dan word hulle in ooreenstemming met
die grondbeginsel van die gelykvormigheid ook in die onverboe vorme ge.

skrywe: krap, krappe; krip, krippe; lit, little; stat, state (= Kafferstat).
Daarom skryf ons ook saad of saat, sade of sate, ens.
(b) Waar die slotkonsonant van.die onverboe vorm nie deur die verboe
vorm aangetoon word nie, daar volg ons die V.N.S.: bad, baaie (warm
bronne); pad, paaie; perd, perde (uitgespreek pare).
19. (a) In verafrikaanste woorde van klas (a) word c vervang deur k
of s, al na die uitspraak: konsert, piekniek; sel, segment.
(b) In die verafrikaanste vorme van klas (c) tree k, s of tj, al na die uit-
spraak, naas c op: caf6 of kafee; cynies of sinies; cello of tjello.
(c) In die woorde van klas (b) word c behou: camouflage, cautie,
Renaissance, asook in die vreemde meervoudsuitgang -ci: botanic, fonetici,
20. (a) Die Ndl. ch word in Afrik. deur g vervang: nag, tog, vrag.
(b) In woorde van vreemde oorsprong word ch vervang deur g, k, s,
sj of tj, na gelang van die uitspraak: argief; katkisasie; sarsie; masjien;
(c) Waar die uitspraak van ch in vreemde woorde in Afrik. onvas is,
d.w.s. waar ch as g of as k uitgespreek word, behou ons die oorspronklike
ch om wisselvorme te very: antichris, chaos, chemie, chloor, Christen,
Christus (dus n.C., v.C.), chronies.
(d)" In wildvreemde woorde word ch oral behou: autochthoon,
charivari, chthonisotherm, ichthyosaurus.
21. Waar d na 1, n, r van 'n voorafgaande lettergreep in Ndl. uitgespreek,
maar in Afrik. dikwels aan die voorafgaande klank gelykgemaak word, daar
bly die d in die Afrik. spelling behou: eenders, elder, kelder, kinders,
perde, wonder.
22. (a) Verlede deelwoorde het g'n -d op die end nie, behalwe waar
die grondwoord reeds op -d uitgaan: die skape word getel; die huis word
verander; almal het gestem; jy wil altyd bedien word; hulle het ons genooi;
die dokter het die man se lewe gered.
(b) Maar verlede deelwoorde. behou dikwels 'n uitgangs-d (veral na 1,
m, n, ng, r, klinkers en tweeklanke) teenoor vorme sonder 'n -d, al na gelang
die byvoeglike of die werkwoordelike funksie oorweeg of ter onderskeiding
tussen figuurlike en letterlike gebruik: by is geleerd, die perd is wonder die
man geleer; die skool is gemengd, die wyn was met water gemeng; die
professor is verstrooid, die troepe is verstrooi oor die veld.
Kortheidshalwe gee ons dus in die Woordelys aan: geleer(d), -de, ens.
Raadpleeg die Woordelys in hierdie verband.
Opm. 1. Die behoud van die uitgangs-d hang baie van kultuurinvloede af
Die slot-d word veral behou by deelwoorde van werkwoorde
afgelei van selfstandige naamwoorde: beduiweld of beduweld,
besnaar(d), gespier(d), ens.
23. d en t word aan die end van woorde na f, g, k, p, s meestal egter
nie gehoor nie en derhalwe daar ook nie geskrywe nie: drif, gif, hoof; benodig,
nag, sag, tug; bedek (bnw.), bedruk (bnw.), direk, ongerep, stip (bnw.),
verlep (bnw.); bors, kos, las, lus, mees, rus (Ndl. drift, gift, hoofd; be-
nodigd, nacht, zacht, tucht; bedekt, bedrukt, direkt; ongerept, stipt,
verlept; borst, kost, last, lust, meest, rust).


Opm. 1. Waar die d en t in verbo6 vorme en afleidinge gehoor word,
daar word hulle'ook geskrywe: driftig, giftig, hoofde, hoofdelik;
benodigdhede, nagtelik, sagterig, sagtheid, tugtaloos; bedek-
telik, bedrukheid, direkte; ongereptheid; stiptelik, stiptheid,
verleptheid; borste, kosteloos, lastig, lusteloos, meeste,
Opm. 2. In samestellinge word die t ook meermale gehoor, veral voor 'n
h (vgl. die afleidinge met -heid). Daarom skrywe ons by.
bors(t)rok, kos(t)huis, mees(t)al.
Opm. 3. By enkele woorde kry ons dubbelvorme: ag of agt, maag of
maagd, tak of takt, asook by samestellinge van hierdie woorde.
24. Tussen 'n beklemtoonde klinker of tweeklank en 'n swak beklem-
toonde e val d, g en w dikwels weg: bieEr (naas bieder), breZ, leier, wyer
(Ndl. bieder, brede, leider, wijder); bedrieer, dae, hoer, weier (Ndl.
bedrieger, dagen, hoger, weigeren); bo (uit bowe), glo (uit gelowe), oor
(uit ower), (Ndl. boven, geloven, over).
Opm. 1. Naas sulke vorme kom meermale wisselvorme voor waar die
d, g en w behou is. Veral in die geval van g is sulke vorme
baie gebruiklik: dage, hoger, ens. Hierdie vorme word ook
erken; maar kortheidshalwe het ons hulle in die Woordelys
alleen aangegee waar hulle buite die fleksie voorkom, dus alleen:
dag, dae, maar eienaardig of eigenaardig.
In die fleksievorme van suiwer Afrik. woorde het die g
gewoonlik die klankwaarde van die g in Eng. go, good, ens.;
buite die fleksie het die g gewoonlik die klankwaarde van die g
in Afrik. goed, as ook in die fleksievorme van vreemde woorde.
Opm. 2. Oor die skryfwyse van vokaalverbindinge en sametrekkinge by
die wegval van intervokaliese d, g en w vgl. Reel 15 (a), (b) en (c).
25. Tussen r en swak beklemtoonde e, en in sekere mate ook tussen I
en swak beklemtoonde e, het g (as dit nie wegval nie).dieselfde uitspraak as
die g in fleksievorme soos dage en in telwoorde soos nege, m.a.w. dieselfde
klankwaarde as in Eng. go, good (vgl. Reel 24, Opm. 1): berge, burger,
erger, ergenis, terge; gevolge, wilger (naas wilker).
Vir hierdie klank word in Afrikaanse woorde g'n aparte teken gebruik
nie. By wegval van hierdie g word die voorafgaande klinker gerek en kry
dit in die spelling 'n kappie: bare, s8re en tare as ww. (Ndl. bergen, zorgen,
26. (a) In verafrikaanste vreemde woorde kom 'n g-klank voor met
dieselfde klankwaarde as di6 genoem in Reels 24 en 25. In sulke woorde
word dit aan die begin weergegee deur gh: ghantang, ghoera, ghoeroe,
ghries, as ook in die woord ghoen. In ander lettergrepe word in sulke woorde
egter net g geskrywe: angora, jingo, mango.
Opm. 1. In woorde soos ghetto en spaghetti volg ons die vreemde spel-
(b) Die letterverbinding gu word in verafrikaanste woorde gh of ghw
(aan die begin) of k al na die uitspraak: ghitaar of kitaar, ghwarrie, koe-
jawel, likkewaan.
(c) Woorde van vreemde oorsprong met die letterverbinding gn kry
nj of wisselvorme met nj, as hulle nie die vreemde spelvorm met gn behou
nie: cognac of konjak, kompanjie, magnifiek of manjefiek, signal of
sinjaal, sinjeur, maar vlgnet.


(d) In ander posisies en buitekant die verbindinge hierbo genoem, word
die g in verafrikaanste woorde vervang deur k of s, al na die uitspraak:
bakatel, bokkie; loseer, losses, sersant (naas sergeant).
(e) In woorde van klas (b) word g (met verskillende klankwaardes en in
verskillende posisies) behou: garage, genie, genre, gentleman, guer(r)illa,
guillotine, korrigeer, regiment, prestige.
27. In verafrikaanste woorde word die letterverbinding 11 vervang deur
lj: briljant, medalje, miljoen; die woorde van klas (c) kry wisselvorme:
failliet of faljiet, vanille of vanielje; en by die woorde van klas (b) word 1
behou: faillissement, mitrailleur.
28. In verafrikaanste woorde word die letterverbinding ph, rh en th
vervang deur f, r en t: fonetiek, fosfaat, foto; diarree, renoster, rumatiek;
apteek, diftong, simpatie. In woorde van klas (c) kry ons wisselvorme:
dlphtheritis of difterie, phylloxera of filloksera, typhus of tifus; catarrh
of katar; thermometer of termometer. In woorde van klas (b) word ph,
rh en th behou: phthisis; antirrhinum; chthonisotherm.
29. Die letterverbinding qu word in verafrikaanste woorde van klas (a)
vervang deur k of kw, al na die uitspraak: antik(w)iteit, sonkieltjie, trankiel;
konsekwent, kwartaal; of kry in vreemde woorde van klas (c) wisselvorme
met k of kw: quadrille of kadriel; quorum of kworum; of bly in vreemde
woorde van klas (b) behou: quaestor, quaestuur, quidproquo.
30. Die letterverbinding sc word in verafrikaanste woorde van klas (a)
vervang deur s of sk, al na die uitspraak: konsensie, transkripsie; of kry in
vreemde woorde van klas (c) wisselvorme met sk: scepticus of skeptikus,
viscose of viskose; of bly in vreemde woorde van klas (b) behou: arterio.
sclerose, Fascisme, scenario, scenografie, scriba.
Opm. 1. Tussen klinkers word sc as ss geskrywe wanneer die sc nie as
sk gehoor word nie: adolessensie, damasseer, dissipel, dissi-
pline, effloressensie, fosforesseer, ossilator, ossilleer; maar
diskonto, fiasko, fresko.
31. Ndl. sch word in Afrik. altyd as sk uitgespreek en dus ook so
geskrywe: skaap, skoen, skoon (Ndl. schaap, schoen, school).
Opm. 1. Dit geld ook vir ou ingeburgerde woorde soos skema, skool
(Ndl. schema, school). In 'n geval soos skolastiek (Ndl. scholas-
tiek) gee ons as wisselvorm die ouer: scholastiek.
Opm. 2. In enkele woorde van vreemde oorsprong word sch in ooreen-
stemrhing met die uitspraak vervang deur si: derwisj, fetisj,
32. In enkele woorde van vreemde oorsprong word sh vervang deur
sj: sjibbolet, sjieling (naas sieling).
33. (a) Positiewe op -s verdubbel die s in die superlatief: boos, boosste;
dwaas, dwaasste. -
(b) By "samestellinge van selfstandige naamwoorde word ss geskrywe
wanneer die stam van die eerste deel op s uitgaan en die tweede met s begin:
grassoort, toetssteen; maar gewete(n)saak, gewete(n)stryd, jongenskool,
lewenskets, meisieskool, regeringsaak.
34. Ons skrywe soos in die V.N.S. altans, tans en verder nogtans,
maar in afwyking van die V.N.S. ook tuis (asook in samestellinge en afleidinge
van hierdie woord: tuishuis, tuiskoms, tuiste).

35. Die uitgang -tie word in verafrikaanste woorde volgens die uitspraak
gewoonlik vervang deur -sie: aksie, essensie, kwessie, nasie; maar word
ooreenkomstig die uitspraak behou in amnestie, digestie, indigestie, sug-
gestie, ens.
36. Waar t voor s in die Afrikaanse vorm van die ooreenkomstige
Nederlandse woord (van water herkoms ook al) nie uitgespreek word nie,
verdwyn dit in die spelling: geplaas, mus, plaas (Ndl. geplaatst, muts,
Opm. 1. Naas kwes en kwesbaar kom ook voor kwets en kwetsbaar
(gewoonlik met betekenisverskil) en alleen kwetsend, kwetsing,
Opm. 2. Hier kan ook genoem word samesmeltinge soos dis uit dit is
en nes uit net as.
Opm. 3. Dieselfde gebeur met d voor-s in aanstons, gousblom, saans.
soggens (Ndl. aanstonds, goudsbloem, des avonds, des ochtends),
37. (a) Die Ndl. v word in Afrikaans behou:-
(i) Aan die begin van woorde: van, veel, vol, voor, vul, vuur.
(ii) Ook waar die v van sulke woorde deur samestelling of afleiding
in ander as beginlettergrepe optree: aanvoer, aanvul, gevul, ver-
velig, vervul.
(b) In lettergrepe wat nie wonder (a) (ii) val nie, gaan v voor 'n swak
beklemtoonde klinker oor in w: lewe, sewe, maar voor 'n beklemtoonde
klinker of tweeklank word dit (meestal in ou ingeburgerde woorde van
vreemde herkoms) behou: gravin, klavier, polvy, river, slavin (teenoor
grawe, slawe, ens.).
(c) Meestal in ooreenstemming met Ndl., word die v in woorde van
vreemde herkoms as volg behandel:-
(i) Aan die begin van woorde bly v: vaas, variant, variasie, veranda,
verbaal, verbum, visie, vokaal, vokasie, vokatief.
(ii) Ook waar die v van sulke woorde deur samestelling of afleiding in
ander as beginlettergrepe optree: adverbiaal, adverbium, divariant,
divisie, invokasie, konvokasie, provisie, revise, revokasie, revo-
keer, ens.
(iii) In ander middellettergrepe wat nie wonder (ii) val nie, bly die v voor
'n beklemtoonde klinker behou (behalwe in graweel en rewolwer):
aktivering, diverse, galvanies, konvensie, provinsie.
(iv) In ooreenstemming met die reel van die gelykvormigheid bly die v
ook in afleidinge van woorde soos die bogenoemde (waar die v nie
voor 'n beklemtoonde klinker staan nie): diversiteit, galvaniseer,
konvensioneel, provisioneel, provinsiaal.
(v) 'n Aantal dubbelvorme word erken by woorde soos dividend of
diwidend, paviljoen of pawiljoen, revolusie of rewolusie.
(d) Die v word egter vervang deur w waar in Afrikaans 'n duidelike w
gehoor word, meestal voor 'n swak beklemtoonde vokaal, soos in die fleksie-
vorme: aktiewe, vokatiewe en in woorde soos aktiwiteit, koejawel, kon-
serwatief, papawer, serwituut.
38. (a) Verder tree die w op in fleksievorme van onverbod woorde op
ft dof, dowwe; grof, growwe; stof, stowwe; straf, strawwe.


(b) Die w verdwyn in die Afrikaanse spelling orals waar dit nie gehoor
word nie: afsku, blou, eeu, nuus, nuut, vrou, ens., maar afskuwelik, ewig,
nuwe. Hiermee verdwyn dus ook die verskil in spelling tussen die pers. en
bes. vnw. Gevolglik skrywe ons: ek ken jou (u), dis jou (u) boek.
39. In verafrikaanste woorde word x vervang deur ks: eksamen,
ekskuus, ekspres, ekstrak, laks, sekse, teks, sikspens; die woorde van
klas (c) kry wisselvorme: alexandryn of aleksandryn, examinandus of
eksaminandus, exodus of eksodus, en by die woorde van klas (b) word x
behou: auxiliair, exothermies, xenograaf, xylograaf.
40. (a) Die Ndl. z word in Afrikaans, behalwe in eiename, verving
deur s: sang, so, sorg (Ndl. zang, zo, zorg).
(b) In klanknabootsende woorde soos zits en zoem word dit behou.
(c) In wildvreemde woorde soos protozoan, zero, zirconium, en in
handelsmerke soos maizena, word die z behou. Woorde van klas (c) kry
dubbelspellinge: zoblogie(s) of soblogie(s).


41. (a) 'n Medeklinker word in Afrikaanse woorde dubbel geskrywe
wanneer dit tussen 'n kort beklemtoonde klinker en 'n volgende klinker
staan: mak, makker (teenoor maker), stof, stowwe (teenoor stowe).
Wanneer die voorafgaande klinker daarentea wel kort is, maar nie die
hoofklem dra nie, word die medeklinker nie verdubbel nie: heerlik, heer-
liker; middel, middle.
Opm. 1. Afleidinge met halfsterk beklemtoonde agtervoegsels soos -dom,
-skap verdubbel in fleksievorme wel die slotkonsonant van die
agtervoegsel: eiendomme, landskappe.
(b) In die geval van vreemde woorde word sover moontlik die Ndl.
spelling as rigsnoer gevolg ten opsigte van die verdubbeling van medeklinkers:
baseer, interessant, klassikaal, papegaai, paraffien, parallel, passeer, ens.
Opm. 1. Waar vergissinge of inkonsekwensies in die V.N.S. voorkom,
word egter daarvan afgewyk. Daarom skrywe ons o.a. akkom-
modasie, applaudisseer (apploudisseer), appelleer, guer(r)illa,
komitee, konkurreer, omelet, plakkaat.
(c) Waar die Ndl. spelvorme weens vormverskille, onbekendheid van
die woorde, of om water rede ook al, weinig leading kan gee, daar handhaaf
ons die Afrikaanse spellingtradisie en skrywe ons (i) met 'n dubbele konso.
nant: bobbejaan, frikkadel, likkewaan, okkerneut, pikkewyn en (ii) met
'n enkele medeklinker: tameletjie, tarentaal, tasal.
(d) Afgeleide woorde wat, sover dit Afrikaans betref, verband hou met
woorde op -n (voorafgegaan deur 'n kort beklemtoonde vokaal. behalwe
oe) kry 'n dubbele n: Japannees, kanonnade, kanonneer, pardonneer,
Soedannees; maar fatsoeneer, harpoeneer, pensioeneer, spioeneer.
(e) Afgeleide woorde wat, sover dit Afrikaans betref, nie verband hou
met woorde op -n nie, kry 'n enkele n: fraksioneer,. funksioneel, funksio-
neer, impressionisme, passioneer, petisionaris, petisioneer, reaksioner,
rewolusioner (naas revolusionEr), stasioneer.

42. Ten opsigte van die verdeling in lettergrepe moet op die volgende
punte gelet word:-
(a) In die geval van duidelike samestellinge word tussen die same-
stellende dele geskei: daar-om, hier-oor.
(b) Voorvoegsels, agtervoegsels wat met 'n konsonant begin (-baar,
-dom, -heid, -ling, -skap, -te, -waarts) en halfsterk beklemtoonde
agtervoegsels wat met 'n vokaal begin (-aard, -aardig, -agtig) word
geskei: be-gin, ge-trou, te-vrede, ver-slaan, bood-skap, ge-berg-te,
mooi-heid, ryk-dom, see-waarts, trou-baar, twee-ling, blou-agtig,
grys-aard, kwaad-aardig; maar be-ter, hou-terig, se-dig.
(c) As daar net een medeklinker is, word dit by die volgende letter
greep getrek: ko-ning, ma-ker, ma-ne, nu-we.
(d) As daar twee medeklinkers is, val die verdeling tussen die twee:
mak-ker, man-ne, win-de.
(e) Hoewel dj, ng, tj enkelklanke is, geld hulle by die lettergreepverdeling
dikwels as twee medeklinkers: bad-jie, hon-ger, pit-jie.
Opm. 1. By die verkleiningsuitgange met dj en tj hang die verdeling
vir 'n groot deel af van die grondwoord: balju-tjie,
kommando-tjie, padda-tjie, see-tjie (teenoor beet-jie,
verkleinwoord van beet, en net-jie).
(f) By klinkers en tweeklanke word die verdeling gemaak tussen die
klinkers of tussen die tweeklank en die klinker: da-e, 18-er, leu-en,
ru-e; rei-er, wei-er.
Opm. 1. Gewoonlik toon deeltekens hier die lettergreepverdeling
aan, waar dit nodig is: gelee, oe, ploee (vgl. Reel 15, a,
b, c).
Opm. 2. Vir meer besonderhede oor lettergreepverdeling moet
grammatikas en werke oor die klankleer geraadpleeg word.


Die aaneenskrywe van woorde gee las in die praktyk, waar so dikwels
geskeie word wat aaneen behoort te wees. 'n Heeltemal bevredigende formu-
lering van reels vir die aaneenskrywe van woorde is moeilik te gee. Die
volgende opmerkinge wil alleen leading probeer verskaf. Vir meer besonder-
hede moet grammatikas en ander taalkundige werke geraadpleeg word. In
hierdie verband word veral verwys na 'n artikel in D i e H u i s g e n oot
deur prof. D. B. Bosman oor ,,Die Aanmekaarskryf van woorde in. Afri-
kaan", deur die Nasionale Pers, Bpk., in brosiurevorm uitgegee.
Aaneen word geskrywe:-
(1) Orals waar die woorde 'n vaste eenheid vorm: dakpan, geelhout,
groendruiwe, kwajongstreek, stinkhout, ysterklip.
(2) As die verbindingsklanke e en s aanwesig is tussen die dele van
die samestelling: armesorg, blindeskool, gewetensvryheid,
opleidingsinrigting, vraeboekie. -
(3) Waar ou fleksievorme nog bewaar is: Dominikanermonnik,
Franciskanerklooster, haarlemmerolie.


(4) Waar byvoeglike naamwoorde wat anders sou verbuig, onverbod
bly: dubbelpunt, fransdruiwe, halfuur.
(5) Geografiese name waarvan die laaste deel 'n soortnaam is:
Oranjerivier, Tomstraat, Ventersdorp.
(6) Selfstandige naamwoorde waarvan die eerste deel die stof aandui:
ferweelbroek, grasdak, sykouse, ysterpaal.
Opm. 1. Egte stoflike byvoeglike naamwoorde op -e word natuur-
lik apart geskrywe: 'n goue getting, en ook wanneer
hulle 'n figuurlike betekenis het: 'n stale wil.
Gewoonlik word die koppelteken aangewend:-
(1) By minder vaste woordverbindinge: seekus-Kafferstam, skooldae-
(2) By minder vborkomende verbindinge bestaande uit eienaam en
soortnaam: Chicago-tentoonstelling, Milner-politiek, Moskou-
(3) By geografiese name waar onderskeidinge soos die volgende
gemaak word: Noord-Holland, Suid-Afrika, Wes-Europa.
(4) Waar samestellinge lank is en aaneengeskrywe moeilik leesbaar
sou wees: bloukop-koggelmander, kommetjiegat-muishond,
skooleindsertifikaat-eksamen, witkeel-dikbeksysie.
(5) Waar woordkoppelinge tot vaste eenhede gegroei het en aaneen-
skrywe tog onmoontlik is: blinkblaar-wag-'n-bietjie, kruidjie-
roer-my-nie(t), ouvrou-onder-die-kombers, wag-'n-bietjie-boom.
(6) By opeenhoping van klinkers in die middel van samestellinge, wat
hinderlik is by die lees: blinde-instituut, eeue-oue, see-eend,
(7) Waar koppeltekens noodsaaklik is om dubbelsinnigheid te vermy:
bek-af, bye-sel.
(8) By redupliserende formasies: beri-beri, bietjie-bietjie, fluit-fluit,
gou-gou, skelm-skelm, tjakkie-tjakkie.
(9) By samegestelde titels: generaal-majoor, kommandant-generaal,
luitenant-kolonel, sersant-majoor.
(10) By samegestelde name van tale, dialekte of taalperiodes: Angel-
Saksies, Anglo-Fries, Fries-Frankies, Indo-Germaans, Middel-
Nederlands, Nieu-Nederlands of Nu-Nederlands, Ou(d)-Ger-
maans. Daarentee skrywe ons: Hooghollands, Nedersaksies,
(11) By samestelling met oud- in die sin van ,,gewese": oud-amptenaar,
oud-burgemeester, oud-ouderling.
(12) By samestellinge met -hulle waar dit 'n kollektiewe begrip aandui:
Opm. 1. By ou vaste eenhede soos DrieEenheid, drieenig, by
fleksievorme soos kniee, see en by die wegval van kon-
sonante tussen vokale soos in bedriee, gelea, oe, ploee
word gewoonlik deeltekens gebruik (vgl. Reel 15, a,
b en c). Raadpleeg in hierdie verband die Woordelys.



By die interpunksie kan oor die algemeen rekening gehou word met twee
vemame beginsels:
A.-Die ritmiese beginsel,
waarby die skrywer horn laat lei deur die in die lewende taal
gevoelde aksentuasie en pouses;
B.-Die grammatiese beginsel,
wat help om 'n aantal gevalle waar twyfel moontlik is, so te reel
dat die groots moontlike duidelikheid verkry word.
Die eerste beginsel laat bale oor aan die gevoel van die indiwiduele skrywer,
veral natuurlik van die kunstenaar.
Dit is wenslik dat die tweede meer in besonderhede verduidelik word.
Veral geld dit vir die gebruik van die komma.
(1) Die gebruik van die komma is noodsaaklik :
(a) in gevalle van parentese, d.w.s. as daar in 'n sin woorde ingevoeg
word wat die bou van die sin nie wysig nie; ,,Oppas," het die
baas ges&, ,,tot ek weer kom"; Daardie Vrydag, onthou jy,
het ons vertrek; Die woorde is, op die keper beskou, nie te
duidelik nie; Die boek is, om kort te gaan, 'n meesterstuk;
Ons moet, of ons wil of nie, die skrywer bewonder; Jy het
mos, doringstruikie, my ander dag gekrap; Paul Kruger, die
President van die Transvaaalse Republiek, was 'n vrome man;
(b) na 'n vokatief, en, as dit nie die eerste woorde in die sin is nie,
ook daarvoor: Wag, neef Kerneels, tot jy alles weet; Vader,
die taak is swaar;
(c) tussen twee gelykwaardige dele in 'n sin wat opgestel word
sonder die bindende en: Die see het juwele, robyne; Ons weet
wie die boek geskryf het, waaroor dit handel, wat sy strekking is;
(d) tussen twee werkwoorde wat by verskillende sinne of sinsdele
behoort: Toe ek vanoggend wakker word, voel ek sommer die
wereld staan met sy agterkant na my toe;
(e) vdor die meeste bywoordelike bysinne wat volg na die hoofsin:
Ek hp.t w.er hulp gekry, al het ek nie daarom gevra nie;
(f) voor die byvoeglike bysinne wat 'n eksplikatiewe bepaling bevat
by die antesedent, en wat dus 'n nuwe gedagte in die sin invoer:
Orals in die oigewing van Kaapstad I hoe berge, wat in die
dae van Van Riebeeck nog van wild gewemel het.
Is die pntesedent 'n hele sin, dan is die wat-sin altyd eksplika-
tief: Dia mense het tegelyk verongeluk, wat 'n skok was vir die
hele dorp.
Staan daar 'n substantief in die voorafgaande sin, dan kan *
daar twyfel bestaan oor die gebruik van die komma, by. in:
Die advokaat het 'n welsprekende pleidooi gelewer, wat die
regters laat besluit het om die beklaagde vry te spreek.


(2) Die gebruik van die komma is aan te beveel:
S(a) voor en, wanneer die twee deur en verbonde sinne nie dieselfde
konstruksie vertoon nie: Maar hy het besware, en dis die beste
dat hy hulle te berde bring;
(b) voor maar, wanneer dit 'n hele sin inlei: Die werk gaan met
moeilikheid gepaard, maar ons sal dit regkry;
(c) tussen twee voegwoorde: Hulle vrees dat, as die dokter nie
betyds kom nie, die sieke sal beswyk;
(d) wanneer die sin 'n buitengewone lengte vertoon. Dan is dit-
raadsaam om op geskikte plekke 'n komma te skryf.
(3) In al die wander gevalle moet die gebruik a of nie van die komma
vrygelaat word.
Opmerking.-Die gebruik van die orige leestekens is eintlik so vanself-
sprekend dat daar op hierdie plek geen wenke voor gegee word nie.
'n Bruikbare handleiding gee by. die Afrikaanse Stylleer van Botha en
Burger, bls. 143-145 en 150-154.


a (-'s), a. aan'bou, (s), annex(e), construction
a! ah! (-ge-), (w), to add by building.
aai, (ge-), to caress, stroke, chuck, aan'brand, (-ge-), to burn (food).
aak'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), horrible, nasty, aan'brandsel, (-s), crust (caused by
dreary, dismal, burning), crustation; scorched part.
aal'moes, (-e), alms, charity, dole. aan'breek, (-ge-), to dawn, come.
aal'wee, (-s), aal'wyn, (-e), aloe. aan'brei, (-ge-), to add by knitting.
aam, (ame), aum. aan'bring, (-ge-), to bring (near, on),
aam'beeld, (-e), anvil, announce, effect (improvements).
aam'bei, (-e), piles, haemorrhoids. aand, (-e), evening.
aam'beibos, (-se), small shrub with aanda'dig, (-e), accessory, implicated
a bitter taste, in, instrumental to.
aambors'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), asthmatic, aan'dag, attention, devotion.
short-winded. aandag'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), attentive.
aan, at, on, near, next to, upon. aandag'tiglik, attentively.
aan'bel, (-ge-), to ring (the doorbell). aand'baadjie, (-s), dinner jacket.
aan'beland, (-), to come to, arrive at. aand'blad, (..blaale), evening-paper.
aan'belang, (-), (w), to concern, aand'blom (-me), evening flower
regard; (s), importance. (species of Hesperantha).
aan'bestee, (-), to invite tenders, aand'diens, (-te), evening service.
contract for. aan'deel, (. .dele), share, portion,
aan'besteding, (-e, -s), giving out part.
(contracting for) work. aan'deelbewys, (-e), share certificate.
aan'betref, (-), to concern. aan'deelhouer, (-s), shareholder.
aan'beveel, (-), to recommend. aan'delemark, (-te), share market.
aanbevelenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), aan'delekapitaal, share capital.
recommendable. aan'denking, (-e, -s), remembrance,
aan'beveling, (-e, -s), recommendation. keepsake, souvenir, memento.
aan'bevelingsbrief, (. .briewe), letter aand'ete, (-s), supper.
of recommendation. aan'dien, (-ge-), to announce, usher in.
aanbid', (-), to adore, worship, idolise. aand'kerk, evening service.
aanbid'delik, (-e, -er, -ste), adorable, aand'klas, (-se), evening (night) class.
divine. aand'lied, (-ere), evensong, vesper.
aanbid'der, (-s), worshipper, adorer, aandlug, evening (night) air.
aanbid'ding, adoration, worship. aan'doen, (-ge-), to call at (port);
aan'bieding, (-e, -s), offer, tender, (-gedaan), to cause, render, affect,
presentation, overture, move.
aan'biee, .bied, (-ge-), to offer, aan'doening, (-e, -s), emotion.
present, volunteer, tender, proffer. aandoenlik, (-e, -er, -ste), touching,
aan'bind, (-ge-), to tie, fasten, bind. pathetic.
aan'blaas, (-ge-), to fan (flame), rouse aandoenlikheid, pathos.
(passions). aand'pak, (-ke), dress suit.
aan'blaf, (-ge-), to bark at, bay at. aand'party, (-e), soiree.
aan'blaser, (-s), instigator, inciter. aan'dra, (-ge-), to bring to, carry to;
aan'blasing, (-e, -s), aspiration, inspira- tell, inform.
tion, afflation; blowing. aan'draai, (-ge-), to screw tighter,
aan'blik, (s), sight, look; (-ge-), (w), fasten by. twisting; turn on.
to glance at.
aan'bly, (-ge-), to continue, remain, aan'draf, (-ge-), to come trotting along,
aan'bod, (. .biedinge, .biedings), run on.
offer, proposal; supply; vraag en aan'drang, pressure, entreaty, insist-
-, demand and supply. ence, prompting.

aan'drentel, (-ge-), to come sauntering aan'gesien, seeing that, whereas, since,
along, considering.
aan'drif, (-te), instigation, impulse, aan'gesig, (-te), countenance, face.
impetus. aan'geslaan, (. .slane), coated or furred
aan'dring, (-ge-), to urge, press on, with morbid matter (e.g. tongue);
insist on. taxed, assessed.
aand'rok, (-ke), evening dress (lady). aan'gespe, (-ge-), to buckle on, gird on.
aan'druk, (-ge-), to press against (on); aan'getroud, (-e), related by marriage.
hurry on. aan'gewese, obvious, right, proper;
aan'dryf, aan'drywe, (-ge-), to float die person, the right person;
along; press on, drive on, urge, die weg, the proper course.
incite. aan'gooi, (-ge-), to fling along, throw
aand'skemering, twilight, dusk. against.
aand'skool, (..skole), night school. aan'gord, (-ge-), to gird (buckle) on.
aand'ster, evening star. aan'grens, (-ge-), to border on,
aan'dui(e), (-ge-), to indicate, point adjoin.
out. aangren'send, (-e), adjacent, bordering
aan'duiding, (-e, -s), indication, sign, on, adjoining.
designation, aan'groei, (s), growth, increase; (-ge-),
aan'durf, (-ge-), to dare. (w), to grow, swell, increase.
aaneen', together, connected, con- aan'gryns, (-ge-), to grin at, stare in
secutively. the face.
aaneen'heg, (-ge-), to fasten, connect, aan'gryp, (-ge-), to seize, catch hold
link together. of; attack.
aaneen'as, (-ge-), to join, seam, stitch aangry'pend, (-e, -er, -ste), touching,
together. moving, gripping.
aaneen'skakel, (-ge-), to link together, aan'aak, (-ge-), to hook on, fasten;
concatenate, hitch on.
aaneen'skakeling, concatenation, aan'haal, (-ge-), to draw tighter;
series. caress; quote, cite.
aan'erd, (aangeerd), to earth up aanha'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), attractive,
(potatoes). sweet, winning.
aan'fok, (-ge-), to breed, rear. aan'haling, (-e, -s), quotation, quoted
aan'gaan, (-ge-), to concern, begin; passage (word).
proceed, continue; carry on; call. aan'halingstekens, quotation marks,
aangaan'de, as for, concerning, as inverted commas.
regards. aan'hang, (s), followers, adherents,
aan'gaap, (-ge-), to stare at, gape at. party; (-ge-), (w), to follow, hang
aan'gebedene, (-s), adored one, idol. on to, adhere to; attach.
aan'gebore, innate, inborn. aarihan'gig, pending.
aan'gedaan, moved, affected. aan'hangsel, (-s), supplement, ap-
aan'gee, (-ge-), (w), to hand on, pass, pendix, annexure.
reach; mention, give notice; set; aan'hangwa, (-ens), trail-car, trailer.
(. .gei), (s), pass (rugby). aanhank'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), devoted,
aan'geebeweging, (-s), passing bout attached.
(rugby). aan'h6, (aangehad), to have on, wear.
aan'geklaagde, (-s), accused, defend- aan'hef, (s), beginning, preamble;
ant. (-ge-), (w), to begin, set up.
aan'geklam, tipsy. aan'heg, (-ge-), to affix, annex.
aan'geleentheid, (..hede), affair, con- aan'help, (-ge-), to help on with.
cern, incident, matter. aan'hits, (-ge-), to instigate, incite,
aan'genaam, (..name, .namer, -ste), abet, egg on.
pleasant, agreeable, comfortable. aan'hitsing, (-e, -s), incitement, instiga-
aan'genome, (b), accepted; adopted; tion.
(vgw), supposing, granted. aan'hoor, (-ge-), to listen to.



aan'hoorder, (-s), listener. aanleer, (-ge-), to learn, acquire.
aanho'rig, belonging (appertaining) to. aanleg, (..l1e), plan, arrangement;
aan'hou, (-ge-), to continue, insist, talent, disposition.
persevere; keep (servant); keep on aanleghawe, (-ns), port of call.
(clothes). aan'lei, (-ge-), to lead to, induce;
aanhou'dend, (-e), continual, inces- -dende oorsaak, primary cause.
sant. aanleiding, (-e, -s), cause, reason,
aan'houer, (-s), perseverer; wen, motive.
perseverance will be rewarded. aan'liggend, (-e), adjacent, contiguous.
aan'huppel, (-ge-), to skip (hop) aanlok, (-ge-), to attract, charm,
along. invite, entice, allure.
aan'ja(e), aan'jaag, (-ge-), to hurry, aanlokking, allurement, enticement.
urge, drive on. aanlok'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), attractive,
aankant', tidy, neat. charming, inviting.
aan'kla(e), (-ge-), to accuse, charge aanloksel, (-s), decoy, bait.
with, arraign, indict, impeach. aanlonk, (-ge-), to ogle, make eyes at.
aan'klaer, (-s), accuser, plaintiff, aanloop, (s), patronage; (-ge-), (w),
aan'klag, (-te, -tes), accusation, charge, to go on walking; walk faster; call
indictment, impeachment, in passing.
aan'klam, (-ge-), to moisten. aan'loopspring, (-e), flying jump.
aan'klamp, (-ge-), to fasten with a aan'maak, (-ge-), to prepare, mix.
clamp; accost, sponge upon. aan'maan, (-ge-), to warn, admonish,
aan'klee(d), (-ge-), to dress, attire, exhort.
clothe. aan'maning (-e, -s), warning, reminder,
aan'kleef, aan'klewe, (-ge-), to stick, exhortation; relapse (disease).
adhere to, cling to. aan'marsjeer, (-ge-), to march on.
aan'klop, (-ge-), to knock, beat (at the aan'matig, (-ge-), to arrogate to one-
door). self, lay claim to, presume, pretend;
aan'knoop, (-ge-), to fasten; enter usurp.
into (conversation); tie on to. aanma'tigend, (-e, -er, -ste), pre-
aan'knopingspunt, (-e), point of con- sumptuous, arrogant, haughty.
tact, starting point. aan'matiging, (-e, -s), presumption,
aan'kom, (-ge-), to arrive, get at; arrogance.
acquire, obtain; drop in. aan'mekaar, together, connected, con-
Aling, (-e), newcomer, be- secutively, continuously.
ginner. aan'meld(e), (-ge-), to announce,
aan'koms, arrival. report.
aan'kondig, (-ge-), to announce, pub- aan'melding, (-e, -s), announcement,
lish, inform, advertise, notice.
aan'kondiger, (-s), announcer. aan'merk, (-ge-), to remark, observe,
aan'kondiging, (-e, -s), announcement, note.
notification, review, advertisement. aan'merking, (Ce, -s), remark, criti-
aan'koop, (s), purchase; (-ge-), (w), cism, consideration.
to purchase, buy. aanmerklik, (-e, -er, -ste), con-
aan'kruip, (-ge-), to crawl along. siderable, notable.
aan'kry, (-ge-), to get on (clothing). aanmin'nig, (-e, -er, -ste), amiable,
aan'kweek, (-ge-), to cultivate, grow, charming.
rear, raise, foster, aan'moedig, (-ge-), to encourage.
aan'kyk, (-ge-), to look at. aan'moediging, encouragement.
aanlag, (-ge-), to favour, smile on. aan'naai, (-ge-), to sew on. -
(-ge-), to land, arrive, aan'name, acceptance; passing (bill in
aanlas, (-ge-), to join, attach, dove- parliament).
taih aan'neem, (-ge-), to accept, adopt,
aan'l, (-ge-), to aim at, apply; plan, assume, admit; confirm.
build; lay out; court, aanneem'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), acceptable,




* credible, reasonable.
aan'nemer, (-s), contractor, under-
aan'neming, acceptance; adoption;
aan'pak, (-ge-), to seize, take hold of,
take in hand; adhere to.
aan'paksel, (-s), layer (of dirt), sedi-
aan'pas, (-ge-), to try on, fit; adapt,
aan'passing, (-e, -s), adaptation, ad-
aan'passingsvermoe, adaptability.
aan'piekel, (-ge-), to carry with
difficulty, go (move) laboriously.
aan'plak, (-ge-), to post up (bills),
aan'plakbiljet, (-te), bill, poster, plac-
aan'plakbord, (-e), notice-board.
aan'por, (-ge-), to prod, rouse, urge,
aan'porring, stimulation, incitement,
aan'presenteer, (-ge-, -), to offer;
aan'prys, (-ge-), to commend, extol,
aan'prysing, commendation, eulogy.
aan'raai, (-ge-), to advise, recommend.
aan'raak, (-ge-), to touch.
aan'raking, (-e, -s), touch, contact.
aan'rakingspunt, (-e), point of con-
aan'rand, (-ge-), to assault, attack.
aan'randing, (-e, -s), assault, attack.
aan'reik, (-ge-), to reach, hand on,
aan'reken, (-ge-), to blame for, lay to
one's charge.
aan'rig, (-ge-), to cause, commit, do.
aan'roep, (-e), (s), call; challenge;
(-ge-), (w), to hail; invoke, call
aan'roeping, invocation; hail.
aan'roer, (-ge-), to touch upon,
mention; stir up; hasten.
aan'ruk, (-ge-), to advance (army).
aan'ry, (-ge-), to drive faster, bring
by vehicle; touch at (in passing).
aan'ry(e), aan'ryg, (-ge-), to string,
lace up; baste.
aans'(ies), presently, perhaps.

