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Explore: research at the University of Florida

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Title:
Explore: research at the University of Florida
Series Title:
Explore: research at the University of Florida. Vol. 1. No. 1.
Uniform Title:
Explore: research at the University of Florida
Creator:
Office of Research and Graduate Programs
Affiliation:
University of Florida -- Office of Research and Graduate Programs
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
Office of Research and Graduate Programs, University of Florida
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Research -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville ( LCSH )
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serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
022866284 ( ALEPH )
34667699 ( OCLC )

Full Text






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research 0nvriis The 0opeto of th 1949 fica year make a0ietnei u
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Kae A. Hob-o
Vic Prsdn a0d 0Dea0n







Spring 1996, Vol. 1, No. 1




eereer
Research at the University of Florida


4 Extracts

Research Briefi


12 Battle of the Bugs
In the balrd of the buhg. rhe ULr.,C rlf', :o Fl.:.''jd is allying its high-
t.;.:h resources v.ith rmorhcth i, ii,.u: r... controll unwanted pests. After
I .lr a cenitar,- of re r ilr J,.d .~... lusively on chemicals to combat
.!,i iculturl aind h.u,,c hold pci iJF scientists now try to exploit
r-' ur.'J rnm. e: r., d.-, rthe job.

18 A Sense of Community
Through the U.ii, ..r:, .F Florida's state-of-the-art
Sid Martin Bioi chrin,:l.:.-, Development Institute,
university and community leaders hope to cultivate
a "community" of environmentally clean biotech
companies that will spur economic development in the region.

24 Eroding Confidence
Hurricanes Allison, Erin and Opal devastated the snowy white
beaches that makes the Florida Panhandle a tourist mecca. UF
coastal engineers assess the damage and search for ways to minimize
destruction from the inevitable next storm.

30 Balancing the Equation
In all areas of academia, women are assuming .
prominent research roles. Their opinions and
perspectives and their unique physiology -
have become increasingly valuable as scholars of
both sexes strive to make their work more
reflective of society.

34 Retailing Revolution
Through its Center for Retailing Education and Research, the
University of Florida studies the dramatic changes occurring in the
$2 trillion-a-year retailing business.

38 Eye Can See Clearly
Despite the fact that it is the second leading cause
of blindness in the United States, glaucoma
remains a mystery. It ambushes people in early
middle age and begins to destroy their retina and
optic nerve. But a host of researchers at the
University of Florida are working to better treat, diagnose and
possibly even prevent glaucoma.


- N -


22 EXchange

Technology Transfer




i i


42 EXerpts

New Books




About the Cover
Detail from a ceramic sculpture by Miami
Beach-based artist Carlos Alves that hangs
in the lobby of the university's Sid Martin
Biotechnology Development Institute. The
sculpture is based on representations of
DNA by fifth-graders at Alachua
Elementary School.
Coverphoto by Gene Bednarek







Extracts


Research Funding Reaches
Record $208.5 Million
Despite intense competition for fewer
dollars, federal funding for University of
Florida research projects increased 14
percent to more than $125 million
during the 1994-95 fiscal year.
Overall, UF research funding from all
sources increased 7.5 percent to a record
$208.5 million, bolstered by dramatic
increases in funding to the College of
Engineering and the Health Science
Center.
"It is a testament to the quality of our
faculty's research that federal agencies are
awarding them more money at a time
when budgets are being tightened
everywhere," said Karen A. Holbrook,


UF's vice president for research.
The Department of Health &
Human Services was by far UF's biggest
sponsor, funding nearly 400 projects for
$56 million, a 17.3 percent increase over
1993-94. The National Science Founda-
tion (NSF) awarded another $13 million
for more than 200 projects, up 10.3
percent over the previous year.
Several major grants stood out in
1994-95, including the NSF-sponsored
Engineering Research Center for Particle
Science & Technology, which accounted
for $2 million of the College of
Engineering's $9 million increase. The
center is expected to attract $60 million
in public and private funding over the
11-year life of the grant. UF's participa-


tion in a nationwide Women's Health
Initiative accounted for $2.5 million of
the College of Medicine's $6 million
increase to $69 million.
UF also attracted more grants from
private companies. This year's $20.5
million total represents a 7.4 percent
increase over 1993-94. And although
state support slipped by 13 percent, the
state still awarded UF $34.6 million for
research.
This year's figures represent a
continuation of the upward trend in
research funding at UE Research
awards have more than doubled in the
past decade, from about $99 million in
1985-86.
Joseph Kays


A Decade of Growth: UF Research Awards 1985-1995


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Several hundred U faculty attended a celebration in October marking the achievement of $200 million in research funding.


4 Spring 1996


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Explore 5










Farmers Seek Success
With "Designer Fruits"

New "designer" tropical fruits may
bring the sweet taste of success to south
Florida farmers whose livelihood and
lifestyle turned sour after thousands of
acres of groves and farmland were
devastated by Hurricane Andrew.
The 1992 storm tore through farming
communities like Homestead, leaving
behind damaged groves and family
businesses. Recovery efforts in some areas
included a shift in acreage from citrus
groves and more traditional crops to
more diverse operations, including
tropical fruits.
With exotic-sounding names like
mameysapote, passion fruit, papaya and
guava, these new tropical fruits look as
different as they sound. But they could
provide an economic opportunity for
hard-hit farmers and new, exciting tastes
for consumers, say researchers at the
University of Florida's Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS).


IFAS tropicalfruit crop specialistJonathan
Crane tastes a carambola or "star fruit. "

"One hundred years ago, the banana
was a novelty fruit, so who knows," said
Robert Degner, program director for
marketing research at UF's food and
resource economics department. "Now
bananas are the most widely consumed
fruit in the American diet."
But how many Floridians reared on
oranges and grapefruits know how to
prepare these different delicacies? IFAS


researchers, along with growers and
industry leaders, are studying both
production methods and the marketing
efforts of these fruits. The results should
provide growers with information needed
for maintaining and expanding this
market opportunity and give consumers
firsthand information about incorporat-
ing these tasty treats into their diets.
There are 11 primary crops now
grown in the south Florida area, includ-
ing lychee, mango, annona, longan and
carambola, or "star fruit."
Funded by a grant through the
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services and the Tropical
Fruit Growers of South Florida, scientists
at IFAS' Tropical Research and Educa-
tion Center in Homestead are working
on 12 research projects, including disease
control of mango, lychee and carambola.
Also three infrastructure improvement
projects, such as a new 10-acre experi-
mental grove of banana, lychee and
carambola, are being established.
Sylvia K. Beauchamp


6 Spring 1996










Crocodiles
Rebound In
South Florida


-.~~


-.;


Endangered
American crocodiles are on
the rebound in southern F h.! ,da
according to a University ...t Fl. :rid
researcher who is finding eci:m:rd ri u ir,, b
of crocodile nests, some in pl iC- h. ere
they haven't been found for ni-ar ai
century.
Record numbers of crocodile nests
have been found this year in the Ever-
glades National Park and at Florida
Power and Light's Turkey Point Power
Plant, said Frank Mazzotti, an assistant
professor of wildlife ecology at UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS). In addition, two
crocodile nests were discovered on Cape
Sable, the first time nests have been seen
there since 1897. And, on Sanibel Island
near Fort Myers, crocodile nests have
been seen for the first time ever this year.
"What we are seeing is a marked


,Iuc,,e :,fr.L .:.ddile ii"
Fl-.nd i Thi-. n i n-d.i,dn cred
-pcie piugl;r. Astory, o-id llazouI,
who works at IFAS' Broward County
extension office in Davie. "Over the last
15 years, the number of crocodiles found
nesting has doubled. This nesting season
is remarkable."
Last April through August, Mazzotti
and his colleagues searched known and
potential nesting habitat looking for
signs of crocodiles and nesting activity.
Hatched eggshells or hatchlings served as
evidence of thriving crocs. At Turkey
Point, they found 17 nests and tagged
307 hatchlings. The previous record was
12 nests. In the Everglades, they found
21 nests.


By tagging young
crocodiles, Mazzotti and his colleagues
will be able to gauge long-term growth
and survival rates. More than 700
crocodiles have been marked in the
Everglades and more than 2,000 in south
Florida, Mazzotti said.
Gray-green and "not at all cold or
slimy to the touch," American crocodiles
are much less aggressive than alligators,
Mazzotti says. Still, he points out, "Crocs
are the top predators in their system, like
lions on the Serengeti."
Andrea Billups


Explore 7










Dwarf Horse Roamed
Florida 18 MillionYears Ago
An 18-million-year-old skeleton of a
dog-sized horse the only one in
existence is coming together at the
University of Florida.
The dwarf horse, known as
Archaeohippus, was about the size of a
greyhound and weighed close to 50
pounds when it roamed Florida millions
of years ago.
The skeleton of the Archaeohippus is
the only one in existence and is a
valuable addition to the Florida Museum
of Natural History on the Gainesville
campus, said Bruce MacFadden,
paleontology curator. He also believes
fossil horses are of prime importance in
studying evolution.
"These horses from Florida allow us
to better understand some of the
principles of evolution that we teach in
textbooks. This particular skeleton will
be unique to science."
Lurel Ponjuan


Paleontology Curator Bruce MacFadden
compares the skull of a dog-sized horse
native to Florida 18 million years ago with
the skull of a modern horse.










UF Orthodontists Study
When To Treat Buck Teeth

When is the best time to get braces
for "buck teeth?" Should children with
this common problem be treated before
their permanent teeth emerge, or is it
better to wait until adolescence?
Orthodontists at the University of
Florida College of Dentistry, with help
from colleagues around the nation, hope
to answer these questions as they begin
the second phase of one of the nation's
first federally funded orthodontic patient
trials.
About 280 children are participating
in the UF study, initially funded by a
$900,000 grant from the National
Institutes of Health in 1990. The second
phase of the study, funded by a $1.1
million NIH grant, began this year.
Buck teeth, or receding chin, occurs
in about one out of five children. For
years, orthodontists have pursued one of
two strategies in treating these children
- give no treatment until permanent
teeth have emerged, usually at about 12-
14 years of age, or treat in two phases:
starting treatment before all permanent
teeth erupt with a simple appliance to
improve jaw growth, followed by the


.Computer Model Aids
'Everglades Restoration
"; ,r .. -
It has been choked, .droned,..
burned and sliowl killed by years of
pollution. Aid while the river of grass
known as the Florida Everglades has
Somehow sunrived this terrific
onslaught, ils unique comple\ir'.
continues to puzzle those who seek to
.restore is previously thriving beauty.
Now a pioneering srudy seeks to
provide answers to the multi-billion
dollar question of how best to save one
of nature's last frontiers.
A few hundred miles north of the
Everglades in Gainesville, a University


installation of full
braces after all
permanent teeth
have erupted.
In the initial
phase of UF's study,
patients were
randomly divided
into three groups.
One group used an
appliance placed in
the mouth that
attaches to a neck
band. The second
group used an
appliance that fits
inside the mouth to
guide the lower jaw


//


University ofFlorida dental Professor Dr. Stephen Keeling explains
a headgear orthodontic device to Matt Taylor ofAlachua.


into a forward
position. A control group received
periodic observation.
After three years of treatment or
observation, the researchers made a
videotape of parent and child interviews,
as well as each child's face, teeth and
dental records. Researchers sent copies of
each child's tape to five randomly chosen
orthodontists around the country, asking
if the child needed treatment, if the
treatment should be immediate and how
difficult the case looked.