4 aan'spraak

aan'se, (-ge-), to announce, inform,
give notice.
aan'sien, (s), appearance, respect, es-
teem; (-ge-), (w), to look at;
aan'sien'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), respectable,
considerable, notable; handsome.
aan'sit, (-ge-), to sit down at table;
put on; instigate; start (motor).
aan'sitter, (-s), prompter; sharpener;
starter (motor).
aan'skaf, (-ge-), to procure, provide
buy, secure.
aanskou', (-), to see, look at, con-
template, view, behold.
aanskou'er, (-s), onlooker, eyewitness.
aanskou'ing, (-e, -s), view, contem-
aanskou'(e)lik, (-e, -er, -ste), visible,
perceptible; -e onderwys, object
lesson, subject teaching.
aan'skryf, aan'skrywe, (-ge-), to notify,
send a letter of demand.
aan'skrywing, (-e, -s), notification,
letter of demand; summons.
aan'skyn, appearance, look, face.
aan'slaan, (-ge-), to touch, strike;
assume (a tone); assess; salute;
knock on (rugby).
aan'slag, (. .slae), stroke; attempt;
touch (music); assessment.
aan'sleep, (-ge-), to drag along.
aan'slib, (-ge-), to silt up (soil, mud).
aan'slibbing, (-e, -s), alluvial soil.
aan'sluit, (-ge-), to join,
enlist, enroll; connect.
aan'sluiting, (-e, -s), junction, con-
aan'smeer, (-ge-), to grease; fob,
foist, palm off.
aan'sny, (-ge-), to give the first cut
to (a loaf); cut on to.
aan'soek, (-e), application, request,
aan'soldeer, (-ge-), to solder on.
aan'speld(e), (-ge-), to pin on.
aan'spoel, (-ge-), to wash or cast
ashore; be washed up.
aan'spoor, (-ge-), to spur on, urge on,
aan'sporing, stimulation, incitement,
aan'spraak, (. .sprake), address; claim,
title, right.

aan'spreek 3

aan'spreek, (-ge-), to address, speak
to, accost.
aanspreeklik, (-e, -er,. -ste), re-
sponsible, answerable, liable.
aan'staan, (-ge-), to please, like, suit.
aanstaan'de, (b), next; prospective;
forthcoming; (-s), (s), intended,
aan'staar, (-ge-), to stare at, gaze at.
aan'stalte, (-s), preparation.
aan'stap, (-ge-), to walk on, walk
aan'steek, (-ge-), to infect; light,
kindle; pin on.
aansteek'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), infectious,
aan'stel, (-ge-), to appoint; pretend,
aanstel'lerig, (-e, -er, -ste), affected,
aan'stellery, affectation, conceit.
aan'stelling, (-e, -s), appointment.
aan'stellings, airs, conceitedness.
aan'stip, (-ge-), to jot down, touch
on, hint at.
aan'stommel, (-ge-), to approach
aan'stons, presently, directly, anon.
aan'stoot, (. .stote), (s), offence; (-ge-),
(w), to push on, bump against.
aanstoot'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), offensive,
indecent, objectionable.
aan'storm, (-ge-), to rush upon.
aan'strompel, (-ge-), to come hob-
bling along.
aan'stryk, (-ge-), to walk on; brush on.
aan'stuur, (-ge-), to send on, pass on;
direct, aim at, strive at.
aan'suiwer, (-ge-), to pay off, settle.
aan'sukkel, (-ge-), to struggle (trudge)
aan'swel, (-ge-), to swell, rise; in-
crease (numbers).
aan'syn, existence, being.
aan'tal, (-le), number.
aan'tas, (-ge-), to touch, attack,
aan'teel, (s), breedingg, (yearly) in-
crease; (-ge-), (w), to breed, in-
aan'teelvee, breeders, breeding stock.
aan'teken, (-ge-), to note down,
record; register.
aan'tekening, (-e, -s), note, record,

5 aan'voerder

aan'tekeningboek, (-e), note-book,
scribbling book.
aan'tog, approach, advance.
aanto'nend, (-e), indicative; -e wyse,
indicative mood.
aan'toon, (-ge-), to show, demonstrate,
aan'tref, (-ge-), to meet, find, light on.
aan'trek, (-ge-), to dress; draw
tighter; attract; take to heart.
aan'trekking, attraction.
aan'trekkingskrag, power of attraction,
aantreklik, (-e, -er, -ste), sensitive;
aan'trippel, (-ge-), to trip along.
aan'tyg, (-ge-), to impute, accuse,
aan'tyging, (-e, -s), imputation, ac-
aanvaar', (-), to accept, assume,
enter upon; aan'vaar, (-ge-), to
collide (ships).
aanvaar'ding, beginning; accession to;
assumption; acceptance.
aan'val, (-le), (s), attack, onset, charge;
fit; (-ge-), (w), to attack, assail,
aan'vallenderwys(e), aggressively.
aan'valler, (-s), assailant, attacker.
aanval'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), lovely,
amiable, charming.
aanval'ligheid, loveliness, charm.
aan'vang, (s), beginning, start, com-
mencement; (-ge-), (w), to begin,
aan'vangstadium, initial stage.
aanvanklik, (b), (-e), initial, incipient;
elementary; (bw), in the beginning,
at the outset.
aan'vat, (-ge-), to take hold of, begin.
aanveg'baar, (. .bare, -der, -ste), open
to attack, attackable, debatable.
aan'vegting, (-e, -s), temptation.
aan'verwant, (-e), relative, kindred,
cognate. -
aan'vlie(C), .vlieg, (-ge-), to fly at,
rush upon.
aan'vly, (-ge-), to nestle against.
aan'voeg, (-ge-), to join, add; -ende
wyse, subjunctive mood.
aan'voer, (s), supply; (-ge-), (w), to
supply; allege; advance; adduce;
state; command, lead.
aan'voerder, (-s), commander, leader.


aan'voor, (-ge-), to feer, begin, com-
mence (ploughing).
aan'vra, (-ge-), to apply for, request.
aan'vraag, (..vrae), application, re-
quest, requisition.
aan'vul, (-ge-), to fill up, replenish,
aan'vulling, (-e, -s), complement,
replenishment, addition, amplifica-
aan'vuring, incitement, stimulation.
aan'vuur, (-ge-), to encourage, inspire,
aan'waai, (-ge-), to be blown towards;
aan'wakker, (-ge-), to animate, en-
courage, inspirit; foment, fan.
aan'was, (s), growth, increase; (-ge-),
'(w), to grow, increase.
aan'wen, (-ge-), to contract (habit),
accustom oneself.
aan'wend, (-ge-), to use, employ,
apply; appropriate.
aanwend'baar, (. .bare, -der, -ste),
applicable, employable.
aan'wending, employment, application.
aan'wensel, (-s), (bad) habit.
aan'werk, (-ge-), to continue working;
sew on.
aan'werwe, (-ge-), to recruit, enlist,
aan'werwing, recruiting, enlisting. "
aanwe'sig, (-e), present.
aanwe'sigheid, presence.
aan'wins, gain, profit, acquisition,
aan'wys, (-ge-), to show, point out
indicate; allocate.
aanwy'send, (-e), indicating, demon-
strative (pronoun).
aan'wysing, (-e, -s), indication, hint,
direction; allocation.
aap, (ape), ape, monkey.
aap'sekos, a'pieskos, forest tree with
large white flowers.
aap'stert, (-e), sjambok.
aar, (are), ear (of corn); vein; under-
ground watercourse.
aar'bei, (-e), strawberry.
aar'beiplant, (-e), arbutilon.
aar'bossie, (-s), shrub growing near
underground watercourses.
aard, (s), nature, kind, temper; (ge-),
(w), to take after; thrive.
aard'bewing, (-e, -s), earthquake.


aard'bodem, earth, earth's surface.
aard'bol, globe.
aar'de, earth; versengde -, scorched
aard'gordel, (-s), zone.
aar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), nice, agreeable;
unpleasant, queer, strange.
aar'digheid, (. .hede), joke, pleasantry,
aard'kors, crust of the earth.
aard'kunde, geology.
aard'ryk, earth.
aard'rykskunde, geography.
aardrykskun'dig, (-e), geographical.
aardrykskun'dige, (-s), geographer.
aards, (-e), worldly, mundane.
aards'gesind, (-e, -er, -ste), worldly-
aard'skok, (-ke), earthquake shock.
aar'ontsteking, phlebitis.
aars', (-e), anus, arse, rectum.
aar'sel, (ge-), to hesitate, waver.
aar'seling, (-e), hesitation.
aart'appel, (-s), potato.
aart'appelmoer, (-e), seed-potato.
aarts'biskop, (-pe), archbishop.
aarts'engel, (-e), archangel.
aarts'hertog, (. .toi), archduke.
aarts'vader, (-s), patriarch.
aarts'vaderlik, (-e), patriarchal.
aarts'vyand, (-e), arch-enemy.
aar'verkalking, arteriosclerosis.
aas, (s), carrion; bait; (ase), ace;
(ge-), (w), to feed on, prey on.
aas'voel, (-s), vulture, aasvogel; glut-
aas'voilbessie, (-s), Kaffir or Hotten-
tot cherry (Maurocenia).
ab, (-te), abbot.
abattoir', (-s), abattoir, municipal
ab'ba, (ge-), to carry on one's back
abc', abc, alphabet.
abdis', (-se), abbess.
abdy', (-e), abbey, monastery.
aberra'sie, aberration.
Abessi'nid, Abyssinia.
abja'ter, (-s), scamp, rogue.
ablatief', (. .tiewe), ablative.
abnormaal', (..male, .maler, -ste),
abonnee', (-s), subscriber.
abonneer', (ge-, -), to subscribe.
abonnement', (-e), subscription.


abortief', (. .tiewe), abortive.
abrakada'bra, abracadabra, gibberish.
absent', absent.
absenteer', (ge-, -), to absent.
abses', (-se), abscess, ulcer.
absolu'sie, absolution.
absolutis'me, absolutism.
absoluut', (b), (. .lute), absolute; (bw),
absorbeer', (ge-, -), to absorb.
absorp'sie, absorption.
abstraheer', (ge-, -), to abstract.
abstrak', (-te), abstract.
absurd', (-e), absurd, preposterous.
absurditeit', (-e), absurdity.
abuis', mistake, error.
abusief', (. .siewe), mistaken, erron-
abusief'lik, by mistake, inadvertently.
acetyleen', see asetileen.
achroma'ties, (-e), achromatic.
aciditeit', see asiditeit.
ac'ta (synodi), resolutions of the
ac'tiva, assets.
actua'rius, (. .rii), actuary (church
a'damsappel, (-s), Adam's apple.
a'damsvy(g), (. .vye), large brown
variety of fig.
ad'der, (-s), adder, viper.
ad'dergebroedsel, (-s), breed of vipers.
addisioneel', (. .nele), additional.
a'del, nobility.
a'delaar, (-s), eagle.
a'deldom, nobility.
a'dellik, (-e), noble, high-born.
a'delstand, nobility, peerage.
a'dem, (-s), (s), breath; (ge-), (w),
to breathe.
a'demtog, (-te), breath, gasp, respira-
adenoied', (-e), adenoid.
adhe'sie, adhesion.
adieu', (-'s), good-bye.
adjektief', (. .tiewe), adjective.
adjudant', (-e), adjutant, aide-de-camp.
adjunk', (-te), deputy, assistant.
administra'sie, administration.
administrateur', (-s), administrator.
administrative', (. .tiewe), adminis-
administreer', (ge-, -), to adminis-

7 af'brand

admirall, (-s), admiral.
admiraal'skip, (. .skepe), admiral's
ship, flagship.
admiraliteit', admiralty.
admis'sie, admission.
admis'sie-eksamen, (-s), entrance ex-
adolessen'sie, adolescence.
adolescent', (-e), adolescent.
adoons', ugly jack (monkey).
adres', (-se), address.
adres'boek, (-e), directory.
adres'kaart, (-e), luggage tag.
adresseer', (ge-, -), to address, direct.
adresseer'masjien, (-e), addressograph..
advent', advent.
adverbiaal', (. .biale), adverbial.
adver'bium, (..bia), adverb.
adverteer', (ge-, -), to advertise.
adverten'sie, (-s), advertisement.
advies', advice.
adviserr, (ge-, -), to advise.
adviserr, (-s), adviser.
advokaat', (. .kate), advocate, bar-
rister-at-law, lawyer; egg-flip.
advoka'testreek, (. .streke), lawyer's
trick, clever trick.
af, off, down, from.
afasie', aphasia.
af'baken, (-ge-), to divide, beacon off,
mark out, delimit.
af'bakening, demarcation, delimitation.
af'bedel, (-ge-), to obtain by begging
wheedle out of.
af'beeld, (-ge-), to picture, portray,
af'beelding, (-e, -s), picture, portrait,
depiction, illustration.
af'beeldsel, (-s), portrait, image, repre-
af'been, cripple(d).
af'bestel, (-), to countermand; cancel
the order.
af'betaal, (-), to pay off, settle.
af'betaling, (-e, -s), payment, settle
af'beul, (-ge-), to worry to death
slave, fag out.
af'bind, (-ge-), to tie off (a vein).
af'blaas, (-ge-), to blow off; let off.
af'bly, (-ge-), to leave alone, keep off.
af'borsel, (-ge-), to brush off.
af'brand, (-ge-), to burn down.

af'breek 3

af'breek, (-ge-), to pull down, de-
molish, destroy, break off, interrupt,
af'breking, demolition.
af'breuk, damage.
af'bring, (-ge-), to bring down, reduce;
come off.
af'brokkel, (-ge-), to crumble away.
af'byt, (-ge-), to bite off.
af'daal, (-ge-), to descend, go down.
af'dak, (-ke), shed, lean-to, penthouse.
af'dam, (-ge-), to dam up.
af'dank, (-ge-), to disband, dismiss,
discharge; cast off.
af'danking, (-e, -s), discharge, dis-
missal, disbandment.
af'deel, (-ge-), to divide, classify,
parcel out.
af'dek, (-ge-), to remove (cloth).
af'deling, (-e, -s), division, section,
department, detachment.
af'delingsbestuurder, (-s), system
Af'delingsraad, (. .rade), Divisional
af'ding, (-ge-), to haggle, beat down
the price.
af'doen, (-ge-, afgedaan), to finish,
complete; take off; expedite.
af'doende, decisive.
af'dra, (-ge-), to wear out (clothes);
hand over; carry down.
af'draal, (-ge-), to turn off, twist off,
branch off; reel off.
af'draand(e), (afdraande(s), afdraans),
(s), slope, declivity, descent.
af'draand, (bw), descending, downhill.
af'droi, af'droog, (-ge-), to dry, wipe
af'droogkraal, (. .krale), draining pen
af'druip, (-ge-), to trickle down, fall
in drops go away stealthily.
af'druk, (-ke), (s), imprint; copy,
impression, reproduction; (-ge-),
(w), to print, imprint, impress, press
af'drup, (-ge-), to trickle down.
af'dryf, af'drywe, (-ge-), to float
down-stream; repulse.
af'dwaal, (-ge-), to stray, deviate,
digress, err, wander.
af'dwaling, (-e, -s), deviation, error;
af'dwing, (-ge-), to extort, force from.

;8 af'godediens

af'eet, (afgeeet), to eat off.
affek'sie, affection.
affekta'sie, affectation, mannerism.
affekteer', (ge-, -), to affect.
affe're, (-s), affair, thing, matter.
affilia'sie, affiliation.
affilieer', (ge-, -), to affiliate.
affiniteit', affinity.
affodil', (-le), daffodil.
affront', (-e), affront.
affronta'sie, (-s), affront.
affronteer', (ge-, -), to insult, affront.
affronteer'speletjie, (-s), come-sit-by-
me (game).
af'gaan, (-ge-), to go down, descend;
wear off.
af'gang, descent.
afgedank'ste, confounded.
af'gee, (-ge-), to deliver, hand over;
come off; give off, emit; mingle
af'gelee, (meer -, mees -), remote,
distant, out-of-the-way.
af'geleef, (-de), worn with age, de-
af'gemat, (-te, -ter, -ste), tired, weary,
af'gematheid, fatigue, exhaustion.
af'gerig, (-te), trained.
af'gesaag, (-de, -der, -ste), hackneyed,
stale, trite.
af'gesant, (-e), messenger, ambassador.
af'gesien van, notwithstanding, irre-
spective of.
af'geskeidenheid, seclusion, privacy.
af'geskeie, separated.
af'geskei(den)e, (-s), dissenter, non-
af'gesonder, (-de), isolated, retired,
af'gestorwene, (-s), (the) deceased,
(the) dear departed.
af'getob, (-de), worn out, weary,
af'getrokke, (meer -, mees -), ab-
sentminded. abstract.
af'gevaardigde, (-s), deputy, delegate.
af'giet, (-ge-), to cast, mould; pour
af'gietsel, (-s),-cast, copy.
af'glip, (-ge-), to slip down.
af'gly, (-ge-), to glide down, slide
af'god, (-e), idol.
af'godediens, idolatry.

afgo'dies *

afgo'dies, (-e), idolatrous.
af'godsbeeld, (-e), idol, image.
af'godsdlenaar, (-s), idolator.
af'gooi, (-ge-), to throw down, cast
af'grond, (-e), precipice, abyss, chasm.
af'grou, (-ge-), to speak rudely to,
afgryslik, (-e, -er, -ste), horrible,
hideous, dreadful, ghastly.
af'guns, envy, jealousy, spite.
afgun'stig, (-e, -er, -ste), envious,
afgun'stigheid, enviousness, jealousy.
af'haak, (-ge-), to unhook, detach; let
go, let loose.
af'haal, (-ge-), to fake down, fetch
down; call-for.
af'handel, (-ge-), to settle, terminate,
af'hang, (-ge-), to hang down, depend
afhank'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), dependent.
afhank'likheid, dependence.
af'help, (-ge-), to rid of; help down.
af'hou, (-ge-), to keep off; hinder,
withhold, deduct.
af'jak, (-ke), (s), rating, rebuff, scold-
ing; (-ge-), (w), to rate, scold,
chide, snub.
af'kam, (-ge-), to comb off; run
down (by criticism).
af'kantel, (-ge-), to tumble down.
af'kap, (-ge-), to cut off, chop off;
af'kappingsteken, (-s), apostrophe.
af'keer, (s), aversion, dislike; (-ge-),
(w), to avert, ward off; turn aside.
af'kerf, af'kerwe, (-ge-), to carve off,
cut (tobacco).
afke'rig, van, averse to.
af'keur, (-ge-), to disapprove, con-
demn, reject, scrap.
afkeurenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste),
censurable, blameworthy.
af'keuring, disapproval, disapproba-
tion, censure.
af'klim, (-ge-), to climb down, de-
af'klop, (-ge-), to beat, thrash.
af'klouter, (-ge-), to scramble down.
af'kluif, af'kluiwe, (-ge-), to pick
(bone), gnaw at.
af'knak, (*ge-), to snap off.

19 af'loop

af'knibbel, (-ge-), to gnaw off; haggle
af'knip, (-ge-), to cut off, clip off.
af'knipsel, (-s), clippings.
af'knot, (-ge-), to lop off, poll.
af'knou, (-ge-), to hurt, bully.
af'koel, (-ge-), to cool down.
af'kom, (-ge-), to come down, de-
af'komeling, (-e), descendant.
af'koms, descent, derivation, extract.
ion, origin.
afkom'stig, derived from, descended
af'kondig, (-ge-), to proclaim, declare,
promulgate, publish.
af'kondiging, (-e, -s), proclamation,
promulgation, publication, declara-
af'kook, (-ge-), to decoct, boil down
to, parboil.
af'kooksel, (-s), decoction.
af'kort, (-ge-), to shorten, abbreviate,
af'korting, (-e, -s), abbreviation,
af'krap, (-ge-), to scrape off, scratch
af'krapsel, (-s), scrapings.
af'kry, (-ge-), to get off, get free; get
af'kyk, (-ge-), to copy, crib; look-
down; spy.
aflaai, (-ge-), to unload, discharge.
aflaat, (. .late), (s), indulgence; (-ge-),
(w), to leave off, desist; lower.
af'l1, (-ge-), to lay down, part with;
lay out; take (oath); pass (examina-
tion); give (evidence); pay (visit).
afleer, (-ge-), to unlearn, forget,
cure of.
aflees, (-ge-), to read out, call out.
aflei, (-ge-), to deduce, infer, derive;
divert; lead down.
afleiding, (-e, -s), derivation, de-
duction; diversion, distraction.
afleier, (-s), (lightning) conductor.
afleikunde, etymology.
af'ek, (-ge-), to lick; trickle down.
aflewer, (-ge-), to deliver.
aflewering, (-e, -s), delivery; part,
afloer, (-ge-), to spy, watch.
af'loop, (s), end, result, issue; (-ge-),
(w), to end; flow down.

aflos, (-ge-), to relieve, redeem, dis- af'reis, (s), departure; (-ge-), (w), to
charge. depart, leave.
aflosbaar, (. .bare), redeemable. af'reken, (-ge-), to settle, get even with.
aflossing, relief, redemption. af'rekening, settling of accounts, settle-
afloswedloop, (..lope), relay race. ment.
afluister, (-ge-), to overhear; eaves- af'rig, (-ge-), to train, coach.
drop. af'rigter, (-s), trainer, coach.
af'uisteraar, (-s), eavesdropper, af'rigting, training, coaching.
af'maak, (-ge-), to kill; finish. A'frika, Africa.
af'mars, departure (troops). Afrikaan', (. .kane), African aborigine.
af'marsjeer, (-ge-, -), to march off. Afrikaans', (s), Afrikaans; (C) (-e),
af'martel, (-ge-), to torture, torment. Afrikaans.
af'mat, (-ge-), to tire, fatigue, exhaust. Afrika'ner, (-s), Africander, South
af'mattend, (-e, -er, -ste), tiresome, African (white man).
fatiguing. afrika'ner, (-s), marigold.
af'matting, weariness, fatigue, ex- afrika'nerbees, (-te), (..bul, .koei,
haustion. .os), Africander (a peculiar breed
af'meet, (-ge-), to measure off. of South African cattle).
af'merk, (-ge-), to tick off, mark. Afrika'nerdom, Africanderdom.
af'meting, (-e, -s), measurement, afrika'nertjie, (-s), various species of
measure, dimension. gladiolus.
af'neem, (-ge-), to take away, deprive; Afrika'nervolk, Africander nation.
decrease, shrink; take a photo, af'roep, (-ge-), to call out.
photograph, snap; clear (table). af'rokkel, (-ge-), to coax away,
af'nemer, (-s), photographer. wheedle away.
af'nemery, (-e), photographing; af'rol, (-ge-), to roll down, unroll;
photographer's studio. duplicate.
af'oes, (-ge-), to harvest, reap. af'rolmasjien, (-e), duplicator.
afonie', aphony, loss of voice. af'romer, (-s), (cream) separator.
aforis'me, (-s), aphorism. af'rond, (-ge-), to round off.
af'paal, (-ge-), to peg out, stake out. af'ronding, rounding-off; finish.
-af'paar, (-ge-), to pair off. af'room, (-ge-), to skim (milk).
af'pak, (-ge-), to unload, unpack. af'ruk, (-ge-), to tear off, snatch away.
af'pas, (-ge-), to measure, count. af'saag, af'sae, (-ge-), to saw off.
af'peil, (-ge-), to fathom, gauge. af'saal, (-ge-), to off-saddle.
af'pen, (-ge-), to peg off (claim). af'sak, (-ge-), to sink, go down, slip
af'perk, (-ge-), to enclose, shut off; down.
limit, fence in. af'saksel, (-s), sediment, lees; deposit.
af'perking, limitation, demarcation. af's6, (-ge-), to sack; countermand.
af'pers, (-ge-), to extort, exact from. af'send, (-ge-), to send off, forward,
af'persing, extortion, exaction. consign.
af'pik, (-ge-), to peck off. af'sender, (-s), sender, consignor.
af'pluk, (-ge-), to pick off, gather. af'sending, consignment, dispatch.
af'poets, (-ge-), to scour, clean, af'set, turnover, sale.
polish, af'setgebied, (-e), market, sales area.
af'praat, (-ge-), to arrange, agree upon; af'setter, (-s), swindler, cheat.
dissuade from. af'settery, swindling, cheating.
af'raai, (-ge-), to dissuade from. af'sien, (-ge-), to give up, abandon.
af'raak, (-ge-), to get away from, go afsien'baar, (..bare), measurable.
astray, stray; get rid of. afsig'telik, (-e, -er, -ste),ugly,hideous.
af'rammel, (-ge-), to rattle off, prattle. afsig'telikheid, 'hideousness, ghastli-
af'ransel, (-ge-), to thrash,. flog. ness.
af'ranseling, (-e, -s), thrashing, flog- af'sit, (-ge-), to put down; dismiss;
going. dethrone; run away; amputate;
af'raspe(r), (-ge-), to rasp off. break by sitting on.



af'skaaf 4

af'skaaf, af'skawe, (-ge-), to plane;
af'skadu, (-ge-), to shadow forth,
adumbrate, typify,.
af'skaduwing, adumbration, type.
af'skaf, (-ge-), to abolish, abrogate,
af'skaffer, (-s), abstainer, teetotaller.
af'skaffing, abolition, teetotalism.
af'skeep, (-ge-), to ship; do in slip-
shod manner; treat shabbily.
af'skeer, (-ge-), to shear, shave.
af'skei(e), (-ge-), to separate, sever
from; secrete.
af'skeid, parting, departure, farewell.
af'skeiding, separation, secretion.
af'skeidsgroet, (-e), farewell, last greet-
af'skeidskus, (-se), parting kiss.
af'skeidsmaal, (. .male), farewell din-
af'skeidspreek, (. .preke), farewell
(valedictory) sermon.
af'skep, (-ge-), to skim, scoop off.
af'skeur, (-ge-), to tear off.
af'skeuring, severing, tearing off.
af'skiet, (-ge-), to discharge, fire,
shoot off.
af'skil, (-ge-), to peel, rind.
af'skilder, (-ge-), to depict, paint,
af'skildering, picture, representation,
af'skilfer, (-ge-), to scale, peel off.
af'skink, (-ge-), to pour off.
af'skop, (-pe), (s), kick-off; (-ge-),
(w), to kick off.
af'skort, (-ge-),.to partition off.
af'skorting, (-s), partition.
af'skraap, (-ge-), to scrape off.
af'skraapsel, (-s), scrapings, shavings
af'skram, (-ge-), to graze.
af'skrif, (-te), copy, duplicate.
af'skrik, (s), horror, aversion; (w)
(-ge-), to frighten, scare away, deter
afskrikwek'kend, (-e, -er, -ste), ter
af'skryf, af'skrywe, (-ge-), to copy
crib; cancel, write off.
af'skrywing, (-e, -s), copy(ing), cancel
lation, depreciation.
af'sku, abomination, horror, abhor
af'skud, (-ge-), to shake off.