of Florida engineering professor and a
visiting wi ldlife ecologist are teaming
with'.Other scientists to create a computer
model.-that-could give.planners the power "
to predict the future.
knowledge gained from years-pf
w'vork ;y scientists who have studied the
Everglades will:be integrated into a.
'single ecosysteri miodelby Pal
SFish;ick,-an associate professor in UF's
Department ofComputer'and Infor- '
nation Sciehces, and James Sanderson,
a visiting scientist in wildlife ecology
and conservation. By doing so, they are
creating a computer model, known as
ATLSS, which may provide the key to
determining whether efforts to save the


"America's orthodontists are voting on
the outcome of early treatment as they
score the videotapes," said Dr. Stephen
Keeling, associate professor of orthodon-
tics and principal investigator of the UF
study. "If early treatment with bionators
and head gear is beneficial, the treated
children should be judged to require less
and simpler treatment than the non-
treated children."
Vicki Fooks


Everglades will actually work.
Among the federal agencies funding
he ATLSS project are the.Narional
Biological Service, the Environmenral
Protection Agency, the Army Corps of.
Engineers, the Natibnal Park Service"
and the Fish and Wildlife Service..
The model will integrate various ..
other models done'by researchers. ',
. studying every living thing from thi
smallest organisms and fish to.wading -
birds, deer and alligators. The Ever-
glades will be broken down into 100-
meter cells for the ATLSS project, far
more detailed than any computer
simulation ever attempted.
James He/l'gaard


Explore 9










Manure Recycling Is
Olfactory W inner

A team of UF researchers has
developed a process that eliminates the
manure odors associated with dairy farms
while recycling water, producing
methane gas and maintaining the
manure's fertilizer value.
"What is the cost of odor reduction?"
asks Ann Wilkie, a research assistant
professor in soil and water science at
UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences. "It may be the cost of staying in
business."
The most commonly used manure-
management system in the newer dairies
in Florida utilizes short-term holding
ponds for flushed-manure wastewater
storage, with subsequent pumping to
sprayfields to supply fertilizer nutrients
and irrigation water for production of
forage crops.
Although effective for nutrient
recycling, these systems can produce
strong odors. Spreading of manure slurry
on land is the single largest cause of
complaints from the public.
Anaerobic digestion, a biological


process in which complex organic
compounds are decomposed by microor-
ganisms in the absence of oxygen, offers
a holistic solution.
When anaerobic digestion is used
under controlled conditions, most of the
digestible organic matter is biodegraded
with a less-offensive effluent and energy
byproduct, methane gas.
Using this concept, Wilkie and her
graduate research assistants are develop-
ing an anaerobic digester, known as a
fixed-bed reactor, for treating the dairy
wastes. Unlike aerobic systems that
require energy input, anaerobic treat-
ment is energy producing.
The fixed-bed anaerobic reactor
immobilizes bacteria on a matrix or
medium within the reactor, thereby
preventing washout of the microbial
substance. Wastewater is passed through
a column filled with packing, usually a
honeycomb-like structure made of plastic
or other material. The packing material
acts as a surface for the attachment of
microorganisms and also as a trap for
unattached organisms. The end result is
methane and carbon dioxide.
The fixed-bed anaerobic reactor is


A working model of the anaerobic digester at the University of Florida s Dairy Research
Unit in Hague.


capable of treating larger volumes of
wastewater than conventional systems.
Where it would take conventional
anaerobic digesters about 20 days to
handle the waste, a fixed-bed reactor can
often do the job in as little as two days.
Thus the fixed-bed reactor is appropriate
technology for Florida dairy farms, given
the large amounts of water used.
Wilkie has been using four, 400-liter
pilot plants, but is now building a full-
scale plant at the IFAS Dairy Research
Unit in Hague. The reactor is an 86,000-
gallon steel tank, 25 feet in diameter and
23 feet tall. The plant is expected to
handle the waste from a 350-cow
operation.
Perhaps the biggest challenge involves
the medium which makes up the honey-
comb-like structure to which the bacteria
cling. The problem is matching up the
proper type of bacteria to the proper
surface, explains Kelly J. Riedesel, one of
Wilkie's graduate research assistants.
"That's where you make it work," she
said. "If you don't get the cells attached,
you can't treat the waste."
In addition to eliminating odor, the
potential benefits from anaerobic
digestion include improving water
quality, improving handling and fertilizer
value of the wastes and production of
biogas for general farm use.
Farms, with their many pumps, fans
and other devices driven by small
motors, are a natural place for methane
conversion and use. Methane generally is
considered the second-most significant
greenhouse gas, after carbon dioxide.
Anaerobic digestion cuts uncontrolled
methane release.
Then there is the conservation of
water, a particularly precious resource in
Florida. Water has numerous uses on a
dairy farm, including cleaning and
cooling.
Bruce Mastron


10 Spring 1996











Engineers LookTo Space
For Future Semiconductors


To develop the next generation of
computer semiconductors, University of
Florida researchers are turning toward
space.
UF researchers on the ground will
team with NASA astronauts on a series
of experiments aboard a space shuttle
mission this spring.
It will be the second shuttle flight
mission for the project, with the first
occurring two years ago. With help from
the astronauts, researchers from UF,
Canada and Germany will grow crystals -
of two synthetic compounds to learn c.
how they may be more easily produced NASA a
on earth. crystals
shuttle n
The project, now in its fifth year, is shuttle
being led by Reza Abbaschian, chairman
States, C
of UF's materials science & engineering Rese
Rese'
department. A series of 12 experiments
eye on t
will be conducted aboard SPACEHAB, eye on
down-lit
laboratory modules that fly in the shuttle
changes
cargo bay. Funding comes from NASA
through
and industrial partners in the United
Space C
The




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can e-mail u, \with ci'n ntes, qucstf
S-.ndsugge. ions tor foprc .to cqveirn future.
Sisues iLthc Internet address : .
S extpl ore@rieim.fTe-rtdc.ufl.edu 7^ ",
-^,n V ^- **. -


astronauts Marc Garneau, left, andAndrew Thomas observe gallium antimonide
brown at the College ofEngineering during training in preparation for a space
mission this spring.


Canada and Germany.
archers at UF will be keeping an
he experiments through a video
nk, and will be able to make
to the experiment's parameters
Mission Control at the Johnson
enter.
experiments involve crystals of
:I .1,,ni, tni ide and gallium
.-curn.in 'ide, which are
b..ig grown in space to
a Aid problems caused
by gravity. On the
initial flight two
t years ago,
S researchers
iri, proved their
ore technology
,',. grew nearly
S. ,' : perfect crystals
tB'-- o of another
compound in
S space. Now,
'c using that same
S technique,
researchers will
r[nmpt to grow


gallium arsenide, a synthetic compound
used as a semiconducting material, which
is capable of doing calculations thou-
sands of times faster than the silicon
chips commonly found in today's
computers. Because it is much more
expensive than silicon, however, gallium
arsenide hasn't made its way into most
computers and other electronics applica-
tions. The other compound to be tested
is gallium antimonide, which is used for
infrared detectors, optical windows and
other purposes.
Growing the two compounds on
Earth is more difficult and more
expensive than growing silicon. Scientists
hope to understand what causes the
quality differences between the crystals
grown on Earth and in space, so that
technology on the ground can be
improved.
Mission specialist astronaut Marc
Garneau said the training he and fellow
astronaut Andrew Thomas received at
UF will help them handle any surprises
when they get into space.
James Hellegaard


Explore I I























rf thc








Nd


In the battle of the bug, the University of Florida is allying
its high-tech resources with mother nature to control unwanted
pests.
After half a century of relying almost exclusively on chemi-
cals to combat agricultural and household pests, scientists now
try to exploit natural enemies to do the job.
The 1940s' philosophy that chemicals are the solution to
pests has been supplanted by a more environmentally benign,
and fiscally prudent, approach in the 1990s.
"Biological control can make an impact on agriculture, in
Florida and nationwide, by improving crop yields and quality,"
says UF entomology Professor Marjorie Hoy, Davies Fisher
Eckes Eminent Scholar in Biocontrol. "Biological control also
helps environmentally. It reduces pesticide applications, which
cuts production costs, reduces impacts on the soil and ground-
water, reduces food residues, reduces our impacts on other
species and makes things safer for our agricultural workers."
John Capinera, chairman of the Department of Entomology
and Nematology in UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS), adds: "We are gaining a greater appreciation
for the limitations associated with near-total dependency on
chemicals and we recognize the need for options."
Some of those options take advantage of a greater under-
standing of the thousands of predatory and parasitic species
available in nature, while others employ new knowledge about
genetics that allows scientists to manipulate nature.


Biocontrol seeks to establish a natural balance in which the
pest, while never totally eliminated, is reduced to a level where
it causes no serious damage.
With year-round tropical weather, Florida is particularly
vulnerable to a wide variety of pests, so IFAS researchers have
devoted considerable effort to developing new ways of eliminat-
ing them.
Biological control research at UF is conducted primarily in
the departments of plant pathology and entomology and
nematology. Plant pathology seeks ways to make the plants
themselves more resistant to attack, while entomology and
nematology seeks to identify natural enemies.

Striking Miners

South Florida citrus farmers had just replanted thousands of
acres of groves after the devastation of Hurricane Andrew when
they identified a new kind of natural disaster in May 1993.
Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer, had arrived in
Florida. And all those young trees were "nothing short of
leafminer paradise" for the tiny moth, according to one IFAS
publication.
The silvery and brown moths lay their eggs on the underside
of young leaves. The hatching larva bores directly into the leaf
and begins "mining" (eating), leaving trails that zigzag around
the leaf. Ultimately, the larva pupates at the edge of the leaf,


Explore 13


4-.1 W










emerging from its cocoon as an adult. For the tree, the result is
lost leaves, retarded growth and reduced yield.
By the time growers detected the leafminer, more than 90
percent of Dade County's newly replanted lime groves were
already infested and it soon spread to all of the state's citrus-
growing counties.
Hoy and her colleagues on a task force of state and federal
entomologists and growers quickly determined that chemical
pesticides were not going to be particularly effective against the
leafminer, so they began to concentrate on alternate ways to
control the bug.
Although the leafminer is native to Southeast Asia, logisti-
cally it was easier to go to Australia, where the leafminer has
been around since the early 1940s.
After consulting with Australian scientists and growers, Hoy
returned to Gainesville with several thousand adult specimens
of a tiny wasp, Ageniaspis citricola, which acts as a parasite on
the leafminer.
The wasps lay their eggs on the leafminer larvae. The
immature leafminers continue to eat the citrus plant, but what
emerges from their pupal chamber is not an adult leafminer,
but a new generation of wasps, breaking the reproductive cycle.
"Instead ofa moth, you get anywhere between one and 10
wasps," Hoy says. "As efficient as the leafminer is, these
parasites might be better."
The wasps do not attack any other species and they seem to
be successfully adapting to Florida.
"In some groves, there is a 99-percent parasitism rate," Hoy
says. "For every 100 leafminer pupae you open, 99 of them
have the parasite. They've also spread rapidly, with groves 10 to
12 miles from the nearest release site showing signs of them."
Hoy is continuing to research biological control of the
leafminer, working with other natural enemies she has found in
Thailand and Taiwan. This work is being done in collaboration
with Ru Nguyen of the state Division of Plant Industry and
IFAS scientists Jorge Pena, Robert Bullock, Phil Stansly, Joe
Knapp and Harold Browning.

Boed, Snatchers

For most persons, the most common use of pesticides occurs
right in their own home when they spray for insects in their
kitchen or garden.
"Think of what you do when you see a roach in your
kitchen," says UF entomology Professor Jerry Stimac. "You
spray it so much you wet it down. That's much more pesticide
than you need in your environment."
To combat excessive exposure to humans, Stimac is develop-
ing a line of nontoxic home pest control products that use a
natural fungus, Beauveria bassiana, instead of chemicals. Stimac
found the fungus while searching for a control for fire ants.