1 af'stand

af'skuif, af'skuiwe, (-ge-), to push off,
shove off; exculpate.
af'skut, (-ge-), to partition off, screen
af'skutting, (-e, -s), partition, fence.
af'skuur, (-ge-), to scour off; abrade.
afsku'welik, (-e, -er, -ste), abominable,
horrible, detestable.
af'slaan, (-ge-), .to decline, refuse;
beat off, repulse; reduce (price);
knock off; serve (tennis).
af'slaer, (-s), auctioneer.
af'slag, (s), reduction, rebate, discount;
(w), (-ge-), to flay, skin.
af'sleep, (-ge-), to drag down.
af'sleur, (-ge-), to drag down.
af'sloof, af'slowe, (-ge-), to drudge,
slave, toil.
af'sluit, (-ge-), to close, shut off,
fence in; seclude; disconnect; con-
af'sluiting, enclosure, fence; closing.
af'slyt, (-ge-), to wear out, waste.
af'smeek, (-ge-), to implore, beseech.
af'smeer, (-ge-), to palm off on.
af'smeking, supplication, invocation.
af'smyt, (-ge-), to throw off, fling off.
af'snou, (-ge-), to speak harshly to,
af'sny, (-ge-), to cut off, curtail, lop
af'soen, (-ge-), to kiss away, become
reconciled (with a kiss).
af'sonder, (-ge-), to isolate, separate,
af'sondering, seclusion, retirement.
afson'derlik, (b), (-e), separate, is-
olated; (bw), separately.
af'spieil, (-ge-), to reflect, mirror.
af'spoel, (-ge-), to rinse, wash away.
af'spraak, (. .sprake), agreement, ap-
af'spreek, (-ge-), to agree upon,
, arrange.
, af'spring, (-ge-), to jump off, alight;
crack off.
- af'staan, (-ge-), to give up, yield, cede,
surrender, deliver up.
af'stam, (-ge-), to descend, spring
from, be derived from.
af'stammeling, (-e, -s), descendant.
af'stamming, descent; extraction;
af'stand, abdication, cession; (-e),

af'stap, (-ge-), to step down, change offal; refuse, waste; forsaking,
(subject). apostasy; (-ge-), (w), to fall off,
af'steek, (-ge-), to- contrast with; tumble down; forsake.
deliver (speech); cut off; mark off. afval'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), faithless,
af'stem, (-ge-), to reject, vote against, apostate.
negative. afval'ligheid, desertion, apostasy.
af'sterf, af'sterwe, (-ge-), to die (off). af'valproduk, (-te), by-product.
af'sterwing, death, decay; estrange- af'valwaarde, scrap-value.
ment. af'vee(g), (-ge-), to wipe off, dry,
af'stof, (-ge-), to dust. polish.
af'stomp, (-ge-), to make blunt; af'vliee, af'vlieg (-ge-), to fly down.
deaden. af'voer, (s), conveyance, discharge;
af'stoot, (-ge-), to push off; repel. (-ge-), (w), to convey away, lead
af'storm, (-ge-), to storm, rush down. away, carry off.
af'stort, (-ge-), to tumble down. af'voerpyp, (-e), waste (over-flow)
af'stroom, (-ge-), to flow down. pipe.
af'stroop, (-ge-), to strip off; pillage. af'vra, (-ge-), to ask, request.
af'stuit, (-ge-), to rebound; be re- af'vreet, (-ge-), to eat off, browse.
buffed. af'vry, (-ge-), to oust (in courting),
af'stuur, (-ge-), to dispatch; bear cut out.
down upon; direct. af'vryf, af'vrywe, (-ge-), to rub off.
af'sweer, (-ge-), to abjure; fester off. af'vuur, (-ge-), to fire (off), discharge.
af'swoeg, (-ge-), to slave, overwork af'vyl, (-ge-), to file off.
(oneself). af'waai, (-ge-), to blow off; be blown
af'takel, (-ge-), to unrig, dismantle; off.
thrash, af'wag, (-ge-), to await, abide.
af'tap, (-ge-), to tap; bottle; trickle af'wagting, expectation.
down. af'was, (-ge-), to wash, cleanse.
af'teken, (-ge-), to mark, draw; sign af'wassing, ablution.
off. af'water, (-ge-), to drain, pour off.
af'tekening, sketch, delineation. af'wee, af'wee(g), (-ge-), to weigh off.
af'tel, (-ge-), to count out; lift off. af'weer, (-ge-), to ward off, prevent,
af'tik, (-ge-), to tick off. avert.
af'tob, (-ge-), to tire out, fag. af'weerbaar, (..bare, -der, -ste), pre-
af'tog, retreat; die blaas, to sound ventible, avoidable.
the retreat. af'weergeskut, anti-aircraft gun.
af'top, (-ge-), to prune, top. af'wei(e), (-ge-), to graze off.
af'torring, (-ge-), to unrip. af'wen, (-ge-), to unlearn, disaccustom.
af'treding, resignation, retirement. af'wend, (-ge-), to turn aside, divert.
af'tree, (-ge-), to pace, measure; af'wending, diversion.
resign, retire, af'wentel, (-ge-), to roll away.
af'trek, (s), sale, demand; subtraction; af'wering, prevention; resistance.
(-ge-), (w), to deduct, subtract; af'werk, (-ge-), to complete, finish;
pull off; press (trigger). overwork oneself; put finishing
af'treksel, (-s), extract, tincture, touches to.
af'treksom, (-me), subtraction sum. af'werking, finish; workmanship.
af'trektal, minuend. af'werp, (-ge-), to throw off, shake off.
af'tuie, af'tuig, (-ge-), to outspan afwe'sig, (-e), absent.
(horses), unharness, afwe'sigheid, absence.
af'tuimel, (-ge-), to tumble down. af'wls, (-ge-), to wipe off; blot out.
af'vaardig, (-ge-), to delegate, return, af'wissel, (-ge-), to change, alternate;
depute- take turns; vary.
af'vaardiging, (-e, -s), deputation, af'wisselend, (-e, -er, -ste), (b) altern-
delegation. ative, diversified; (bw), alternately,
af'val, (s), head and trotters of a sheep, in turns.



af'wisseling, (-e, -s), change, alter- ag'terbanker, (-s), back-bencher.
nation. ag'terbeen, (. .bene), hind leg.
af'wyk, (-ge-), to deviate, depart from, ag'terbly, (-ge-), to remain behind,
differ from; deflect. straggle; survive.
af'wyking, (-e, -s), .deviation, de- ag'terbuurt, (-e, -es), back-street,
electionn; divergence, variation, slum(s).
af'wys, (-ge.), to reject, refuse, decline. ag'terdeur, (-e), backdoor.
af'wysing, (-e, -s), rejection, refusal, ag'terdog, suspicion.
ag, (tussenw.), alasl oh! (ge-), (w), agterdog'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), suspicious.
to esteem, value; (s), attention, care; agtereen', consecutively.
(tw), eight. agtereenvol'gens, successively, con-
agaat', (agate), agate, secutively.
ag'baar, (. .bare), respectable, vener- ag'terent, (,e), hind part, rear, back-
able, honourable. side.
ageer', (ge-, -), to act. ag'tergrond, background.
agenda, (-s), agenda. agterhaal', (-), to overtake.
agent', (-e), agent. ag'terhoede, (-s), rearguard; back
agent'skap, (-pe), agency. line.
agglomeraat', (. .rate), agglomerate. ag'terhoof, (-de), back part of the
agglutina'sie, agglutination, head, occiput.
aggregaat', (. .gate), aggregate, ag'terhou, (-ge-), to keep behind,
ag(t), eight, keep back, reserve.
ag(t)'hoek, (-e), octagon. agterhou'dend, (-e, -er, -ate), reserved,
ag(t)'hoekig, (-e), octagonal. close, reticent.
a'gie, (-s), nuuskierige -, quidnunc, ag'terhouding, concealment.
Paul Pry, inquisitive person. ag'terin, at the back (of).
agita'sie, (-s), agitation. ag'terkant, (-e), back, back part,
agita'tor, (-s), agitator. reverse side.
agiteer', (ge-, -), to agitate, ag'terklap, calumny, slander; (-pe),
agnos'ticus, (. .ci), agnos'tikus, (-se), rear (back) flap.
agnostic. ag'terkleinkind, (-ers), great-grand-
agnos'ties, (-e), agnostic. child.
agnostisis'me, agnosticism. ag'terkom, (-ge-), to discover, find out.
agres'sie, aggression, ag'terlaaler, (-s), breech-loading gun;
agressief', (. .siewe, .siewer, -ste), frock-coat.
aggressive. ag'terlaat, (-ge-), to leave behind.
agret'jie, agret'ta, (-s), Mayflower; ag'terlig, (-te), tail-light.
wild flower (Tritonia scillaris). ag'terlik, (-e, -er, -ate), backward,
agronomie', agronomy. mentally deficient, (mentally) re-
agronoom', (. nomee), agronomist. tarded.
agt, eight. ag'terlikheid, backwardness.
ag'(t)oscou, (-e), shrub with peculiarly ag'terlyf, (. .lywe), hind quarters;
tough roots, abdomen (insect).
ag'teloos, (. .lose, .loser, -ste), care- agtermekaar', in order, orderly; spick
less, indifferent, and span, neat; at a stretch; tandem.
agtelo'sig, (-e, -er, -ste), careless. agtermid'dag, (. .middae), afternoon,
agtelo'sigheid, carelessness. agterna', after, later, subsequently.
agtenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), respect- ag'ternaam, (. .name), second name,
able, estimable, honourable. surname.
ag'ter, behind, after., ag'teroni, round the back.
ag'teraan, behind, at the back. agteroor', backward(s), supinely.
ag'teraf, out-of-the-way; backward; agterop'skop, (-ge-), to be unmanage-
secretly, able; frisk, kick up the heels.
agterbaks', (-e, -er, -ste), sly, under ag'teros, (-se), hind ox.
hand, secret, behind one's back. ag'terossambok, (-ke), heavy sjambok.




ag'terpant, (-e), back width (of a skirt).
ag'terpoot, (..pote), hind foot.
ag'terplaas, (. plase), back-yard.
ag'terryer, (-s), attendant on horse-
back, henchman.
ag'tersaal, (-s), pillion.
ag'terskip, (..skepe), stern, poop.
ag'terskot, (-te), deferred (arrear)
payment (cooperative society).
ag'terslag, (..slae), thong (of a whip).
ag'terspeler, (-s), back (football).
ag'terstaan, (-ge-), to be inferior, be
agterstallig, (-e), in arrear, overdue.
ag'terstand, arrears; backward
ag'terste, last, hindmost.
ag'terstel, (-ge-), (w), to put or place
behind, put in the background;
(-le), (s), tail-end (wagon), rear part
ag'tersten, (-s), stern.
agterstevoor', hind part foremost,
topsy-turvy, upside down, wrong.
ag'terstewe, (-ns), stem.
ag'tertang, (-e), after-guide.
agteruit', backwards.
agteruit'gaan, (-ge-), to go backwards,
grow worse, decline, be on the down-
grade; reverse (car).
agteruit'gang, decay, retrogression, de-
agteruitloop, (-ge-), to walk back-
agteruit'sit, (-ge-), to put' back; sit
ag'tervoegsel, (-s), suffix.
agtervolg', (-), to follow, pursue.
agtervol'ging, pursuit, persecution.
ag'terwaarts, (-e), (b), backward;
(bw), backwards.
agterwe'e, aside, behind; bly, to
fail to come up, remain in abeyance.
ag'terwiel, (-e), hind-wheel.
ag'tien, eighteen.
ag'tiende, (-s), eighteenth.
ag'ting, regard, esteem, respect.
ag(t)'hoek, (-e), octagon.
ag(t)'hoekig, (-e), octagonal.
ag(t)'ste, (-s), eighth.
agt'uur, breakfast; eight o'clock.
agurk', (-e), agur'kie, (-s), gherkin.
ail oh! byJovel
ai'a, (-s), old native woman.
ai'k6na! oh no! not at all


air, (-s), looks, appearance.
aits'(a)! look out! hall! sorry
akade'mie, (-s), academy, university.
akade'mies, (-e), academic(al).
aka'sia, (-s), acacia.
akke(l)dis, akke(r)dis, (-se), lizard.
ak'ker, (-s), field, acre; acorn.
ak'kerboom, (. .bome), oak-tree.
ak'kerhout, oak.
ak'kertjie, (-s), garden or flowerbed.
akkerwa'nie, cuscus (plant with odor-
ous roots).
akklama'sie, acclamation.
akklimatiseer', (ge-, -), to acclim-
akkommoda'sie, accommodation.
akkommodeer', (ge-, -), to accom-
akkompanjeer', (ge-, -), to accom-
akkompanjement', (-e), accompani-
akkompanjis', (-te), accompanist.
akkoord', (-e), agreement, harmony;
akkordeer', (ge-, -), to agree.
akkor'deon, (-s), accordion.
akkumula'tor, (-e, -s), accumulator.
akkuraat', (..rate, raterr, -ste),
akkusatief', (..tiewe), accusative.
akoestiek', acoustics.
akoes'ties, (-e), acoustic.
akoniet', aconite, wolf's-bane.
akrobaat', (. .bate), acrobat.
aks, (-e), eighth (of an inch); big axe.
akselera'sie, acceleration.
akselereer', (ge-, -), to accelerate.
aksent', (-e), accent.
aksentua'sie, accentuation.
aksentueer', (ge-, -), to accent,
accentuate, stress.
aksepteer', (ge-, -), to accept.
aksidenteel', (. .tele), accidental.
ak'sie, (-s), action, suit.
ak'sieradius, radius of action.
aksio'ma, (-s), axiom.
aksioma'ties, (-e), axiomatic.
aksioom', (..ome), axiom.
aksyns', excise.
aksyns'belasting,'(-s), excise duty.
aksyns'meester, (-s), excise officer.
aksyns'pligtig, (-e), excisable.
aksyns'wet, excise law.
ak'te, (-s), deed; certificate.


akteur', (-s), actor.
aktief', (..tiewe, .tiewer, -ste),
active. *
akti'nies, (-e), actinic.
aktivis', (-te), activist.
aktiwiteit', (-e), activity.
aktri'se, (-s), actress.
aktualiteit', (-e), actuality.
aktuarieel', (. .riele), actuarial.
aktua'ris, (-se), actuary.
aktua'rius, (-se), actuary (church of-
aktueel', (. .ele), actual, real, topical.
akuuit', (akute), acute.
akwarel', (-le), water-colour painting,
akwa'rium, (-s), aquarium.
al, (tw, b), all, every, each; (bw),
already; (vgw), though, even if.
alaba'ma, (-s), pugree.
alarm', (-s), alarm.
alarmeer', (ge, -), to alarm.
alarm'klok, (-ke), alarm-bell, tocsin.
alarm'kreet, (..krete), cry of alarm.
al'bakoor, (. .kore), albacore.
Albanees', (. .nese), Albanian.
Alba'nie, Albania.
Alba'nles, (-e), Albanian.
albas'ter, (-s), marble.
al'batros, (-se), albatross.
al'bei, both.
Albigen'se, Albigenses.
albi'no, (-'s), albino.
al'bum, (-s), album.
albumien', albumi'ne, albumen.
alchemie', alchemy.
alchemis', (-te), alchemist.
aldaar', there, at that place.
al'dag, all day, every day.
al'deur, all the time, continually.
aldus', thus, so.
aleksandryn', (-e), alexandrine.
a'lewee, s e e aalwyn.
Alexan'drie, Alexandria.
alfaam', see halfaam.
al'fabet, (-te), alphabet.
alfabe'ties, (-e), alphabeticall.
al'gar, all, everybody.
al'ge, alga.
al'gebra, algebra.
algebra'les, (-e), algebraic.
al'geheel, ( .hele), totallyy, entirelyy.
algemeen', (. .mene, .mener, -ste),
generallyy, universal(ly), com-

5 Allerhoog'ste

al'gemeenheid, (. .hede), universality;
commonness, generality, platitude.
algenoeg'saam, (. .same), all-sufficient.
Alge'ri~, Algeria.
Algeryn', (-e), Algerian.
alhier', here, local.
alhoewel', althoughg.
alias, (s), (-se), alias; (bw), alias,
alibi, (-'s), alibi.
aliena'sie, alienation.
all6neer', (ge-, -), to alienate.
a'likruikel, alikreukel, (-s), peri-
winkle (a small edible sea-snail).
ali'nea, (-s), paragraph.
aljim'mers, always, ever, repeatedly.
alka'li, (-e, -'s), alkali.
al'kant, all sides.
al'kante, on all sides.
al'kohol, alcohol.
alkoholies, (-e), alcoholic.
alkoholis'me, alcoholism.
alkoof', (. .kowe), alcove.
al'la good graciously (upon) my
alledaags', (-e), commonplace,
ordinary, trivial.
alledaags'heid, commonness, triviality.
allee', (allee), avenue, alley.
alleen', alone, single, lonely.
alleen'handel, monopoly.
alleen'heerser, (-s), absolute monarch,
alleen'heerskappy, absolute monarchy,
autocratic rule.
alleenlaat, (-ge-), to leave alone.
alleenlik, only.
alleen'spraak, (. .sprake), soliloquy.
allegaar'tjie, (-s), chow-chow, jumble,
medley, hodge-podge.
allegorie', (-e), allegory.
allego'ries, (-e), allegoricall.
allemap'stieks I
allemas'kas I
allemas'tkas I good gracious I
allemat'jiesg! (upon) my word !
allemat'jies i gee-whiz !
allengs', gradually, by degrees.
alle'nig, alone, lonely.
allerbes'te, very best.
allereers'(te), first, very first.
allerhande, all sorts, all kinds, sundry.
Allerhoog'ste, the Supreme Being,

allerlaas'te, very last, ultimate. al'tyd, always, ever.
allerlel, all kinds of, miscellaneous. al'tyddeur, always, ever and anon.
allerllefs'(te), most charming; pre- altyddu'rend, (-e), everiastinj.
ferably. al'tydbos, shrub with virgate roots and
allermees'(te), most, very most, mostly. persistent flower-heads (Staavia
allermins'(te), very least, least of all. radiata).
allerwee, everywhere, in all respects, aluin', (-e), alum.
on all sides. alumi'nium, aluminium.
alqes, all, everything. alumnus, (. .ni, -se), alumnus, old
allesbehalwe, anything but, not at all. student.
allesetend, (-e), omnivorous. al'vermoe, omnipotence.
allesins, in every respect, by all means. al'vermoend, (-e), omnipotent.
allew&'reld, see alla. al'vleisklier, (-e), pancreas.
allian'sie, (-s), alliance. alvo'rens, before, until.
allig', perhaps, maybe. alwaar', where.
alliga'tor, (-s), alligator, alweer', again.
allitera'sie, alliteration. alwe'tend, (-e), all-knowing, omni-
allitereer', (ge-, -), to alliterate. scient.
allo'! hallol alwe'tendheid, omniscience.
allooi', alloy, standard, quality. al'wys, (-e), all-wise.
allopaat', (. .pate), allopathist. amalgaam', (. .game), amalgam.
allopatie', allopathy. amalgama'sie, amalgamation.
allopa'ties, (-e), allopathic. amalgameer', (ge-, -), to amal-
alluviaal', (. .viale), alluvial. gamate.
al'mag, omnipotence, aman'del, (-s), almond.
almag'tig, (-e), almighty, omnipotent. amaril', emery.
al'mal, all, everybody. amaso'ne, (-s), amazon.
almanak', (-ke), almanac. amateur', (-s), amateur.
almaskie', still, nevertheless, notwith- am'bag, (ge-), (w), to do, be busy
standing. with; (-te), (s), trade, profession,
al'melewe, always, the whole time. handicraft, business.
Almo'endheid, Almighty. am'bagskool, (..skole), trade (in.
alom', everywhere. dustrial) school.
alomteenwoor'dig, (-e), omnipresent. am'bagsman, (-ne .lui), workman,
alomvat'tend, (-e), all-embracing, artisan.
alou'(d)e, ancient, antique. ambassa'de, (-s), embassy.
alpak'ka, alpaca; silver plate. ambassadeur', (-s), ambassador.
Al'pe, Alps. am'ber, amber.
alpinis', (-te), alpinist. ambi'sie, ambition.
alreeds', already, ambisieus', (-e, -er, -ste), ambitious
als'(em), wormwood; bitterness. ambulans', (-e), ambulance.
alsien'de, all-seeing, ameg'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), breathless,
also', thus, in this way, so. panting for breath.
alsy'dig, (-e), versatile, all-round, many- ameg'tigheid, breathlessness.
sided. a'men, (-s), amen.
alt, (-e), contralto, alto. amendeer', (ge-, -), to amend.
al'taar, (. taree), altar. amendmentt, (-e), amendment.
altans', at least, anyway, at any rate. Ame'rika, America.
altemit'(s), perhaps, maybe. Amerikaans', (-e), American.
alternatief', (. .tiewe), alternative. Amerika'ner, (-s), American.
al'tesaam, al'tesame, altogether, to- ametis', (-te), amethyst.
gether. ameublement', (-e), set of furniture.
al'toos, always, ever. amfibie', (-E), amphibious animal,
alt'party, (-e), contralto part, amphibian.
altruts'me, altruism. amfi'bies, (-e), amphibious.



amfibrag' 4

amfibrag', (-ge), amphibrach.
amfitea'ter, (-s), amphitheatre.
amikaal', (..kale, .kaler, -ste),
friendly, amicable.
ammoniak', ammonia.
ammuni'sie, ammunition.
amnes'tie, amnesty.
am(o)e'be, (-s), amoeba.
amok', amuck.
amoreus', (-e), amorous.
amorf', (-e), amorphous.
amorfis'me, amorphism.
amortisa'sie, amortisement.
amortisa'siefonds, (-e), sinking fund.
amp, (-te), office, employment, charge,
duty, function.
am'per, am'pertjies, nearly, almost.
(-s), ampere.
amp'genoot, (. .note), colleague:
amps'bediening, (tenure of) office.
amps'gewaad, robes of office.
amps'halwe, officially, ex officio.
amps'plig, (-te), official duty.
amp'telik, (-e), officiallyy.
amp'teloos, (. .lose), out of office,
amp'tenaar, (. .nare), official, officer,
functionary, civil servant.
amulet', (-te), amulet.
amusant', (-e, -er, -ste), amusing,
amuseer', (ge-, -), to amuse, enter-
amusement', (-e), amusement.
anachronis'me, (-s), anachronism.
analfabeet', (..bete), analphabete, il-
literate (person).
anali'se, (-s), analysis.
analiseer', (ge-, -), to analyse.
anali'ties, (-e), analytic.
analogie', (-e), analogy.
analo'gies, (-e), analogous.
analoog', (. .loe), similar, analogous.
anapes', (-te), anapaest.
anargie', anarchy.
anargis', (-te), anarchist.
anargis'me, anarchism.
ana'tema, anathema, curse.
Anato'lie, Anatolia.
anatomie', anatomy.
anato'mies, (-e), anatomical.
anatoom', (' .tome), anatomist.
ancienniteit', seniority.
Andalu'sie, Andalusia.
Andalu'sies, (-e), Aidalusian.

7 ano'nymus

an'der, other, another.
an'derhalf, (. .halwe), one and a half.
an'derkant, on the other side.
an'derland, foreign country.
an'dermaal, again, a second time.
an'ders, otherwise, else, different.
andersden'kend, (-e), dissenting, of a
different opinion.
an'dersins, otherwise.
an'dersom, the other way about.
an'derste, s e e anders.
andoe'lie, andouille sausage.
andy'vie, endive.
anekdo'te, (-s), anecdote.
anemie', anaemia.
ane'mies, (-e), anaemic.
anemoon', (. .mone), anemone.
anesteseer', (ge-, -), to anaesthetise.
an'gel, (-s), sting (of a bee).
angelier', (-e), carnation.
Angel-Sak'sies, Anglo-Saxon.
Anglikaans', (-e), Anglican.
angliseer', (ge-, -), to anglicise.
anglisis'me, (-s), anglicism.
Anglo-Boe'r(e)-oorlog, Anglo-Boer
ango'rabok, (-ke), Angora goat.
angs, (-te), anxiety, fear, agony.
angs'kreet, (. .krete), cry of distress.
angs'sweet, cold perspiration.
ang'stig, (-e, -er, -ste), afraid, terrified.
ang'stigheid, fear, anxiety.
angsval'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), scrupulous,
angswek'kend, (-e, -er, -ste), alarming.
anhidried', (-e), anhydri'de, (-s), anhy-
anilien', anili'ne, aniline.
animeer', (ge-, -), to animate,
animis'me, animism.
a'nimo, gusto, zest.
an'ker, (-s), (s), anchor; (ge-), (w),
to anchor.
an'kergeld, (-e), anchorage (dues).
an'kertou, (-e), cable, hawser.
annale, annals.
anneksa'sie, (-s), annexation.
annekseer', (ge-, -), to annex.
annoteer', (ge-, -), to annotate.
annulteit', annuity.
annulleer', (ge-, -), to annul, cancel.
anomalie', (-e), anomaly.
anoniem', (-e), anonymous;'
ano'nymus, (. .mi), anonymous person.


an'organies, (-e), inorganic.
ansienniteit', priority, seniority.
ansjo'vis, anchovy.
antagonis'me, antagonism.
antedateer', (ge-, -), to antedate.
antediluviaans', (-e), antediluvian.
anten'ne, (-s), aerial (wire).
antesedent', (-e), antecedent.
anticham'bre, (-s), antechamber.
an'tichris, antichrist.
antiek', (-e), antique.
an'tiklimaks, anti-climax.
antikwaar', (. .kware), dealer in an
antikwa'ries, (-e), antiquarian.
antikwiteit', (-e), curio, relic, antiquity
Anti'le, Antilles.
an'tiloop, (. .lope), antelope.
antimakas'sar, (-s), antimacassar, tidy
antimo'nium, antimoon', antimony.
antipatie', (-e), antipathy.
antipo'de, (-s), antipode.
antirewolusioner', (-e), (s), antirevo
lutionist, Calvinist; (-e), (b), anti
an'tisemiet, (-e), anti-Semite.
antisep'ties, (-e), antiseptic.
antisipeer', (ge-, -), to anticipate.
antite'se, antithesis.
antonoma'sia, antonomasia.
an'tiaks, anthrax.
antrasiet', anthracite.
antropologie', anthropology.
antropolo'gies, (-e), anthropological.
antropoloog', (. .lo), anthropologist
antropomorfis'me, anthropomorphism
ant'woord, (-e), (s), answer, reply
(ge-), (w), to answer, reply.
anys', anise.
apart', (-e), apart, separate.
apatie', apathy.
apa'ties, (-e), apathic.
aperitief', aperient, laxative.
a'pespel, foolery, buffoonery.
a'piesdoring, straight spined variety oi
apodik'ties, (-e), apodictic(al).
apokopee', (-s), apocope.
apokrief', (. .kriewe), apochryphal.
apologeet', (. .gete), apologist.
apologetiek', apologetics.
apologe'ties, (-e), apologetic.
apologize (-e), apology.
apos'tel, (-s), apostle.
apostolies, (-e), apostolic.

48 arbitrdr'

apostroof', (. .strowe), apostrophe.
apoteo'se, apotheosis.
apparaat', (. .rate), apparatus.
ap'pel, (-s), apple.
appel', (-le), appeal.
appel'hof, court of appeal.
appelderlief'de, see appelliefie.
appelkoos', (. .kose), apricot.
appelkoos'konfyt, apricot preserve,
apricot jam.
appelkoos'perske, (-s), plumcot.
appelkoos'siekte, diarrhoea.
- appellant', (-e), appellant.
appelleer', (ge-, -), to appeal.
appellie'fie, (-s), Cape gooseberry.
ap'pelwyn, cider.
appendicitis, appendisi'tis, appendi-
.appersep'sie, apperception.
applicant', (-e), applicant.
applika'sie, (-s), application, (for a
Sapplique'werk, applique (work).
appliseer', (ge-, -), to apply.
apploudisseer', (ge-, -), to applaud.
applous', applause.
appresia'sie, appreciation.
appresieer', (ge-, -), to appreciate.
aprioris'ties, (-e), aprioristic.
apropos', to the purpose.
apteek', (..teke), chemist's shop,
apte'ker, (-s), chemist, druggist.
apte'kersparaffien, liquid paraffin.
Saptyt', appetite.
. Apu'li, Apulia.
aquariumu, (. .ria), aquarium.
arabesk', (-e), arabesque.
Ara'bii, Arabia.
Arabier', (-e), Arab.
Ara'bies, (-e), Arabian.
a'raroet, arrow root.
ar'bei, (ge-), to work, labour, toil.
ar'beid, work, labour, toil.
f ar'beider, (-s), labourer, workman,
arbeid'saam, (. .same, .samer, -ste),
industrious, diligent, laborious.
ar'beidsloon, wages, pay, hire.
ar'beidsveld, sphere of action, field of
arbi'ter, (-s), arbiter, arbitrator.
arbitra'sie, arbitration.
arbitreer', (ge-, -), to arbitrate.
arbitrEr', (-e), arbitrary.

a'rea, (-s), area. armoe'digheid, poverty, penury.
are'na, (-s), arena. arm'rig, (-e), rather poor.
a'rend, (-e), eagle, armsa'lig, (-e, -er, -ste), pitiful,
a'rendsblik, (-ke), eagle's glance. miserable.
a'rendsklou, (-e), eagle's talon. arms'gat, (-e), arm-hole.
a'rendsneus, aquiline nose. arm'stoel, (-e), easy chair, arm-chair.
areome'ter, (-s), areometer, aroe'na, variety' of Stapelia with stout
argais'me, (-s), archaism, spines.
argais'ties, (-e), archaic, archaistic, aro'ma, (-s), aroma, fragrance.
ar'geloos, (. .lose, .loser, -ste), un- aroma'ties, (-e), aromatic.
suspecting, unsuspicious. a'ronskelk, (-e), arum-lily.
Argenti'nie, Argentine. arpuis', resin.
argeologie', archaeology. arrangerr, (ge-, -), to arrange.
argeoloog', (. .lo), archaeologist. arrest arresta'sie, arrest, custody.
argief', (. .giewe), archives. arresteer', (ge-, -), to arrest, take
argipel', (-le), archipelago. prisoner.
argitek', (-te), architect. ar'rie! say! high!
argitekto'nies, (-e), architectonic(al). arriveer', (ge-, -), to arrive.
argitektuur', architecture. arsenall, (. .nale), arsenal.
argiva'ris, (-se), keeper of the archives. arse'nik, arsenic.
arglis'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), crafty, cunning, arte'sies, (-e), artesian.
argument', (-e), argument, plea. parties (-te), artist.
argumenteer', (ge-, -), to argue. arti'kel, (-s), article, clause; com-
arg'waan, suspicion, mistrust. modity.
a'ria, (-s), air, tune, song, aria. artikula'sie, articulation.
Ariaan,', (..ane), Arian. artikuleer', (ge-, -), to articulate.
A'rier, (-s), Aryan. arti'lerie, artillery.
A'ries, (-e), Aryan. artilleris', (-te), artillery-man, gunner.
a'rig, (-e, -er," -ste), unwell, queer, artisjok', (-ke), artichoke.
strange. artistiek', (-e, -er, -ste), artistic,
a'rikreukel, a'rikruikel, see alikreu- tasteful.
kel. artistisiteit', artisticity.
aristokraat', (. .krate), aristocrat. arts, (-e), physician, doctor.
aristokrasie', aristocracy. artseny', medicine, medicament.
aristokra'ties, (-e), aristocratic. artseny'kunde, pharmacology.
ark, (-e), ark. as, (bw), as, like; than; (vgw), when,
arka'de, (-s), arcade, if; .(s) ashes; (-se), axle, axis.
arm, ([-el, -er, -ste), (b), poor, asa'lea, (-s), azalea.
indigent, needy; (s). (-s), arm. as'baan, dirt-track, cinder-track.
arm'band, (-e), bracelet, bangle. as'bakkie, (-s), ash-tray.
arm-blan'ke, (-s), poor white. asbes', asbestos.
arm-blan'kevraagstuk, poor white pro- a'sem, (ge-), (w), to breathe; (-s),
blem. (s), breath.
Arme'ni, Armenia. a'semhaal, (-ge-), to breathe.
Arme'nier, (-s), Armenian. a'semhaling, (-e, -s), breathing, respira.
Arme'nies, (-e), Armenian. tion.
ar'mesorg, care for the poor. a'semloos, (. .lose), breathless.
arm'holte (-s), arm-pit. a'semtog, (-te), breath.
armlas'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), chargeable asetileen', acetylene.
to the parish. as'falt, asphalt.
armla'stigheid, pauperism. asgaai', (-e), assegai.
arm'manskoek, poorman's cake. asgaai'hout, assegai-wood (Curtisia fag-
ar'moede, poverty, want. inea).
armoe'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), poor, needy, as'gat, (-e), ash-hole; (-te), rascal,
indigent, shabby, good-fornothing.



as'hoop E

as'hoop, (..hope), ash-heap, scrap-
heap, rubbish-dump.
Asiaat', (. .ate), Asiatic.
Asia'ties, (-e), Asiatic.
asiditeit', acidity.
A'sie, Asia.
asiel', (-e), asylum, flace of refuge,
asiel'reg, right of sanctuary.
asin'deton, asyndeton.
as'jas, (-se), rascal, good-for-nothing.
as'kar, (-re), dust-cart.
Aska'ri, (-'s), Askari.
aske'se, asceticism.
aske'ties, (-e), ascetic.
as'koek, (-e), ash-cake; ne'er-do-well.
as'koekslaan, (-ge-), to dance a
peculiar Hottentot-reel.
as'ma, asthma.
asma'ties, (-e), asthmatic.
aspaai', hide-and-seek.
aspek', (-te), aspect.
asper'sie, (-s), asparagus.
aspirant', (-e), aspirant, applicant.
aspira'sie, (-s), aspiration.
aspirien', aspirin (registered trade
as'poestertjie, (-s), cinderella.
asseblief', please, if you please.
assegaai', see asgaai.
asses'sor, (-s), assistant chairman,
assimila'sie, assimilation.
assimileer', (ge-, -), to assimilate.
Assi'rie, Assyria.
Assi'rier, (-s), Assyrian.
Assi'ries, (-e), Assyrian.
assisten'sie, assistance.
assistant', (-e), assistant.
assosia'sie, association.
assosieer', (ge-, -), to associate.
assump'sie, (-s), assumption.
assuradeur', (-s), insurer, underwriter.
assuran'sie, insurance, assurance.
as'ter, (-s), aster, chrysanthemum.
asterisk', (-e), asterisk.
asteroied', (-e), asteroid.
astigmatis'me, astigmatism.
astrant', (-e, -er, -ste), cheeky, im-
pudent, bold.
astrant'heid, cheek, impudence.
astrologie', astrology.
astrolo'gies, (-e), astrolbgic(al).
astroloog', (. .loe), astrologer.
astronomie', astronomy.


astrono'mies, (-e), astronomicall.
astronoom', (. nomee), astronomer.
asuur', azure.
as'vaal, ashen pale.
asyn', vinegar.
asyn'suur, acetic acid.
atavis'me, atavism, reversion.
atavis'ties, (-e), atavistic.
ateis', (-te), atheist.
ateis'me, atheism.
ateis'ties, (-e), atheistic.
atelier', ateljee', (-s), studio, work-
ateljee'-orkes, (-te), studo orchestra.
Athe'ne, Athens.
Athe'ner, (-s), Athenian.
Atheens', (-e), Athenian.
at'jar, ketchup, pickles.
Atlan'ties, (-e), Atlantic.
atlas, (-se), atlas.
ateet', (. .lete), athlete.
atletiek', athletics.
atle'ties, (-e), athletic.
atmosfeer', atmosphere.
atmosfe'ries, (-e), atmospheric(al).
atoom', (atome), atom.
attache', (-s), attache.
atten'sie, (-s), attention.
attent', (-e; -er, -ste), attentive.
attes', (-te), certificate, testimonial.
attestaat', (. .state), certificate, testi-
attesta'sie, (-s), testimonial, certificate,
attesteer', (ge-, -), to attest.
At'ties, (-e), Attic.
attrak'sie, (-s), attraction.
attributief', (. .tiewe), attributive.
attribuut', (. .bute), attribute.
auba'de, (-s), aubade.
auditeur', see ouditeur.
Augus'tus, August.
aureool', (. .ole), aureole, halo.
Australia, Australia.
Australier, (-s), Australian.
Australies, (-e), Australian.
avontuur', see awontuur.
a'wend, (-e), evening.
a'weregs, (-e), wrong; purl (knitting).
a'wery, average, damage.
awoka'dopeer, (. .pere), avocado pear.
awonturier', (-s), adventurer.
awontuur', (. .ture), adventure.
awontuur'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), ad-

b 51 baklei'ery


b, (-'s), b. Babilo'nies, (-e), Babylonian.
ba! bahl pshawl baccalau'reus, (. .rei), bachelor (B.A.).
baad'jie, (-s), coat, jacket. bacchanaliee, bacchanals.
baad'jiesak, (-ke), coat-pocket. bacchanalies, (-e), bacchanal.
baai, (s), baize; (-e), bay; (ge-), (w), bacchan'te, (-s), bacchante.
to bathe. Bac'chus, Bacchus.
baai'erd, chaos, bad, (s), (-de, -dens), bath; (baaie),
baal, (ge-), (w), to bale; (bale), (s), (swimming) bath; (mineral) bath,
bale. hot spring; (w), (ge-), to take a
Bail, (-s), Baal. bath, bathe.
baan, (bane), (s), course, way, orbit, bad'handdoek, (-e), bath-towel.
court; gore, length (of a skirt); bad'huis, (-e), bathing booth.
track; pitch (cricket); (ge-), (w), bad'kamer, (-s), bathroom.
to clear, pave, make way. bad'kostuum, (-s), bathing costume.
baan'breker, (-s), pioneer. bad'plaas, pleasese) bathing place,
baan'tjie, (-s), employment, job. health-resort.
baar, (bare), (s), wave; bier; ingot; bad'water, water for the bath.
(b), (-der,-ste), uncivilised, unskilled, baf'tablou, leaden coloured.
untrained; (ge-), (w), to give birth baga'sie, baggage, luggage.
to, bring into the world; bear, create. baga'siebewys, (-e), luggage ticket.
baard, (-e), beard. baga'slekamer, (-s), cloak-room.
baard'koring, bearded wheat. baga'sierak, (-ke), luggage carrier.
baar'lik, die -e duiwel, the devil baga'siewa, (-ens), luggage van.
incarnate, bag'ger, (ge-), to dredge.
baar'moeder, (-s), womb, uterus. bag'germasjien, (-e), dredger, dredging
baars, (-e), bass, perch (fish). machine.
baas, (base), master, foreman, boss; bagyn'tjie, see begyntjie.
crack, ace. bai'e, (meer, meeste), very, much,
baas'bakleier, (-s), champion fighter. many.
baas'raak, (-ge-), to overcome, master. bai'emaal, many a time, frequently,
baas'ruiter, (-s), rough-rider, often.
baas'speel, (-ge-), to bully, domineer, bajonet', (-te), bayonet.
lord it over. bak, (ge-), (w), to bake, fry, roast;
baat, (s), profit, gain; (bate), (mv), (-ke), (s), basin, trough, bowl; body
assets; (ge-), (w), to avail, help. (of a cart).
baat'sug, selfishness. bakatel', (-le), trifle, bagatelle.
baatsug'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), selfish. bak'boord, larboard, port-side.
ba'ba, ba'batjie, (-s), baby. ba'ken, (-s), beacon, buoy.
bab'bel, (ge-), to tattle, chatter, prate, baker, (-s), (dry) nurse.
talk. ba'kermat, cradle, origin.
bab'belaar, (-s), tattler, chatterer. bak'ker, (-s), baker.
bab'belagtig, (-e, -er, -ste), talkative. bak'kersbrood, (. .brode), baker's loaf.
bab'belbek, (-ke), chatterbox. bak'kerswinkel, (-s), baker's shop.
babbeljoen'tjie, (-s), canopy of old- bak'kery, (-e), bakery.
fashioned bedstead. bak'kie, (-s), small dish (tray, basin,
ius, (-e), chatterbox, bowl).
bab'belsiek, (-e, -er, -ste), loquacious, bak'kies, (-e), face (vulgar).
bab'belsug, loquacity, talkativeness. bak'kiespomp, (-e), bucket pump,
ba'ber, (-s), barbel. Persian wheel.
ba'betjie, (-s), baby, babe. bak'kopslang, (-e), ringed cobra.
Babilo'nie, Babylonia. baklel', (ge-), to fight, scrap, quarrel.
Babilo'ni&r, (-s), Babylonian. baklei'ery, fighting, scrap.


, bak'oond, (-e), oven.
bak'oor, (..ore), large outstanding ear.
bak'poeier, baking powder.
bak'sel, (-s), batch.
bak'steen, (. .stene), brick.
bakte'rie, (-8, -s), bacterium.
bakteriologie', bacteriology.
bakteriolo'gies, (-e), bacteriological.
bakterioloog', (. .loe), bacteriologist.
bak'vis, (-se), flapper.
bal, (ge-), (w), to clench (the fist);
(-le), (s), ball (e.g. tennis); ball
balans', (-e), balance.
balanseer', (ge-, -), to balance, poise.
balans'rekening, (-e, -s), balance ac-
balans'staat, (. .state), balance sheet.
bal'boekie, (-s), ball programme.
balda'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), mischievous,
balda'digheid, mischievousness, mal-
bal'derja(n), valerian (Valeriana capen-
balein', (-e), whalebone, busk (corset).
bal(h)o'rig, (-e, -er, -ste), refractory,
unruly, intractable.
bal(h)o'righeid, refractoriness, unruli-
ba'lie, (-s), bar; tub.
baljaar', (ge-, -), to make much
noise, play noisily, gambol, frolic.
balju', (-'s), bailiff, sheriff, messenger
of the court.
balk, (-e), beam, rafter; stave.
balkon', (-ne, -s), balcony.
bal'kostuum, (-s), ball dress.
balk'skrif, staff notation.
balla'de, (-s), ballad.
ballas', ballast.
ballas'mandjie, (-s), large bushel bas-
ballet', (-te), ballet.
ballet'danseres, (-se), ballet (dancing,
chorus) girl.
balling, (-e, -s), exile, outcast.
bal'lingskap, exile, banishment.
ballon', (-ne, -s), balloon.
ballon'versperring, (-s), balloon-bar-
ballota'sie, voting by ballot.
balo'rig, see balhorig.
bal'sem, (-s), (s), balm, balsam, oint-
ment; (ge-), (w), to embalm.

52 bank'staat

balsemiek', (-e), hot, oppressive, bal.
balsemi'nie, garden balsam.
balsem-kopi'va, copaiba balsam.
balstu'rig, (-e, -er, -ste), obstinate,
balstu'righeid, obstinacy.
Bal'tiese See, Baltic Sea.
balustra'de, (-s), balustrade.
bam'boes, (-e), bamboo.
ban, (ge-), (w), to banish, exile; (s),
excommunication, banishment.
banaal', (..nale, .naler, -ste), vul-
gar, trite, commonplace.
banaliteit', (-e), vulgarity, platitude,
bana'na, (-s), banana.
band, (-e), band, ribbon, tape, cord;
girdle; tyre, tube; sling; truss;
bandelier', (-e, -s), bandoleer.
ban'deloos, (..lose, .loser, -ste),
unrestrained, turbulent, riotous.
bandiet', (-e), prisoner, convict, bandit.
bandiet!klere, convict's clothes.
band'om, see bantom.
bang, ([-e], -er, -ste), afraid, fright.
bang'broek, (-e), coward, poltroon.
ban'gerig, (-e), rather afraid; nervous,
bang'heid, fear, timidity, anxiety.
bang'makery, intimidation.
banier', (-e), banner, standard.
banier'draer,' (-s), standard-bearer.
ban'jo, (-'s), banjo.
bank, (-e), (s), bank, bench, form,
desk, pew; (ge-), (w), to bank.
bank'bestuurder, (-s), bank manager.
bank'biljet, (-te), banknote.
bank'diskonto, bank discount.
bank'boek, (-e), pass-book.
banket', confectionery; (-te), banquet.
banket'winkel, (-s), confectioner's
bankerr, (-s), banker.
bankklderk, (-e), bank clerk.
bank'noot, (. .note), banknote.
bank'rekening, (-e, -s), banking ac-
bankroetier', (-s), bankrupt person.
bankrot', (b), bankrupt, insolvent; (s),
(-te), bankruptcy.
bankrot'skap, (-pe), bankruptcy.
bank'staat, (..state), -bank statement.


bank'werker, (-s), fitter, turner.
bank'wese, banking.
bank'wissel, (-s), bank bill.
ban'neling, (-e), exile, outcast.
oendertjie, (-s), bantam fowl.
bantoeistiek', Bantu studies.
bantologie', Bantu studies, bantology.
bantolo'gies, (-e), pertaining to Bantu
ban'tom, (-s), ox or cow with a white
strip round its body; bantam,
band-on (diamond diggings).
ban'vloek, anathema, ban.
bao'bab, (-s), baobab.
bar, (-der, -ste), barren, inclement,
bara'ge, (-s), barrage.
barak', (-ke), barracks, hutment for
barbaar', (. .bare), barbarian, savage.
barbaars', (-e, -er, -ste), barbarous,
barbaars'heid, barbarity, barbarous-
barbaris'me, (-s), barbarism.
Barbary'e, Barbary.
barbier', (-s), barber.
barbiers'winkel, (-s), barber's shop.
ba'rensnood, ba'renswee, (. .wee),
labour, travail, throes.
baret', (-te), beret; birette.
bargoens', (-e), jargon, lingo, double-
ba'risfeer, barysphere.
ba'riton, (-s), baritone.
bark, (-e), barge, barque.
barlewiet', barley ivheat.
barmhar'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), merciful,
barmhar'tigheid, mercifulness, cdm-
barn'steen, amber.
ba'ro(e), several plants of the genus
Fockea and Cyphia.
barok', baroque.
ba'rometer, (-s), barometer.
baron', (-ne, -s), baron.
barones', (-se), baroness.
S (-e), barony.
barrika'de, (-s), barricade.
barrikadeer', (ge-, -), to barricade.
bars, (s), (-te), burst, crack, chap; (b),
([-el, -er, -ste), harsh, rough; (w),
(ge-), to burst, crack, chap.
bars'heid, sternness, harshness.

3 bebos'

bas, (-se), bass; (-te), bark, rind;
basaar', (-s), bazaar.
basalt', basalt.
bas'boom, (. .bome), wattle tree.
baseer', (ge-, -), to base, ground.
ba'sel, (ge-), to twaddle, talk nonsense
basil', (-le), bacillus.
basiliek', (-e), basilica.
basilisk', (-e), basilisk.
ba'sis, (-se), basis, base.
Basoe'to, (-'s), Basuto.
Basoe'toland, Basutoland.
basoe'toponie, (-s), Basuto pony.
bas'relief, (-s), bas-relief.
bas'sleutel, (-s), bass-clef.
bas'stem, (-me), bass (voice).
bas'ta! enough! stop
bas'ter, (s), (-s), bastard, halfcaste;
hybrid; (w), (ge-), to hybridise;
(bw), rather, somewhat.
bas'tereland, (-e), roan antelope.
bas'tergeslag, (-te), mongrel breed.
bas'terskaap, (. .skape), cross-bred
basuin', (-e), trumpet, bassoon, trom-
basuin'geskal, trumpet blast.
bas'viool, (. .viole), contrabass, violon-
Bataaf', (Batawe), Batavian.
Bataafs', (-e), Batavian.
bataljon', (-ne, -s), battalion.
Bata'via, Batavia.
Batavier', (-e), Batavian.
ba'te en las'te, assets and liabilities.
ba'tige sal'do, credit balance.
ba'tik, batick (work).
batis', batiste (lawn).
battery', (-e), battery.
beaam', (-), to assent to, approve.
bea'ming, assent, corroboration.
beamp'te, (-s), functionary, official.
beangs', (-te), anxious, afraid, uneasy.
beang'stig, (-), to cause alarm,
beant'woord, (-), to answer, reply.
beant'woording, answer, reply.
bear'bei, (-), to work at, cultivate,
till; minister to spiritual needs.
bear'beiding, cultivation; elaboration;
religious work.
bebloed', (-e), bloodstained, bloody,
beboet', (-), to fine, mulct.
bebos', (-), to afforest.


bebos'sing, afforestation.
bebou', (-), to cultivate, till.
bebou'baar, (. .bare, -der, -ste), arable,
bebouing, cultivation, tillage.
bebroeid', (-e), partly hatched.
bebroei'de-eiers, strawberry plant (Ar.
butilon venosa).
bed, (-de, -dens), bed.
bedaag', (-de), old, aged.
bedaar', (-), to quiet, appease;
subside, abate.
bedaard', (-e, -er, -ste), calm, sedate,
bedaard'heid, composure, calmness.
bedag', mindful, prepared.
bedags', during the day.
bedag'saam, (..same, .samer, -ste),
thoughtful, circumspect, considerate.
bedag'saamheid, thoughtfulness, cir-
bedank', (-), to thank; decline,
refuse; resign.
bedan'king, (-e, -s), refusal, resigna-
tion; expression of gratitude.
beda'ring, abatement, appeasement.
bed'degoed, bedding, bed-clothes.
bed'deken, (-s), counterpane, blanket.
bed'(de)kussing, (-s), pillow.
bed'(de)laken, (-s), sheet.
bed'ding, (-s), river bed; flower bed,
garden bed.
be'de, (-s), prayer, petition, request.
bedeel', (-), to endow with, bestow.
bedees', (-de, -der, -ste), timid, bashful,
bedeesd'heid, bashfulness, timidity.
be'dehuis, (-e), place of worship.
bedek', (-), to cover up, conceal,
bedek'king, (-e, -s), coveringg.
bedek'telik, indirectly; secretly.
be'del, (ge-), to beg, ask alms.
be'delaar, (-s), beggar, mendicant.
be'delaarster, (-s), bedelares', (-se),
bedelary', be'delry, beggary, begging.
be'delbrief, (. .briewe), begging letter.
bede'ling, (-e, -s), endowment, supply,
be'delmonnik, (-e), mendicant friar.
be'delorde, (-s), order of mendicant
be'delstaf, beggar's staff; beggary.

4 bedrie'ery

beden'king, (-e, -s), consideration,
reflection, remark.
bedenk'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), critical,
dangerous; serious, grave, precarious.
bederf', (s), corruption, depravity;
decay; (w), (-), to spoil, corrupt,
deprave, ruin.
bederf'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), corruptible.
beder'we, see bederf, (w).
bederf'werend, (-e), antiseptic.
be'devaart, (-e), pilgrimage.
be'devaartganger, (-s), pilgrim.
bedien', (-), to serve, attend, wait
upon, administer.
bedie'naar, (-s), minister, parson;
bedien'de, (-s), servant, attendant.
bedie'ning, service, attendance; func-
bedil', (-), to find fault, criticise,
bedil'siek, (-e), fault-finding, captious.
bedil'sug, fault-finding, censoriousness.
beingg, (-), to stipulate.
bedink', (-), to consider, reflect,
contrive, devise; change one's mind.
bedis'sel, (-), to arrange, manage,
bedlaken, (-s), (bed-) sheet.
bed'lend, (-e), bed-ridden, confined
to bed.
bed'lerig, (-e), bed-ridden; fond of
staying in bed.
Bedoelen', (-e), Bedouin.
bedoel', (-), to mean, intend, purpose.
bedoe'ling, (-e, -s), meaning, intention,
aim, purpose.
bedol'we, buried.
bedom'pig, (-e, -er, -ste), suffocating,
close, stuffy.
bedor'we, spoiled, depraved, corrupt.
bedra', (-), to amount to.
bedrag', (. .drae), amount.
bedreig', (-), to threaten, menace.
bedrei'ging, (-e, -s), threat, menace.
bedrem'meld, (-e), confused, per-
bedre'we, (meer -, mees -), skilled,
experienced, versed.
bedre'wendheid, skill, proficiency.
bedrie'e, (-), to cheat, deceive,
defraud, dupe, impose upon.
bedrie'er, (-s), fraud, deceiver, cheat.
bedrle'ery, (-e), deception, cheating,
deceit, fraud.

s see bedriee.
:, (-e, -er, -ste), deceptive,
fraudulent, deceitful. -
S b), (-de, -der, -ste), sorrow-
ful, sad, grieved, afflicted; (w), (-),
to grieve, afflict; min, precious
se e bedroef, (w).
nd, (-e), distressing, sad-
S(bedrieerye), deceit, decep-
tion, cheating.
(-te, -ter, -ste), oppressed,
dejected, downhearted.
:-id, depression, dejectedness.
(s), (. .drywe), (branch of)
industry, (line of) business, pro-
fession, trade; act (play); (w), (-),
to commit, perpetrate.
"pitaal, working capital.
i ste, working expenses.
see bedryf, (w).
(-e, -er, -ste), active, busy,
en, (-e), curtain-lecture.
(-e), bedspread.
(meer -, mees -), afraid,
,.-id, fear, apprehension.
(-), to signify, mean,
imply, give to understand; point
out, direct.
directing; gesticulating.
bedui'mel, (-), to thumb.
bedui'weld, (-e, meer -, mees -),
possessed by an evil spirit, mad.
bedwang', control,/ restraint, subjec-
bedwelm', (w), (-), to stun, stupefy;
bedwelm'(d), (b), (-de), benumbed,
stunned; drugged.
bedwel'ming, daze, stunned state.
bedwing', (-), to curb, check, sup
press, restrain.
bedwing'baar, (. .bare), restrainable,
be o'dig, (-), to swear to; put upon
bee'digde, sworn.
bei'diging, swearing in.
beef, (ge-), to tremble, shiver; quiver.

5 -befaamd'

beEin'dig, (-), to finish off, make an
end to, terminate.
beeld, (-e), image, likeness, picture,
statue; metaphor.
beel'dediens, worship of images.
beel'dende, kunste, plastic arts.
beel'derig, (-e), beautiful, lovely.
beel'destorm, iconoclasm.
beeld'hou, (ge-), to sculpture, carve.
beeld'houer, (-s), sculptor.
beeld'houkuns, sculpture.
beeld'ryk, (-e, -er, -ste), imaginative,
beeld'skoon, (. .skone), beautiful as a
beeld'spraak, figurative (metaphorical)
beeld'skrif, hieroglyphics.
beel'tenis, (-se), image, portrait, like-
been, (bene), bone; leg.
been'-af, in love.
been'as, bone-ash.
been'breuk, (-e), fracture of the leg.
been'eter, caries, necrosis.
been'meel, bone-meal; frame meal.
been'tjie, (-s), small bone, ossicle;
little leg.
been'vlies, periosteum.
been'vliesontsteking, periostitis.
been'vorming, ossification.
been'vreter, see beeneter.
been'windsel, (-s), puttee.
beer, (bere), bear; boar.
befrf', beerwe, (-), to inherit.
bees, (-te), beast; bovine (animal);
(mv), cattle.
beesag'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), bestial,
bees'byter, (-s), mamba snake.
bees'kraal, (. .krale), cattle kraal.
bees'mark, (-te), cattle market.
bees'teteelt, cattle breeding.
bees'vleis, bees'vlees, beef.
bees'wagter, (-s), cattle herd.
beet, (bete), beetroot.
beet'kry, (-ge-), to get hold of, seize.
beet'neem, (-ge-), to take hold of;
beet'pak, (-ge-), to lay hold of, grip,
clutch; tackle.
beet'suiker, beet sugar.
bef, (bewwe), (parson's) bands;
(child's) bib.
befaamd', (-e), notorious; famous.

befaamd'heid 5

befaamd'heid, notoriety; fame.
befloers', (-), to muffle.
befoe'ter(d), (-de), full of nonsense.
begaaf'(d), (-de), talented, gifted.
begaafd'heid, talent, ability.
begann, (b), beaten, trodden; upset,
worried; (w), (-), to commit,
begeef', s e e begewe.
begeer', (-), to desire, wish for,
begeer'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), desirable.
begeer'likheid, desirability, desire.
begeer'te, (-s), desire, wish.
begelei', (-), to accompany, escort.
begelei'ding, accompaniment.
begelei'er, (-s), companion, attendant;
begena'dig, (-), to pardon, condone,
begena'diging, pardon, reprieve.
bege'rig, (-e, -er, -ste), desirous,
covetous; eager.
bege'we, (-), to abandon, forsake;
repair to, betake oneself to; pro-
ceed to.
begiet', (-), to water, sprinkle.
begif'tig, (-), to endow, present.
begif'tiging, endowment, donation.
begif'tigingspolis, (-se), endowment
begin', (s), beginning, start, outset,
commencement; begin', begin'ne,
begint', (w), (-), to begin, com-
mence, start.
begin'ner, (-s), beginner, novice.
begin'sel, (-s), principle, rudiment.
begin'selloos, (. .lose), unprincipled,
without principle.
begin'selvas, (-te, -ter, -ste), of firm
begin'stadium, initial stage.
bego'el, bego'gel, (-), to bewitch,
bego'nia, (-s), begonia.
begraaf', (-), to bury, inter.
begraaf'plaas, (. plase), graveyard,
begraf'nis, (-se), burial, funeral.
begraf'nisfonds, (-e), burial fund.
begraf'nisplegtigheid, (..hede), funeral
begraf'nisrys, rice with turmeric.
begraf'nisstoet, (-e), funeral proces-

6 behels'

begra'we, (-), to bury, inter.
begrens', (-), to limit, bound;
begren'sing, limitation.
begrip', (-pe), idea, notion, conception;
begroet', (-), to greet, welcome.
begroe'ting, salutation, greeting.
begroot', (-), to estimate.
begro'ting, (-s), estimate, budget.
begro'tingsdebat, (-te), debate on the
begro'tingsrede, (-s), budget speech.
begryp', (-), to understand, compre-
begryplik, (-e, -er, -ste), understand-
able, conceivable, comprehensible.
begryp'likerwys(e), obviously,
beguns'tig, (-), to favour;
beguns'tiger, (-s), protector; patron.
beguns'tiging, favour, protection;
ronage; preferential treatment.
begyn'tjie, (-s), lay sister not
by vows, beguine.
behaag', (-), to please, delight.
behaaglik, (-e, -er, -ste),
behaag'siek, (-e, -er, -ste),
behaag'sug, coquetry.
behaal', (-), to obtain, get, .
beha'e, delight, pleasure.
behal'we, except, save, besides.
behan'del, (-), to treat, :
manage; attend to; treat of.
behan'deling, (-e, -s), treated
I ling; attendance.
behang', to paper, cover.
behan'ger, (-s), paper-hanger.
behang'sel, wall-paper, paper hangings.
behar'tig, (-), to have at heart,
take care of, further.
behartigenswaar'dig, (-e), worthy
behar'tiglng, care, furthering.
beheer', (s), management, direction,
control; (w), (-), to
administer, govern, control.
beheers', (-), to rule, govern, manage,
control, be master of.
beheer'sing, command, rule, govern-
ment, control, sway.
behelp', (-), to make shift, resort to.
behels', (-), to contain, embrace.

,(-e, -er, -ste), dexterous,
handy, clever.
aeid, dexterity, skill.
met, subject to, liable to,
troubled with.
behoed', (-), to preserve, guard,
behoed'saam, (. .same, .samer, -ste),
cautious, circumspect, wary.
behoed'saamheid, cautiousness, care-
fulness, wariness.
behoef', (-), to want, need, require.
behoef'te, (-s), want, need, necessity.
behoef'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), poor, neces-
sitous, needy, indigent.
behoef'tigheid, indigence, destitution.
behoe'we, ten van, on behalf of,
in aid of.
(b), (-e), proper, fit,
becoming, due; (bw), properly;
behoor'(t), (-), to belong to; behove,
ought; be proper.
beho're, na -, as it should be.
behou', (-), to keep, retain, preserve,
behoud', preservation, safety; con-
behou'dend, (-e), conservative.
behou'dens, save, except.
behou'e, safe and well.
behui'sing, housing, house.
behui'singskema, (-s), housing scheme.
behulp', aid, help, shift.
behulp'saam, (. .same, samer, -ste),
helpful, useful.
bei'aard, (-s), carillon.
bei'de, both.
bei'derlei, of both kinds.
Bei'ers, (-e), Bavarian.
beln'vloed, (-), to influence, affect,
bei'tel, (w), (ge-), to chisel; (s), (-s),
belts', (ge-), to stain (wood), etch.
bejaard', (-e), aged, old, elderly.
bejam'mer, (-), to deplore, lament,
bejammerenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste),
deplorable, lamentable.
beje'en, (-), to treat, act towards.
beje'ning, treatment.
bek, (-ke), beak, snout, muzzle,
mouth (animal).

7 beknopt'heid

bekaaid', daarvan afkom, to come
away with a flea in one's ear.
bek'af, downhearted, down in the
bekeer', (-), to convert, proselytise.
bekeer'de, (-s), convert.
bekeer'ling, (-e), convert, proselyte.
beken', (-), to confess, own up,
acknowledge, avow; know.
bekend', (-e, -er, -ste), known, con-
versant with, noted, familiar.
beken'de, (-s), acquaintance.
bekend'heid, acquaintance; notoriety.
bekend'making, (-e, -s), notice, an-
nouncement, publication.
bek-en-klou'seer, foot and mouth
beken'tenis, (-se), confession, avowal.
be'ker, (-s), cup, jug, bowl, mug;
sports trophy.
beke'ring, conversion.
be'kerwedstryd, (-e), cup match.
bek'ken, (-s), pelvis, basin; catchment
beklaag', bekla'e, (-), to lament, pity,
beklaag'de, (-s), accused, defendant.
beklad', (-), to stain, sully, blot,
beklaenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), la-
mentable, deplorable.
beklag', complaint.
bekle'ding, covering; upholstery;
tenure. (of office).
beklee'(d), (-), to cover, clothe;
fill, hold (an office); upholster;
invest (with).
bekleed'sel, (-s), covering, upholstery.
bekle'er, (-s), upholsterer; holder (of
beklem', (-), to oppress, straiten,
beklem'ming, oppression, tightness.
beklem'toon, (-), to emphasise, stress,
beklim', (-), to ascend, climb, mount,
beklink', (-), to arrange, settle.
beklou'ter; (-), to climb up, scale,
clamber up.
beknel', (-), to oppress, pinch.
beknop', (-te, -ter, -ste), succint,
concise, abridged.
beknopt'heid, conciseness, succint-


beknor', (-), to scold, rebuke.
bekoel', (-), to cool down, abate.
bekom', (-), to obtain; agree (with
the stomach); recover from (fright).
bekom'mer, (-), to trouble, worry,
be anxious about.
bekom'mernis, (-se), uneasiness,
worry, care, anxiety.
bekoms', satisfaction, satiety.
bekon'kel, (-), to plot, scheme,
bekoop', (-), to pay dearly for.
bekoor', (-), to charm, enchant,
fascinate, tempt.
bekoor'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), charming,
tempting, fascinating.
beko'ring, charm, temptation, fascina-
bekos'tig, (-), to defray, pay; afford.
bekos'tiging, defrayal, meeting (costs).
bekrag'tig, (-), to confirm, sanction,
ratify, validate.
bekrag'tiging, confirmation, sanction,
bekrans', (-), to wreathe, crown with
bekreun', (-), to mind, care for,
bekrom'pe, narrow-minded; narrow;
bekrom'penheid, narrow-mindedness.
bekro'ning, crowning; reward of
merit, award.
bekroon', (-), to crown, award.
bekruip', (-), to creep upon, steal
upon, stalk, surprise.
bekwaald', (-e), sickly.
bekwaam', (b), (. .kwame, kwamer,
-ste), able, capable, clever, efficient,
fit; (w), (-), to qualify, enable,
bekwaam'heid, (. .hede), ability, capa-
bility, capacity, qualification.
bekyk', (-), to look at, view, inspect.
bel, (w), (ge-), to ring, 'phone; (s),
(-le), bell; wattle (bird).
belaai', (-), to load, burden.
belaag', (-), to waylay; slander.
belaglik, (-e, -er, -ste), 'ridiculous,
belag'likheid, ridiculousness.
beland', (-), to land; get to, arrive. I
belang', (-e), importance; interest,
concern. I
belan'geloos, (. .lose), disinterested. t

58 beleid'

belan'gende, concerning.
belangheb'bend, (-e), interested; in-
direct (object).
belang'hebbende, (-s), interested party,
person concerned.
belang'rik, (-e, -er, -ste), important,
belang'rikheid, importance.
belang'stel, (-ge-), to take an interest
in, be interested in.
belang'stelling, interest.
belangwek'kend, (-e, -er, -ste), inter-
belas', (-), to burden, tax, rate, assess.
belas'baar, (..bare), taxable, ratable,
belas'ter, (-), to slander, backbite.
belas'tering, slander, calumniation.
belas'ting, (-s), tax, rate, duty, taxa-
belas'tingbiljet, (-te), tax form.
belas'tingjaar, fiscal year.
belas'tingkantoor, office of the receiver
of revenue.
belas'tingpligtig, (-e), ratable.
belas'tingseel, (-s), revenue stamp.
belas'tingwet, fiscal law.
bel'boei, (-e), bell-buoy.
bela', (-), to convene, call; invest.
bele'dig, (-), to insult, offend, injure.
bele'diging, (-e, -s), insult, offence.
beleE', mature, ripe (wine).
beleef', (b), (-de, -der, -ste), polite,
civil, obliging, courteous; (w), see
beleefd'heid, civility, politeness, cour-
beleefd'heidshalwe, out of politeness,
by way of compliment.
beleefd'heidswoord, (-e), polite word,
bele'er, (-s), investor; convener.
bele'er, (-), to besiege, lay siege to.
bele'eraar, (-s), besieger.
bele'Erde, (-s), besieged.
bele'Ering, (-e, -s), siege.
:ele'Eringsgeskut, siege artillery.
bele'eringswerke, siege works.
bele'eringswerktuig, (. .tuie), siege
beleg', (belearinge, beleerings), siege.
beleg'ging, (-e, -s), convening; invest-
,eleg'sel, (-s), trimming.
,eleid', tact, skill, prudence; policy.


beleid'vol, (-le), prudent, cautious.
belem'mer, (-), to encumber, impede,
hamper, obstruct.
belem'mering, (-e, -s), encumbrance,
bele'se, (meer -, me.es -), well-
bele'senheid, state of being well-
read; extensive reading.
belet', (-), to hinder, prevent, pro-
hibit, forbid.
belet'sel, (-s), hindrance, impediment.
bele'we, (-), to experience, witness,
live to see, live through.
belg, (ge-), to get angry (incensed).
Belg, (-e), Belgian.
Bel'gil, Belgium.
Bel'gies, (-e), Belgian.
bel'hamel, (-s), ringleader; bellwether.
belieg', (-), to belie, lie to.
belig', (-), to lighten up, illuminate;
belig'gaam, (-), to embody, incor-
belig'gaming, embodiment.
belig'ting, exposure; illumination.
bel'korhaan, (..hane), wattled crane.
belladon'na, belladonna, deadly night-
belletrie', literature, belles-lettres.
belletris'ties, (-e), pertaining to belles-
lettres, belletristic.
beloer', (-), to spy upon, watch,
peep at.
belof'te, (-s), promise, word.
belo'ning, (-e, -s), reward, recom-
pense, remuneration.
beloof', (-), to promise.
beloon', (-), to reward, remunerate,
beloop', (s), course; (w), (-), to
amount to, run into.
belo'we, see beloof.
bel'roos, erysipelas.
beluis'ter, (-),'to listen to; eaves-
belus', longing for, eager for.
bely', (-), to confess, profess, avow.
bely'denis, confession, avowal.
bely'(d)er, (-s), confessor.
bely'denisskrifte, articles of faith.
belyn', (-), to outline, define, rule.
bemaak', (-), to bequeath.
bemag'tig, (-), to master, conquer,
seize. -

bemag'tiging, seizure.
beman', (-), to man, equip.
beman'ning, (-s), crew.
beman'tel, (-), to cloak, veil, mask.
bemees'ter, (-), to overpower, .over-
bemerk', (-), to observe, notice,
bemer'king, (-e, -s), observation,
bemes', (-), to manure.
bemes'ting, manuring, top-dressing.
bemid'delaar, (-s), mediator, inter-
bemid'deld, (-e), well-to-do, wealthy,
bemid'deling, medium, intercession,
good offices.
bemin', (-), to love, be fond of.
behind', (-e, -er, -ste), loved, beloved.
bemin'de, (-s), loved one, lover.
bemin'lik, (-e, -er, -ste),. lovely,
lovable, amiable.
beminnenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste),
amiable, lovable.
bemod'der, (-), to bemire, besmirch.
bemoe'dig, (-), to encourage, inspire,
bemoe'digend, (-e), encouraging.
bemoe'diging, encouragement.
bemoei', (-), to meddle, interfere.
bemoei'al, (-le), busy-body.
bemoei'ing, (-e, -s), meddling, inter-
ference; effort.
bemoei'lik, (-), to obstruct, hinder,
bemoei'siek, (-e), meddlesome, offi-
bemoei'sug, meddlesomeness, offici-
bemors', (-), to soil, stain, begrime.
benaars'fig, (-), to exert oneself.
bena'deel, (-), to harm; hurt, injure.
bena'deling, injury, damage.
bena'der, (-), to approach, approx-
imate, estimate.
bena'dering, (-e, -s), approximation,
rough estimate.
bena'ming, (-e, -s), name, title, appel-
benard', (-e, -er, -ste), distressed,
trying; embarrassed.
ben'de, (-s), band, troop, gang.
bene'de, below, beneath, under, down-



bene'dehuis, (-e), ground-floor.
benedik'sie, benediction.
Benedikty'ner, (-s), Benedictine.
Benedikty'nerklooster, (-s), Bene-
dictine convent.
Benedikty'nermonnik, (-e), Bene-
dictine monk.
beneem', (-), to take away, deprive.
bene'pe, (meer -, mees -), dis-
tressed, diffident, narrow-minded.
bene'penheid, diffidence, pettiness.
be'nerig, (-e), bony.
bene'wel, (-), to cloud, darken,
bene'wel(d), (-de), foggy, misty, hazy.
bene'wens, together with, besides,
Bengaals', (-e), Bengal.
Bengale, Bengal.
ben'gel, (-s), naughty boy; clapper
ben'ning, (-s), (musical) band.
beno'dig, (-de), wanted, required.
beno'digdheid, (. .hede), requirement,
necessity, want.
benoem', (-), to nominate, appoint.
benoem'baar, (. .bare), eligible.
benoe'ming, (-e, -s), appointment,
benoor'de, to the north of.
benoud', (-e, -er, -ste), anxious,
oppressed, afraid; stifling, suffocat-
benou'debors, asthma, croup.
benoud'heid, (. .hede), anxiety; close-
bensien', bensi'ne, benzine.
bensol', benzol.
benul', notion, idea, conception.
benut', (-), to utilise, avail oneself of.
benuud', anxious to know.
beny', (-), to envy, grudge.
benydenswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste),
beoe'fen, (-), to study; practise;
cultivate, exercise.
beoe'fenaar, (-s), student, votary.
beoe'fening, practice, study.
beoog', (-), to aim at, have in view.
beoor'deel, (-), to judge, criticise,
adjudicate; review.
beoor'delaar, (-s), adjudicator, judge;
reviewer, critic.
beoor'deling, (-e, -s), criticism, ap-
preciation, review; adjudication.