Native to Brazil, red imported fire ants were first seen in
Mobile, Ala., in the 1930s and are now firmly established in
the southeastern United States, ranging as far west as Texas and
as far north as North Carolina. Experts believe the ants were
introduced by ships transporting goods from Latin America to
the United States.
Fire ant control is a serious problem in Florida. Over the
past 10 years, state and federal agencies have appropriated more
than $200 million toward wiping out the pest.
In addition to the danger of multiple stings to children or
animals who accidentally disturb their mounds, fire ants
damage crops by feeding directly on the plants or by protecting
other harmful insects. They chew the bark and growing tips of
citrus trees. They have even caused sections of roads to collapse
by undermining the asphalt.
Powerful pesticides may knock out the tenacious little
insects temporarily, but in the long run chemicals actually help
them.
"When you use a broad-spectrum insecticide against them,
it kills everything, including the beneficial insects," Stimac says.
"And the fire ants are the hardiest, so they are the first to come
back. And when they come back, there aren't any natural
enemies to hold them in check, so the fire ants become even
more established."
Like Hoy, Stimac decided to go to the ants' native habitat in
search of a natural enemy. In this case that habitat was the
Brazilian Patanal, a region similar to the Everglades.
"The levels of fire ants in the United States are 10 times
higher than in their native habitat," he says. "It was obvious
that something was controlling them."
But identifying that limiting factor was not easy because the
swamps where the ants originated are some of the most
complex ecosystems on Earth.
It wasn't until Sergio Alves, a colleague at the University of
Sao Paolo, noted that fungus seemed to affect fire ant popula-
tions that Stimac redirected his search.
"We were looking for some sort of predator or parasite," he
says, "but it turned out that the answer was in the dirt under
our feet."
The fungus in the soil of the Pantanal adheres to insects it
contacts. The spores then penetrate through the outer shell and
begin reproducing within the insect's body. The insect eventu-
ally dies and a fuzzy coating of the fungus grows on the carcass.
But identifying the fungus was only the first step in a long
process toward a commercial product.
It wasn't until after Stimac had isolated the fungus and
brought samples back to his lab in Gainesville that he and his
colleagues realized that it also worked on other common
household insects, including a dozen species of ants, cock-
roaches and termites.
Stimac and his c. 'le 'i... are now developing baits that will


14 Spring 1996












































































































































A"AN

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lure different types of insects, which are naturally wary of the
fungus, to come into contact with it.
"Our ultimate goal is to replace most toxic chemical
pesticides used in and around the house with a nontoxic
biological pesticide," Stimac says.
Stimac envisions fungal traps similar to the ant and roach traps
now on the market. The fungus can live for about three or four
months, but since it cannot reproduce efficiently in Florida's
climate there is no danger of any adverse effects from it.

IfYou Can't Find It, tia.e It

While Hoy and Stimacfound natural enemies for their pests,
UF plant pathology Professor Ernest Hiebert is using genetic
engineering to create a natural enemy for the tomato mottle
geminivirus, which can cause millions of dollars in damage
annually to Florida's $650 million tomato industry.
Until now, the only way to control the virus, which stunts
growth of the tomato plant and reduces the size and number of
fruit, has been to use pesticides to control the whitefly, which
transmits the virus.
"We decided that the approach to take was to concentrate
on the virus itself and not worry about the whitefly," Hiebert
says.
Typically, researchers use a tumor-causing bacterium,


$'.

Robcra l ra. e 'ahpre a ',' r AaIuh.zr Cai, il






Agrobacterium tumefaciences, to introduce new genetic material
into tobacco plants, which accept genetic changes faster and
easier than other plants. Researchers replace the tumor-causing
gene with whatever gene they are studying.
Hiebert's research team members were doing some prelimi-
nary genetic work on tobacco plants when they discovered a
nondestructive mutation of the geminivirus gene that can be
used to "inoculate" tomato plants against the disease.
Over the next three years, Hiebert's team will genetically
engineer a significant number of tomato plants, then evaluate
them for virus resistance and horticultural traits. Plant breeders
will use selected lines with desirable traits to develop seed stock
for farmers.
Hiebert's research is funded by UF, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the Florida Tomato Committee. He has
applied for a patent for the new gene.
Hoy also engages in genetic engineering, with a tiny mite
that may someday help to control spider mites, a well-known
pest of strawberries and ornamentals in Florida.
Hoy has a request pending with state and federal regulatory
reviewers to release a transgenic arthropod a genetically
altered predatory mite that feeds on the disease.
While scientists around the world have genetically transformed
plants, animals and insects, this is the first time a researcher has
requested field-testing of a genetically engineered arthropod.


16 Spring 1996


UF ri on io /o g .6. 4;!'P 4 6
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athe ~ V di'r~;i oibaccu fet~rT he iao'e reyr soi an ,norucidared'plat~ rgit, tIu. 1Jc cunaionl.
It. g t, bo v o `ta h acon; l


Hoy has inserted a bacterial marker gene into the small,
flightless mite called Metaseiulus occidentalis, which is no larger
than the period at the end of this sentence.
To get new genes into the mites, Hoy and her colleagues
trap the mites between layers of tape and use tiny needles to
inject DNA into their abdomens. The genes find their way into
the mites' eggs and some offspring then carry the gene. These
successful offspring are themselves bred and individual lines are
developed which all carry the gene.
Although at this point Hoy is using only a non-beneficial,
but easily identified, marker gene to test the viability of the
process, ultimately she hopes to endow the mite with useful
genes.
Western farmers have used the mite for years to biologically
control spider mites in fruit and almond orchards. One report
says they have saved $20 million annually in pesticide costs in
almonds. But repeated attempts to establish the mite in Florida
have failed because of the climate.
As the first scientist to seek permission to release a geneti-
cally engineered arthropod into an outdoor test plot, Hoy has
taken great pains to alleviate fears about mites escaping the test
site and mutating into something harmful.
She will transport the transgenic mites, which have already
been studied through 150 generations in the laboratory, to the
test plot in sealed plastic boxes surrounded by water moats. In


addition, the researchers will soak their lab coats in alcohol
before returning to the lab, scatter sticky insect traps through-
out the test area, spray pesticides around the perimeter every
two weeks and destroy mite-covered leaves in sterilization
chambers after they have been examined.
While Hoy acknowledges there is a small chance some of the
mites could escape, she says in her application to the U.S.
Department of Agriculture: "In the worst-case scenario, a
desirable natural enemy valued for its ability to control pest
spider mites would be added to the fauna of Florida."
Hoy's field trials will be monitored by the USDA's Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service, the state Division of Plant
Industry and UE She plans to collect data on survivability,
stability of the transgene and fitness of the new strain as a
biological-control agent. O

Michael Podolsky is a Gainesville freelance writer.

Ernest Hiebert
Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, (352) 392-7246, ehi@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Marjorie A. Hoy
Eminent Scholar and Professor, Department of Entomology & Nematology,
(352) 392-1901, mahoy@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Jerry L. Stimac
Professor, Department of Entomology & Nematology, (352) 392-1901,
jls@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu


Explore 17

















*










he benefits of biotech research to society can be
great a cure for diabetes or a frost-resistant
citrus tree may lie in the next strand of DNA.
But because of the long-term nature of the
biotech commercialization process, often requiring years of
experimentation and regulatory approvals, many major biotech
products have begun in small start-up companies.
Unfortunately, scientists and entrepreneurs often lack the
initial capital to advance such significant discoveries from the
laboratory to the marketplace.
"Proceeding from an invention to a product is a tortuous
journey, particularly in the biotechnology industry," says
Sheldon Schuster, director ofUF's Biotechnology Program.
"The university's role is to provide support and incuba-
tion during the most vulnerable stage in a
company's development."
That support is manifested in UF's new
$5.5 million Sid Martin Biotechnology
Development Institute (BDI), named for the
late Sid Martin, a long-time state representa-
tive for the Gainesville area who served as an
adviser to UF President John Lombardi
and ambassador for the university after
retiring from the legislature.
By offering an excellent facility and a .
helping hand to fledgling companies
trying to transfer UF-related biotechnol- h
ogy research to the marketplace, university Al
and community leaders hope to develop a
"community" of environmentally clean Sol ,i
scIpn'ci .;*id
biotech companies that will offer high wage ,. ,
to technical employees, bring in revenue from BDI
license agreements and stock options, and
spur economic development in the region.
Researchers at UF already conduct more than $60 million
annually in biotechnology-related research, most of it in the
basic sciences. The goal of the BDI is to help those who want
to apply that basic research to practical problems and get
products to consumers.
The 35,000-square-foot building adjacent to the Progress
Center in Alachua is the "critical link" that will enhance
development of university-based technologies and create a
regional biotechnology industry, Schuster says.
Start-up companies long on potential but short on cash
share equipment that each needs only occasionally and none
could afford to purchase individually. All companies must have
a UF connection, such as a faculty member who heads their


I' the;*
pi'oi'li
'~lr


research team or a license agreement based on UF-patented
basic research.
The university already has licensed space to five companies
working on such products as a treatment for diabetes and
kidney stones and new water quality tests.
Ranging in size from 400 to 1,000 square feet, each of the
19 laboratories has access to the highest-quality scientific
equipment. They share cold rooms, autoclaves, a darkroom, a
fermentation laboratory and a 600-square-foot greenhouse. In
addition, there is a library which subscribes to many of the
important biotechnology journals and has access to numerous
on-line publications. The Biotechnology Program has also
located three of its core service laboratories at the BDI -
reproductive analysis, genetic analysis and
research histology.
Beyond the scientific infrastructure,
the BDI serves as a shared corporate
headquarters, where new companies can
,H operate in a professional atmosphere that
Sallows them to concentrate on developing
their products and impressing potential
investors.
But the Biotechnology Development
Institute is about more than lab benches
and fax machines, participants say. It is a
place where a "community of scientists and
st, i' entrepreneurs" can share ideas.
"You need a critical mass of biotechnology
companies to create a sense of community,"
,' s Weaver Gaines, chairman of Ixion
'cot re Biotechnology Inc., one of the BDI's first
Tenants. "Having other entrepreneurs in the
building gives you people to go to when
you're doing something for the first time."
In a carefully choreographed progression, university
officials hope enough small businesses will set up shop in
the BDI to make it an attractive relocation option for
experienced scientists and managers, whose success will, in
turn, attract venture capitalists who will invest in the
companies and allow them to move into their own facilities,
hopefully nearby.
"It's very difficult for a small company to get experienced
people to relocate, because if that company doesn't succeed,
they'll have no choice but to relocate again," Schuster says.
"But if you have six or seven companies using similar technolo-
gies, a strong candidate may be willing to take a chance,
because those other companies create a safety net."


The $5.5 million Biotechnology Development Institute, opposite top, has more than 35,000 square feet oflaboratory and office space.
Entrepreneurs like Ixion Biotechnology's Weaver Gaines, inset left, and Florida Genetics' Bill McKendree, inset right, meet at the institute
with UF Biotechnology Program Director Sheldon Schuster.