;0 bereidwil'lig

Ibeoorlog, (-), to make war upon.
bepaal', (-), to determine, define,
stipulate, limit, lay down, decree.
bepaald', (b), (-e), fixed, positive,
definite; (bw), positively, decidedly.
bepaal'delik, positively, decidedly,
bepaling, (-e, -s), stipulation, deter-
mination; provision, regulation.
bepeins', (-), to meditate, ponder,
bepein'sing, (-e, -s), meditation,
musing, brooding.
beperk', (w), (-), to limit, bound,
restrict; (b), (-te), limited, restricted.
beper'king, (-e, -s), limitation, re-
striction, restraint.
beperkt'heid, limitedness, restricted-
beplant', (-), to plant.
bepleis'ter, (-), to plaster.
bepleit', (-), to plead, advocate.
beploe'e, beploeg', (-), to plough.
bepoei'er, (-), to powder.
bepraat', (-), to discuss, talk over.
beproef', (-), to try, put to the test,
beproef'(d), (-de), tried, tested, trusty.
beproe'we, see beproef.
beproe'wing, (-e, -s), trial, test;
visitation, affliction.
beraad', deliberation, consideration.
beraad'slaag, (-), to deliberate, take
counsel, consult.
beraad'slaging, (-e, -s), deliberation,
beraam', (-), to plan, contrive,
frame, estimate.
bera'ming, (-e, -s), planning; estimate.
ber'de, te bring, to broach, bring up.
be're, (ge-), to store, save, put aside.
bered'der, (-), to manage, arrange,
administrate, wind up.
bered'deraar, (-s), administrator, ex-
bere'de, mounted.
beredeneer', (-), to discuss, argue
beredeneerd', (-e), rational, logical.
berei', (-), to prepare; dress.
bereid', ready, prepared, willing.
bereid'heid, readiness.
berei'ding, preparation, seasoning.
bereidvaar'dig, (-e), ready, willing.
bereidwillig, (-e), ready, willing.

bereidwil'ligheid 6

bereidwil'ligheid, willingness, alacrity.
bereik', (w), (-), to reach, attain,
achieve; (s), reach.
bereik'baar, (. .bare), attainable, with-
in reach.
berei'king, attainment.
bereis', (w), (-), to travel over; -(b),
(-de), experienced (in travelling);
much travelled.
bere'ken, (-), to calculate, compute,
bere'kening, (-e, -s), calculation, com-
bW'replek, (-ke), store-room.
berg, (s), (-e), mountain, mount;
(w), (ge-), to salvage; see also
berg'-af, downhill.
bergag'tig, (-e), mountainous.
bergamotsersan'peer, s e e bermot-
berg'haan, (..hane), bateleur eagle;
see dassievanger.
berg'hang, (-e), mountain slope.
berg'helling, (-s), mountain slope.
berg'ketting, (-s), mountain range.
berg'-op, uphill.
berg'pas, (-se), mountain pass.
berg'rede, sermon on the mount.
berg'rug, (-ge), mountain ridge.
berg'skilpad, (..paaie), mountain tor-
berg'swael, berg'swawel, (-s),, bee-
be'ri-be'ri, beri-beri (a tropical
berig', (w), (-), to inform, report,
notify; (s), (-te), tidings, intel-
ligence, news, report.
berig'gewer, (-s), reporter, corres-
pondent, informant.
beril', beryl.
beris'pe, (-), to reprimand, reprove,
rebuke, censure.
beris'pelik, (-e), censurable.
beris'ping, (-e, -s), rebuke, reoroof.
ber'k(eboom), birch (tree).
Berlyn', Berlin.
berlyns'-blou, Prussian blue.
bermot'peer, (..pere), bergamot pear.
bermotsersan'peer, (. .pere), bergamot
beroem', (-), to boast, brag, glory in.
beroemd', (-e, -er, -ste), famous,
renowned, celebrated.


beroemd'heid, fame, renown, celebrity;
(..hede), star, celebrity.
beroep', (w), (-), to call, nominate;
appeal to; (s), (-e), profession, trade,
calling, vocation; appeal.
beroeps'halwe, by virtue of one's
beroeps'keuse, choice of profession.
beroep'speler, (-s), professional
beroep'stoei, professional wrestling.
beroeps'voorligting, vocational guid-
beroer', (-), to disturb, trouble.
beroerd', (-e, -er, -ste), rotten, miser-
able, wretched.
beroe'ring, (-e, -s), commotion, dis-
turbance, unrest.
beroer'te, apoplexy, palsy.
berok'ken, (-), to cause, create.
beroof', see berowe.
berooid', (-e), poor, beggarly.
berou', (s), repentance, regret, remorse;
(w), (-), to repent, regret.
bero'we, (-), to deprive, bereave, rob.
bero'wing, robbery, deprivation.
berug', (-te, --ter, -ste), notorious,
berugt'heid, notoriety.
berus', (-), to rest upon, depend
upon; acquiesce.
berus'ting, acquiescence, resignation.
berym', (-), ro rhyme, versify.
bery'ming, (-e, -s), rhymed version.
bes, best, utmost, quite.
besaai', (-), to strew, overspread.
besa'dig, (-de), composed, sedate,
besa'digdheid, sedateness, quiet
manner, composure.
besak', (-), to settle down, subside.
bese'il, (-), to seal.
beseer', (-), to hurt, injure.
besef,' (s); idea, realisation, conception;
(w), (-), to realise, comprehend.
be'sem, (-s), broom.
be'sembos, (-se), broom-bush (Rhus
be'semstok, (-ke), broomstick.
besen'ding, (-e, -s), consignment.
bese'ring, (-e, -s), injury.
beset', (-), to occupy, invest, engage,
bese'tene, (-s), one possessed, maniac.

besetting (

beset'ting, (-e, -s), occupation, gar-
beset'tingslerr, (-s), army of occupa-
besiel', (-), to animate, inspire.
besield', (-e), animated, inspired.
besieging, inspiration, animation.
besien', (-), to look at, inspect,
view, examine.
besienswaar'dig, (-e), worth seeing,
* remarkable.
besienswaar'digheid, (..hede), cur-
iosity; sight.
be'sig, (w), (ge-), to use, employ
(words); (b), (-e, -er, -ste), busy,
be'sigheid, (. .hede), business, occupa-
tion, employment; gevestigde -,
going concern.
be'sighou, (-ge-), to be busy, keep at
besig'tig, (-), to examine, inspect.
besig'tiging, inspection, examination.
besin', (-), to reflect, come to one's
beingg, (-), to chant, sing of, celebrate
(in song).
besink', (-), to settle, subside, clarify.
besin'king, subsiding, precipitation.
besink'sel, (-s), sediment, dregs, res-
besin'ning, consciousness, senses.
besit', (w), (-), to own, possess, have;
(s), possession; occupation; assets.
besitlik, (-e), possessive.
besits'reg, right of ownership.
besit'ting, (-e, -s), possession, property,
beskaaf', (-de, -der, -ste), (b), culti-
vated, educated, cultured, civilised,
polite; (w), (-), to educate, culti-
vate, civilise.
beskaam, (w), (-), to abash, put to
shame; falsify (expectations); (b),
(-de), ashamed, shamefaced, bashful.
beska'dig, (-), to damage, harm,
beska'diging, damage, harm, injury.
beska'du, (-), to overshadow, shade.
beska'duwing, overshadowing.
beska'we, see beskaaf, (w).
beska'wing, (-e, -s), civilisation, cul-
beskeid', answer.
beskei'denheid, discretion, modesty.

i2 besleg'ting

beskei'e, (meer -, mees -), discreet,
beskerm', (-), to protect, save,
shelter, guard.
beskerm'(e)ling, (.e), protege.
beskerm'engel, (-e), guardian angel.
besker'mer, (-s), protector, patron.
beskerm'heer, (. .here), patron.
beskerm'heilige, (-s), patron saint.
besker'ming, protection; patronage.
beskiet', (-), to shell, pound, bom-
beskik, (-), to manage, arrange,
beskik'baar, (. .bare), available.
beskik'king, disposal, arrangement.
beskim'mel, (-), to grow mouldy.
beskim'meld, (-e), mouldy, musty;
beskimp', (-), to mock, jee -
scorn, scoff at.
beskim'ping, (-e, -s), insult,
mockery, jeering.
beskin'der, (-), to slander, backbite.
beskon'ke, intoxicated, tipsy, drunk.
besko're, granted to, allotted.
beskot', (-te), partition, wainscot.
beskou', (-), to view, look at,
hold; consider.
beskou'ing, (-e, -s), consideration,
contemplation; opinion.
beskroomd', (-e), timid, timorous,
diffident, shy.
beskroomd'heid, timidity, diffidence.
beskryf', beskry'we, (-), to describe,
depict; draw up (in writing).
beskry'wing, (-e, -s), description.
beskry'wingspunt, (-e), point for dis-
cussion (on the agenda).
beskuit', (-e), biscuit, rusk.
beskul'dig, (-), to accuse, charge with.
beskul'digde, (-s), accused, defendant.
beskul'diging, (-e, -s), accusation,
charge, indictment.
beskut', (-), to protect, shelter.
beskut'ting, protection, shelter.
beslaan', (-), to stud (with nails);
mount; occupy, fill (space); dim
with moisture (panes); shoe (horse).
beslag', seizure, embargo; batter,
dough-paste; mountingg.
beslag'legging, seizure, distraint.
besleg', (-), to decide, settle.
besleg'ting, (-e, -s), decision, settle-

beslis', (w), (-), to decide; (b), besorg', (w), (-), to have the care of;
(-te, -ter, -ste), decided, positive, give cause; deliver; procure, fur-
resolute; (bw), decidedly, pos- nish; (b), (-de), anxious, concerned,
itively. uneasy.
beslis'send, (-e), decisive, final, con- besorgd'heid, anxiety, solicitude, care,
elusive; determinant. worry, concern.
beslis'sing, (-e, -s), decision, ruling, besor'ging, delivery.
resolution, bespaar', (-), to economise, save.
beslist'heid, decision, peremptoriness, bespa'ring, saving.
determination, resoluteness. bespat', (-), to spatter, splash.
beslom'mering, (-e, -s), beslom'mer- bespeel', (-), to play on.
nis, (-se), vexation, trouble, cares (of bespeur', (-), to perceive, descry,
office). observe, notice.
besluit', (w), (-), to resolve, decide; bespied', (-), to spy, watch.
conclude, determine; infer; (s), (-e), bespie'der, (-s), spy.
resolution; conclusion, decision, bespie'elend, bespie'gelend, (-e),
close, speculative, contemplative.
beslui'teloos, (. .lose), irresolute, bespie'eling, bespie'geling, (-e, -s),
wavering, speculation, contemplation.
besmeer', (-), to soil, smear; grease. bespoe'dig, (-), to accelerate, hasten,
besmet', (-), to infect, contamin- expedite.
ate, pollute, defile, taint. bespoeg', (-), to spit upon (at).
besmet'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), contagious, bespoel', (-), to wash (shores).
* infectious. bespot', (-), to mock, laugh at,
besmet'ting, infection, contagion. ridicule, deride.
besne'de, circumcised, bespotlik, (-e, -er, -ste), ridiculous.
besnoei', (-), to curtail; retrench, bespot'ting, mockery, derision, rid-
cut. icule.
besnoei'ing, (-e, -s), curtailment, re- bespreek', (-), to discuss, talk over
trenchment. (about); review; reserve, book. -
besny', (-), to circumcise. bespre'king, (-e, -s), discussion, con-
besny'denis, circumcision. ference; booking.
besoe'del, (-), to stain, contaminate, bespring', (-), to spring upon, assail.
sully, blemish. besprin'kel, (-), to sprinkle; asperse.
besoe'deling, contamination, sullying, besproei', (-), to irrigate, water.
blemish, pollution. besproei'ing, irrigation.
besoek', (w), (-), to visit, call on; besproei'ingsraad, (..rade), irrigation
try, afflict; (s), (-e), visit, call. board.
besoe'ker, (-s), visitor, guest, besproei'ingswerk, (-e), irrigation
besoe'king, (-e, -s), visitation, af. works.
fliction, trial. besproei'ingswet, (-te), irrigation law.
besoe'tjie, (-s), zinnia. bespu'(ug), (-), to spit upon (at).
besog', (-te), visited; afflicted. Bes'semer-staal, Bessemer steel.
besol'dig, (-), to pay, give salary. bes'sie, (-s), berry.
besol'diging, pay, wages, salary, bes'siesap, currant juice.
beson'der, (b), (-e), particular, special, bestaan', (w), (-), to exist, live,
peculiar; (bw), exceptionally, par- consist (of); (s), existence, liveli-
ticularly. hood.
beson'derheid, (..hede), detail, par- bestaan'baar, (..bare), compatible
ticular. (consistent) with; possible.
beson'dig, (-), to commit sin. bestaans'reg, right of existence.
beson'ne, considerate, thoughtful; well- bestand', proof (against), match for,
considered, equal to.
beso'pe, drunk, fuddled (with drink). bestand'deel, (. .dele), ingredient, ele-
bes6're, s e e besorg, (w). imet, component (part).



bes'te (

bes'te, best, excellent; dear.
bestee', (-), to spend; use; lay out.
besteel', (-), to rob.
bestek', (-ke), compass, space; speci-
fications, builder's estimate.
bestek'opmaker, (-s), quantity sur-
bestel', (w), (-), to order, arrange,
appoint; (s), ordination; dispensa-
bestelling, (-e, -s), order; delivery;
bestel'motor, (-s), delivery van.
bestem', (-), to destine, fix, apportion.
bestemd', (-e), intended, set apart,
bestem'ming, destination, destiny.
bestem'pel, (-), to stamp; name, call
(names), designate as.
besten'dig, (w), (-), to make per-
manent, confirm; perpetuate; (b),
(-e), lasting, durable, constant, stable.
besterf', (-), die woorde bet op sy
lippe-, the words died on his lips.
bestialiteit', bestiality.
bestier', (-), to govern, manage,
bestier'der, (-s), manager.
bestook', (-), to harass, batter, bom-
bestorm', (-), to storm, assail,
bestor'ming, storming, assault, attack;
bestor'we, deadly pale, livid.
bestraal', (-), to irradiate, beam upon.
bestraf', (-), to rebuke, reprove,
bestraf'fing, bestraw'wing, (-e, -s),
rebuke, reprimand; reproof; pun-
bestrooi', (-), to strew, sprinkle.
bestry', (-), to combat, contest,
dispute; defray.
bestry'ding, combating, contest(ing);
bestryk', (-), to coat, spread over.
bestudeer', (-), to study; investigate.
bestude'ring, study.
bestuif', bestui'we, (-), to cover with
dust; pollinate.
bestui'wing, pollination.
bestu'ring, direction, management, con-
trol; driving, steering.

4 bete'kenis

bestuur', (w), (-), to govern, rule,
manage, direct; drive, steer; (s),
(. .sture), management, direction;
directorate, board of control, com-
bestuur'der, (-s), manager, director;
driver, pilot.
bestuur'derskajuit, (-e), cockpit.
bestuurslid, (. ledee), committee mem-
ber, board member.
bestuurs'vergadering, (-e, -s), board
meeting, committee meeting.
besui'de, (to the) south of.
besui'nig, (-), to economise, retrench,
cut down.
besui'niging, economy, retrenchment.
besuip', (-), to get drunk, booze.
besuur', (-), to rue, suffer.
beswaar', (w), (-), to burden, trouble;
(s), (. .sware), objection, grievance,
beswaar'(d), (-de), burdened; uneasy.
beswaar'lik, with difficulty, hardly,
beswaar'skrif, (-te), petition, com-
beswad'der, (-), to calumniate,
beswan'ger, (-), to impregnate.
besweer', (-), to swear; conjure;
entreat; charm (snake).
beswe'ring, (-e, -s), adjuration; in-
cantation; charming.
bes'wil, vir jou eie -, in your own
beswyk', (-), to succumb; yield;
beswym', (-), to faiht, swoon.
beswy'ming, swoon, fainting fit.
besy'de, alongside.
bet, (ge-), to bathe (wound), dab.
betaal', (-), to pay, settle.
betaam', (-), to become, befit,
behove, be proper, suit, beseemm.
betaam'lik, (-e, -er, -ste), becoming,
decent, seemly, proper.
betaam'likheid, decency, decorum,
seemliness, propriety.
beta'kel, (-), to dirty, besmear.
betaling, (-e, -s), payment.
betas', (-), to finger, touch, feel.
bete'ken, (-), to mean, signify,
imply; spell, portend.
bete'kenis, (-se), meaning, sense, sig-
nificance, importance.

bete'kenisvol 6

bete'kenisvol, (-le), significant, mean-
be'ter, better.
be'terskap, improvement, recovery.
be'terweter, (-s), pedant, wiseacre.
beteu'el, (-), to restrain, check,
bridle, curb.
beteu'eling, restraint, curb, check.
beteu'ter(d), (-de), confused, em-
barrassed, perplexed, puzzled.
betig', (-), to accuse, charge.
betig'ting, (-e, -s), accusation, im-
beti'tel, (-), to name, style, give a
title to, entitle.
(-e, -s), demonstration
beton', concrete; gewapende -,
reinforced concrete.
betoog', (w), (-), to demonstrate,
argue, prove, maintain; (s), (. .toe),
betoon', (-), to show, evince, man-
betoor', beto'wer, (-), to enchant,
charm, fascinate.
beto'werend, (-e), charming, fas-
cinating, glamorous.
beto'wering, enchantment, charm,
betraand', (-e), tearful, tear-stained.
betrag', (-), to perform, observe,
practise; consider.
betrag'ting, consideration, reflection,
betrap', (-), to catch, surprise, trap,
betree', (-), to tread upon, enter, set
foot upon.
betref', (-), to concern, relate to,
touch, affect.
betref'fende, concerning, regarding.
betrek', (-), to occupy, move into;
involve; cloud over; trick.
betrek'king, (-e, -s), relation; situa.
tion, job.
betreklik, (b), (-e), relative, com-
parative; (bw), relatively, com-
betreur', (-), to. regret, lament,
deplore, bewail, bemoan.
betreurenswaar'dig, (-e), deplorable,
betrok'ke, cloudy, overcast, gloomy;

5 bevat'ting

betrou', (-), to trust.
betrou'baar, (. .bare, -der, -ste), trust-
worthy, reliable.
betrou'baarheid, reliability.
betui'e, betuig', (-), to testify,
declare, assure, show, express
betui'ging, (-e, -s), profession, expres-
bet'weter, (-s), wiseacre, pedant.
bet'wetery, pedantry.
betwis', (-), to dispute, contest.
betwis'baar, (. .bare), questionable,
betwy'fel, (-), to doubt, question,
betyds', in time.
beu'el, (-s), bugle, trumpet.
beuk, (s), (-e), beech; (w), (ge-), to
beat, thrash.
beul, (-e, -s), hangman, executioner.
beur, (ge-), to pull with force, strain
beurs, (-e), purse; bursary, scholar-
ship; stock-exchange, bourse.
beurs'notering, (-e, -s), market quota-
beurs'spekulant, (-e), stock-jobber.
beurs'vakansie, (-s), bank holiday.
beurs'spekulasie, stock-jobbing.
beurt, (-e), turn; over (cricket).
beur'telings, by turns, alternately, in
beu'sel, (ge-), to trifle, idle, dawdle.
beuselag'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), trifling,
beuselag'tigheid, ( .hede), triviality
bevaar', (-), to navigate; sail.
bevaar'baar, (..bare), navigable.
beval', (-), to please; be confined,
be delivered of.
bevallig, (-e, -er, -ste), charming,
graceful, elegant.
bevalligheid, charm, grace, elegance.
bevalling, (-e, -s), confinement, de-
livery (of a child); pynlose -,
twilight sleep.
bevan'ge, seized; foundered.
bevan'genheid, seizure, constraint;
bevat', (-), to contain, comprise,
comprehend, hold.
bevatlik, (-e), intelligent; intelligible.
bevat'ting, comprehension, grasp.

bevat'tingsvermod 6

bevat'tlngsvermoe, comprehensive
beveel', (-), to order, command,
beveg', (-), to combat, fight (against).
bevei'lig, (-), to shelter, protect,
beveiliging, protection, safeguarding.
bevel', (-e), order, command, mandate,
behest; warrant, writ.
bevel'hebber, bevel'voerder, (-s), com-
bevel'skrif, (-te), mandate, warrant.
beves'tig, (-), to confirm, corroborate,
bear out; fasten; induct (minister).
beves'tigend, (-e), affirmative.
beves'tiging, confirmation, affirmation;
fastening; induction.
behind', (-), to find, experience.
bevin'ding, (-e, -s), experience, finding.
beviek', (-), to stain, defile, pollute.
bevlie'(e), bevlieg', (-), to fly at,
bevlie'ging, (-e, -s), caprice, sudden
fancy, whim.
bevoeg', (-de), competent, qualified,
bevoegd'heid, (..hede), competence,
bevoel', (-), to feel, finger, touch.
bevog'tig, (-), to moisten, wet.
bevolk', (-), to people, populate.
bevol'king, (-e, -s), population.
bevoor'deel, (-), to favour, promote,
bevooroor'deel(d), (-de), biassed, pre-
bevoor'reg, (-), to privilege, favour.
bevor'der, (-), to promote, advance.
bevor'dering, promotion, furtherance.
bevor'derlik, (-e), conducive, useful
bevre'dig, (-), to satisfy, appease,
bevre'digend, (-e), satisfactory.
bevre'diging, satisfaction, gratification.
bevreem'(d), (-), to surprise, astonish.
bevreem'ding, surprise, astonishment.
bevrees', afraid, anxious.
bevriend', bevrind', (-e), friendly,
intimate, on good terms.
bevries', (-), to freeze, congeal.
bevrug', (-), to impregnate, fecundate.
bevrug'ting, conception, impregnation.
bevry', (-), to free, deliver, liberate.

i6 beicolk'

bevry'ding, deliverance, release, rescue.
bewaak', (-), to watch, guard.
bewaar', (-), to keep, preserve, main-
bewaar'der, (-s), keeper, warder.
bewaar'geld, (-e), storage (fee).
bewaar'heid, (-), to prove true, con-
bewaar'plaas, (..plase). depository,
bewaar'skool, (. .skole), infant school.
bewa'king, watch, guard.
bewan'del, (-), to walk upon.
bewa'pen, (-), to arm, provide with
bewa'pening, armament, equipment.
bewa'ring, keeping, custody, conserva-
be'we, (ge-), to tremble, shiver;
beweeg', (-), to move, stir; persuade.
beweeg'baar, (. .bare), movable.
beweeg'krag, motive power.
beweeglik, (-e, -er, -ste), movable,
mobile; vivacious.
beweeg'rede, (-s), motive.
between (-), to weep over, deplore,
beweer', (-), to assert, contend,
maintain, allege.
bewe'ging, (-e, -s), movement, motion;
be'wer, (-s), beaver.
bewera'sie, trembling fit, shivering.
be'werig, (-e, -er, -ste), shaking,
trembling, quivering; tremulous,
bewe'ring, (-e, -s), assertion, con-
tention, statement.
bewerk', (-), to work, fashion, shape;
till; effect, bring about, adapt.
bewer'king, (-e, -s), workmanship,
manipulation; adaptation.
bewerkstel'lig, (-), to, effect, cause,
bring about.
bewerk'tuig, (-de), organic.
be'wertjies, quiver-grass, totter-grass
"(Briza maxima).
bewie'rook, (-), to incense; flatter.
bewim'pel, (-); to disguise, mince
matters, palliate.
behind', government, rule, administra-
bewo'e, moved, affected; agitated.
bewolk', (-te), cloudy, overcast.


bewon'der, (-), to admire.
bewon'deraar, (-s), admirer.
bewon'dering, admiration.
bewo'ner, (-s), inhabitant; occupier.
bewoon', (-), to occupy, inhabit.
bewoon'baar, (. .bare), habitable.
bewoord', (-), to word, express (in
bewoor'ding, (-e, -s), wording, ex-
bewus', (-te), aware, conscious; in
bewus'syn, consciousness.
bewus'teloos, (..lose), unconscious,
bewus'teloosheid, unconsciousness.
bewys', (s), (-e), proof, evidence;
receipt; testimony; (w), (-), to
prove, demonstrate; show; do
bewys'baar, (..bare), demonstrable,
capable of proof.
bewys'grond, (-e), argument, proof.
bewys'stuk, (-ke), documentary evi-
bewys'voering, argumentation.
bey'wer, (-), to endeavour, do one's
best, apply oneself.
bef'wering, zeal, exertion, endeavour.
bib'ber, (ge-), to shiver, tremble.
bibbera'sie, see bewerasie.
bibliograaf', (. .grawe), bibliographer.
bibliografie', (-6), bibliography.
bibliogra'fies, (-e), bibliographic(al).
biblioteek', (. .teke), library.
biblioteka'ris, (-se), librarian.
bid'(de), (ge-), to pray, beseech, ask
a blessing, say grace.
bid'dag, (. .dae), day of prayer.
bid'stond, (-e), prayer-meeting.
bid'uur, (. .ure), prayer-meeting.
bied, ble'(i), (ge-), to offer, bid,
ble'der, bie'er, (-s), bidder.
bie'dery, ble'ding, bie'ery, bidding(at
bief'stuk, beefsteak.
bieg, (s), confession, shrift; (w), (ge-),
to confess.
bieg'stoel, (-e), confessional chair.
bier, beer; ale.
bier'brouer, (-s), brewer.
bler'brouery, brewery.
bier'vat, (-e), beer-cask, beer-barrel.
bles, beestings, colostrum.

;7 bin'nesak

bles'(e)roei, rushlike plant used for
fruit baskets (Bobartia spathacea).
ble'sie, (-s), rush, reed.
bie'siepol, (-le), tussock of rush;
peach of a girl.
biet'jie, a little bit, some, a moment,
rather, slightly.
bigamie', bigamy.-
bigamis', (-te), bigamist.
big'gel, (ge-), to trickle (tears).
bigotterie', bigotry.
bikarbonaat', bicarbonate.
bilabiaal', (..ale), bilabial.
bilateraal', (..rale), bilateral.
bilhar'zia, bilharzia, red water.
biljart', (w), (ge-), to play billiards;
(s), billiards.
biljart'bal, (-le), billiard-ball.
biljart'kamer, (-s), billiard-room.
biljart'stok, (-ke), (billiard) cue.
biljart'tafel, (-s), billiard-table.
biljet', (-te), ticket, handbill.
biljoen', (-e), billion.
bil'lik, (w), (ge-), to approve of; (b),
(-e, -er, -ste), reasonable, fair, just,
bil'ikerwys(e), in all fairness.
bil'likheid, equity, justice, fairness.
bil'likheidshalwe, for the sake of
equity, in justice.
bil'tong, (-e), biltong (dried meat).
bimetallis'me, bimetallism .
bind(e), (ge-), to tie, bind, fasten;
thicken (soup).
bind'sel, (-s), bandage, binding.
bind'weefsel, connective tissue.
bin'ne, in, within, into, inward, inside.
bin'nebal, (-le), bladder.
bin'neband, (-e), tube.
bin'negoed, intestines, entrails.
bin'ne-in, inside, within.
bin'nekant, inside.
binnekort', shortly, soon, before long.
bin'neland, interior.
bin'nelands, (-e), inland, home, in the
bin'neloods, (-ge-), to pilot into port.
bin'nemeid, (-e), domestic servant,
bin'nenshuis, indoors, in the house.
bin'nensmonds, between the teeth,
bin'ne(n)ste, innermost; bulte,
inside out.
bin'nesak, (-ke), inside pocket.

bln'nevet, fat round the intestines, paper; blade (spring); shoulder
bin'nevetter, (-s), one who wears his (animal).
virtue on his sleeve. blad'-lees, playing of music on first
bino'kel, (-s), binocle, binocular, sight.
biochemie', biochemistry. bladluis, (-e), plant-louse, green fly.
biograaf', (. .grawe), biographer. blad'sak, (-ke), knapsack.
biografie', (-e), biography, blad'sy, (-e), page.
biogra'fies, (-e), biographicall. blad'vulling, (-s), stop-gap, titbit.
biologie', biology. blad'wyser, (-s), bookmark, index.
biolo'gies, (-e), biological. blaf, (w), (ge-), to bark; (s), (blawwe),
bioloog', (. .loe), biologist. bark.
biometrie', biometry. blafon', (-ne, -s), ceiling.
bionomie', bionomy. bla'kende, glowing, burning; in -
bioskoop', (. .skope), bioscope, mo- gesondheid, in perfect health.
tion pictures. bla'ker, (-s), candlestick.
bis'dom, (-me), bishopric, diocese. blamaans', blanc mange.
bis'kop, (-pe), bishop, blameer', (ge-, -), to blame, slander.
biskoplik, (-e), episcopal, blank, ([-e] -er, -ste), white, blank;
bis'kopshoed, (-e), mitre, innocent.
bis'kopstaf, (. .stawwe), crosier. blan'ke, (-s), white (person), European.
bis'mut, bismuth. blanket'sel, (-s), paint, rouge.
bi'son, (-s), bison., blank'heid, whiteness; purity.
bits, bit'sig, (-e, -er, -ste), harsh, sharp, blan'ko, blank.
biting, tart. blas, (-ser, -ste), sallow, dark-brown.
bits'heid, bit'sigheid, (..hede), harsh- blasoen', (-e), blason, banner, coat of
ness, sharpness, acerbity, acrimony. arms.
blt'ter, (-der, -ste), bitter; grievous. blat'jang, chutney, sauce, condiment.
bit'terappel, (-s), bitter-apple, apple of bleek, (b), (bleker, -ste), pale, pallid,
Sodom. colourless; (w), (ge-), to bleach.
bit'terbossie, (-s), small Karroo shrub bleek'heid, paleness, pallor.
with a bitter taste. bleek'poeier, (-s), bleaching powder.
bit'tereinder, (-s), die-hard, bleek'sug, anaemia; green sickness.
bit'terheid, bitterness; acerbity, bleeksug'tig, (-e), anaemic.
bit'terlik, (-e), bitterly. bleik, (ge-), to bleach.
bit'terwaatlemoen, bit'terwater- bleik'poeier, (-s), bleaching powder.
lemoen, (-e), bitter melon, bler, (ge-), to bleat.
bitu'men, bitumen. bles, (-se), blaze; bald head.
bivak', (-ke), bivouac. bles'bok, (-ke), blesbuck.
bivakkeer', (ge-, -), to bivouac. bles'hoender, (-s), white-faced coot,
blaad'jie, (-s), leaflet; small magazine moorhen.
or newspaper. bles'mol, (-le), star sand-mole.
blaai, (ge-), to turn over pages. bles'perd, (-e), horse with a blaze.
blaak, (ge-), to glow, burn. blesseer', (ge-, -), to wound.
blaam, blame, blemish, blessuur', (. .sure), wound.
blaar, (blare), leaf (of a plant); blik, (s), (-ke), tin; glance, view; (w),
blister, bleb. (ge-), to glance, look.
blaar'pens, (-e), omasum, manyplies. blik'kantien, (-e), tin-can.
blaas, (s), (blase), bladder; bubble; blik'kiesdorp, (-e), tin town, slums,
(w), (ge-), to blow, puff, hiss. location.
blaas'balk, (-e), bellows. blik'kieskos, tinned foodstuffs.
blaas'kaak, (. .kake), gasbag, braggart. bik'kiesmelk, condensed (tinned)
blaasop', (-s), poisonous toad-fish. blikners, saddle-sore.
blaas'orkes, (-te), brass-band. blik'oor, (..ore), nickname for Free
blad, (blaaie), leaf (of a book), news-. Stater.



blik'sem, (w), (ge-), to flash, lighten; bloedliggaampie, (-s), blood
(s), (-s), lightning; scoundrel, corpuscle.
blik'semafleier, (-s), lightning con- bloed'min, precious little.
ductor. bloed'pens, bloody dysentery (lambs).
blik'semstraal, (..strale), flash of bloed'parsie, bloed'persie, bloody
lightning, diarrhoea.
blik'sker, (-e), plate-shears; tin-opener. bloed'plas, (-se), pool of blood.
blik'skottel! silly asl rascal! bloed'rooi, blood-red.
blik'slaer, (-s), tinsmith, plumber; bloed'ryk, (-e), sanguine, rich in blood.
rascal, blighter, bloed'skande, incest.
blik'snyer, (-s), tin opener. bloeds'omloop, circulation of the
blind, (-e), blind. blood.
blind'doek, (w), (ge-), to blindfold; bloed'spoor, (. .spore), blood trail.
(s), (-e), eye bandage. bloed'spuwing, spitting of blood,
blin'dederm, (-s), appendix. haemorrhage of the lungs.
blin'dedermontsteking, appendicitis. bloed'storting, bloodshed.
blin'de-instituut, ( .tute), institute for bloed'suier, (-s), leech, bloodsucker;
the blind, extortioner.
blin'delings, blindly, implicitly. bloed'transfusie, blood-transfusion.
blin'demol, (-le), blind mole. bloed'vergieting, bloodshed.
blin'demolletjie, blindman's buff. bloed'vergiftiging, blood-poisoning.
blin'der, (-s), window blind; stymie bloed'verlies, loss of blood.
(golf). bloed'verwant, (-e), relative, kins-
blin'deskool, (..skole), school for the man.
blind. bloed'verwantskap, (blood) relation-
blin'devlieg, (..vlee), blind fly, sting ship.
fly. bloed'vin, (-ne), I boil, furuncle.
blind'gebore, blind born. bloed'vint, (-e),
blind'heid, blindness. bloed'vlek, (-ke), blood-stain.
blin'ding, (-s), window blind. bloed'weinig, precious little.
blink, (b), (-er, -ste), shining, glittering; bloed'wors, (-te), blood polony, black
(w), (ge-), to shine, glitter, pudding.
blink'blaar-wag-'n-bietjie, (-s), bloed'wraak, blood feud, vendetta.
mimosa with glossy leaves, bloei, (s), bloom, flourishing condition;
blits, (s), (-e), lightning flash; (w), (w), (ge-), to bleed; bloom, flourish.
(ge-), to flash. bloei'sel, (-s), blossom.
bloe'beks, (blue'blacks), Transvaal bloei'wyse, inflorescence,
Government notes (1865). bloe'komboom, (..bome), blue-gum
bloed, blood; strain, tree.
bloed'armoede, poverty of blood, bloe'komolie, eucalyptus oil.
anaemia, chlorosis. bloemis', (-te), florist.
bloed'bad, (-de(ns)), massacre, bloemlesing, (-s), anthology.
slaughter. bloes, (-e), bloe'se, (-s), blouse.
bloeddor'stig, (-e, -er, -ste), blood- bloe'sem, (-s), blossom, bloom.
thirsty. blok, (w), (ge-), to grind at, cram; (s),
bloed'druk, blood-pressure. (-ke), block, log, clog.
bloed'druppel, (-s), drop of blood. blok'huis, (-e), block-house.
bloed'eie, very own. blokka'de, (-s), blockade.
bloe'derig, (-e), bloody. blokkeer', (ge-, -), to blockade.
bloed'hond, (-e), bloodhound, blok'man, X-ne), blockman.
bloe'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), sanguinary, blok'skoen, (-e), clog, wooden sandal.
bloody; scorching. blom, (w), (ge-), to flower, blossom;
bloe'ding, bleeding, haemorrhage. (s), (-me), flower, blossom; flour.
bloed'jong, bloed'jonk, very young, blom'bedding, (-s), flower-bed.
bloedlaat, (-ge-), to cup, bleed, blom'kelk, (-e), calyx.




blom'kool, cauliflower.
blom'krans, (-e), wreath, garland.
blom'kweker, (-s), florist, nursery.
blom'kwekery, (-e), nursery, flower-
blom'me-tentoonstelling, (-s), flower-
blom'pot, (-te), flower-pot.
blom'ruiker, (-s), bouquet, nose-gay.
blom'ryk, (-e, -er, -ste), flowery;
blom'saad, (..sade), flower-seed.
blom'taal, language of flowers.
blom'tuin, (-e), flower-garden.
blond, (-e, -er, -ste), fair, light.
blond'heid, fairness.
blondi'ne, (-s), blonde, fair woman.
bloos, (ge-), to blush, colour.
bloot, (blote), naked, bare; mere.
bloot'gestel, (-de), exposed.
blootl6, (-ge-), to expose, lay bare.
bloots, bare-back(ed).
bloots'hoof(s), bare-headed.
bloot'stel, (-ge-), to expose.
bloots'voet(s), bare-foot(ed).
blos, (-se), blush, bloom.
blo'send, (-e, -er, -ste), blushing,
flushed; rosy, ruddy.
blou, (-er, -ste), blue.
blou'aap, (. .ape), velvet monkey.
blou-blou', laat, to let the matter
blou'boek, (-e), blue-book.
blou'bok, (-ke), blue-buck.
blou'boontjle, (-s), bullet, blue pill.
blou'druk, (-ke), blue-print.
blou'gomboom, (..bome), blue-gum
blou'held, blueness.
blou'kop-koggelmander, (-s), blue-
headed lizard.
blou'korhaan, (..hane), blue bustard.
blou'kous, (-e), blue-stocking, literary
blou'oog, blue-eyed.
blou'potlood, (. .lode), blue pencil.
blou'reen, wistaria.
blou'sel, (washing) blue.
blou'skimmel, (-s), bluish "grey horse.
blou'tjie, 'n loop, to be refused
(by a girl).
blou'tong, blue tongue (sheep's disease).
blon'wildebees, (-te), blue wildebeest,
brindled gnu.