Explore 19










Those six or seven companies in one location also make it
worthwhile for venture capitalists to come down and make a
visit they probably wouldn't make to any individual company,
Schuster adds.
The BDI is not intended to be a permanent home for any
company, Schuster says. Businesses must apply, be reviewed and
be renewed annually for up to three years.
"We want them to grow and go," Schuster says.
"The next logical step is to move into
commercial space, like at the Progress Center,
and then, ideally, to construct their own
building across the street."
The university realizes some companies
will not succeed and will have to leave the
BDI before they are successful enough to
make it on their own.
But because of a unique arrangement
wherein tenants pay part of their space license
fee in stock options, the university will be a x io
charter investor in the "winners" that do
succeed, says Arnold Heggestad, director of Biorechnology L
UF's Division of Entrepreneurial Programs. add;s .e l .'
"Almost half of what we charge for access toew r
the BDI is in the form of stock options," palIcfrom prol
Heggestad says, "so we are becoming partners ~aboratorjy s,.pc
with these companies in a very real way. At the fii To P 0,i
same time, the cash they would have spent on ofcientis ,d
rent can be invested in more critical needs."
By removing as many logistical and bureaucratic hurdles as
possible, Schuster says the university hopes to "incubate"
potentially successful ideas that might never get started or
would otherwise die for lack of resources.
Florida's citizens have much to gain from the success of
companies that start out at the BDI, Schuster says.
"The most obvious benefit is economic development for the
region," he says. "A measure of our success will be when Ixion
has to move into a facility that can hold 60 employees, because
that will be 60 people in this region working in an environ-
mentally clean, high-paying industry."


Second, he says, the products that come out of biotechnol-
ogy hold enormous promise for benefiting society.
"The prizes for success are substantial and highly worth-
while possible cures for cancer, heart disease and diabetes;
vaccines for infectious diseases like hepatitis, malaria and HIV;
new food crops that require no pesticides and can withstand
drought or freeze; new organisms that clean our environment;
and even new sources of nonpolluting bioenergy
that could reduce our reliance on oil."
And the university's share of revenue from
S licenses, stock options and other investment
vehicles can be rolled back into new research
in what Schuster calls "the life blood of the
next problem to be solved."
"Creating a biotech community in this
region will have an enormous synergistic
S effect on what the next generation of scientists
S develops," he says. "Just because we're doing
n Biorechii.lov'. research on diabetes and kidney stones does
iivr' Gaere.' s.',s he not mean that we won't come up with some
)-e..lopmet hirimnre new insight into cancer."
nies ofnfr- '. Finally, Schuster says the BDI offers
i/og to re iaker- enormous opportunities for students, in both
'ding high-qalit, the science and business fields.
.id. / hi,Es "There is plenty of education going on here.
INog ,i o Wdi We're training students, publishing papers, using
epr,,es. these resources to fulfill our education mission."
Schuster and other university and commu-
nity officials realize they have a long way to go before they can
compete with established research parks like the Research
Triangle in Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N.C., but they are
confident that biotechnology can blossom around Gainesville.
"I think we can compete with North Carolina," Gaines says.
"What we need are one or two good success stories of visible
companies that have gone public with successful technologies.
The technology is here. Now we need to take those conceptual
ideas and develop them." O
Sheldon M. Schuster
Professor and Program Director, (352) 392-8408, schuster@icbr.ifas.ufl.edu


20 Spring 1996


IXION BIOTECHNOLOGY FLORIDA GENETICS







INTELLIGENT MONITORING SYSTEMS PREDATION











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BY JAmEs HELLEC.AARD


or many people. Florida is beaches. Hundreds of
thousands of residents live v.ithin a stones thrown of
the ocean, and 8.000 miles of
shoreline are the destination of more
than haltche states -40 million tourists
annual.
But a succession of severe hurricanes
and too much building too close to the
water has put the beaches and the people
who enjoy them in jeopardy. ,Lit,
The most active hurricane season in'
62 years included 19 named stormn in
1995, three of whichh hit the Florida
Panhandle.
The giant, pounding v.aves produced
by Allison. Erin and Opal scooped up
millions o cubic yardss of the sno\.v
white sand that makes the region a
tourist mecca, sw.allov, ing much of it into the Gulf of Me-tico
and pushing the rest into living rooms and parking lots far
inland.


Normal Wave Action D
hun
Pen

\7 drt


"Its probably been one of the worst \eirs in terms of
erosion. especially on the v.est coast." says Robert Dean.
chairman and graduate research profe. -
scr in the Coascal and Oceanographic
Engineering Department it the Unl\er-
sirn of Florida College of Engineering.
"Hurricane Erin and Hurricane (Opal
both caused substantial damage due to
Erosion.
As the hurricane .ictirns struggle to
rebuild their li.es people like Dean and
associate Professor Daniel Hanes a:sess
the darnaee and search for -v j\ys to
minimize destruction from the ine, table
next storm.
UIF researchers learn much about
coastal dynamics right in Gainescille. In
a large laboratory ust east ot carnpus.
the\ use a 13i0-fooc-longe a.e tank to simulate nature.
Elsewhere in the wavehouse-sized facility, researchers use a
wave basin to study things like rip currents and the safe

ti-et b I'e w ',.id,,: 'he -r surge is often the most destructive part ofa
ricane. Hurricane Opal's storm surge swept many of the dunes from
sacola Bay to Panama CiY B&.. 1i into the GulfofMexico. In less-protected
Sli~e Oli.jya!, 'l: id, /..c, ,,o't, "',,. the oto.1 ,a


24 Spring 1996


..........











navigation of inlets. A wave '-- -
maker at one end of rhce basin
sends waves onto a small-scale -
beach, v.hile large pumps ~rnd .
water into and ouot inles.
Richard Sernmour. director lb -
ofc [e Ocean Engineering -
Group at he Scripps Institu-
tion of C)Leanograph. in San
Diego, cills I F 'one of rhe
true leaders in coastal
processes.
"UF ..i the fr, r in the
nation co study- beach eiosion
and remains a leader in rhe fidld." sa\,s Seimour. \ ho also
direcsi the OIEshore Tlchnolog, Recescrch Crenter t Te'.as A &
Ml Univericri. 'The [care o Florida depends upon [he Unl.er-
sirf od Florida co pro\ ide rational soIlutions to [he stare s coastal
problems."
FHurricanes haic been pounding Floridas coi astline kr cons.
but only in ihe last century has coarAi! dei elopnmenI led to [he
staggering financial losses bvwhich [oda s sormn, are mea-
sured. At about $2 billi.n. -Hurricanc Opal v. as the second
rri ost coldv storm in Florida's histor-, e'_ceeded onl\ b\
Hurricane Andre.; in 199l2.
Hanes says erosion occurs at some rime on 1. irrUill. eier
beach, but [hat on deserved beaches I\.ihou[E reference poinr
changes in [he shorelllie are nor 'er., ob-.ious.
"In ironrt of a condo the eros, oin is ob'. iuLs and alarming.
he says.
The natural di\ nmic alone Florida's eai c joas iis For sand to
bc transported south. sa., Dean. 3it che conscruccion of


r `V'- '.
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Storm Surge


Sand Bar


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Hurricanes '95


l artist
the y
upted that
row and resulted in
excessive erosion of
beaches south of
the inlets.
"If it weren't for
these inlets, many
of Florida's coasts
would be building
up instead of
eroding," Dean
says.
And the smaller
those beaches get,
the more vulnerable
they are to hurri-
canes like Opal and
Erin.


A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dean
has been tracking the erosion of Florida's beaches since he
arrived at UF in 1966. He subscribes to the "beach nourish-
men t" school of coastal engineering, which holds that the best
way to protect the shoreline and restore lost beach is to
replace the sand, usually by dredging it up offshore and


Atlantic-
Ocean


C:3
Q


piping it back to
the beach.
A 1987 study
Dean directed for
the state Division of
Beaches and Shores
found that wider
beaches resulted in
less storm damage
to upland buildings.
During a storm, a
wide beach will
cause large waves to
crest sooner and
break farther out.
To prove his
point, Dean cites
the success of beach
nourishment
projects in south


Florida. A study done following Hurricane Andrew found that
the 18 miles of nourished beaches in Dade County survived the
storm remarkably well. A 2.4-mile-long project on Key
Biscayne, closest to where the hurricane's eye made land,
actually gained 26,000 cubic yards of sand.
At an average cost of about $5 a cubic yard, beach nourish-


26 Spring 1996








































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ment is a massive commitment. A $64 million project in
Miami Beach involved 10 million cubic yards of sand, enough
to build a castle the size of a football field and a mile and a half
high. But the alternative, in dollars and human suffering, can
be even more costly.
Several years ago, concerns expressed by some Panama City
Beach residents shelved an Army Corps of Engineers' proposal
to renourish a 16-mile stretch of beach along U.S. Highway 98
at a cost of $33 million.
Today, Highway 98 is a buckled mess and the Corps
estimates the beach renourishment project would have saved
$50 million in
damages.
Shortly after
Hurricane Opal
struck, Dean was
invited to join the
Florida Depart-
ment of Environ-
mental
Protection's
efforts to quantify -.. _
Opal's impact on .B ...---. -- -- --,,
the beach system,
including how
much sand was
lost and when or
if it will come
back.
The results of
the survey will
help the Florida
Legislature determine the best course of action for restoring the
damaged beaches from doing nothing to planting dune-
anchoring vegetation to nourishing the beaches with sand from
offshore.
"It is likely that the 1995 storm season has provided fresh
impetus for implementing the Corps' beach nourishment
project along Panama City Beach," Dean says. "I hope so. I.
think it is an investment."
Where eroded sand is deposited in a storm depends on the
height of the storm surge, Dean says. In areas with healthy
dunes, more sand will go offshore. But if the slope of the shore
is low, as it is in most of the state and particularly along the
lower Gulf Coast, then the waves will carry the sand farther
onto the land in an action known as "overwash."
Thanks to a healthy dune system in the Panhandle, much of


the eroded sand in the 1995 storms was taken out to sea, Dean
says. That was the case for beaches from Pensacola Bay to
Panama City Beach, areas Dean and his colleagues have been
surveying for some time.
"Some of that sand will come back over time," Dean
explains. "But it may take years or decades for the dunes to
rebuild."
On places like Okaloosa Island, however, the storm surge
pushed the beach far inland, blanketing everything in its path.
"The lower level of nearly every seaside condominium is
gutted and caked with up to three feet of sand," the Northwest
Florida Daily
News reported.
"Where there
were houses,
there is sand.
Where there were
streets, there is
sand."
While Dean's
research focuses
__ __on near-term
solutions to
beach eloion, his
colleague, Dan
"Hanes, seeks a
better under-
standing of the
processes that
cause beach
erosion.
Hanes has
done a series of experiments over the past five years funded by
about $1 million from the Office for Naval Research that he
hopes will help engineers understand the mechanisms involved
in erosion so they one day may be able to predict where it will
happen.
Hanes is trying to understand the physical processes by
which sand is suspended by waves on the Continental Shelf.
Since existing models cannot predict how a shoreline will
respond to a storm, Hanes and his fellow researchers have put
out an intense array of instruments to measure what's happen-
ing to the individual grains of sand in a small area.
Hanes hopes to develop models that will relate the sediment
response to climatic forces, which in turn will allow researchers
to predict, modify or even prevent changes in the coastline.
"We're trying to understand the physics of the process,"


28 Spring 1996










Hanessays. Ics rallIy "'
qu+ie m) seriou '
Re ,en advances in
electronics, computers, .--
acoustics and '.idc, e b-e
broiuglu high-ca ilu -
methods to che '[udi- of
the very low-tech -_--
problem of beach. .
erosion. -

to buffer property from
dhe dcraciuve forces of
wind and water, the
ochcr half of Che formula B;
is to construct buildings
so they can withstand the scorm.
"There's a right way to dc clop alc.ng i [he horehlinc and a
wrong way," says Paden Woodruff., senior enginccr v.' i[ch th
state Bureau of Beaches and C,a~r.al 51 vtem. Hc iciti the
state's Coastal Construction C.nrrol Line i. tlie standard for
sensible coastal development
Stru,c:ures buil sear. ird orf [hI line mLi4c be abo'.e [he cre.-;
of a wave that would occur during a 1 l:-vc- i r [ornm and
founded on pilings deep enough to ,'. ichstand ,c '.ier crosion.
'.; ,odruFf says damage from rhe 19195 stornm', [:o srurcLires
built before and after estabiihninc t'tf the line in the 1'o-1h v.Wa
"like night and day." He recallJs .ec inr h homes \' irh mirn!or
damage next to concrete slab; and pile, : f rabble.
While structures built to modern standard, tfor che most
part successfully weathered the 1'-1 t hurn' iil'n eiasoin-. (Mim
will likely take its toll on Florida s be aihes. In
recent decades, at least one poV.er ul hurn-
cane has hit the Gulf coast ee ri 10 \ears
Dean says, devastating the area i 19-5 Il' '
and now in 1995. .
"Nature," Dean says, "is ing o 'ake
some of these decisions for u." ""

James Hellegaard is a writer r:.. L'F \ : ;" .' _,.
Public Affairs.