0 Boeddhis'ties

bluf, (s), bragging, boasting; bluff;
(w), (ge-), to brag, boast; bluff.
blus, (w), (ge-), to extinguish, quench,
put out; slake (lime).
blus, (s), sy is uit, he is done for.
bly, (w), (ge-), to stay, remain, live;
(b), ([-el, -er, -ste), glad, joyful,
blyd'skap, joy, happiness.
blygees'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), gay, cheer
bly'heid, gladness, joy.
blyk, (s), (-e), proof, mark, token,
sign; (w), (ge-), to appear, seem,
be evident.
blyk'baar, apparently, obviously, evi-
bly'kens, according to, as is apparent.
blymoe'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), joyful, glad,
cheerful, blithe, gay.
bly'spel, (-e), comedy.
bly'speldigter, (-s), writer of comedies.
blystaan', (-), to stick (get stuck) in
the mud.
bo, above, upstairs, up, upon; over.
bo'a, (-s), boa.
bo'a-constric'tor, (-s), boa-constrictor.
bo'af, broken at the top.
bo'arm, (-s), upper arm.
bo'baas, master, superior, top-dog.
bobbejaan', (. Janee), monkey,.baboon.
bobbejaan'boud, (-e), old-fashioned
bobbejaan'splnnekop, (-pe), tarantula,
baboon spider.
bobbejaan'stert, Barbacenla retinervis
(the short fibrous stems are used for
bobbejaan'stuipe, hysterics, fits.
bobo'tie, curried hash, boboti.
bod, (botte), offer, bid.
bod'der, (ge-), to bother, worry.
bo'de, (-s), messenger.
bo'dem, (-s), bottom; soil, ground;
bo'deur, (s), (-e), upper half of a
door; (bw), through at the top.
boe, (w), (ge-), to boo, hoot;(tus-
senw.), bo(h); g'n of ba s8 nie,
not to say bo to a goose.
Boeddhis', (-te), Buddhist.
Boeddhis'me, Buddhism.
Boeddhis'ties, (-e), Buddhistic.

boe'del 7

boe'del, (-s), estate, inheritance,
boe'delberedderaar, (-s), executor, ad-
ministrator (of an estate). *
boef, (boewe), rogue, villain, knave.
boeg, (boee), bow, prow.
boeglam, tired out, fatigued, dead-
boe'goe, buchu (Barosma betulina).
boe'goebrandewyn, buchu brandy.
boei, (s), (-e), shackle; handcuff,
fetter; (w), (ge-), to handcuff,
chain, fetter; fascinate, captivate.
boei'end, (-e, -er, -ste), captivating,
fascinating, interesting.
boek, (s), (-e), book; quire (paper);
(w), (ge-), to book, enter.
boek'aankondiging, (-e, -s), book
boekanier', (-s), buccaneer.
boek'beoordelaar, (-s), reviewer, critic.
boek'beoordeling, review, criticism.
boek'binder, (-s), bookbinder.
boek'deel, (. .dele), volume, part.
boek'drukker, (-s), printer.
boek'drukkuns, printing art, typo-
boe'kekas, (-te), bookcase.
boe'kekommissie, (-s), book commit-
boe'kenhout, wood of Faurea saligna.
boe'kery, (-e), library.
boeket', (-te), bouquet.
boe'kevat, (-ge-), to observe divine
service at home.
boek'handel, book-trade; book-shop.
boek'handelaar, (-s), bookseller, sta-
boek'hou, (s), bookkeeping; (w),
(-ge-), to keep books, keep accounts.
boek'houer, (-s), bookkeeper.
boe'kie, (-s), small book, booklet;
boek'jaar, (. .jare), financial year.
boe(k)'pens, (-e), paunch; potbelly;
boek'rak, (-ke), book-shelf, book-case.
boek'sak, (-ke), school-bag, case,
boek'skuld, (-e), book-debt.
boek'staaf, (ge-), to put on record,
commit to paper.
'boek'(e)taal, bookish language.
boek'werk, (-e), book, printed work.
boek'winkel, (-s), book-shop.

L boe'tebossie

boek'wurm, (-s), bookworm.
boel, crowd, lot, a great many.
boel'dok, (-ke), bull-dog.
boeljon', beef-tea, broth.
boe'mel, (ge-), to booze, spree.
boe'meltrein, (-e), slow train.
boemerang', (-s), boomerang.
boen, (ge-), to rub, polish.
boen'der, (ge-), to scrub, rub, polish;
bundle away.
bo'-ent, (-e), top-side, upper half.
boe'pens, (-e), see boe(k)pens.
boer, (s), (-e), farmer, peasant; jack,
knave (cards); (w), (ge-), to farm;
Boer, (-e), Boer, Dutch South African.
boer'brood, (. .brode), brown bread.
boer'dery, (-e), farm; farming.
boe'rebeskuit, (-e), boer-biscuit, rusk.
boe'reboontjie, (-s), broad bean.
boe'rematriek, confirmation (church).
boe'remeisie, (-s), country-girl, peas-
Boe're-oorlog, Anglo-Boer War (1899-
Boe're-orkes, (-te), Boer orchestra.
boe'replaas, (. .plase), farm.
boe'reseun, (-s), country-boy,
boe'reverneuker, (-s), confidence man,
boe'revrou, (-e, -ens), country-woman,
boe'rewors, boer-sausage.
boer'kool, borecole, kale.
boer'seep, home-made soap.
boe'sel, (-s), bushel.
boe'sem, (-s), bosom, breast.
boe'semvri(e)nd, (-e), chum, bosom
Boes'man, (-s), Bushman.
Boes'manland, Bushmanland.
Boes'mans, (-e), Bushman.
Boes'mantaal, Bushman language.
Boes'mantekening, (-e, -s), Bushman
boestroen'tjle, (-s), tunic, pelisse,
boet, (s), brother; (w), (ge-), to
atone, expiate.
boe'ta, (-s), brother; old chap.
boe'tabessie, (-s), wild cherry.
boe'te, (-s); fine, penalty, penance.
boe'tebossie, (-s), burweed (Xanthium

boe'telng g

boe'teling, (-e), penitent.
boe'testelsel, (-s), system of fines.
boet'predikasie, (-s), exhortation to
repentance, homily.
boet'prediker, (-s), preacher of pen.
boet'psalm, (-s), penitential psalm.
boetseer', (ge-, -), to model.
boetseer'kuns. (art of) modelling.
boetseer'werk, modelling (work).
boetvaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), penitent.
boetvaar'digheid, repentance, contrite-
boe'westreek, strikeeke), villainy,
boe'wetronie, (-s), hang-dog face,
sinister phiz.
bof, (s), tee (golf); base (baseball);
home (games); (w), (ge-), to be
lucky, have more success than
bof'bal, base-ball.
bof'fie, a children's game.
bog, (-te), bend; bay, inlet; trash,
tripe; blighter, fool.
bog'gel, (-s), hump, hunch.
bog'geltjie, (-s), hunch-back.
bog'praatjies, twaddle, trash, piffle.
bog'terig, (-e, -er, -ste), paltry, trashy,
piffling, feeble.
bohaai', fuss, hubbub, noise.
Boheems', (-e), Bohemian.
Bohe'me, Bohemia.
Bohe'mer, (-s), Bohemian.
boi'kot, (s), boycott; (w), (ge-), to
bok, (-ke), goat, antelope, buck; box
(of a coach); trestle; blunder.
bokaal', (. .kale), beaker, goblet.
bok'baard, billy goat (beard).
bo'kerf, upper notch.
bok'balk, (-e), side beam (ox wagon).
bok-bok-staan-stvf', high cockalorum.
bok'haar, mohair.
bok'hael, buckshot.
bok'kapater, (-s), castrated goat.
bok'kem, (-s), kippered herring.
bok'ker, (-s), bugger, rascal, rogue.
bok'kesprong, (-e), caper, antic.
bok'kie, (.s), kid; buggy.
bok'knie, baggy knee (trousers).
bok'kom, e e bokkem.
bokmakie'rle, (-s), bush-shrike.
bok'melk, goat's milk.
bok'ooi, (-e), she-goat.

72 bom'werper

bok'ram, (-me), he-goat.
books, (ge-), to box.
bok'seil, (-e), bucksail, tarpaulin.
bok'ser, (-s), boxer.
boks'handskoen, boxing glove.
bok'skyn, buckskin.
bok'spring, (s), (-e), caper, antic;
(w), (ge-), to caper, bound.
boks'wedstryd, boxing match.
Bok'veld, part of the Karroo.
bok'vet, goat suet.
bok'wa, (-ens), buck-wagon.
bok'wiet, buckwheat.
bol, (-le), (s), ball, bulb, globe; crown
(hat); (b), convex, round; (w),
(ge-), to bulge.
bolaag, (..lae), upper layer.
bolaken, (-s), top sheet.
Boland, Western Province.
Bolander, (-s), inhabitant of the
Bolands, (-e), of the W.P.
boleer, upper leather, uppers.
bo'ig, (-te), sky-light, fan-light.
bolip, (-pe), upper lip.
bolla, (-s), chignon, bun (hair).
bollemakie'sie, bolmakie'sie, head-
over-heels, somersault; vlieg, to
loop the loop
bol'etjie, (-s), bun.
bol'rond, (-e), convex, spherical.
Bolsjewis', (-te), Bolshevist.
Bolsjewis'me, Bolshevism.
Bolsjewis'ties, (-e), Bolshevistic.
bol'vormig, (-e), globular.
bol'werk, (s), (-e), bulwark, rampart;
(w), (ge-), to fortify; manage.
bol'wurm, (-s), brainworm.
bo'lyf, (..lywe), body above the hips.
bo'yfie, (-s), bodice.
bom, (-me), bomb, shell.
bom'aanval, (-le), bomb attack.
bombalie, bomba'rie, fuss, noise.
bombardeer', (ge-, -), to bomb, shell,
bombard, pound.
bombardmentt, (-e), bombardment.
bom'bas, bombast, brag, humbug.
bombasyn', bombasine.
bombas'ties, (-e, -er, -ste), bom-
bom'skok, (-ke), shell-shock.
bom'treffer, (-s), bomb hit.
bom'vliegtuig, bombing plane.
bom'vry, (-e), shell-proof.
bom'werper, (-s), bomber.

bo'natuurlik 7

bo'natuurlik, (-e), supernatural.
bond, (-e), confederation, association,
union, league.
bon'del, (-s), parcel, bundle.
bon'deldraer, (-s), pedlar, tramp.
bond'genoot, (..note), ally, confed-
bond'genootskap, alliance, confeder-
bon'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), brief, terse,
succinct, concise.
bon'digheid, succintness, conciseness,
terseness, brevity.
bofd'seel, (-s), sacrament.
bonds, (s), (-e), bump, bang, thud; (w),
(ge-), to dash, knock, beat, palpitate.
bont, (s), fur; (b), (-er, -ste), odd-
coloured, variegated, motley; (bw),
all over.
bont'bok, (-ke), bontebuck.
bont'heid, variegation of colours.
bont'kraai, (-e), pied crow.
bont'kwagga, (-s), Burchell's zebra.
bont'rokkie, (-s), stone-chat.
bont'werker, (-s), furrier.
bo'nus, (-se), bonus.
bood'skap, (s), (-pe), message, errand;
(w), (ge-), to send word, inform.
bood'skapper, (-s), messenger, hatr
boog, (boe), bow, curve, arch, arc.
booglamp, (-e), arc-lamp.
boog'raam, (..rame), arched window.
boog'skutter, (-s), archer.
boog'vormig, (-e), arched.
booi, (-s), servant-boy.
boom, (bome), tree, bar, beam;
bo'-om, round (at) the top.
boom'kwekery, (-e), (tree) nursery,
boom'mos, tree moss, lichen.
boom'singertjie, (-s), cicada (a tree
cricket also called scissor grinder).
boom'skilpadjie, (-s), lady-bird.
boom'skraap, finished, empty.
boom'stam, (-me), tree trunk.
boom'varing, (-s), tree-fern.
boon (bone), bean.
boon'op, moreover, besides.
boon'ste, top, uppermost, highest.
boon'tjie, (-s), bean.
boon'tjieso(e)p, bean-soup.
boon'toe, to the top, up(wards).
bo'-oor, over the top, right over.

I bors'ap

bo'-op, on top, atop of.
boor, (s), boron; (bore), bore, drill;
gimlet; (w), (ge-), to bore, drill.
boord, (-e), orchard; border, edge,
brim; board (ship).
boor'de(nste)vol, brimful.
boord'jie, (-s), collar.
boor'gat, (-e), bore-hole. -
boor'masjien, (-e), boring machine.
boor'suur, boracic acid.
boor'tjie, (-s), gimlet.
boos, ([bose], boser, -ste), angry,
wicked, evil.
boosaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), malicious,
boosaar'digheid, ill-nature, malice.
boos'doener, (-s), evil-doer, villain,
boos'heid, anger; wickedness.
boos'wig, (-te), villain, criminal.
boot, (bote), boat, canoe, barque
boots'volk, crew, sailors.
bo'raks, borax.
bord, (-e), plate, board.
Bordeaux'-mengsel, Bordeaux mixture.
Bordeaux'-wyn, Bordeaux wine.
bordeel', (..dele), brothel, house of
bordes', (-se), outside flight of steps,
landing (of stairs).
bord'papier, cardboard, paste board,
borduur', (ge-), to embroider.
borduur'sel, embroidery.
borg, (-e), surety, security, guarantee,
bail; guarantor.
borg'staan, (-ge-), to become surety,
stand bail.
borg'stelling, surety, bail.
borg'tog, bail, surety.
bo'rium, boron.
bor'rel, (s), (-s), bubble; drop, tot;
(w), (ge-), to bubble; tipple.
bor'relvink, (-e), red bishop-bird.
bor'rie, turmeric; (-s), stretcher.
bors, (-te), breast, chest; thorax;
brisket (beef).
bors'beeld, (.e), bust.
bors'been, (. .bene), breast-bone, ster-
bor'sel, (s), (-s), brush; bristle; (w),
(ge-), to brush.
bors'hemp, (. .hemde), dress-shirt.
bors'lap, (-pe), breast-piece; bib.

bors'reem 7

bors'riem, (-e), pole-strap.
bors(t)'rok, (-ke), corset, stays.
bors'speld, (-e), brooch.
bors'suiker, sugarstick, lollipop.
bors'vlies, (-e), pleura.
bors'wering, (-s), breastwork, parapet.
bort, nettle-rash.
bos, (-se), bundle, bunch; wood,
shrub, forest, bush; shock (hair).
bos'aap, (. .ape), thick-tailed lemur,
bos'bok, (-ke), bush-buck.
bos'bou, forestry, afforestation.
bos'duif, (. .duiwe), wood-pigeon.
bosga'sie, boska'sie, (-s), unkempt
hair; copsewood, thicket.
bos'kwartel, (-s), button-quail.
boslanser, (-s), cattle breeder in Tvl.
Bushveld; country cousin.
bos'luis, (-e), bush-tick; tampan.
bosluisvoel, (-s), tick-bird, white
Bos'nie, Bosnia.
bos'ryk, (-e), woody, wooded.
bosseer', (ge-, -), to emboss.
bos'sie, (-s), shrub, copse.
bos'sietee, bush-tea.
bos'siestroop, sugar-bush syrup.
bos'sing, bush(ing), box (door); re-
bos'stertmuis, (-e), dormouse.
bo'staande, above(-mentioned).
bos'vark, (-e), bush-pig.
Bos'veld, Bush-veld.
bos'voCe, (-s), sombre bulbul.
bos'wagter, (-s), ranger, gamekeeper.
bos'wese, forestry department; forest
bot, (w), (ge-), to bud, sprout; (b),
([-te], -ter, -ste), blunt, dull; (s),
(-te), plaice, flounder.
bota'nicus, (..ci), see botanikus.
botanie', botany.
bota'nies, (-e), botanic(al).
bota'nikus, (-se), botanist.
botaniseer', (ge-, -), to botanise.
bo'ter, see better.
bot'heid, bluntness, stupidity.
bot'jie, a children's game.
bo'toon, overtone.
bots, (s), shock, collision; (w), (ge-),
to collide, clash, strike.
bot'sing, (-e, -s), collision, smash,
bot'stil, quite still, very quiet.

'4 braai'veisaand

bot'tel, (s), (-s), bottle, flask; (w),
(ge-), to bottle.
bottelier', (-s), butler.
bot'telstoor, (..store), bottle store.
bot'ter, butter.
bot'terblom, (-me), buttercup.
bot'terbroodjie, (-s), scone.
bot'terfabriek, (-e), creamery.
bot'terkoppie, (-s), small kind of
bot'terpot,.(-te), butterdish.
bot'terspaan, (..spane), butterspat.
bot'vier, (-ge-), to give reins to.
bot'weg, flatly, straight out, pdint
bou, (w), (ge-), to build, construct;
(s), construction, build, structure.
bou'-aannemer, (-s), building con-
bou'bedryf, building trade.
boud, (s), (-e), buttock, leg; (b), bold.
boud'weg, boldly.
bou'er, (-s), builder.
bou'ery, building.
bou'kunde, bou'kuns, architecture.
bou'maatskappy, (-e), building society.
bou'materiaal, building material.
bou'meester, (-s), architect, builder.
bou'stof, (..stowwe), building material.
bout, (-e), bolt, pin.
bouta'de, (-s), witticism, sally.
bou'vak, building trade.
bou'val, (-le), ruin(s).
bouval'ig, (-e, -er, -ste), dilapidated,
decayed, tottering, ram-shackle.
bou'vereniging, (-e, -s), building
bo'we, see bo.
bowenaards', (-e), heavenly, super-
bowenal', above all (things).
bo'wenatuurlik, (-e), supernatural.
bowendien', moreover, besides,
bra, rather, really, actually.
braaf, (brawe, brawer, -ste), honest,
good, upright.
braaf'heid, honesty, integrity.
braai, (ge-), to roast, fry, grill; scorch.
braai'boud, (-e), (roast) leg of mutton.
braai'ribbetjie, (-s), roasted) rib.
braai'vet, dripping.
braai'vleis, roasted meat, roast.
biaai'vleisaand, open air roast meat
(sausage) social, barbecue.

braak 7

braak, (w), (ge-), to vomit; break up,
fallow; (b), fallow.
braakland, fallow-land; land ploughed
for the first time.
braak'middel, (-s), emetic, vomitive.
braam, (brame), bramble.
braam'bos, (-se), bramble-bush.
Bra'bander, (-s), Brabanter.
Bra'bant, Brabant.
Bra'bants, (-e), Brabantish.
brab'bel, (ge-), to jabber, mutter.
brab'beltaal, jabbering, gibberish, jar-
Brahmaan', (. .mane), Brahman.
brak, (b), (-ker, -ste), brackish, briny;
(s), (-ke), see brakkie.
brak'bossie, (-s), lye bush.
brak'kie, (-s), dog of small stature.
brand, (s), (-e), fire, conflagration;
mildew, blight; gangrene; (w),
(ge-), to burn, scald, blaze, scorch,
cauterise; brand.
brand'alarm, (-s), fire-alarm.
brand'arm, indigent, destitute.
brand'assuransie, fire-insurance.
brand'baar, (. .bare), combustible.
brand'bom, (-me), incendiary bomb.
bran'der, (-s), large wave, breaker;
burner; reprimand.
bran'derplank, (-e), surf-board.
bran'dewyn, brandy.
bran'dewynstokery, (-e), (brandy) dis-
brand'glas, (-e), burning-glass, lens.
bran'ding, surge, surf, breakers.
brand'kas, (-te), money-safe, strong-
brand'rr.aer, skinny, scraggy, as lean
as a rake.
brand'merk, (s), (-e), brand, stigma;
(w), (ge-), to brand, stigmatise.
brand'nekel, brand'netel, (-s), stinging
brand'offer, (-s), burnt offering.
brand'plek, (-ke), burn.
brand'polis, (-se), fire policy.
brand'punt, focus.
brand'siekte, scab.
brand'siekte-inspekteur, (-s), scab in-
brand'solder, (-s), fireproof ceiling.
brand'spiritus, methylated spirits.
brand'spuit, (-e), fire engine.
brand'stapel, (-s), stake, pile; pyre.
brand'stig, (-ge-), to cause fire.


brand'stigter, (-s), incendiary.
brand'stigting, incendiarism, arson.
brand'stof, fuel.
brand'versekering, fire insurance.
brand'-vry, fireproof.
brand'wag, (-te), watch, guard, out-
post; sentry, picket.
brand'weer, fire-brigade.
brand'weerman, (-ne), fireman.
brand'weerstasie, (-s), fire-station.
brand'werk, pokerwork.
brand'wond, (-e), burn, scald.
brand'yster, (-s), branding-iron.
bras, (ge-), to carouse, booze.
bra'sem, (-s), bream.
brasiel'hout, brazil (wood).
Brasillaans', (-e), Brazilian.
Brasi'lie, Brazil.
bras'party, (-e), carouse, debauchery.
bras'sery, (-e), feasting, revelry, glut-
brava'de, bravado, boast.
braveer', (ge-, -), to defy, brave.
bravo', ('s), bravo.
bre'die, stew (vegetables and meat),
breed, breed brewer, -ste), broad,
breedspra'kig, (-e, -er, -ste), verbose,
diffuse, voluble.
breedspra'kigheid, verbosity,
breed'te, (-s), breadth, width.
breed'te-graad, degree of latitude.
breedvoe'rig, (-e, -er, -ste), circum-
stantial, detailed.
breek, (ge-), to break, smash, crush,
snap, fracture.
breek'baar, (..bare), breakable,
breek'goed, crockery.
breek'water, breakwater.
bre'erandhoed, (-e), broad-brimmed
brel, (ge-), to knit; prepare skins;
coach, train; put through his
brei'del, (s), (-s), bridle; (w), (ge-),
to bridle, check, curb.
brei'er, (-s), coach (sports); knitter.
brei'goed, implements for knitting;
knitted articles.
brein, brain, intellect.
brei'naald, (-e), knitting needle.


brel'paal (..pale), pole for preparing
brei'patroon, (. .trone), knitting pat-
brei'werk, knitting.
brei'wol, knitting wool.
brek'fis, (s), breakfast; (w), (ge-),
to have breakfast.
bre'kingshoek, angle of refraction.
res, (-se), breach.
breuk, (-e), rupture; breach (peace);
fracture; fraction.
breuk'band, (-e), truss.
brevier', (-e), breviary, brevier.
brief, (briewe), letter, epistle; bege-
leidende -, covering letter.
brief'besteller, (-s), postman.
brief'kaart, (-e), post-card.
brief'wisseling, correspondence.
briek, (s), (-e), brake; (w), (ge-),
to apply the brakess.
bries, (w), (ge-), to snort, fret; (s),
(-e), breeze.
brie'send, (-e), snorting, furious, wild
with rage.
brie'webesteller, s e e briefbesteller.
brie'weboek, (-e), letter-book.
brie'webus, (-se), post-box, letter-box.
brie'wesak, (-ke), letter-bag, post-bag,
briga'de, (-s), brigade.
briga'de-generaal, (-s), brigadier-
brigadier', (-s), brigadier.
bril, (w), (ge-), to wear spectacles;
(s), (-le), pair of spectacles; seat.
bril'huisie, (-s), spectacle-case.
briljant', (b), (-e, -er, -ste), brilliant;
clever; (s), (-e), cut diamond.
bril'maker, (-s), optician.
bring, (ge-), to bring, take, carry,
brin'jal, (-s), egg-plant.
brisant' bom, high explosive bomb.
Brit, (-te), Briton, Britisher.
Brits, (-e), British.
Brittan'je, Britain.
brochure, see brosjure.
bro'deloos, (. .lose), breadless.
broe'der, (-s), brother.
broe'derlik, (-e), brotherly, fraternal.
broe'dermoord, fratricide.
broe'derskap, brotherhood, fraternity.
broei, (ge-), to brood, hatch; ponder
on, ruminate.


broel'erig, (-e, -er, -ste), close, sultry.
broei'kas, (-te), hot-house.
broei'masjien, (-e), incubator.
broeis, broody.
broei'sel, (-s), brood; clutch.
broei'tyd, brooding time.
broek, (-e), (pair of) trousers, breeches,
drawers, bloomers.
broek'sak, (-ke), trouser-pocket.
broek'skeur, (s), (-e), tear in the
trousers; (bw), hard, difficult.
broeks'knoop, ( .knope), trouser-but-
broeks'pyp, (-e), trouser-leg.
broer, (-s), brother.
broers'kind, (-erq), nephew, niece.
broes, (-e), rose (watering can).
brok, (-ke), piece, fragment.
brokaat', brocade.
brok'kel, (ge-), to crumble.
broks'gewys(e), piece by piece, piece-
brok'stuk, (-ke), fragment.
brom, (ge-), to grumble, mutter,
bromaat', bromate.
bromi'de, (-s), bromied', (-e), bro-
bro'mium, bromine.
brom'mer, (-s), grumbler; horse-fly,
brom'pot, (-te), growler.
brom'tol, (-le), humming-top.
brom'voEl, (-s), turkey-buzzard, ground
bron, (-ne), source, origin, spring.
bronchi'tis, brongi'tis, bronchitis.
bron'kors, water-cress.
bron'nestudie, research work, original
brons, bronze, brass; rut, heat.
bron'stig, (-e), ruttish, in heat.
brons'tyd, rutting season.
bron'water, well-water.
brood, (brode), bread; loaf.
brood'boom, (..bome), bread-fruit
brood'bord, (-e), bread platter.
brooddron'ke, (meer -, mees -),
wanton, extravagant.
brood'(s)gebrek, destitution, starva-
brood'jie, (-s), roll.
brood'krummel, (-s), bread-crumb.
brood'mes, (-se), breadknife.

brood'mielie 7

brood'mielie, (-s), variety of early
brood'nodig, (-e), indispensable, es-
broods'gebrek, see broodgebrek.
brood'skrywer, (-s), penny-a-liner.
brood'trommel, (-s), bread-tin.
brood'winning, livelihood, means of
broom, bromine. -
broos, (brose, broser, -ste), frail,
Brittle, fragile.
bros, (-ser, -ste), brittle, crisp.
brosju're, (-s), brochure, pamphlet.
bros'koek, short-bread.
brou, (ge-), to brew; bungle, botch.
brou'ery, (-e), brewery.
brou'sel, (-s), brew, brewage; muddle.
brug, bridge (cards); (-ge, brfe(ns)),
bridge; parallel-bars.
brug'gehoof, (-de), bridge-head.
brugleuning, (-s), bridge railing.
bruid, (-e), bride.
brui'degom, (-s), bridegroom.
bruids'goed, trousseau.
bruid'skat, dowry.
bruids'koek, (-e), wedding cake.
bruids'paar, (. .pare), bridal couple.
bruik'baar, (..bare, -der, -ste), ser-
viceable, useful.
bruik'baarheid, usefulness.
bruikleen, loan (for temporary use).
bruilof, (-te), wedding.
bruilofsgas, (-te), wedding guest.
bruilofsplegtigheid, (..hede), mar-
riage ceremony.
bruin, (-er, -ste), brown; bay.
bruin'brood, brown bread.
bruineer', (ge-, -), to burnish.
bruin'geelbek, (-ke), half-caste.
bruin'kapel, (-le), brown cobra.
bruin'mense, coloured people.
bruin'oog, brown-eyed.
bruin'tjie, (-s), (brown) bear.
bruis, (ge-), to foam, froth, effervesce;
bruis'poeier, (-s), fruit salt.
brul, (s), (-le), roar; (w), (ge-), to
brul'padda, (-s), bull-frog.
brunet', (-te), brunette.
Brus'sel, Brussels.
brutaal', (. .tale, taler, -ste), cheeky,
impudent, insolent.
brutaliseer', (ge-, -), to be impudent.

7 bui'telands

brutaliteit', (-e), impudence, cheek.
bru'to, gross.
bru'to-gewig, gross weight.
bru'to-ontvangs, gross receipts.
bruusk, (-e), abrupt, brusque, blunt.
bry, (ge-), to lisp, roll the ,,r", burr.
buf'fel, (-s), buffalo; rude fellow.
buffelag'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), rude
buf'fel(s)gras, buffalo grass.
buffer, (-s), buffer, bumper.
buf'ferstaat, (. .state), buffer-state.
buffet', (-te), sideboard;' bar.
bui, (-e), shower; whim, mood;
(coughing) fit.
bui'del, (-s), pouch; purse.
bui'deldier, (-e), marsupial animal.
bui'e, buig, (ge-), to bend, bow, stoop;
bui'erig, (-e), showery; capricious,
buig'baar, ( .bare, -der, -ste), flexible,
bendable, pliable, supple.
bui'ging, (-e, -s), bow, curtsy; bend-
(ing); flexion.
bui'gingsvorm, (-e), flexional form.
buig'saam, (..same, .samer, -ste),
flexible, pliant.
buik, (-e), stomach, belly, abdomen.
buik'gord, (-e), girth.
buik'plank, (-e), plank in the flooring
of the body of an ox-wagon.
buik'pyn, stomach-ache.
buik'spraak, ventriloquy.
buik'spreker, (-s), ventriloquist.
buik'vlies, peritoneum.
buik'vliesontsteking, peritonitis.
buik'vol, fed up.
buil, (-e), boil; bruise, lump.
builepes, bubonic plague.
buis, (-e), tube, pipe; duct.
buit, (s), booty, plunder; (w), (ge-),
to rob, loot, carry off.
bui'te, outside, out of doors.
bui'teband, (-e), tyre.
bui'tedeur, (-e), outer door.
bui'tegebou, (-e), out-building.
bui'tekamer, (-s), out-room.
bui'tekans, (-e), unexpected advan-
tage, windfall.
bui'tekant, (s), outside, exterior; (bw),.
bui'teland, foreign country.
bui'telander, (-s), foreigner.
bui'telands, (-e), foreign; exotic.


bui'telug, open air, country air.
bui'temuur, (. .mure), outer wall.
bui'temuurs, (-e), extra-mural.
bui'ten, besides, except, beyond.
buitendien', moreover, besides.
bui'tengemeen, (..mene), unusual,
bui'tengewoon, (..wone), extraordin-
ary, peculiar.
buitenis'sig, (-e), out of the common,
bui'tenshuis, out of doors.
buitenspo'rig, (-e, -er, -ate), ex-
travagant, excessive.
buitenspo'righeid, (..hede), extrav-
agance, excessiveness.
bui'tenste, outermost, exterior.
bui'te-om, round the outside.
bui'tepasient, (-e), out-patient.
bui'teplaas, (..plase), country seat,
bui'tepos, (-te), outpost, outstation.
bui'tesluit, (-ge-), to exclude, shut out.
bui'testaander, (-s), outsider.
bui'testeen, (. .stene), face-brick.
bui'tewereld, outer world, public,
outside world.
bui'tewerp, (-ge-), to cast out.
bui'tewyk, (-e), suburban ward, coun-
try district.
buit'maak, (-ge-), to seize, capture,
.carry off.
buk, (ge-), to stoop, bend, bow.
buk'sie, (-s), saloon rifle; small person;
bul, (-le), bull, steer.
bul'der, (ge-), to roar, rage, boom.
Bulgaar', (. garee), Bulgarian, Bulgar.
Bulgaars', (-e), Bulgarian.
Bulgary'e, Bulgaria.
bulk, (ge-), to low, bellow, moo.
bul'kalf, (. .kalwers), bull-calf.
bullebak, (-ke), surly person, bully.
bulletin', (-s), notice, bulletin.
bul'sak, (-ke), bolster, feather-bed.
built, (-e), hillock, ridge, rising ground;
hump, lump.
bul'terig, (-e), uneven, hilly.
bun'del, (s), (-s), volume; (w), (ge-),
to publish in book form.
bun'ker, (ge-), to bunker.
bun'kerkole, bunker coal.
bureau', (-x), s e e buro.
burg, (-e), castle; (-te), gelded pig,

78 By'belteks

bur'gemeester, (-s), mayor, burgo-
bur'gemeesterskap, mayoralty.
burgemeesteres', (-se), lady mayor.
bur'gemeestersvrou, (-e, -ens),
bur'ger, (-s), citizen, civilian, burgess;
bur'gerkunde, civics.
bur'gerlik, (-e), civil, civilian, middle.
bur'geroorlog, (. .loe), civil war.
bur'gerplig, (-te), civic duty.
bur'gerreg, (-te), right of citizenship,
civic rightss; burgher-right.
bur'gerregering, (-s), democracy.
bur'gerskap, citizenship.
bur'gerwag, (-te), civic guard.
burg'graaf, (. .grawe), viscount.
burg'gravin, (-ne), viscountess.
burlesk', (s), (-e), burlesque; (b), (-e),
ludicrous, burlesque.
buro', (-'s), office; desk; bureau.
burokraat', (. .krate), bureaucrat.
burokrasie', red-tapism, bureaucracy,
burokra'ties, (-e), bureaucratic, red-
bus, (-se), box, tin; omnibus; bush
(of a wheel).
bus'diens, (-te), bus-service.
bus'kruit, gunpowder.
busligting, box clearance (post).
bus'te, (-s), bust.
buur, (bure), neighbour.
buur'man, (bure), neighbour.
buur'praatjie, (-s), neighbourly talk,
buurt, (-e), buur'te, (-s), neighbour-
hood, quarter, vicinity.
buur'vrou, (-e, -ens), neighbour's wife.
by, (vs), at, near, by, with; (s), (-e),
by'bedoeling, (-e, -s), side-purpose,
ulterior aim.
By'bel, (-s), Bible.
By'belgesnootskap, (-pe), Bible so-
By'belkennis, scriptural knowledge.
By'belleer, Bible doctrine.
By'bels, (-e), biblical, scriptural.
By'belverklaring, (-e, -s), exegesis.
Bybeltaal, biblical language.
By'belteks, (-te), text from Scripture.

By'belvertaling 7

By'belvertaling, (-e, -s), Bible trans-
by'blad, (. .blaaie), supplement.
by'bly, (-ge-), to keep pace with, be
able to follow.
by'bring, (-ge-), to bring forward;
afford; restore to consciousness;
instill) ideas.
by'dam, (-ge-), to accost, approach,
byderhand', bydiehand', close by,
byderhands', bydiehands', (-e), handy,
quick-witted, smart.
by'dra, (-ge-), to contribute.
by'drae, (-s), contribution.
beenn, together.
byeen'kom, (-ge-), to meet, gather,
byeen'koms, (-te), gathering, meeting,
by'ekorf, (. .korwe), bee-hive.
by'enes, (-te), bee-hive.
by'e-sel, (-le), bee-cell.
by'ewas, beeswax.
by'gaande, accompanying, enclosed,
by'gebou, (-e), annex(e), out-house.
by'geloof, (. .lowe), superstition.
bygelo'wig, (-e, -er, -ste), super-
bygelo'wigheid, superstitiousness.
by'gevolg, consequently, in conse-
quence, therefore, hence.
by'hou, (-ge-), to keep up with, keep
pace with; keep up to date.
by'kans, nearly, almost.
by'kom (-ge-), to come up with,
recover; reach..
by'komende, additional, incidental.
bykoms'tig, (-e), accessory, minor,
byl, (-e), axe, hatchet.
bylae, (-s), appendix, supplement,
bymekaar', together.
bymekaar'kom, (-ge-), to come to-
gether, meet.

9 by'wyf

bymekaar'komplek, (-ke), meeting-
place, rendezvous, venue.
by'mot, (-te), bee-moth.
by'na, neatly, almost.
by'naam, (. .name), nickname.
by'nes, (-te), bee-hive.
by'nier, (-e), adrenal body.
by'oogmerk, (-e), side-purpose; pri-
vate end.
by'saak, (. .sake), side issue, second-
ary matter, mere detail.
by'siende, short-sighted, myopic.
by'sin, (-ne), dependent (subordinate)
by'sit, (s), (-te), concubine, mistress;
(w), (-ge.), to add to; inter; help.
by'smaak, (. makeke, after-taste,
peculiar flavour, tinge.
by'spring, (-ge-), to help, assist.
by'staan, (-ge-), to assist, help, succour,
back up.
by'stand, assistance, support.
by'stelling, (-e, -s), apposition.
bys'ter, die spoor wees, to be on
the wrong track; nie gelukkig
nie, not very happy.
by'syn, presence.
byt, (w), (ge-), to bite, snap at; (s),
(-e), bite.
by'tel, (-ge-), to count in.
byt'soda, caustic soda.
by'val, (s), applause, approval, ap-
probation; (w), (-ge-), to come into
(one's mind); remember.
by'vanger, (-s), drongo shrike.
by'voeg, (-ge-), to add, annex, append.
by'voeging, (-e, -s), addition.
byvoeglik, (-e), adjectival; -e naam-
woord, adjective.
by'voegsel, (-s), supplement, appendix,
byvoor'beeld, for example.
by'was, bees-wax.
by'woner, (-s), sub-farmer; squatter.
by'woon, (-ge-), to be present at,
attend, witness.
by'woord, (-e), adverb.
bywoor'delik, (-e), adverbial.
by'wyf, (. .wywe), concubine.



(See also K, S, T.

c, (-'s), c.
cabaret', (-s), see kabaret.
cachet', (-te), seal, signet.
cadeau', (-x), see kado.
Caesaris'me, Caesarism.
caf6, (-s), see kafee.
calcium, see kalsium.
Calvinis', (-te), Calvinist.
Calvinis'me, Calvinism.
Calvinis'ties, (-e), Calvinistic.
Calvyn', Calvin.
camouflage, camouflage.
canta'te, s e e kantate.
can't, s e e kanto.
caoutchouc', s e e kaoetsjoek.
carbol', see karbol.
carboli'neum, carbolineum.
carburateur', see karburateur.
carillon', (-s), carillon.
carrie're, (-s), career.
casca'ra, see kaskara.
casino, (-'s), casino.
catarrh', see katar.
cau'cus, (-se), caucus (of a political
causaal', e e kousaal.
causatief', s e e kousatief.
cavalca'de, see kavalkade.
cedeer', see sedeer.
cellis', see tjellis.
cel'lo, see tjello.
celluloi'de, see selluloled.
cellulo'se, see sellulose.
centimeter, (-s), centimetre.
cen'trum, (..tra), see sentrum.
ces'sie, see sessie.
cesuur', caesura.
champagne, see sjampanje.
cha'os, chaos.
chao'ties, (-e), chaotic.
chaperon', (-s), chaperon.
charge d'affair'es, charge d'affaires.
charmant', see sjarmant.
charter, (s), (-s), charter; (w), (ge-),
to charter; hire (ship).
chauffeur', (-s), chauffeur.
chauvinis', (-te), chauvinist.
chauvinis'me, chauvinism.

chauvinis'ties, (-e), chauvinistic.
chef, see sjef.
che'micus, (..ci), che'mikus, (-se),
scientific chemist, analyst.
chemie', chemistry.
che'mies, (e), chemical.
chemikaliee, chemicals.
chic, see sjiek.
chilias'me, chiliasm.
chimpansee', see sjimpansee.
Chi'na, see Sjina.
chirurg', (-e), surgeon.
chirur'gies, (-e), surgical.
chloor, chlorine.
chloroform, chloroform.
cholera, cholera.
Chris'telik, (-e), Christian(like).
Chris'ten, (-e), Christian.
Chris'tendom, Christianity.
Christin', (-ne), Christian (woman)
Chris'tus, Christ.
chro'nies, (-e), chronic.
chronologie', chronology.
chro'nometer, (-s), chronometer, stop-
chroom, chromium.
chrysanthemum, (-s), see krisant.
cichorei', see sigorei.
clas'sis, see klassis.
cliche', (-s), cliche.
club, see klub,
cognac', see konjak.
communique', (-s), communique.
compromise see kompromis.
confet'ti, confetti.
contour', (-s), contour.
coulis'se, (-s), side scenes.
corps, see korps.
coup', s e e koepee.
cremato'rium, ( .ria), see krema-
crescen'do, (-'s), crescendo.
cretin', (-s), cretin.
creton'ne, see kreton.
crite'rium, (. .ria), see kriterium.
cri'ticus, (..ci), see kritikus.
cul'tus, see kultus.
curator, (-es), see kurator.

cyaan', s e e siaan. cy'clus, (..cli), see siklus.
cyani'de, see sianied. cy'nies, see sinies.
cycloon', see sikloon. cy'nicus, (..ci), s e e sinikus.
cycloop', see sikloop. cynis'me, see sinisme.


d, ('s), d. daar'voor, for that, therefore.
daad, (dade), deed, action, exploit. dac'tylus, (..li), s e e daktiel.
daad'saak, (. .sake), fact, reality. da'del, (-s), date.
daagliks, (-e), daily, every day. da'delik, immediately, at once, directly.
daai! please! give (said to babies). da'delpalm, (-s), date-palm.
daal, (ge-), to descend, sink, fall, go da'eliks, s e e daagliks.
down in price. da'eraad, dawn.
daal'der, (-s), one shilling and six dag, (dae), day.
pence. dag'bestuur, (. .sture), emergency com-
daar, (bw), there; (vwg), since, as, mitree.
because, dag'blad, (. .blaaie), daily paper.
daar'aan, on it; by that. dag'bladpers, daily press.
daar'agter, behind that (it). dag'boek, (-e), diary, day-book.
daar'by, thereto, besides, in addition. dag'breek, day-break.
daar'deur, thereby, by that means; dag'breker, (-s), familiar (sickle-
through (there). winged) chat.
daar'die, that; those. da'geraad, dawn,
daarenbo'we, moreover, besides. dag'ga, dagga (wild hemp smoked by
daarente'e, daarenteen', on the con- natives).
trary, on the other hand. dag'garoker, (-s), dagga smoker.
daar'heen, thither, there, to that place. da'gha, clay (brick-laying), mortar.
daar'in, therein, in that. dag-in', day in.
daarlang(e)s, past there, along that. daglig, day-light.
daar'mee, therewith, with that. dagligbesparing, day light saving.
daar'na, after that, afterwards. dag'loner, (-s), day labourer.
daar'naas, next to that. dagloon, day's wages, daily pay.
daar'natoe, there, thither, in that daglumier, dawn, day-break.
direction; dis -, it does not matter. dag'mars, (-e), day's march.
daar'om, therefore, for that reason. dag'reis, (-e), day's journey.
daar'omheen, round about it, around dag'se, (-ge-), to greet, say good day
(it). (goodbye).
daar'omtrent, thereabout, concerning dag'skolier, (-e), day scholar.
that. dag'skool, (. .skole), day school.
daar'onder, under that, down there, by dag'taak, ( .take), daily task.
that. dag'teken, (ge-), to date.
daar'oor, about that; therefore. dag'tekening, date.
daar'op, thereupon, upon that. Daguer'reotipe, Daguerreotype.
daar'so, there, yonder. dag-uit', day out.
daar'stel, (-ge-), to bring about, dagtvaar, (ge-), to summon, subpoena.
cause. dag'vaarding, (-e, -s), summons,
daar'tei, daar'teen, against that. warrant.
daar'toe, for that purpose, to that end. dag'verhaal, (..hale), journal, daily
daar'uit, thence, out of that, account, diary.
daar'van, of that, about that, thereof, dahlia, (-s), dahlia.
daar'vandaan, from there, thence. dah'liabol, (-le), dahlia bulb.




dak, (-ke), roof.
dak'geut, (-e), gutter.
dakloos, (. .lose), roofless.
"dak'pan, (-ne), tile.
dak'rand, (-e), eaves.
dak'tiel, (-e), dactyl.
dak'tuin, (-e), roof-garden.
dak'venster, (-s), garret-window, sky-
dak'vors, (-te), ridge of the roof.
dal, (-e), valley, dale, dell.
dating, descent; fall, drop, slump.
dalk, perhaps, maybe.
dal'kies, by and by, presently.
dam, (s), (-me), dam, reservoir; (w),
(ge-), to dam up; play draughts.
damas', damask.
damas'pruim, (-e), damson.
damasseer', (ge-, -), to damaskeen
dam'bord, (-e), draught board.
da'me, (-s), lady.
da'mesvriend, (-e), lady's man.
damp, (s), (-e), vapour, steam, fume,
smoke; (w), (ge-), to emit steam,
puff, smoke, fume.
damp'kring, atmosphere.
dam'pomp, (-e), outlet-pipe (dam).
dam'skrop, (-pe), dam-scraper.
dam'wal, (-le), embankment (of dam).
dam'water, water from a dam.
dan, then; than.
dan en wan, now and then, occa-
da'nig, (b), (-e), effusive, exuberant;
(bw), much, awfully; over-friendly.
dank, (s), thanks, gratitude, acknow-
ledgment; (w), (ge-), to thank, give
thanks; say grace.
dank'baar, (. .bare, -der, -ste), thank-
ful, grateful.
dank'baarheid, thankfulness, gratitude.
dank'betuiging, (-e, -s), expression
(vote, letter) of thanks.
dank'dag, (..dae), thanksgiving day.
dank'gebed, (-e), thanksgiving.
dan'kie! thank you! thanks!
danklied, (-ere), song of thanks.
dank'offer, (-s), thanks-offering.
dank'se, (-ge-), to thank, return
dank'segging, thanksgiving.
dank'stond, (-e), thanksgiving service.

dans, (s), (-e), dance; (w), (ge-), to
dan'ser, (-s), dancer.
danseres', (-se), dancer (female).
danseu'se, (-s), ballet-dancer.
dans'kuns, art of dancing.
dans'es, (-se), dancing lesson.
dans'meester, (-s), dancing master.
dans'musiek, dance music.
dans'party, (-e), ball, dance.
dans'saal, (. .sale), ball-room.
dans'skoen, (-e), dancing shoe, pump.
dap'per, (-der, -ste), brave, valiant,
plucky, valorous, gallant.
dap'perheid, braveness, valour, gal-
Dardane'le, Dardanelles.
da'rem, though, all the same, after all,
dar'tel, (w), (ge-), to frisk, gambol;
(b), (-er, -ste), playful, skittish,
sportive, frisky, frolicsome.
dar'telheid, playfulness, wantonness,
Darwinis', (-te), Darwinist.
Darwinis'me, Darwinism.
Darwinis'ties, (-e), Darwinistic.
das, (-se), rock-rabbit, hyrax, badger,
coney; tie (for the neck).
das'sie, (-s), necktie, tie; rock-rabbit.
das'siepis, hyrac-um (secretion of the
das'sievanger, (-s), black eagle, coney-
das'speld, (-e), tie-pin, scarf-pin.
dat, that, so that, in order that.
dateer', (ge-, -), to date (from).
datief', (. .tiewe), dative.
da'tum, (-s), date.
da'wer, (ge-), to rumble, roar, tremble,
thunder, boom.
Da'wid, David.
da'widjies, daw'wetjies, Antizoma
capensis (good for snake-bite).
da'widsworteltjie, (-s), Melothria
punctata (medicinal herb).
de~ take! here you are!
de! nowl seel
debb'cle, deba'kel, (-s), debacle,
deballoteer', (ge-, -), to blackball.
debate (-te), debate, discussion.
debats'vereniging, (-e, -s), debating
debatteer', (ge-, -), to debate, discuss.

debatteer'der 8

debatteer'der, (-s), debater.
debet', debit.
debet'sy, debit side.
debiet', sale, market; debit.
debiteer', (ge-, -), to debit, charge
debiteur', (-e, -s), debtor.
debutant', (-e), debutant(e).
debuut', first appearance, debut.
de'cigram, (-me), decigram.
de'ciliter, (-s), decilitre.
decimaal', see desimaal.
de'cimeter, (-s), decimetre.
decor', (stage) scenery.
deco'rum, decorum.
deduk'sie, (-s), deduction, inference.
deduktief', (. .tiewe), deductive.
deeg, dough.
deeglik, (-e, -er, -ste), solid, thorough,
sterling, sound.
deeglikheid, solidity, soundness,
deel, (s), (dele), part, portion, share,
division, section; (w), (ge-), to
divide, participate, share.
deelag'tig, participating.
deel'baar, (. .bare), divisible.
deel'baarheid, divisibility.
deel'genoot, (..note), partner, par-
deel'genootskap, partnership.
deel'neem, (-ge-), to participate in,
partake, take part in.
deel'nemend, (-e), sympathetic.
deel'nemer, (-s), participant, con-
deel'neming, sympathy; participation.
deels, partly, in part.
deels'gewys(e), piecemeal, bit by bit.
deel'som, (-me), division sum.
deel'tal, (-le), dividend.
deel'teken, (-s), diaeresis; division
deel'woord, (-e), participle.
dee'moed, meekness, humility, sub-
deemoe'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), humble,
meek, submissive.
deemoe'digheid, humbleness, meek.
Deen, (Dene), Dane.
Deens, (-e), Danish.
deer, (ge-), to hurt, harm.
deer'lik, (-e), pitiful, miserable, bad,


deer'nis, commiseration, pity.
deerniswaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), piti-
defaitis'me, defeatism.
defek', (-te), defect.
defensief', (. .siewe), defensive.
definieer', (ge-, -), to define.
defini'sie, (-s), definition.
definitief', (. .tiewe), definite, decisive.
deflek'sie, deflection.
deflekteer', (ge-, -,), to deflect, lose
endings (words).
def'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), stately, grave,
dignified, portly.
def'tigheid, stateliness, dignity, dis-
de'gen, (-s), sword; foil.
degenera'sie, degeneracy, degeneration.
degenereer', (ge-, -), to degenerate.
degrada'sie, degradation.
degradeer', (ge-, -), to degrade.
dein, (ge-), to heave, surge, swell.
dei'ntng, (-e, -s), heave, swell.
deins, (ge-), to shrink (back), recoil,
deals (-te), deist.
deis'me, deism.
deis'ties, (-e), deistic.
dek, (s), (-ke), deck; (w), (ge-), to
cover, clothe; be at stud, cover;
dekaan', (. .kane), dean.
deka'de, (-s), decade.
dekaden'sie, decadence.
dekadent', (-e), decadent.
de'kagram, (-me), decagram(me).
de'kaliter, (-s), decalitre. .
de'kameter, (-s), decametre.
de'ken, (-s), counterpane, quilt, cover-
let; dean; doven.
dek'gras, thatch (grass).
dek'grond, top-dressing.
dek'king, cover, shelter, guard.
deklama'sie, declamation, recitation.
deklameer', (ge-, -), to declaim,
deklara'sie, (-s), declaration.
deklareer', (ge-, -), to declare.
deklina'sie, (-s), declination.
deklineer', (ge-, -), to decline.
dek'mantel, (-s), cloak; excuse, pre-
dek'naald, (-e), thatching needle.
dekolleteer', (ge-, -), to wear a low-
necked dress.

dekora'sie, (-s), decoration; order of demo'nies, (-e), devilish, diabolical.
knighthood. demonstra'sie, (-s), demonstration.
dekoratief', (. .tiewe), decorative. demonstreer', (ge-, -), to demon-
dekoreer', (ge-, -), to decorate. state.
dek'passasier, (-s), deck passenger. demonteer', (ge-, -), to dismount,
dekreet', (. .krete), decree, edict, dismantle.
dekreteer', (ge-, -), to decree, enact. demoralisa'sie, demoralisation.
dek'sel, (-s), cover, lid. demoraliseer', (ge-, -), to demoralise.
dek'sels, (b), (-e), blessed, confounded; demoralise'rend, (-e), demoralising.
(bw), confounded, darned. demo'sie, (-s), demotion.
dek'spaan, (..spane), thatch-spade. demp, (ge-), to fill up with earth,
dek'stoel, (-e), deck-chair, quell, quench; dim; mute.
dekstrien', dextrine, British gum. dem'per, (-s), quencher; mute, sor-
dek'strooi, thatch, dine; silencer.
delega'sie, (-s), delegation, den, (-ne), fir (tree), pine (tree).
delegeer', (ge-, -), to delegate. De'nemarke, Denmark.
dealer, (-s), divider; divisor. denk'baar, (. .bare), imaginable, think-
delf, (ge-), to dig, mine. able, conceivable.
delf'stof, (. .stowwe), mineral. denk'beeld, (-e), idea, imagination,
delf'stofkunde, mineralogy, notion.
delf'stofryk, mineral kingdom. denkbeel'dig, (-e), imaginary.
delg, (ge-), to discharge, pay off, den'ke, thought, (act of) thinking
redeem. den'ker, (-s), thinker.
del'ging, payment, discharge, redemp- denk'krag, thinking power.
tion, amortisement. denklik, (-e), probable, possible.
del'gingsfonds, (-e), sinking-fund. denk'vermoe, intellectual capacity.
delibera'sie, (-s), deliberation, denk'wyse, (-s), way of thinking,
delibereer', (ge-, -), to deliberate, opinion.
consider. den'nebol, (-le), fir-cone.
delikaat', (..kate, .kater, -ste), den'neboom, (. .bome), fir-tree, pine-
delicate, delicious, tender; ticklish, tree.
difficult. den'nebos, (-se), pine-forest.
delikates'se, delicacy, savoury bit. den'nehout, pine-wood, fir-wood.
delimita'sie, delimitation den'nenaald, (-e), fir-needle.
dealing, division. den'nepit, (-te), fir-cone seed.
deli'ries, (-e), delirious. denomina'sie, denomination.
deli'rium tremens, delirium tremens. denominatief', (. .tiewe), denomin-
del'ta, (-s), delta. ative.
del'we, (ge-), to dig, mine. densiteit', density.
del'wer, (-s), digger. dep, (ge-), to swab.
delwery'e, diggings. departmentt, (-e), department, office.
demagogic', demagogy, departementeel', (. .tele), department-
demago'gies, (-e), demagogic. al.
demagoog', (..goe), demagogue. dep6'che, (-s), dispatch, telegram.
demar'che, (-s), demarche. deponeer', (ge-, -), to deposit,
demarka'sie, demarcation, lodge.
demen'ti, (-'s), denial, flat contra- deponent', (-e), depositor, deponent.
diction. deporta'sie, (-s), deportation.
demis'sie, demission. deporteer', (ge-, -), to deport.
demobilisa'sie, demobilisation. depo'sito, (-'s), deposit.
demobiliseer', (ge-, -), to demobilise. d6p8t', (-s), depot.
demokraat', (..krate), democrat. dep'per, (-s), swab.
demokrasie', democracy. depresia'sie, depreation.
demokra'ties, (-e), democratic. depresieer', (ge-, -), to depreciate.
de'mon, (-e), demon, devil. depres'sie, (-s), depression.



deputaat' 8

deputaat', (. .tate), delegate (church).
deputa'sie, (-s), deputation.
deputeer', (ge-, -), to depute.
der'de, (-s), third.
der'demagswortel, cube-root.
der'demannetjie speel, to play goose-
berry; play two's and three's.
der'departyversekering, third party
der'derangs, (-e), third-rate.
derf, (ge-), see derwe.
der'gelik, (-e), such, the like, similar.
der'halwe, therefore, so, consequently.
derm, (-s), intestine, gut; (my),
bowels, entrails.
der'mate, in such a manner, to such
an extent.
derm'breuk, (-e), rupture of the
derm'ontsteking, enteritis.
derm'snaar, (. .snare), catgut.
derm'vlies, (-e), peritoneum.
derm'vliesontsteking, peritonitis.
der'tien, thirteen.
der'tiende, (-s), thirteenth.
der'tig, thirty.
der'tigste, (-s), thirtieth.
der'we, (ge-), to lack, miss, want.
der'wisj, (-e), dervish.
der'waarts, thither.
des, te better, so much the better.
de'se, na -, after this.
Desem'ber, (-s), December.
desentralisa'sie, decentralisation.
desentraliseer', (ge-, -), to decen-
de'ser, die tiende -, the 10th instant.
deser'sie, desertion.
deserteer', (ge-, -), to desert, run
deserteur', (-s), deserter.
des'gelyks, likewise, accordingly.
de'sigram, (-me), decigram.
de'siliter, (-s), decilitre.
desimaal', (. .male), decimal.
desimaal'punt, (-e), decimal point.
desimaal'stelsel, decimal system.
de'simeter, (-s), decimetre.
deskun'dig, (-e), expert.
deskun'dige, (-s), expert.
des'nieteenstaande, nevertheless.
desnoods', if need be, in case of need.
desolaat', (. .late), desolate.
des'ondanks, notwithstanding.
desperaat', (. .rate), desperate.

5 deurdron'ge

despoot', (. .pote), despot, tyrant.
despo'ties, (-e), despotic, tyrannic(al).
despotis'me, despotism, tyranny.
dessert', dessert.
dessertlepel, (-s), dessert spoon.
destina'sie, (-s), destination.
des'tvds, at that time, then.
des'verkiesend, if so wished.
des'wee, on that account, for that
detachement', (-e), detachment.
detail', (-s), detail.
detek'tief, (. .tiewe), detective.
deten'sie, detention.
determineer', (ge-, -), to determine.
determinis'me, determinism.
deug, (s), (-de), virtue, excellence,
probity; (w), (ge-), to be good for,
serve a purpose, be of use.
deug'delik, (-e), solid, valid, durable,
deug'niet, (-e), rascal, good-for-
deug'saam, (. .same, .samer, -Ste),
virtuous, honest.
deuk, (w), (ge-), to dent; (s), (-e),
deun'tjie, (-s), air, tune, ditty.
deur, (vs), through, by, throughout;
(s), (-e), door, gate; (b), passed.
deur'blaai, (-ge-), to turn over leaves
of a book, skim.
deur'blaas, (-ge-), to blow through.
deur'bloeier, (-s), perennial plant.
deur'boor, (-ge-), to drill through.
deurboor', (-), to pierce, stab, trans-
deur'braak, breach, burst, rupture.
deur'breek, (-ge-), to break through.
deur'bring, (-ge-), to pass; spend,
deur'bringer, (-s), spendthrift.
deurdag', (-te), well-thought-out.
deur'dat, because, as.
deurdring', (-), to permeate, pervade,
deur'dring, (-ge-), to penetrate, per-
meate, pierce through.
deurdring'baar, (. .bare), penetrable,
deurdrin'gend, (-e), shrill, penetrating;
deurdron'ge, van, impressed with
fully convinced of.


deur'druk, (-ge-), to press through;
deur'dryf, deur'drywe, (-ge-), to force
through, persist, carry one's point.
deur'-en-deur, thoroughly, out and
deur'entyd, all the time.
deur'gaan, (-ge-), to pass, go through.
deur'gaans, commonly, usually, gener-
deur'gang, (-e), passage.
deur'gestoke, kaart, pre-arranged
deur'glip, (-ge-), to slip through.
deur'gly, (-ge-), to slip through.
deur'graaf, deur'grawe, (-ge-), to
dig through, cut through, tunnel.
deur'grawing, (-e, -s), cutting.
deur'grendel, (-s), door-bolt.
deurgrond', (-), to fathom, penetrate,
deur'haal, (-ge-), to cancel, rule out,
strike out, delete; fetch (pull)
deur'help, (-ge-), to help through.
deur'ja(ag), (-ge-), to rush through;
drive through.
deur'knaag, (-ge-), to gnaw through.
deurkneed', (. .knede), well-read,
steeped in.
deur'knop, (-pe), door-knob.
deur'kom, (-ge-), to get through, pass,
deur'kosyn, (-e), door-frame.
deur'kruip, (-ge-), to creep through.
deurkruis', (-), to traverse, intersect.
deur'kyk, (-ge-), to look over, skim,
peruse; sum up.
deur'aat, (-ge-), to let through, allow
to pass.
deur'l, (-ge-), to become bed-sore.
deurleef', deurle'we, (-), to live
through, go through.
deurlees, (-ge-), to read through,
deurloop, (s), (..lope), arcade; (w),
(-ge-), to move on; walk through;
peruse; punish.
deurlo'pend, (-e), continuous, un-
deurlug'tig, (-e), illustrious.
deur'maak, (-ge-), to go through,
deur'mat, (-te), door-mat.
deurmekaar', (-der, -ste), mixed, in

6 deur'snuffel

confusion; rough and tumble; on
the average; delirious.
deur'nat, wet to the skin, soaked.
deur'opening, (-e, -s), doorway.
deur'paneel, (. .nele), door-panel.
deur'pos, (-te), door-post.
deur'reis, (s), passage; (w), (-ge-), to
travel, pass through.
deurreis', (-), to travel all over.
deur'roer, (-ge-), to stir well.
deur'roes, (-ge-), to corrode.
deur'ry, (-ge-), to pass through; chafe
oneself by riding.
deur'settingsvermoE, persistence, per-
deur'sig, view, perspective; insight,
deursig'tig, (-e), transparent, lucid.
deur'sit, (-ge-), to sit oneself sore;
have one's will, persist; put through
deur'skemer, (-ge-), to glimmer
deur'skeur, (-ge-), to tear asunder.
deur'skiet, (-ge-), to shoot through.
deursko'te, interleaved, interfoliate.
deur'skraap, (-ge-), to scratch out,
deur'skuif, (s), (. .skuiwe), door-bolt;
(w), (-ge-), to push through.
deur'skuur, (-ge-), to rub through.
deur'skyn, (-ge-), to shine through,
show through.
deursky'nend, (-e), transparent, trans-
deur'slaan, (-ge-), to strike (hit)
through; punch.
deur'slag, moist soil, boggy ground;
decisive factor; (..slae), punch.
deur'slaggrond, boggy land.
deur'slagpapier, (-e), carbon paper.
deurslag'tig, (-e), marshy, boggy,
deur'sleep, (-ge-), to drag through.
deur'slot, (-te), door-lock.
deur'sluip, (-ge-), to steal (sneak)
deur'slyt, (-ge-), to wear through.
deur'smokkel, (-ge-), to smuggle
deur'sne(d)e, section; diameter; aver-
age, cross section.
deur'sneeprys, average price.
deur'snuffel, (-ge-), to hunt through
rummage, ransack.

deur'sny 8'

deur'sny, (s), section; diameter; (w),
(-ge-), to cut through, dissect.
deur'soek, (-ge-), to examine, search,
deur'spartel, (-ge-), to struggle through.
deurspek', (-), to interlard.
deur'spoel, (-ge-), to flush, rinse.
deur'spring, (-ge-), to jump through.
deur'staan, (-ge-), deurstaan', (-),
to endure, suffer, bear, stand.
deur'stap, (-ge-), to walk through.
deur'steek, (-ge-), to pierce, make a
hole in, prick.
deur'stoot, (-ge-), to push through.
deur'straal, (-ge-), to shine through.
deurstren'gel, (-), to intertwine.
deur'stroom, (-ge-), to flow through;
crowd through.
deur'stuur, (-ge-), to send through.
deur'styl, (-e), door-post.
deur'sukkel, (-ge-), to struggle through.
deur'syfer, (-ge-), to trickle through.
deur'syg, (-ge-), to filter.
deur'sypel, (-ge-), to ooze through.
deurtas'tend, (-e), energetic, decisive,
resolute, vigorous, thorough.
deurtin'tel, (-), to thrill.
deur'tog, passage; march through.
deurtrap', (-te), sly, crafty, cunning.
deurtrek', (-), to pervade, permeate,
deur'trek, (-ge-), to pass through,
pull through.
deur'trekker, (-s), spendthrift; pull.
through; loin-cloth (Kaffir).
deurtril', (-), to thrill.
deur'vaar, (-ge-), to sail through.
deur'vleg, (-ge-), to intertwine, inter-
deur'vlleg, (-ge-), to fly through.
deurvoed', (-e), well-fed.
deur'voer, (-ge-), to carry out, follow
deur'voerhandel, transit trade.
deur'voerreg, (-te), transit duty.
deur'vreet, (-ge-), to eat through
deur'vryf, deur'vrywe, (-ge-), to rut
-through, rub sore.
deur'waad, (-ge-), to ford, wadt
deurwaad'baar, (. .bare), fordable.
deur'waai, (-ge-), to blow through.
deur'waarder, (-s), janitor, door
keeper, porter.

7 diefag'tig

deur'wandel, (-ge-), to ramble through.
deurweek', (-), to soak, moisten.
deur'werk, (-ge-), to work through,
mix; -interlace.
deur'worstel, (-ge-), to struggle
deurwrog', (-te), elaborate, studied,
deus'kant, on this side of.
devalueer', (ge-), to devaluate, de-
devices (-e), motto, device.
devie'se, foreign bills.
devoot', (. .vote, .voter, -ste), de-
devo'sie, devotion.
dewyl', because, since, as.
dextri'ne, see dekstrien.
diabetes, diabetes.
diabolies, (-e), diabolic(al).
diadeem', (. .dente), diadem.
diagno'se, (-s), diagnosis.
diagnoseer', (ge-, -), to diagnose.
diagonaal', (. .nale), diagonal.
diagram', (-me), diagram. *
dia'ken, (-s), deacon.
dia'kenskap, deaconship.
diakones', (-se), deaconess.
diakones'sehuis, (-e), deaconesses'
home, nursing home.
diakonie', (-e), parochial charity.
dialek', (-te), dialect.
dialektiek', dialectics.
dialek'ties, (-e), dialectic(al).
dialoog', (. .loe), dialogue.
diamant', (-e), diamond.
diamant'handel, diamond trade.
diamant'koper, (-s), diamond buyer.
diamant'myn, (-e), diamond mine.
diamant'slyper, (-s), diamond cutter.
diamant'slypery, (-e), diamond polish-
ing (cutting) works.
Diamant'veld, Diamond Field.
diameter, (-s), diameter.
diarree', diarrhoea.
,didac'ticus, (. .ci), see didaktikus.
didaktiek', didactics.
didak'ties, (-e), didactic.
didak'tikus, (-se), didactic (writer).
die, the.
di6, (vw), this; these.
die'derik, (-e, -s), golden cuckoo.
diett, (diet), diet.
dief, (diewe), thief.
diefag'tig, (-e), thievish, larcenous.

dief'stal, (-le), robbery, larceny. dler'baar, (..bare, -der, -ste), dear
die'gene, he, she; that one, those, beloved.
dien, (ge-), to serve, wait on, attend, dier'bare, (-s), loved one, beloved.
suit. die'rebeskerming, animal protection.
die'naar, (-s, .nare), servant, valet. die're-epos, (-se), animal epic.
dienares', (-se), servant (female). die'refabel, (-s), animal fable.
dien'der, (-s), policeman, constable, die'reriem, zodiac.
dienlik, (-e, -er, -ste), serviceable, die'reryk, animal kingdom.
dien'ooreenkomstig, accordingly. die'restorie, (-s), animal story.
diens, (-te), service; function, duty. die'retuin, (-e), zoological "gardens,
diens'baar, (..bare), serviceable, sub- zoo.
servient, menial. die'reversameling, (-e, -s), menagerie.
diens'baarheid, serviceableness; ,ser- die'rewereld, animal world.
virude, thraldom. dier'kunde, zoology.
diens'bataljon, (-s), service battalion. dier'kundig, (-e), zoological.
diens'bode, (-s), servant, domestic. dier'kundige, (-s), zoologist.
diens'brief, (..briewe), official letter, dierlik, (-e), animal, bestial, brutal,
minute. carnal.
diens'doende, on duty, acting, officiat- dier'soort, (-e), species of animal.
ing. dieself'de, the same.
diens'jaar, (. .are), official year, year dies'man, (-ne), white man.
of service. diesul'ke, such.
dlens'kneg, (-te), servant, servant- dietetiek', dietetics.
man, domestic. Diets, (-e), Middle Dutch; Dutch
diens'maag, (-de), maid-servant, including Flemish and Afrikaans.
diens'meisie, (-s), servant-girl. diets'maak, (-ge-), to make believe.
diens'plig, compulsory (military) ser- die'webende, (-s), gang (pack) of
vice, conscription. thieves.
diens'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), serviceable, die'wery, (-e), theft.
useful. die'wesleutel, (-s), pick-lock, skeleton-
diens'tigheld, usefulness, key.
diens'tyd, (..tye), term of office, die'westreek, (..streke), thief's trick.
duration of service. die'wetaal, thieves' Latin, argot.
diensvaar'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), obliging. differensiaal', (. .ale), differential.
diens'weieraar, (-s), conscientious ob- differensiaal'rekening, differential cal-
jector. culus.
dienswillig, (-e, -er, -ste), assiduous, differensieer', (ge-, -), to differenci-
ready to serve; obedient, ate.
dien'tengevolge, accordingly. different', (-e), different.
diep, (-er, -ste), deep, profound. diffrak'sie, diffraction.
diep'bord, (-e), soup-plate. difterie', diphtheria.
diep'gaande, profound, deep, thor- dif'tong, (-e), diphthong.
ough. dig, (w), (ge-), to write poetry, com-
dlep'gang, (depth of) draught. pose, versify; (b), (-te, -ter, -ste),
dieplood, (. .lode), sounding (deep tight; close, near; dense, compact.
sea) lead. dig'by, dig'teby, (digterby, digsteby),
diepsin'nig, (-e, -er, -ste), profound, nearby, close.
abstruse. diges'tie, digestion.
diepsin'nigheid, profoundness, pro- dig'kuns, poetry, poetic art.
fuAdity. dig'maat, (..mate), metre, poetic
diep'te, (-s), depth, profundity. measure.
dignita'ris, (-se), dignitary.
diep'tebom, (-me), depth-charge. dig'stuk, (-ke), poem.
dier, (-e), animal, brute. dig'teby, (digterby, digsteby), nearby,
diera'sie, (-s), vixen, (she) devil, close.



dig'ter 8

dig'ter, (-s), poet.
digteres', (-se), poetess.
dig'terlik, (-e, -er, -ste), poetic(al).
digt'heid, density, denseness.
dik, (-ker, -ste), thick, bulky, stout,
corpulent; satiated.
dik'beksysie, (-s), white-throated seed-
dik'derm, colon, large intestine.
dik'kop, (-pe), thick-head; stone-
plover; form of horse-sickness.
diklip, thick-lipped; sulky.
dik'melk, curdled milk.
dik'sak, (-ke), stout person, fatty.
dik'sie, diction.
diksioner', (-s), dictionary.
*diktaat', (. .tate), professor's notes.
diktafoon', (-s), dictaphone.
dikta'tor, (-s), dictator.
diktatoriaal', ( .iale), dictatorial.
diktatuur', ( .ture), dictatorship.
dik'te, (-s), thickness, swollenness.
diktee', (-s), dictation.
dikteer', (ge-, -), to dictate.
dikteer'masjien, (-e), dictaphone.
dik'wels, often, frequently.
dilemma, (-s), dilemma, puzzle.
dilettant', (-e), dilettante, amateur.
dilettan'ties, (-e), dilettante, ama-
dilettantis'me, dilettantism.
dimen'sie, (-s), dimension.
diminutief', (. .tiewe), diminutive.
'dina'mies, (-e), dynamic.
dinamiet', dynamite.
dinamiet'fabriek, (-e), dynamite fac-
dinamiet'man, (-ne), dynamiter, dyna.
dinamiet'patroon, (. .trone), dyna.
mite cartridge.
dina'mika, dynamics.
dina'mo, (-'s), dynamo.
dinastie', (-e), dynasty.
dinee', (-s), dinner.
dineer', (ge-, -), to dine.
ding, (s), (-e), thing, object, affair,
matter; (w), (ge-), to try for, com-
Dingaans'dag, Dingaan's Day.
din'ges, what-do-you-call-it.
dink, (ge-), to think, consider, ponder.
Dins'dag, (. .dae), Tuesday.
dioksied', (-e), dioxide.