Robert G. Dean
Graduate Research Professor and Chair L '*' ..... ... J '- ,I ..
& Oceanographic Engineering, (352) ''-* .
dean@coed.coastal.ufl.edu .'
Daniel M. Hanes -'
Associate Professor, Department ofCoa ~ :. ', :: i ....., ,. :
Engineering, (352) 392-9801, hanes@c... r8 .t :. .J


"Raw,--






































































































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-;c--.

















While in their own way many attendants, ch
modern women feel as profession- logic, mathem
ally constrained as the 19th-century
governess Virginia Woolf quoted in
her 1938 feminist essay, society is
awakening to the unique contribu-
tions of the so-called "lesser sex."
Nowhere is this more evident l
than at universities across the
country, where the door from the kitchen to the laboratory is
open wider than ever before.
From health science to political science even literature,.
where intellectuals strive to interpret the work of Woolf and
other great authors women in all disciplines are assuming
prominent research roles.
More and more, women also find themselves the subjects of
that research. Their opinions and perspectives and their
unique physiology have become increasingly valuable as
scholars of both sexes strive to make their work more reflective
of society.
The University of Florida, by any measure, stands at the
vanguard of this revolution. UF has had a women's studies
program since 1977, and recently consolidated gender-related
research into an interdisciplinary Center for Women's Studies
and Gender Research.
The university is also a major participant in the Women's
Health Initiative, a multicenter research project studying major
health threats to women. UF's Health Science Center is one of
40 selected to play key roles in the $628 million, 15-year effort
funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The
massive project will involve more than 163,000 women. UF's
$11.7 million share will be used to study 3,600 of them, ages
50 to 79.
Also, faculty at UF's Health Science Center have proposed
the "Florida Institute for Women: Health Gatekeepers" to
integrate research and educational activities in the creation of
innovative health-care delivery systems that will capitalize on
the vital caregiving role of women.
And in February, more than 200 national leaders in women's
health convened in Gainesville to define a national agenda for
women's medical research.
Some might dismiss this trend as a forced apology for years
of neglect or a backlash that seeks to omit men. Some cynics
might even label gender-based research irrelevant or useless.
But those involved take a more positive approach.


story botany, They celebrate the opportunity
S, C6f.?" to study and analyze the diverse
opinions and interpretations
Miss Weeton women and men bring to all
Virginia Woolf's disciplines. And they point to the
"Three Guineas" life-saving lessons learned by
focusing medical research on
women, who may share the same
diseases as men in name, but
whom physicians are finding often react very differently to
those ailments.
"I had a professor once who used to say you never know
when you're going to find a good idea always be open to
research about important questions regardless of where you go
to look for the answers," says Terry Hynes, dean of the College
of Journalism and Communications. "If you leave out half the
human race when you're trying to find the answers, it seems to
me likely that one could miss out."
Sue Rosser, the new director of UF's Center for Women's
Studies and Gender Research, says, "As a postdoctoral student
at the University of Wisconsin in the early '70s, I realized as a
biologist who had two children that I really didn't know a lot
about how my own body worked. It was a time throughout the
country when women were coming to the realization they had
not been included in academia, either in terms of the research
being done or the focus of the way things were being taught.
There was just this huge gap of information."

The Forgotten Gender

Not long ago, if you weren't a 180-pound, middle-aged,
white male, you didn't count in medical research.
Scientists based their findings on a group comprised almost
exclusively of men who largely fit the classic mold, then applied
those data to women, without great concern for possible
physiologic differences.
"Women are the forgotten gender in much health research,"
Rosser writes in Women's Health Missing From U.S. Medicine.
"The selection and definition of problems for study, the choice
of experimental subjects and conclusions drawn from the data
in clinical trials often fail to include women or women's
changing needs throughout the life span."
As a result, physicians often are hampered by a dearth of
information when deciding a course of treatment for women,
despite the fact that our population is increasingly elderly,


Explore 31










minority and female, Rosser says.
For example, although heart
disease is the leading killer of both '
sexes, the more than 22,000 doctors i
included in a seven-year study of the
effects of aspirin on cardiovascular
disease were all men. And little study
has been undertaken on AIDS in
women, despite the fact that women
constitute the group in which AIDS
is increasing most rapidly.
This has startling consequences.
Women have a death rate 10 times Sac Roi,er
higher than men from heart attack. In
the case of AIDS, the average life
expectancy after diagnosis for a man
is more than two years. For a woman,
it is only about four months.
The Women's Health Initiative -
to focus on health threats such as
osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease,
and breast and colon cancer is
making women's health a priority
through the collection of baseline
data on previously understudied
causes of death in females.
"This is the major study on
women to be completed this century,
and I think it's going to direct
medical care for women for a century
to come," says Dr. Marian Limacher,
UF's project director and a cardiolo-
gist at the College of Medicine and
the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
"It gives us the opportunity to answer
some of the nagging questions we've had for years."

The Road Less Traveled

Rosser says the evolution of women's studies can be traced
from a time known as the "absence of women not noted" to the
present, when research recognizes that women's experiences
must be included because women have had half of the world's
lived experience.
"The ultimate goal, and we're nowhere near this, would be
the inclusion and integration of the same information about
women as we have about men," Rosser says. "We don't want to
go from the absence of women not noted to the absence of men
not noted."
This framework goes to the heart of the scientific process
and rocks long-standing assumptions that since science is


"objective," gender does not
influence who becomes a scientist or
what kind of science is produced. In
reality, most scientists are male and,
therefore, science reflects a mascu-
line perspective, Rosser says.
"Many scientists would suggest
that -cience is 'manl ? s' as well as
'V-rn: imi l,- rhe, are unaware of or
would openly reject the notion that
ge nder might influence the theories,
data collection, subjects chosen for
experimentation or questions asked,"
Rosser writes.
During the past two decades,
several factors have combined to
alter that outlook. The significant
minority of women now in medical
school have started to question the
bias toward a male standard.
"When I entered medical school
at Loyola in 1974, it was the first
year there were more than a tike n
number of women," says Dr. Nancy
A.'Lri.fi', L'."h,,,er Hardt, associate professor of
',-) pathology and obstetrics/gynecology
at UF's College of Medicine, whose
research interests include silicone
breast implants. "We were grateful to
be included and tended to go along
With the program. Now the propor-
Stion of women to men in most
medical school classes is near 50:50.
Current students are more comfort-
able than we were in pointing out
perceived bias in teaching."
Indeed, until more women began to enter medical school,
the male-dominated profession tended toward a male standard-
ized patient, except in the obvious area of reproduction.
"Of course reproduction had an important place in our
curriculum," Hardt says, "but we are coming to realize that
women's health encompasses more than just reproduction. It
wasn't that our professors didn't think women were important;
they just thought that in matters unrelated to reproduction,
women were the same as men."
Two other factors affected researchers' decisions to exclude
women from most medical studies: the fear that drugs tested on
women of childbearing age could harm the fetus if a woman
became pregnant during the trial, and the belief that medica-
tions are metabolized differently by women because of the
influence of fluctuating hormone levels associated with the


32 Spring 1996










menstrual cycle a difficult variable to control.
Both the NIH and the Food and Drug Administration have
now changed their guidelines to include clinical trial partici-
pants who are ofchildbcaring poreniiLal.
"I think it's very important for us to understand that the
circum.,c.ancei ofs. omen differ significantly from their counter-
parts who are male, particularly in the population of older
adults I Eld' Sa;, ) Dr. Raymond Coward, director of UF's
Institute for Gei. .nc,:l,.,- "it has become routine in gerontol-
ogy now to differentiate between older males and older females.
We simply are too aware of the enormous differences in their
lives. In our case it wouldn't be acceptable science to do
otherwise."
Researchers stress that emphasizing women in medical
education improves the situation for b:,rh ci.es.
"Since women are the bearers of b,:.h m"l mnd female
children, the health ofthe irunin depend. or:n [he health of its
women," Rosser writes.

Endless Possibilities

The possibilities for applying gender to research are endless.
Just ask Sandra Russo, who found a gender issue among the
goat herds of Africa.
Several years ago, Russo and some colleagues were introduc-
ing dairy goats to a community in Kenya that was in dire need
of help. The researchers assumed the tribe's men tended to
livestock, so they spent long hours teaching them the basics of
proper goat care.
But their underlying assumption was wrong. In that culture,
it was a woman's role to care for animals, and because the men
weren't passing along what they learned to the women, goats
were dying. Once the researchers began directing their teaching
at the women, the goats fared much better.
Today, Russo serves as co-director of gender, environment
and agriculture programs at UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Russo is co-principal investigator
on several projects under the MERGE program, an acronym
for Managing the Environment and Resources with a Gender
Emphasis. Marianne Schmink, director of UF's Tropical
Conservation and Development Program, is principal investiga-
tor.
"I don't find the actual study of women difficult; what I find
difficult is my professional peers not considering the study of
women as a credible area of research," Russo says. "Often the
topic itself is dismissed lightly as 'that's just because you're a
feminist.'
"Some researchers say, 'I'm a scientist, and science is gender
neutral.' But science is not gender neutral."
If goats lit the way for Russo, it was griping and grumbling
that led Diana Boxer to gender-based studies. As a


sociolinguist, she analyzes conversations to detect differences in
how women and men communicate. Her projects include
studying the simplest units of rule-governed speech, things like
compliments, apologies or complaints.
"Most people gripe because they want a commiserative reply,
and that builds solidarity in a relationship and rapport," says
Boxer, assistant professor of linguistics and author of Griping,
Grumbling and Bitching, and Complaining and Commiserating.
"Whereas women tend to give commiserative responses, men
tend to give advice on how to solve the problem."
Patricia Miller, associate dean of the College of Liberal Arts
and Sciences and a professor of psychology, says that it's time to
move beyond a simple "sex differences" approach.
"A lot of early work on sex differences was focused on the
male as normal, and on women as different from that," Miller
says. "Or they focused on what males are better at than females,
and what females are better at than men. But those really aren't
very interesting questions. I think what's more important is to
look at how gender is an important variable in practically
anything we choose to study. Incorporating research on women
enriches the discipline and brings about better scholarship.
"Somebody once suggested that if Newton had been a
woman, when the apple fell out of the tree, it still would have
fallen down rather than up, but a woman might have asked
different questions about the force of gravity than he did,"
Miller adds. "They wouldn't be better questions or worse
questions, but they might be different questions. There are
many ways to look at reality."
Suzanna Smith, a family sociologist who has studied
Florida's commercial fishing families, says being a feminist
means having a humanizing consciousness that pervades
professional life.
"It means as a researcher making visible women who have in
the past been invisible, and emphasizing women's strengths and
the contributions they make to their families and their commu-
nities," says Smith, associate professor of human development
at UE "I think as a teacher and practitioner it means advocat-
ing on women's behalf." 4,