9 diesel

dip, (w), (ge-), to dip; (s), (-pe),
dip'bak, (-ke), dipping-tank.
diphtheri'tis, diphtheria.
dip'kraal, (. .krale), dipping-pen.
diplo'ma, (-s), diploma, certificate.
diplomatt, (. .mate), diplomat, diplo-
diplomasie', diplomacy.
diplomatiek', (-e-), diplomatic.
diploma'ties, (-e), diplomatic.
direk', (b), (-te), direct, straight;
(bw), straight away, at once.
direk'sie, (-s), direction, management,
managing board.
direkteur', (-e, -s), director, manager.
direktri'se, (-s), directress, manageress.
dirigeer', (ge-, -), to conduct (music).
dirigeer'stok, (-ke), baton, con-
ductor's stick.
dirigent', (-e), (music), conductor,
dis, it is; (s), (-se), table.
disenterie', dysentery.
dis'genoot, (. .note), fellow-guest.
disharmonie', disharmony, discord.
disharmo'nies, (-e), unharmonious,
diskant', treble, descant.
diskoers', discourse.
diskonteer', (ge-, -), to discount.
diskon'to, discount.
dis'krediet, discredit.
diskreet', ( .krete), discreet.
diskre'sie, discretion.
dis'kus, (-se), disc(us).
diskusseer', (ge-, -), to discuss."
diskus'sie, (-a), discussion, argument.
diskuteer', (ge-, -), to discuss,
dis'kwalifikasie, (-s), disqualification.
diskwalifiseer', (ge-, -), to disqualify.
disnis', loop, to beat thoroughly,
dis'orde, disorder.
dispens', (-e), pantry; see spens.
dispensa'sie, dispensation, special
disponi'bel, available, at disposal.
disposi'sie, disposition.
disputa'sie, (-s), disputation, dispute.
disputeer', (ge-, -), to dispute.
dispuut', (..pute), dispute, con-
troversy, argument.
dis'sel, (-s), adze.


dis'selboom, (..bome), shaft, thill,
disserta'sie, (-s), dissertation, thesis.
dissi'pel, (-s), disciple.
dissipli'ne, discipline.
dissiplineer', (ge-, -), to discipline.
dissipliner', (-e), disciplinary.
dissonant', (-e), discord; discordant
dissosia'sie, dissociation.
dissosieer', (ge-, -), to dissociate.
distan'sie, (-s), distance.
dis'tel, (-s), thistle.
distilla'sie, distillation.
distilleer', (ge-, -), to distil.
distink'sie, distinction.
distribueer', (ge-, -), to distribute.
distribueer'der, (-s), distributor.
distribu'sie, distribution.
distrik', (-te), district.
distriks'bestuur, (. .sture), district
distriks'dokter, (-s), district surgeon.
dit, this, it.
dit(t)o, do, ditto.
divaga'sie, (-s), divagation.
divan', (-s), divan, sofa, ottoman.
diverse, sundries; incidental expenses.
dividend', (-e), dividend.
divi'sie, (-s), division.
dob'bel, (ge-), to gamble, play at
dob'belaar, (-s), gambler.
dobbelary', gambling.
dob'belsteen, (. .stene), die, cube.
dob'ber, (w), (ge-), to bob up and
down, float, fluctuate; (s), (-s),
float, buoy.
doctoran'dus, (..di), see doktor-
do'de, (-s), the dead, the deceased.
do'de-akker, (-s), cemetery, grave-
do'dedans, (-e), death dance.
do'delik, (-e, -er, -ste), deadly, mortal,
do'deryk, realm of death.
doea'ne, (-s), custom house, customs.
doea'ne-amptenaar, (. .nare), customs
doea'nebeampte, (-s), customs officer.
doea'nekantoor, custom house.
doea'neregte, customs dues.
doebleer', (ge-, -), to double.
doeblet', (-te), doublet.

doe'del, (ge-), to play the bagpipe.
doe'delsak, (-ke), bagpipe.
doe'doe, (ge-), to sing to sleep, sleep.
doek, (-e), cloth; napkin; canvas,
doe'kie, nie -s omdraai nie, not to
mince matters.
doel, (s), (-eindes), purpose, aim, ob-
ject; (-e), goal; (w), (ge-), to aim at.
doel'einde, (-s), purpose, end, aim,
doel'oos, (. .lose, .loser, -ste), aim-
less, useless.
doelloosheid, aimlessness, uselessness.
doellyn, (-e), goal-line.
doelma'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), efficacious,
efficient, appropriate.
doelma'tigheid, efficacy, adequacy.
doel'paal, (. .pale), goal-post.
doel'punt, (-e), aim, goal.
doel'skop, (-pe), goal-kick.
doeltref'fend, (-e, -er, -ste), effective,
efficient, effectual.
doeltref'fendheid, effectiveness, effi-
cacy, efficiency.
doel'wagter, (-s), goal-keeper.
doel'wit, (-te), aim, view, goal.
doem, (ge-), to doom, condemn.
doemdoem'pie, (-s), small variety of
doem'vonnis, (-se), doom, condemna-
doemwaar'dig, (-e), damnable.
doen, (ge-), to do, make, effect, per-
doe'nigheid, activity, doings.
doenlik, (-e), feasible, practical.
doe'pa, love potion, charm.
doerian', durian.
doe'rias, printed muslin.
doe'sel, (ge-), to doze, nap.
doe'selig, (-e), drowsy, dreamy.
dof, (dowwe, dowwer, -ste), dull,
faint, dim, indistinct, lack-lustre.
dof'heid, dullness, dimness.
dog, yet, but, still, however.
dog'ma, (-s), dogma.
dogma'ticus, (. .ci), see dogmatikus.
dogmatiek', dogmatics.
dogma'ties, (-e), dogmatic(al).
dogma'tikus, (-se), dogmatist.
dogmatiseer', (ge-, -), to dogmatise.
dog'ter, (-s), daughter; girl.
doilie, (-s), doily.
dok, (-ke), dock.

dok'geld E

dok'geld, dock dues.
dok'kies hou, to hold the knuckles for
another to shoot against with a
marble. -
dok'ter, (s), (-s), doctor, physician;
(w), (ge-), to doctor, nurse; correct
(for publication).
dok'tersboek, (-e), medical book.
dok'tor, (-e, -s), doctor (in literature,
law, etc.).
doktoraal', (. .rale), doctorial.
doktoraal'eksamen, examination for
degree of doctor.
doktoraat', (. .rate), doctorate.
doktoran'dus, (-se), candidate for the
doctor's degree (no dissertation yet
dok'torsgraad, (. .grade), doctor's de-
doktriner', (-e), doctrinaire.
document', (-e), document.
dokumenteer', (ge-, -), to give
documentary proof, document.
dokument&r', (-e), documentary.
dok'werker, (-s), dock-labourer.
dol, (-ler, -ste), mad, crazy, frantic,
dolean'sie, doleance.
dolf, see dolwe.
dolfyn', (-e), dolphin.
dol'graag, ever so much, with the
greatest pleasure, love to.
dol'heid, madness, foolishness.
dol'huis, (-e), lunatic asylum, bedlam.
dolk, (-e), dagger, poniard.
dolk'steek, (..steke), stab with a
dollar, (-s), dollar.
dolleeg, (..lee), absolutely empty.
dolomiet', dolomite.
dol'os, (-se), ball of ankle-Joint,
astragulus, knuckle-bone.
dol'osgooier, (-s), Kaffir witch-doctor.
dolsin'nig, (-e, -er, -ste), rash, head-
dolsin'nigheid, rashness.
dol'we, (ge-), to dig very deep.
dol'wevoor, (..vore), deeply trenched
dom, (s), (-me), cathedral; (b), (-mer,
-ste), stupid, fatuous, dull.
domastrant', (-e, -er, -ste), impudent,
domein', (-e), domain, crown land,

1 dons'agtlg

dom'heid, stupidity, dullness.
domici'lium, (. .lia), see domisilie.
dominant', (-e), dominant.
do'minee, (-s), clergyman, minister,
domineer', (ge-, -), to predominate,
Dominika'ner, (-s), Dominican.
Dominika'nermonnik, (-e), Dominican
domi'nium, (-s), dominium.
do'mino, (-'s), domino.
domisilie, (-8, -s), domicile, home,
dom'kerk, (-e), cathedral.
dom'kop, (-pe), blockhead, stupid,
dom'krag, (-te), jack-screw, jack.
dom'mel, (ge-), to doze, drowse, be
half asleep.
dom'merik, (-e), stupid, dud.
dom'migheid, stupidity.
dom'oor, (. .ore), dunce, blockhead.
dom'pel, (ge-), to plunge, dive, dip,
dom'per, (-s), extinguisher, quencher.
dom'toring, (-s), cathedral tower.
dona'sie, (-s), donation.
donateur', (-s), contributor, patron;
don'Aer, (s), (-s), thunder; (w), (ge-),
to thunder, boom, fulminate.
don'derbui, (-e), thunderstorm.
Don'derdag, (. .dae), Thursday.
don'derknal, (-le), thunder-clap.
don'derpadda, (-s), bull-frog.
don'derslag, (. .slae), thunder-clap.
don'derstorm, (-s), thunderstorm.
don'derweer, thundery weather.
don'derwolk, (-e), thunder-cloud.
don'ga, (-s), donga, gully.
don'ker, (s), darkness; (b), (-der, -ste),
dark, dusky, deep, gloomy, obscure.
don'kerblou, dark-blue.
don'kerbruin, dark-brown, bay-brown.
don'kergeel, dark-yellow.
don'kergroen, dark-green.
don'kergrys, dark-grey.
don'kerheid, darkness, obscurity.
don'kerpers, dark-mauve.
don'kerrooi, dark-red.
don'kerte, darkness.
don'kle, (-s), donkey,-ass.
dons, (-e), down, fluff.
dons'agtig, don'serig, don'sig, (-e),
fluffy, downy.

dons'hael, fine shot. doods'angs, agony, mortal fear.
dons'kombers, (-e), eider-down quilt. doods'beendere, dead-man's bones.
dood, (s), death, decease; (b), (dooie), doods'berig, (*te), death-notice.
.dead, deceased, defunct; (w), (ge-), doods'bleek, (..bleke), ghastly,
to kill. (deadly) pale, livid.
dood'arm, extremely poor, indigent, doods'engel, angel of death.
dood'bedaard, (-e), very calm. doods'gevaar, peril of death.
dood'benoud, (-e), in deadly fear. doods'gewaad, (..wade), shroud.
dood'berig, (-te), death-notice. doods'heid, desolateness, dreariness,
dood'blaas, (-ge-), to extinguish, deadness-
dood'bloei, (-ge-), to bleed to death. doods'hemp, (..hemde), shroud, wind-
dood'boek, (-e), book of death. ing sheet.
dood'brand, (-ge-), to burn to death; dood'siek, dangerously ill.
cauterise, dood'skaam, (w), (-ge-), to be very
dood'byt, (-ge-), to bite to death, shy; (b), very shy.
dood'doener, (-s), knock-out argu- dood'skiet, (-ge-), to shoot dead.
ment. doods'kleed, (. .klede), shroud.
dood'druk, (-ge-), to squeeze to death, doods'klere, death-clothes.
squash, silence. doods'kleur, death-colour.
dood'eenvoudig, (-e), quite simple, doods'klok, (-ke), death-bell, knell.
plain sailing. dood'skop, (-ge-), to kick to death.
dood'eerlik, (-e), quite honest. doods'kop, (-pe), death's head, skulL
dood'gaan, (-ge-), to die. dood'skrik, (-ge-), to be frightened to
dood'gebore, still-born, death.
dood'gerus, (-te), perfectly calm, quite dood'slaan, (-ge-), to beat to death,
unconcerned, kill, slay.
dood'gewoon, (..wone), very simple, dood'slaap, sleep to death.
ever so common. dood'slag, manslaughter, homicide.
dood'goed, (. .goeie), very kind. dood'snik, (-ke), last gasp.
dood'gooi, (-ge-), to kill by throwing. doods'nood, imminent danger.
dood'grawer, (-s), grave-digger. dood'sonde, (-s), deadly sin.
dood'honger, (-ge-), to starve to dood'steek, (s), (..steke), death-blow,
death, coup de grace; (w), (-ge-), to stab
dood'kis, (-te), coffin, to death.
doodlag, (-ge-), to-split one's sides dood'stil, very quiet, still as a mouse.
with laughter. dood'straf, capital punishment.
dood'laken, (-s), winding sheet. dood'stryd, death struggle, last agony.
dood'1, (-ge-), to overlie; kill by doods'vyand, (-e), mortal enemy.
lying on. dood'swak, extremely weak.
doodloop, (-ge-), to tire oneself out dood'sweet, cold sweat of death.
with walking, have a dead end. dood'swyg, (-ge-), to ignore.
doodluiters, doodluters, free and dood'tevrede, quite content.
easy, with innocent face. dood'trap, (-ge-), to trample to death.
dood'maak, (-ge-), to kill. dood'val, (-ge-), to fall down dead.
dood'mak, quite tame. dood'verwonderd, (-e), quite aston-
dood'maklik, (-e), dead easy. ished.
dood'martel, (-ge-), to torture to dood'voel, (-s), barn-owl, screech-ow
death. dood'vonnis, (-se), death sentence.
dood'moeg, (. .moei), dead-beat, tired dood'werk, (-ge-), to work to death;
to death. overwork oneself.
dood'ongelukkig, (-e), utterly miser doof, (w), (ge-), to extinguish, put out;
dood'onskuldig, (-e), quite innocent. (b), (dowe, dower, -ste), deaf.
dood'ry, (-ge-), to ride to death. doof'heid, deafness.
doods, (-e), desolate, dreary, deathlike, doof'stom, deaf-mute, deaf and dumb.



doof'stominrigting i

doof'stominrigting, (-s), deaf and
dumb asylum.
doof'stominstituut, (..tute), deaf and
dumb institute.
doof'stomme, (-s), deaf-mute.
dooi, (ge-), to thaw.
doot'e, (-s), the dead, the deceased.
dooi'er, (-s), yolk (of egg).
dooi'erig, (-e, -er, -ste), lifeless, listless,
dooi'erigheid, lifelessness.
dooi'(e)mansdeur, voor kom, to
talk to the deaf, solicit in vain.
dool, (ge-), to wander, roam.
doolhof, (. .howe), maze, labyrinth.
dool'weg, (. .wee), wrong way.
doop, (s), christening, baptism; (w),
(ge-), to christen, baptise.
doop'bak, (-ke), baptismal font.
doop'boek, (-e), register of baptism.
doop'dag, (..dae), christening day.
doop'gelofte, (-s), baptismal vow.
doop'klere, christening robes.
doop'naam,.(. .name), Christian name.
doop'plegtigheid, (..hede), christen-
ing ceremony.
doop'register, (-s), church register.
doop'seel, (-s), baptismal certificate.
doops'formulier, (-e), baptismal for-
Doops'gesind, Baptist.
doops'getuie, (-s), godparent.
doop'vont, (-e), baptismal font, bap.
doop'water, baptism water.
door, (dore), yolk (of egg).
doos, (dose), box, case.
dop, (s), (-pe), shell, peel, husk;
drink; (w), (ge-), to shell, peel;
dop'emmer, (-s), small pail for milking.
dop'ertjie, (-s), green pea.
dop'hou, (-ge-), to keep an eye on;
keep the pail (milking).
(-s), nickname for a member
of the seceded Dutch Reformed
Church, Boer conservative.
dop'peragtig, (-e, -er, -ste), conser-
dop'pie, (-s), percussion cap; shell;
dor, ([-re], -der, -ste), dry, barren,
withered, arid.
dor'hbed, dryness, barrenness, aridity.
do'ring, (-s), thorn, prickle, spine.


doringag'tig, (-e), thorny, spinous.
do'ringboom, (. .bome), mimosa,
do'ringdraad, (..drade), barbed wire.
do'ringkroon, (..krone), crown of
dorp, (-e), village, town.
dor'peling, (-e), dor'penaar, (-s,
.nare), villager.
dorps'bewoner, (-s), villager.
dorps'gas, (-te), townsman, villager.
dorps'grond, (-e), village ground,
dorp'skool, (..skole), village school
town school.
dorpslewe, village life, town life.
dors, (s), thirst; (b), thirsty; (w),
(ge-), to thresh; thirst.
Dors'land, Thirstland (waterless region
in Bechuanaland).
dors'masjien, (-e), threshing machine.
dor'stig, (-e), thirsty.
dors'trek, (-ke), journey through
waterless regions.
dors'tyd, threshing time.
dors'vleel, (-s), flail.
dors'vloer, (-e), threshing floor.
dor'telappeltjie, (-s), apple of Sodom.
dos, (w), (ge-), to attire, deck out;
(s), attire, array, raiment.
doseer', (ge-, -), to teach, lecture.
dosent', (-e), teacher, lecturer.
do'sie, (-s), little box.
do'sis, (-se), dose.
dossier', (-s), dossier.
dosyn', (-e), dozen.
dot'jie, (-s), little dear; dot; soft-
brimmed hat.
dou, (s), dew; (w), (ge-), to dew.
dou'druppel, (-s), dew-drop.
dou'punt, dew-point.
dou'voordag, very early in the morning
dou'wurm, ringworm.
do'werig, (-e), somewhat deaf.
dra(ag), dra'e, (ge-), to carry, wear
bear; poise; suppurate (wound).
draad, (drade), wire, thread, fibre;
grain; filament; fence.
draad'berig, (-te), telegram, wire.
draad'borsel, (-s), wire brush.
draad'heining, (-s), wire fence.
draad'knipper, (-s), wire-clippers.
draadloos, (. .lose), wireless.
draadloosstasie, (-s), broadcasting


draad'sitter, (-s), one who sits on the
draad'tang, (-e), wire-pliers.
draad'trekker, (-s), wire-puller.
draad'trekkery, wire-pulling; intrigue.
draad'werk, wire-grate, filigree work;
draag'baar, (s), (..bare), bier, litter;
stretcher; (b), (. .bare, -der, -ste),
portable, wearable; bearable.
draag'hout, (-e), cross-bar (foreshaft
of a cart).
draag'krag, bearing power; working
load; carrying capacity.
draaglik, (-e, -er, -ste), bearable,
draag'riem, (-e), strap (for the cross.
draag'stoel, (-e), sedan chair.
draag'wydte, range; import.
draai', (s), (.e), turn, twist; corner,
bend; (w), (ge-), to turn; writhe;
revolve, twist, wind; tarry, linger.
draal'bank, (-e), lathe.
draai'brug, (-ge, .brfie), swing
(swivel) bridge.
draai'erig, (-e, -er, -ste), lingering,
draai'hek, (-ke), turnstile.
draai'jakkals, (-e), long-eared fox,
silver iackal.
draai'kolk, (-e), whirlpool.
draai'kous, (-e), loiterer, slow-coach.
draailamp, (-e), spot-light, swivel-
draai'orrel, (-s), barrel-organ.
draai'spil, (-le), pivot.
draal'stoel, (-e), revolving chair.
draai'tol, (-le), spinning top.
draai'werk, turnery.
draai'wind, (-e), whirlwind.
draak, (drake), dragon.
draal, (ge-), to tarry, linger, dawdle.
dra'bok, darnel, rye grass.
dra'derig, (-e, -er, -ste), fibrous,
dra'er, (-s), carrier, bearer.
draf, (s), trot; (w), (ge-), to trot.
drag, (-te), load, burden; dress,
fashion; crop; litter.
drag'me, (-s), dram; drachma.
dragon'der, (-s), dragoon.
drag'tig, (-e), pregnant, with young.
drama, (-s), drama.
dra'maskrywer, (-s), dramatist.

14 drie'nig

dramatlek', dramatic art.
drama'ties, (-e), dramatic.
dramatiseer', (ge-, -), to dramatise.
dramatise'ring, dramatisation.
dramaturg', (-e), dramatist.
dramaturgie', dramaturgy.
drang, (-e), urgency, pressure.
drank', (-e), drink, liquor, beverage,
drank'bestryding, temperance move-
drank'duiwel, (-s), drink-demon.
drank'handel, liquor trade.
drank'offer, (-s), libation.
drank'verbod, prohibition.
drank'verkoop, liquor traffic.
drank'wet, (-te), liquor law.
drapeer', (ge-, -), to drape.
draperie', (-i), drapery.
dras'sig, (-e), marshy, swampy, boggy
dras'ties, (-e), drastic.
dra'wer, draw'wer, (-s), trotter.
dra'wertjie, draw'wertjie, (-s), trotter;
courser (bird).
draw'we, (ge-), to trot.
dreef, op help, to set going.
dreig, (ge-), to threaten, menace.
dreigement', (-e), threat, menace.
drei'gend, (-e), threatening, imminent,
drein, (ge-), to whine, worry, whimper
dreineer', (ge-, -), to drain.
dreineer'put, (-te), French drain.
dreine'ring, drainage.
drek, muck, dirt, dung.
drel, (-le), indecent woman.
drem'pel, (-s), threshold.
drenk, (ge-), to drench, soak; allow
to drink.
dren'keling, (-e), drowned (drowning)
dren'tel, (ge-), to loiter, saunter.
dresseer', (ge-, -), to train, coach.
dressuur', training, coaching.
dreun, (s), rumble, roar, thud, shock;
(w), (ge-), to rumble, roar, roll,
dreu'ning, (-s), rumble, roar.
drib'bel, (ge-), to dribble.
drie, (-A), three; try.
drie'dekker, (-s), three-decker, tri-
Drieeen'heid, trinity.
driee'nig, (-e), triune.

drie'rlel, of three kinds.
drie'hoek, (-e), triangle.
drie'hoekig, (-e), triangular.
drie'hoeksmeting, trigonometry.
drie'jarig, (-e), of three years.
drie'kantig, (-e), three-sided, trilateral.
drie'klank, (-e), triphthong.
drie'kleur, tricolour.
drie'kwart, (-e), three-fourths; three-
drielettergrepig, (-e), trisyllabic.
drieling, (-e), triplets.
drie'maal, three times, thrice.
drie'maandeliks, (-e), quarterly.
drie'manskap, triumvirate.
drie'master, (-s), three-master.
drie'sprong, (-e), junction of three
driest'heid, rashness, boldness, daring.
drie'stemmig, (-e), for three voices, in
three parts.
drie'sydig, (-e), three-sided, trilateral.
drie'voet, (-e), tripod, trivet.
drie'voudig, (-e), threefold, triple.
drie'wieler, (-s), tricycle.
drif, (-te), anger, hot temper, passion;
(driwwe), ford.
drif'kop, (-pe), hothead, spitfire.
drif'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), passionate,
hasty, irascible, quick-tempered.
drif'tigheid, irascibility, passionateness.
dril, (ge-), to bore; drill, exercise,
train, coach.
dril'meester, (-s), drill-sergeant; coach.
during, (ge-), to press, urge, throng,
drin'gend, (-e, -er, -ste), urgent,
drink, (ge-), to drink.
drink'baar, (. .bare), drinkable, pot-
able. '
drink'bak, (-ke), watering trough.
drink'beker, (-s), goblet, beaker.
drinklied, (-ere), drinking song.
drink'party, (-e), drinking party.
drink'water, drinking water.
dro'e, (ge-), to dry, make dry.
droe'draskruid, medicinal herb (Phar-
naceum lineare).
droef, (droewe), sad, dejected.
droefgees'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), melan-
choly, dejected, gloomy.
droefgees'tigheid, melancholy, gloomi-
droef'heid, sadness, dejectedness.


5 druip'kelder

droe'f(e)nis, sadness, sorrow, affliction.
dro'ekoekie, (-s), biscuit.
dro'6land, (-e), dry-land.
dro'elandboerdery, dry-land farming.
dro'eperske, (-s), dried peach.
does, glanders, strangles.
droe'sem, dregs, sediment, lees.
droe'wig, (-e, -er, -ste), sad, dismal,
gloomy, sorrowful.
drogis', (-te), druggist.
drog'rede, (-s), sophism, fallacy, false
drog'redenaar, (-s), sophist.
drom, (-me), troop, crowd, throng.
dromeda'ris, (-se), dromedary.
dro'merig, (-e, -er, -ste), dreamy.
drom'mel, (-s), deuce, devil; wretch.
drom'mels, (-e), confounded, darned.
dronk, (s), (-e), draught, drink; (b),
(-er, -ste), drunkenn, intoxicated.
dronk'aard, (-s), drunkard, inebriate.
dron'kenskap, drunkenness, inebriety.
dronk'lap, (-pe), drunkard, inebriate.
dronk'slaan, (-ge-), to flabbergast,
beat one's apprehension.
droog, (b), (droe, droer, -ste), dry,
parched, arid; (w), (ge-), see
droog'dok, (-ke), dry (graving) dock.
droog'komiek, (-e), droll, humourist.
droog'te, (-s), drought, dryness.
droog'voets, dry-shod.
room, (drome), (s), dream; (w),
(ge-), to dream.
droom'beeld, (-e), illusion, chimera.
droom'boek, (-e), dream-book.
droom'gesig, (-te), vision.
droomland, dream-land.
droom'uitler, (-s), interpreter of
drop, liquorice.
dros, (ge-), to run away, abscond,
drosdy', (-e), magistrate's residence,
dros'ter, (-s), runaway, absconderr,
drut'de, (-s), druid.
druif, (druiwe), grape.
druip, (ge-), to drip, trickle, fall in
drops; fail (in examination).
drui'peling, (-e), failure (in examina-
drui'per, gonorrhoea.
druip'kelder, (-s), stalactite cave.

druip'nat I

drulp'nat, dripping wet, soaked.
druip'steen, stalactite, stalagmite.
druip'stert, sneaking.
druis, (ge-), to roar, swirl.
drui'wekonfyt, grape-jam.
drui'wemandjie, (-s), grape-basket.
drui'we-oes, grape-harvest, vintage.
drui'wepers, (-e), wine-press.
drui'weprieel, (. .priele), vine-bower.
drui'wesap, grape-juice, wine.
drul'westok, (-ke), vine.
drui'wetros, (-se), bunch of grapes.
druk, (s), pressure, weight; print;
(-ke), edition; (b), (-ker, -ste),
busy, fussy, lively; (w), (ge-), to
press, print; squeeze; push.
druk'fout, (-e), printer's error; er-
druk'gang, (-e), crush.
druk'kend, (-e, -er, -ste), oppressive,
heavy, onerous.
druk'ker, (-s), printer.
druk'kersduiwel, printer's devil.
druk'kery, (-e), printing works.
druk'king, pressure, weight.
druk'koste, printing expenses.
druk'kuns, typography.
drukletter, (-s), type.
druk'pers, (-e), printing press.
druk'proef, (. .proewe), proof-sheet,
printer's proof.
druk'skeur, (-e), pressure burst.
druk'skrif, typescript, print.
druk'te, stir, bustle, fuss, ado.
druk'vorm, (-s), printing form.
druk'werk, printing, printed matter;
drum'pel, (-s), threshold.
drup, (s), eaves; (w), (ge-), to drip,
drup'pel, (-s), drop.
drup'pelsgewys(e), by drops.
dryf, (ge-), to float, swim; impel,
drive; conduct.
dryf'krag, motive power, force.
dryf'sand, drift sand, quicksand.
dryf'veer, (. .vere), motive.
dry'we, (ge-), see dryf.
dry'wer, (-s), driver, wagon driver;
dualis', (-te), dualist.
dualis'me, dualism.
dualis'ties, (-e), dualistic.
dub'be'bed, (-de, -dens), double bed.
dub'bel-boekhou, double entry system.

96 dui'seline

dub'bel(d), (-de), double; twice.
dub'bel(e)door, (. .dore), double-
yolked egg,
dub'belganger, (-s), double, second
dubbelhar'tig, (-e, -er, -ste), false
double-minded, hypocritical.
dub'belkantig, (-e). reversible.
dub'belloop, (..lope), double-barrel-
(led gun).
dub'belmediumskool, (. .skole),
double medium school.
dub'belpunt, (-e), colon.
dubbelsin'nig, (-e, -er, -ste), am-
biguous; obscene.
dubbelsin'nigheid, ambiguity; ob-
dub'belspoor, double track.
dub'beltjie, (-s), penny; devil's thorn
(Emex australis).
dubious', (-e), dubious, doubtful.
du'bio, doubt.
duel', (-le), duel.
duelleer', (ge-, -), to fight a duel.
duet', (-te), duet.
duffel, duffle (duffel).
dug, (ge-), to dread, fear, apprehend.
dug'tig, (-e), thorough, fearful.
dui'delik, (-e, -er, -ste), dear, distinct,
obvious; legible.
dui'delikheid, clearness, distinctness.
duif, (duiwe), pigeon, dove.
duig, (duie), stave; in duie val, to
fall through, miscarry (plan).
duik, (s), (-e), dent; (w), (ge-), to
dive, plunge; dent.
duik'bomwerper, (-s), dive bomber.
duik'boot, (. .bote), submarine, u-boat.
duik'bootbasis, (-se), submarine base.
dui'ker, (-s), diver; duiker (antelope);
cormorant (bird).
duikplank, (-e), spring-board.
dulk'weg, (. .wee), subway.
duim, (-e), thumb; inch.
duim'pie, (-s), little thumb.
duim'spyker, (-s), drawing-pin.
duim'stok, (-ke), inch measure, foot-
duin, (-e), dune.
duin'mol, (-Ie), sand-mole.
duin'tjie, see deuntjie.
dui'sel, (ge-), to grow giddy (dizzy)
dui'selig, (-e), giddy, dizzy.
dui'seling, giddiness, dizziness.

duiselingwek'kend 9'i

duiselingwek'kend, (-e), making giddy.
dui'send, (-e), thousand.
dui'sendjarig, (-e), millennial.
dui'sendpoot, (. .pote), millipede.
dul'sendskoon, sweet-william, amar-
dui'sendste, (-s), thousandth.
dul'sendtal, a thousand.
dui'sendvoud, thousandfold.
dui'sendvoudig, (-e), thousandfold.
duis'man, (-ne), white man.
duis'ter, (s), darknesss; (b), (-der,
-ste), dark, obscure, dusky.
duis'terheid, darkness, obscurity.
duis'ternis, darknesss, obscurity;
crowd, large number.
duit, (-e), farthing.
Duits, (-e), German.
Duit'ser, (-s), German.
Duitsland, Germany.
dui'wehok, (-ke), pigeon-house, dove-
dui'wel, (-s), devil.
dui'welagtig, (-e), devilish; fiendish.
dul'wels, (-e), devilish.
dui'welsdrek, asafoetida.
dui'welskerwel, (-s), black-jack, sweet-
heart (Bidens pilosa).
dui'welskunstenaar, (-s), sorcerer, ma-
dui'welsnuif, puff-ball.
dul'welswerk, devil's work.
dukaat', ( .kate), ducat.
dukaton', (-s), ducatoon.
duld, (ge-), to bear, tolerate, endure.
dumdum'koeel, (-s), dum-dum bullet.
dump, (ge-), to dump.
dum'pinggeld, dumping duty.
dun, (-ner, -ste), thin, rarefied; sparse;
slender; washy.
dun'held, thinness; sparseness.
dunk, opinion, idea.
dun'netjies, thinly; indifferent.
du'o, (-'s), duo.
duode'cimo, (-'s), duodecimo.
du'pe, (-s), dupe, victim.
duplikaat', (. .kate), duplicate.
duplika'tor, (-s), duplicator.
durf, (s), pluck, daring; (w), (ge-), to
dare, venture.
dus, thus, so, therefore.
dus'kant, on this side of.
dus'ketyd, om -, (about) this time.
dut, (s), nap, snooze; (w), (ge-), to


nap, snooze.
dut'jie, (-s), nap, snooze.
duur, (s), duration; (b), [dure],
-der, -ste), dear, expensive; (w),
(ge-), to last, continue.
duur'saam, (. .same, .samer, -ste),
durable; lasting; wearing well.
duur'saamheid, durableness.
duur'te, dearhess, expensiveness.
duus'man, (-ne), white man.
duw'wel(d), see dubbel(d).
duw'weltjie, see dubbeltjie.
dwaal, (ge-), to err; wander, roam.
dwaal'begrip, (-pe), false notion;
erroneous idea.
dwaal'gees, (-te), wandering spirit.
dwaal'leer, false doctrine.
dwaal'lig, (-te), will-o'-the-wisp.
dwaal'spoor, (. .spore), false track.
dwaal'weg, (..wee), false (wrong)
dwaas, (s), (dwase), fool, silly fellow;
(b), (dwase, dwaser, -ste), foolish,
dwaas'heid, folly, stupidity.
dwa'ling, (-e, -s), error, mistake.
dwang, compulsion, coercion, force,
dwang'arbied, hard labour; penal
dwang'buis, (-e), strait jacket.
dwang'middel, (-s), coercive measure.
dwar'rel, (ge-), to whirl.
dwar'relwind, (-e), whirlwind.
dwars, across, athwart; contrary,
dwars'balk, (-e), cross-beam.
dwars'bank, (-e), cross-bench.
dwars'boom, (ge-), to thwart, obstruct.
dwars'drywer, (-s), thwarter, ob-
dwars'drywery, obstruction, contrari-
dwars'hout, (-e), cross-beam.
dwars'leer, (-s), sleeper (railway).
dwars'oor, right across, right over.
dwars'skop, (-pe), cross-kick.
dwars'straat, (. statete, cross-street.
dwars'trek, (-ge-), to thwart, squabble,
dwars'trekker, (-s), squabbler;
dweep, (ge-), to be infatuated, be
fanatical, rave about.
dweep'siek, (-e, -er, -ste), fanatic(al).

dweep'sug, fanaticism. dwin'geland, (-e), tyrant.
dwell, (s), (-e), mop, (deck) swab; dwingelandy', tyranny.
(w), (-ge), to mop, swab. dy, (s), (-e), thigh; (w), (ge-), to
dweil'stok, (-ke), mop-stick. thrive, prosper.
dwe'per, (-s), fanatic, bigot, zealot. dyk, (-e), dike, bank.
dwe'pery, bigotry, fanaticism. dyn, myn en -, mine and thine.
dwerg, (-e), dwarf, pygmy, midget. dyn'serig, (-e, -er, -ste), misty, cloudy.
dwing, (ge-), to force, compel, con- dyn'serigheid, mistiness, cloudiness.
strain. dyn'sig, (-e, -er, -ste), misty, cloudy.


e, (-'s), e.
6'(e), (geE(e)), to harrow.
eau-de-colog'ne, eau de Cologne.
eb, (s), ebb; (w), (geeb), to ebb, flow
eb'behout, ebony wood.
eboniet', ebonite, vulcanite.
e'del, ([-el, -er, -ste), noble, generous;
edelag'baar, (. .bare), honourable.
e'delgesteente, (-s), precious stone,
e'delheid, nobleness, nobility.
e'delman, (-ne, edelliede), nobleman.
edelmoe'dig, (-e, -er, -ste), generous,
edelmoe'digheid, generosity, mag-
e'delsteen, precious stone, gem.
e'delweiss, edelweiss.
E'denburg, Edenburg (S.A.).
e'dik, vinegar.
edik', (-te), edict, decree.
E'dinburg, Edinburgh (Scotland).
edi'sie, (-s), edition.
editeur', (-e, -s), editor.
editoriall, (. .ale), editorial.
eduka'sie, education.
&'e, (geee), to harrow.
eed, (ede), oath.
eed'aflegging, taking an oath, swear-
ing in.
eed'afneming, administering an oath.
eed'breuk, perjury, breach of oath.
eed'genoot, (. .note), confederate, con-
eed'genootskap, confederacy.
eek'horinkie, (-s), squirrel.
eeld, (-e), horny skin, callosity.
eeld'agtig, (-e), callous.

een, one, someone, a certain.
een'akter, (-s), one-act play.
een'beentjie speel, to hop along.
eend, (-e), duck.
een'dag, once, one day.
een'deboud, (-e), leg of a duck.
een'de-eier, (-s), duck's egg.
een'dekker, (-s), monoplane.
een'ders, een'derste(r), similar, alike.
een'drag, concord, union, unity, har-
eendrag'tiglik, (-e), unanimous; as
one man.
eend'voal, (-s), wild duck.
eenga'lig, (-e), see egaal.
een'heid, (. .hede), unity; unit.
een'hoofdig, (-e), monocephalous,
een'horing, (-s), unicorn.
een'jarig, (-e), of one year, one year
een'kant, on one side, apart.
een'keer, once, one day.
eenken'nig, (-e, -er, -ste), shy, timid.
een'klank, unison; monophthong.
eenldeurig, (-e), whole-coloured.
eenlettergrepig, (-e), monosyllabic.
eenling, (-e), peculiar person, eccentric
eenlopend, (-e), unmarried, single.
een'maal, once, one day.
eenpa'rig, (-e), unanimous, by com-
mon consent.
een'persoonsbed, single bed.
een'rigtingstraat, one-way street.
eens, once; even; unanimous, of the
same opinion.
een'saam, (..same, ..samer, -ste),
solitary, lonely, desolate.



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