Marian Limacher
Associate Professor, Department of Cardiology, (352) 376-1611,
limacher.vahmed@shands.ufl.edu
Patricia H. Miller
Professor and Associate Dean, Department of Psychology, (352) 392-5781,
pmiller@webb.psych.ufl.edu
Sue Rosser
Director, Center for Women's Studies and Gender Research, (352) 392-3365,
srosser@wst.ufl.edu
Sandra L. Russo
Office of International Studies and Programs, (352) 392-6783, srusso@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu


Explore 33
























raJm IOu dCPenH

afrbm vS.r duktee










Selling things used to be so simple. Stiff-collared merchants
displayed their wares on counters, stood by the door to dis-
courage shoplifters and lowered prices when a product
didn't sell.
Today, retailing is a $2 trillion-a-year business in the United
States. Since World War II, retailers have moved from Main
Street to the mall and from mom-and-pop ownership to
multinational corporations.
Buffeted by increasing competition from catalogs and home
shopping television, and bracing for even more competition as
the electronic mall on the Internet expands, traditional stores
are struggling to maximize profits, minimize overhead and still
maintain their niche with personal attention.
"There has been a major power shift toward retailing," says
Barton Weitz, J.C. Penney Eminent Scholar in Retail Manage-
ment at UF and director of the College of Business Admin-
istration's Center for Retailing Education and Research. "As
retailers have merged or expanded to become national and
international conglomerates, they have become bigger than
their suppliers."
UF is uniquely positioned to study the dramatic changes
occurring in this business that employs more than 20 million
Americans, thanks to a visionary alumnus and a commitment
to attracting top-notch scholars.
"Historically, retailing was not viewed by business schools as
an area that offered much opportunity for research or many
good career opportunities," Weitz says.
About 10 years ago, David Miller, a 1951 alumnus of the
UF business college who was then vice chairman ofJ.C.
Penney, recognized that the retailing industry was going
through dramatic changes and that colleges and universities
were not putting out graduates trained to respond to these
changes.
By convincing J.C. Penney to establish an eminent scholar
chair in retailing, Miller helped to elevate the discipline, Weitz
says, and that helped to get students interested in working in
the retail field, and faculty interested in studying it.
"Most people don't perceive the excitement that takes place
in a retail store," Miller says. "I felt it was important to expose
young people to retailing as a career option."
Since then, many more retailing giants have supported the
UF center, including Home Depot, Beall's, Wal-Mart, Burdines
and Eckerd.
UF's retailing center is one of only four of its kind in the
country and it has become a place where store executives come
to find solutions to their problems.
"One of my jobs is to try to connect the theoretical interests
of our faculty with the retailers' problems," Weitz says. "I spend
a lot of time with executives who are looking for help on
everything from pricing to human resources to theft.';


Sticky Fingers

Sociology Professor Richard Hollinger has a pretty good
handle on who steals what from America's stores. For five years
now, he has surveyed more than 400 retail stores around the
country to determine the level of shoplifting and employee theft.
Probably the most surprising finding of Hollinger's National
Retail Security Survey (NRSS) is that employees steal more than
customers. But, employees also catch more than 60 percent of
shoplifters and turn in 40 percent of their dishonest coworkers.
Read Hayes, president of Loss Prevention Specialists, a
Winter Park-based retail security consultant that helped to
establish the
NRSS, says the
industry benefits
from an indepen-
dent assessment
of retail theft.
"When we, as
consultants, go to
talk to prospec-
tive clients, it's
nice to be able to
show them that
the seriousness of
retail theft is not
just speculative
wives' tales," says Hayes, a 1981 UF graduate. "Through UF
we are able to provide solid basic research by skilled, credible
scientists."
While many companies are turning to high-tech loss preven-
tion devices to catch sticky-fingered customers, they are also
looking deeper into prospective employees' backgrounds to try to
determine whether they are likely to steal from the company.
"There is much more emphasis on a greater variety ofpre-
employment screening strategies," Hollinger says. "Employers
are looking beyond just criminal records to drug tests, credit
histories, driving records, just about any barometer they can get
their hands on to get a sense of whether a potential employee is
predisposed to violate somebody's rules."
But Hollinger adds that since the average retail employee
stays in a job less than a year, companies "tend to just hope for
the best" after they make a hiring decision, instead focusing
their attention on monitoring products.
Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) is the hottest trend in
loss prevention, Hollinger says. It is dominated by two big
players, Deerfield Beach, Fla.-based Sensormatic and Check-
point Systems in New Jersey.
Sensormatic whose unrestricted grant to UF funded the
NRSS is the industry leader in the manufacture of acousto-
magnetic (ACM) tags, in which a piece of metal inside the tag


Explore 35










emits a detectable vibration if it is exposed to a certain fre-
quency.
Typically seen as a plastic device attached to apparel in large
department stores, the hard versions of ACM tags are labor
intensive in the sense that they must be applied and removed in
the store, but they work well with the wider door openings
common to mall stores. Smaller, disposable ACM tags that
don't have to be removed are in widespread use in such retail
settings as music
and hardware
stores.
Checkpoint .
employs a radio
frequency (RF) ii
tag, which is .
basically just a
miniature
antenna. These
smaller, more
flexible tags are
what you typically
see in health and
beauty stores.
When the clerk places the item on the pad at the counter, it shorts
a capacitor in the tag, making it unresponsive to the frequency
being broadcast by the pass-through devices by the door.
While ACM tags have fewer false alarms and are better
suited to metallic products, from CDs and audio/video tapes to
tools, RF tags are smaller, cheaper and easier to attach, so they
can be used on items where it would not be cost effective to
apply an ACM tag.
Hollinger says a trend toward applying EAS tags during the
manufacturing or packaging process could decide the future of
source tagging.
"The biggest limitation on all of these systems to date has
been that they are very labor intensive to install for the retailer,"
Hollinger says. "As the technology improves, retailers are
starting to demand that manufacturers incorporate source tags
into their products, and in return the retailers are promising to
display that product more prominently, even exclusively in
some cases.

Going, Going, Gone!

Retailers have long viewed clearance markdowns as a "neces-
sary evil," but a UF marketing professor says that, done right,
systematically lowering prices can lead to even greater profits.
"Rather than viewing markdowns as a necessary evil, retail
managers should view them as a strategic opportunity," says
Murali Mantrala.
"The key to maximizing profit is to offer the right price at


the time that a particular type of customer walks into the
store," Mantrala continues. "Some people never buy things
until they go on clearance, while other people wouldn't be
caught dead around the clearance racks."
Mantrala has developed a computer program that combines a
complicated mathematical algorithm with an experienced buyer's
predictions about customer demand to crunch point-of-sale data
and come up with an optimum pricing and inventory plan.
Mantrala says the program, called MARK, "uses what the
retail buyer already knows but computes many more scenarios
of what could happen under different pricing strategies."
In an experiment involving sales of men's shorts at a well-
known department store, Mantrala found that expected profits
applying MARK to determine prices were nearly 50 percent
higher than using an automatic markdown system.
In another experiment, buyers at the Body Shop clothing
store chain headquartered in Jacksonville compared their
planned markdowns on different items to the MARK
program's. MARK resulted in higher profits in every case.
MARK also recommended earlier and deeper markdowns than
the buyers had planned in several instances.
MARK also allows buyers to better predict how much of a
product to order to maximize profit, Mantrala says.
"Typically, the initial stock is procured based on the initial
price, with markdowns used to make sure all the stock is cleared
out by season's end," Mantrala says. "What often seems to be
missed by buyers is the fact that the optimal opening inventory
depends on the entire pricing policy during the season."

The Eyes Have It

When it comes to selling things, it's all in the eyes, says UF
marketing Professor Chris Janiszewski.
During the past five years, Janiszewski has employed a host
of techniques to measure how people make decisions based on
what they see in telephone yellow pages, catalogs, department
stores and management meetings.
"My interest has always been in unconscious influences on
your attention," Janiszewski says. "It's not a matter of manipu-
lating the customer, but in figuring out how people instinc-
tively search for information, so you can organize a display in
an 'easy to access' format."
Through research that has included tracking test subjects'
eyes as they are exposed to catalog pages and comparing
layouts with known catalog sales, Janiszewski has come to the
conclusion that reducing distractions around an item leads to
the most sales.
"You have degrees of peripheral vision, like the rings on a
bull's eye," Janiszewski says. "As you walk through a store or
page through a catalog, you are unconsciously calculating how
many more things there are to see. The more there are, the less


36 Spring 1996










attention you will devote to any one of them, and it is the
attention that gets the sale."
Impulse purchases, in which the customer is not specifically
planning to buy a product, depend on three activities, Janiszewski
says the display must capture the customer's attention, the
products must be viewed long enough to encourage consider-
ation, and the products must appeal to the customer.
Getting and keeping a customer's attention, he continues,
requires two information-gathering systems an exploratory
search and a goal-directed search.
An exploratory search occurs as customers walk through a
store or page through a catalog, letting their eyes move
naturally from display to display, from item to item.
The trick is to get the customers to focus on a particular item
long enough for them to shift to a goal-directed search, where
they start collecting specific information like size, color and price.
"All shopping trips are a combination of these two activi-
ties," Janiszewski says. "A successful merchandise manager is
able to exploit the shift from exploratory search to goal-directed
search by using display to capture customer attention, with the
hope that some of the merchandise will be interesting enough
to promote a goal-directed search."
To do that, Janiszewski says, managers or catalog designers
need to decrease or eliminate competing demand on customer
attention.
"More isolation, not more size, is the key to longer atten-
tion," he says. "Display or catalog designers are often tempted
to add more products to a presentation to create more forceful
displays, but this only increases demand on customers' atten-
tion, and results in them spending less time on each item."
Product display is particularly important in the $60 billion-
a-year catalog industry, where one catalog page can cost
$170,000 to produce and mail to 12 million customers.
"If you apply my research literally, you would only have one
item on a catalog page, and that's not practical," Janiszewski
says. "So the trick in catalog design is to select the items you
want to sell on a page and then to arrange these items so each
has the greatest opportunity to sell successfully."
Ultimately, Janiszewski would like to get a major catalog
retailer to conduct an empirical test of his engineered magazine
against a traditionally designed magazine.
"I'd like to run the same merchandise in two differently
designed catalogs and compare the sales data," he says. "I think
I could design a more effective selling tool."

Interact 'Til You Drop

Imagine you've got a fancy cocktail party to go to and you
haven't got a thing to wear. Way back in the 1990s you might
have trudged out to your local mall in search of a dress.
But this is the 21st century and these days you do all your


shopping from your personal monitor (combination television,
computer monitor and telephone).
Your personal electronic shopper knows what you like, how
much you want to spend and what you already have.
After asking you a few questions, the shopper searches
th.'oulsa nd- oF electronic stores before settling on several hundred
dresses you might like. Then, it displays images of you in
several of the dresses, you select the one you like, the shopper
suggests some accessories, transmits your credit card number
and arranges for the dress to be delivered in two days.
Welcome to the world of interactive home shopping (IHS).
Although only in its infancy, there are already 10,000 retail
home pages on the Internet, and annual sales estimates by the
year 2000 range from $5 billion to $300 billion.
"Right now you only have access to goods through catalogs
or where your car can take you," says marketing Professor Joe
Albi ": H cin take you across the country or around the
world to: fnd rhlthings you want."
Alba. fellu.. markeuin., Professor John Lynch and a host of
[lheir Colle.iC-u; n [he C ll.cZe of Burineds Administration
recentl,. .:?mnplcd a derailed study of the future of interactive
hmrne shoppingg
D.nmocr phiic and culliual trends are highly supportive of an
eleclriii LLtLIC [hure. t researchers report. "Future generations of
consumers will be incr'idasinr l, comfortable with computers.""
But whether IH i.ll do: to malls what malls did to
downtown stores depends on whether it is able to cr ercoome its
inability to provide "sensory" information about products.
"Clearly, shopping on current Internet home pages is not
IHS," the researchers say. "In our view, current Internet
retailing is an unwieldy collection of electronic catalogs, at best.
IHS will gain a significant share of retail sales only if it offers
shoppers an environment that is superior to traditional stores
and catalogs."
The researchers say catalog retailers like Lands' End are in
the best position to enter the IHS market since they have not
already invested in stores and they have strong distribution and
customer database management systems. *4


Joseph W.Alba
Professor, Department of Marketing, (352) 392-0161, albaj@dale.cba.ufl.edu
Richard C. Hollinger
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, (352) 392-2497, rhollin@soc.ufl.edu
Christopher A. Janiszewski
Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, (352) 392-0161, chrisj@dale.cba.ufl.edu
Murali K. Mantrala
Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, (352) 392-0161,
mantrala@dale.cba.ufl.edu
Barton A.Weitz
Eminent Scholar and Chair, Department of Marketing, (352) 392-7166,
bweitz@dale.cba.ufl.edu


Explore 37





















CAN SEE CLEARLY

By JOSEPH KAYS


laucoma is an insidious disease, as many of the 2
million Americans who suffer from it can attest.
It ambushes a person in early middle age and begins to
destroy the retina and optic nerve, working from the outside of
the field of vision in, so that by the time they notice a loss of
vision, up to half of the one million optic nerve fibers have
been destroyed.
And despite the fact that it is the second leading cause of
blindness in the United States, researchers have yet to determine
its cause. It is particularly prevalent among African Americans,
who are five times more likely than whites to contract the disease
and six times more likely to go blind from it.
Typically, the disease is marked by a buildup of pressure in
the aqueous humor, the clear fluid that lubricates and nourishes
the anterior, or front, chamber of the eye between the cornea
and the lens. In normal eyes, the inflow and outflow of aqueous
humor maintains a constant, healthy pressure. But with
hypertensive glaucoma, the eye's drainage system becomes
clogged, causing pressure inside the eye to build until it starts
to damage the retina and the optic nerve that transmits visual
information to the brain.
Scientists have historically considered this pressure to be the
"cause" of the disease. But many people with the telltale
degeneration in the retina and optic nerve do not have abnor-
mal eye pressure, leading researchers to suspect that pressure is
only a symptom of a more basic problem, possibly genetic.
The University of Florida has a long history of studying
glaucoma, with a host of researchers in many departments
searching for better ways to treat, diagnose and possibly even
prevent the disease.


Trusopt Triumph

while much of this research focuses on diagnosing
glaucoma before it does its damage, one UF discovery
is already being hailed by doctors and patients as a major
breakthrough in treating the disease.


Thomas Maren got into glaucoma research by accident. As a
young researcher at the American Cyanamid chemical company
in Connecticut, Maren was assigned to lead a research team to
develop a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or CAI. Carbonic
anhydrase is an enzyme in the body that is linked to fluid
production.
Diamox, the drug Maren's team developed, went on the
market in 1954 as a diuretic to treat kidney disease, but Maren
soon began hearing reports that ophthalmologists were finding
it very helpful in treating glaucoma. Diamox has gone on to
earn more than $1.5 billion in revenues, Maren says.
Maren left American Cyanamid soon after the development
of Diamox to become a charter member of the UF College of
Medicine faculty, where he chaired the Department of Pharma-
cology for 22 years and is now a Graduate Research Professor.
As Diamox became the drug of choice for treating glaucoma,
Maren assumed other researchers would figure out a way to
administer CAIs topically.
The problem has always been getting the eye drops to
permeate the cornea. Then the drug must reach the ciliary
process, the site behind the iris where fluid is produced, and
thus lower aqueous flow and pressure.
Unfortunately, Maren says, early experiments with adminis-
tering CAIs like Diamox in drop form failed and it became
"doctrine" that they would not work if applied directly to the
eye. For a quarter century, glaucoma patients taking oral CAIs
like Diamox had to suffer a host of side effects, including
depression, fatigue and poor appetite.
Finally, in the late 1970s, Maren decided he would take
another shot at developing a topical CAI.
"Diamox had been thought of as my drug," Maren says,
"and I was getting calls from doctors all over the country telling
me how distressful it was to their patients."
Supported by the National Institutes of Health, Maren first
experimented in rabbits with 11 chemical compounds in search of
one that would "diffuse across the cornea, get into the eye and
lower pressure." One, trifluoromethazolamide, seemed to hold the


38 Spring 1996










most promise, but it was not good enough for clinical trial.
Much more needed to be done, but Maren was "thrown out
of every ophthalmic drug house in the country and was
wondering what to do next" when an executive from the
pharmaceutical giant Merck called in early 1981 to invite the
UF researcher to collaborate with his firm.
"Thus began a very satisfactory relationship that I believe is
a model for cooperation among industry, the NIH and the
university," Maren says. "Merck stayed with the project when
any other company would have given up."
Merck chemists developed and, with UF pharmacologists,
tested thousands of new compounds through the 1980s before
settling on dorzolamide as the drug that could best penetrate
the cornea and act upon carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary
process to lower eye pressure.
After extensive animal and human testing in the United
States, Europe and Japan, the U.S. Food & Drug Administra-
tion approved the new drug in late 1994 and Merck began
marketing it under the trade name Trusopt last spring. UF
holds the patent on the basic discoveries and will receive
royalties from Merck.
The typical Trusopt dosage of one drop per eye three times
daily is only about one-hundredth the typical oral dosage, and the
only side effects patients have reported is a slight burning when
they apply the drops, and a slightly bitter taste in the mouth.

Monkey See, Monkey Do

Shile Trusopt treats the symptoms of glaucoma, UF
ophthalmology Professor William Dawson seeks the
cause, or causes.
"Traditionally, physicians have thought elevated fluid
pressure in the eye was the cause of glaucoma," Dawson says.
"Current scientific thought, however, indicates that pressure -
while important may not be the basic factor in the nerve
damage that eventually leads to loss of vision."
Dawson believes some forms of glaucoma may be traced to a
genetic defect, since some people have all the symptoms of
glaucoma but do not have high fluid pressure, and reducing
pressure does not always arrest the loss of vision.
"We're looking for a genetically transmitted anomaly that
interferes with the retina's ability to automatically adjust the
blood circulation within the eye, resulting in nerve damage and
the visual loss associated with the disease," Dawson says.
: Dawson's research team has received a $2 million, five-year
grant from CIBA Vision Ophthalmics, a subsidiary of the Swiss
S pharmaceutical giant Ciba-Geigy, to study a colony of geneti-
cally related monkeys from an island off the coast of Puerto
Rico that he hopes will provide clues to a genetic abnormality
that sets up the eye for later glaucoma.
The 40 monkeys in the test group are offspring of an


Explore 39










original colony of 400 monkeys introduced to the island of
Cayo Santiago in 1938, when anthropologists studying primate
social behavior feared their native habitat in India was threat-
ened by the impending war.
In the early 1980s, Dawson asked colleagues at the Univer-
sity of Puerto Rico's Caribbean Primate Research Center, which
administers the island, if he could borrow some monkeys for a
retina research project.
"Very much to our surprise, when the monkeys arrived they
had a couple of human eye diseases," Dawson says. "We sent
them back, but then we found their replacements had eye
problems, too."
Over the next decade, Dawson and his colleagues tracked
several hundred monkeys in the colony and realized that many
had the same eye diseases, particularly glaucoma.
"This isolated island habitat created a 'genetic bucket' of
monkeys with which researchers can predict glaucoma develop-
ment," Dawson says, adding that the highly matriarchal nature
of monkey society has helped to control the pedigree structure
of 12 generations of monkeys from the island.
Now, through controlled breeding at UF, the researchers will
be able to develop even more precise pedigrees and frequency of
glaucomas in future generations of monkeys. The monkey
population can be expected to almost double every year,
Dawson says, so researchers can track many more generations
of the disease than they could in human patients. The breeding
program will also enable UF to provide monkeys predisposed
to glaucoma to researchers at other institutions.
Dawson says a series of non-invasive eye tests, similar to
those routinely performed on humans in eye clinics, will allow
the researchers to track minute changes in the monkeys' retinas
and optic nerves over successive generations and treatment
conditions.

Lighting The Way

ne of the tests Dawson will use on the monkeys
employs a new imaging technology called optical
coherence tomography, or OCT, to get much-higher-resolution
images of the eye.
"Until now, the use of light as a means of imaging living
biological tissue has been plagued by light scattering, which
limits penetration depths and results in lower image quality and
resolution," says David Reitze, an assistant UF physics professor
who specializes in ultrafast phenomena.
By comparing the reflected light from a continuous beam of
near-infrared light transmitted deep inside the eye with an
unscattered "reference" beam, researchers are developing images
100 times better than the next best technology, ultrasound,
Dawson says.
"Based on our initial studies, using the system to visualize


the inner-eye structure of animals, we believe this is the most
accurate method we've ever had for detecting early-stage
changes in the retina and the optic nerve," Dawson adds. These
initial studies were funded by a grant from UF's Division of
Sponsored Research.
Reitze says conversations about the medical applications of
OCT arose during several visits to UF by physicist Alexander
Sergeev and his colleagues at the Institute of Applied Physics in
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
Russian scientists seeking higher-resolution underwater
images for their submarines were developing OCT at about the
same time as Professor James Fujimoto and a research group at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Sergeev arranged for the first OCT device to be installed at
UF and will continue to collaborate with UF scientists on ways
to probe deeper into human tissue and to create three-dimen-
sional images.
Ultimately, Reitze envisions using OCT with endoscopes to
get high-resolution images from deep inside the body.
"This research, while basic in character, has clear and
potentially revolutionary implications for the diagnosis of
diseases," Reitze says. "Tissue structure, organization and
content are routinely examined by ultrasound, magnetic
resonance and X-ray technology. The equipment to perform
these tests is expensive, large and potentially dangerous. OCT
improves the resolution by a factor of 100, uses smaller,
innocuous equipment and is comparatively less expensive. It is
also potentially much faster than MRI or CAT technologies."

Beagle Eyes

A s a young researcher at Kansas State University and the
University of Minnesota in the early 1970s, Kirk Gelatt
stumbled onto a litter of beagles that seemed to have an
unusually high incidence of glaucoma. It turned out that a
breeder had accidentally let a brother and sister mate and their
offspring all developed glaucoma.
"The way this litter occurred suggested an inherited


40 Spring 1996










disease," says Gelatt, professor of comparative ophthalmology
and former dean of the UF College of Veterinary Medicine.
"Fortunately, the first time we tried to reproduce the disease,
we struck gold."
Beginning with his arrival at the veterinary medicine college in
1976, Gelatt and his colleagues have used the beagle colony he
had developed out of that initial litter to conduct scores of tests
for a wide variety of glaucoma medicines.
"With these dogs, we've probably produced more than 70
journal articles, trained 10 graduate students and received more
than $2 million in grants," Gelatt says.
While researchers like Dawson focus on the back of the eye,
where the optic nerve descends from the retina, Gelatt and
colleagues like Dennis Brooks, associate professor of compara-
tive ophthalmology, explore the front of the eye.
"Changes occur in the front of the eye that damage the
retina and optic nerve at the back of the eye," Brooks says.
"Research on the back of the eye is currently very hot, but they
are all interconnected."
The beagles many of whom have been raised in Gelatt's
home are very good patients, allowing researchers to check
the fluid pressure in their eyes several times a day. Also, because
they begin to show signs of glaucoma as early as 12 to18
months after birth, and because dogs age faster, they are
excellent research subjects.
Gelatt and Brooks believe the UF beagle colony has helped
the university to become a glaucoma center, attracting top
faculty and students interested in the disease.
"First we had rabbits, then we've had the beagles," Gelatt
says. "The monkeys will be yet another model that we can use
to close in on this disease."
Brooks says glaucoma is "much more common than most
people realize" in horses, and he hopes to develop a new
research thrust to study horses.

On The Front Lines

SlItimately, drugs and surgical procedures that help to
relieve glaucoma in animals have to be tried on humans
if the research is going to result in anything more than new
ways to treat glaucoma in rabbits, dogs and monkeys.
That's where Drs. Mark Sherwood, Mary Fran Smith,
William Doyle and their team come in.
Sherwood, chairman of UF's ophthalmology department,
Doyle and Smith employ new surgical techniques and new
combinations of surgery and drugs to treat glaucoma that no
longer responds to drugs like Trusopt.
"Glaucoma is a progressive disease," says Dr. Jose Alfredo
Garcia, a postdoctoral fellow working with Sherwood. "You go
from drops to laser therapy to surgery. This is the place people
come to when their ophthalmologist says 'We can do no more.'"


And many people come to UF, where the Eye Center is
treating about 5,000 patients.
Trabeculectomy, or trab, has been the standard surgery for
glaucoma for a quarter century, says Garcia. Doctors surgically
create a small alternative drainage pathway and filter at the
perimeter of the anterior chamber of the eye to increase the
outflow of aqueous humor and reduce damaging pressure
inside the eye.
But sometimes, scarring around the new drain causes it to
clog again. So Sherwood and his colleagues have been experi-
menting with drugs, many of which are already being used to
treat cancer, to reduce scarring and increase the effectiveness of
the surgery. Among the most successful have been mytomycin
and 5-fluorouracil.
Another approach UF doctors have been perfecting is the
glaucoma drainage implant. Surgeons run a tiny tube from the
anterior chamber of the eye, where the excess fluid builds up, to
a small plastic disc sutured to the surface of the eye.
In addition to improving surgical techniques, Sherwood's
team participates in a number of clinical trials of potential new
glaucoma drugs. For example, UF was one of several eye centers
to test Trusopt before it was approved by the FDA.
Garcia says UF and a few other ophthalmology departments
around the country are also participating in efforts to better
measure glaucoma patients' quality of life through the whole
range of available treatments.
"We have many diagnostic tests that we can do at the Eye
Center," Garcia says, "but there is no uniform way of measur-
ing what glaucoma or our treatments for glaucoma mean in
patients' daily lives."
Working with statisticians and anthropologists, researchers
are trying to develop a standard evaluation form that will
question patients about everyday things like how well they see
traffic signs, food labels or television screens.
"This will give us an instrument to uniformly evaluate
patients from different areas of the country on a regular basis,"
Garcia says. "It adds a new dimension to patient follow-up." *i
Dennis E. Brooks
Associate Professor, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, (352) 392-4700,
deb@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
William W. Dawson
Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, (352) 392-2841, wdawson@eyel.cye.ufl.edu
Kirk N. Gelatt
Professor, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, (352) 392-4700,
gelatt.vetmed3@mail.health.ufl.edu
Thomas H. Maren
Graduate Research Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, (352)
392-3544
David H. Reitze
Associate Professor, Department of Physics, (352) 392-3582, reitze@phys.ufl.edu
Mark B. Sherwood
Professor and Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, (352) 392-3451,
sherwood@eyel.cye.ufl.edu


Explore 41








Excerpts


The Enchanted Amazon
Rain Forest
Stories from a Vanishing World
Nigel J.H. Smith
University Press of Florida

- I "A masterpiece ... In
S' beautiful and readable prose,
the author has deftly shown
how folk beliefs, myths, and
superstitions regulate lives
and activities in primitive
societies and how they often
contribute to environmental
conservation."
Richard Evans Schultes, Harvard Botanical
Museum

"This marvelous book, written in an engaging
style, reveals the richness ofcaboclo folklore
and, in doing so, unveils the complexity and
nuances of the caboclo way of life ... wonder-
ful descriptions and accounts of folk beliefs,
the entire cast of spirit beings that dwell in the
imagination of the people and inform their
lives."
Wade Davis, Caribbean Institute ofAnthropol-
ogy and Sociology, Caracas, Venezuela

Concern mounts daily about the fate of fragile
tropical forests and their indigenous people.
This original collection of the folklore of
peasants living in the Amazon Basin, who
regard their environment with awe and
respect, focuses on the significance of myths
and legends as a message of conservation.
Compiled during Nigel Smith's quarter
century of field work in Amazonia, the stories
reflect the resilient culture of millions of small
farmers, hunters and fisherfolk along the
region's waterways and pioneer roads. Their
lore is an intriguing blend of indigenous,
European and African religious beliefs
spanning all aspects of daily life and including
a wide assortment of ghosts, monsters and
enchanted places.
Many legends were conceived to entertain
audiences with colorful and inspiring stories;
indirectly, they serve to relieve some of the
pressure on animal and plant life for
example, excessive greed when harvesting
forest products, hunting or fishing can
provoke the ire and punishment of supernatu-
ral game wardens. Pugnacious black sows,
giant white dogs and three-legged cows affect
the fates of other transgressors.
As a backdrop to the tales, Smith provides
information on the flora and fauna of the area,


on the geographical and historical setting and
in particular on the problems of rain forest
conservation. All is not lost, he says. Young
people in rural areas still recount tales of spirit
protectors, and the region is experiencing a
revival of traditional cultural practices.
With its intimate photographs, also by
Nigel Smith, this book will appeal to the
general public as will as to ecologists,
anthropologists, botanists, natural historians
and all others working in the Amazon Basin.

Nigel J.H. Smith is a professor of geography
at the University of Florida. He is the author
or co-author of 10 books, including Floods of
Fortune: Ecology and Economy along the
Amazon; Amazonia: Resiliency and Dynamism
of the Land and Its People; Tropical Forests and
Their Crops; Rainforest Corridors; and Man,
Fishes, and the Amazon.



The New History of Florida
Michael Gannon, Editor
University Press of Florida

The Ne Hi%; or The New History of
ol Forida Florida, the first compre-
hensive history of the state
to be written in a quarter
of a century, is the
culmination of the most
recent and significant work
from a galaxy of specialists.
Each of the 22 chapters,
which weave together in one continuous
narrative, was written especially for this
volume. Their authors present here not only
political, economic, military and religious
information, but also social history and
personal experiences. Endnotes and a
bibliography are appended to each chapter.
Florida's first inhabitants entered the
peninsula and panhandle about 10,000 years
ago. The Spaniard Juan Ponce de Leon
arrived in 1513 and called the place La
Florida. More than three centuries of Spanish
and English colonial history followed before
the United States acquired Florida in 1821.
The first state flag was raised over a new
capitol in Tallahassee on May 26, 1845.
Written to observe the sesquicentennial of
statehood, this work documents the rich
history of the Sunshine State for general
readers, students and scholars well into the
21st century.


Michael Gannon, volume editor, is
Distinguished Service Professor of History
and director of the Institute for Early Contact
Period Studies at the University of Florida.
He is the author of Rebel Bishop; The Cross in
the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in
Florida, 1513-1870; Operation Drumbeat;
and the novel Secret Mission, as well as the
best-selling Florida: A Short History, which
won a Certificate of Commendation from the
American Association for State and Local
History.



ADULT USA
James B. Twitchell
Columbia University Press

In the United States today,
the average adult sees and
hears some 3,000 advertise-
Sments each day. Children,
who watch an average of
more than 28 hours of
television a week (which
translates into 40 school
days per year), will spend years of their lives
watching commercials. In ADCULT USA,
James Twitchell, author of the acclaimed
Carnival Culture, takes us into the little-
explored world of Madison Avenue in order
to explain how "a few words from our
sponsor" became a torrent.
Many cultural critics spend a great deal of
time grousing about the general decline in
"basic" knowledge, and advertising -
deemed "cultural garbage" usually takes
much of the blame. Only a few generations
ago, these pundits claim, any half-wit could
quote from The Canterbury Tales at a
cocktail party. Today, a fair percentage of
high school graduates would probably have to
ask who Chaucer is, but the vast majority
know which team won the Bud Bowl last
year. Indeed, advertising has become a
Western canon of its own.
ADCULT USA is not a bitter rant about
how low our society has sunk when we
recognize a Burger King jingle more readily
than Beethoven's Fifth. Twitchell points out
the hard truth: we like to be advertised to. He
shows us that advertising, frequently accused
of creating artificial desire, only channels a
craving that was already there in the first
place.
ADCULT USA helps us understand why
advertising has become the dominant


42 Spring 1996












meaning-making system in American culture
and satisfies our desires in fundamental ways.
Until some alternative system arises to satisfy
those longings, Twitchell argues, advertising
will continue not only to endure but to
triumph.

James B. Twitchell is Alumni Professor of
English at the University of Florida. He is the
author of a number of books, including
Carnival Culture: The Trashing of Taste in
America; Preposterous Violence: Fables of
Aggression in Modern Culture; Dreadful
Pleasures: An Anatomy ofModern Horror; and
Forbidden Partners: The Incest Taboo in
Modern Culture.


Democracy, Dialogue, and
Environmental Disputes
The Contested Languages of Social Regulation
Bruce A. Williams and Albert R. Matheny
Yale University Press

At every level of govern-
ment, environmental
regulation is under siege.
In Washington, it has been
attacked first through the
"New Federalism" and now
through the "Contract
with America." Outside
the capital, environmental
regulation is the subject of controversy as
state and local officials struggle with new
responsibilities, threats of industry exit and
challenges from grassroots groups.
This book addresses the conundrum of
regulation by tracing its source to the
competing characterizations of regulatory


legitimacy that have accompanied the growth
of the American state. Bruce Williams and
Albert Matheny identify three distinct
languages managerial, pluralist and
communitarian used to articulate
competing visions of regulation. They argue
that each language posits a different under-
standing of the public interest and therefore a
different relationship between the state, the
market and the public. Because all three
languages are invoked in regulatory debates,
disputants talk past one another, leaving
fundamental issues of legitimacy and
democracy unresolved or masked by
unexamined assumptions. The authors
propose a dialogic model for analyzing
regulatory policymaking, drawing on
postmodernist theory that claims that
establishing single languages for understand-
ing the world inevitably distorts communica-
tion. They then apply their analysis to case
studies of actual environmental disputes over
hazardous waste regulation in the 1980s and
1990s in New Jersey, Ohio and Florida.

Bruce A. Williams is associate professor of
urban and regional planning and of commu-
nications at the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign. Albert R. Matheny is
associate professor of political science at the
University of Florida.



The CIO 1935-1955
Robert H. Zieger
University of North Carolina Press

The Congress of Industrial Organizations
(CIO) encompassed the largest sustained
surge of worker organization in American


,' history. Robert Zieger
charts the rise of the
u industrial union movement,
from the launching of the
CIO by John L. Lewis in
1935 to its merger under
,i. Walter Reuther with the
-i American Federation of
Labor in 1955. Combining
the institutional history of the CIO with
vivid depictions of working-class life, he also
analyzes the racial and gender dimensions of
industrial unionism.
Zieger details the ideological conflicts that
racked the CIO even as its leaders strove to
establish a labor presence at the heart of the
U.S. economic system. Stressing the efforts of
industrial unionists such as Sidney Hillman
and Philip Murray to forge potent instru-
ments of political action, he assesses the
CIO's vital role in shaping the postwar
political and international order.
Based on archival sources and oral
histories, this study blends social, political,
labor and foreign policy history into a
compelling story of the far-reaching effects of
workers' organizations in America. Zieger's
analysis also contributes to current debates
over labor law reform, the collective
bargaining system and the role of organized
labor in a changing economy.

Robert H. Zieger, professor of history at the
University of Florida, is author of Rebuilding
the Pulp and Paper Workers' Union and
American Workers, American Unions.


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