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S 7- NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
January 7, 1957
NFES-Mimeo Rpt. 57-6
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE GROWN TOBACCO
FOR THE 1957 SEASON
by William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist
The control of insects attacking shade grown tobacco remains essentially
the sa,3 as during the past few seasons. However, the appearance of new insect
pests, and the availability of safer or more effective materials may bring about
some change in control recommendations in the future.
Diluents--Experiments conducted with Fasco and Niagara diluents the past
four seasons have indicated that these materials are as safe and effective to
use as tobacco diluent. Their use will depend on grower preference.
Malathion-This material is chemically similar to parathion but is much less
toxic to humans. A 5% malathion dust gives as effective control of aphids as does
1% parathion. Any grower who is concerned about the safety of parathion should
give malathion serious thought as a substitute aphicide. Malathion may be somewhat
more expensive to use than parathion.
Endrin-This is a relatively new material which is extremely effective
against hornworms. Taste tests of cigars prepared from endrin treated wrappers
have been satisfactory in all cases where it has been used at the 2% level or
below. It is also effective on loopers and budworms (based on three season's work)
and is reported as being very effective on grasshoppers elsewhere. The residual
effect of endrin is comparable to DDT and TDE. Any grower who has not been getting
satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to use 1% or 2% endrin in place of
PREVENTION OF INFESTATION
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept closed
as much as possible, is partially effective in preventing insect infestations on
shade tobacco. The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco
shades as possible. Plant beds and shades should be plowed as soon as possible
after harvesting. Weeds should be destroyed from around the outside of shades,
especially for the control of grasshoppers.
Aphids-Weekly applications of 10-20 pounds of 1% parathion or 5% malathion
Ousts should be made beginning 3 weeks before transplanting whether or not aphids
re observed, and should definitely be made within one week of transplanting.
Cutworms-Applications of 10-20 pounds of 10% DDT dust should be made if
utworm damage is noticed. A bait containing 5% toxaphene or l1% chlordane applied
t 4-5 pounds per 100 sq. yd. along walkways, margins of bed, and in open spaces
here plants are missing will also give good results. Do not apply baits directly
n plants. Best results will be obtained if baits are applied late in the afternoon.
Mimeo Rpt. 57-6 cont'd.
Mole crickets--Applications of 2 pounds of actual aldrin or 4 pounds of
actual chlordane per acre in the fertilizer will give control of mole crickets.
These applications should be made so as to overlap the bedd for several yards or
some marginal damage will occur. If mole crickets appear after seeds have ger-
minated, a 5% toxaphene bait or 1)% chlordane bait is recommended as for cutworms.
Vegetable weevils and fleA beetles-Applications of 1% parathion or 10% DDT
dusts will give satisfactory control of these insects These dusts should be applied
at the rate of to 3/4 lbs. per 100 sq. yards of bed space.
Aphids, budworms, cutworms, and flea beetles-Within one week after trans-
planting, a dust mixture containing ip parathion or 5% malathion and 10% DDT should
be applied and followed by weekly applications until the end of the season. The
first application should be at the rate of 7-8 pounds per acre and gradually increase'
to 15-20 pounds per acre as the plants increase in size.
Hornworms-If hornworms are observed, 10% TDE (DDD, Rhothane) or 1l% to 2%
endrin dusts should be substituted for DDT in the regular weekly dust application.
Loopers--Three year's data indicate that 1% or 2% endrin dust will give good
Grasshoppers-If grasshoppers occur, 1% or 2% endrin dusts may be substitute
for DDT or TDE in the regular weekly dusting program.
Wireworms-Apply 4 ounces of 50% chlordane wettable powder or 4 ounces of
50% chlordane emulsion or 2 ounces of 72% chlordane emulsion per 50 gallons of
transplanting water, or apply 4 ounces of 25% aldrin wettable powder or 4 ounces of
25% aldrin emulsion per 50 gallons of transplanting water. Apply transplanting
water containing insecticide at the rate of 400 gallons per acre or 8, 50-gallon
barrels per acre. Higher rates of application may result in injury to the plants.
If more water is desired, decrease the insecticide proportionally. For example,
if 800 gallons of water per acre is desired, cut the amount of insecticide in half.
In those cases where transplanting water containing insecticide is not used, it is
recommended that 4-6 pounds of actual chlordane or 2-3 pounds of actual aldrin be
applied per acre (40-60 pounds of 10% chlordane or 5% aldrin dusts per acre) with
a dust gun to the soil surface 2-3 weeks before transplanting and immediately plowed
in. It will not be necessary to treat for wireworms if the shade has been broadcast
fumigated for the season's crop.
Mole crickets-Four to six pounds of actual chlordane or 2-3 pounds of actual
aldrin per acre should give effective control of mole crickets if applied 2-3 weeks
before transplanting. If mole crickets become a problem after transplanting 5%
chlordane or 2g% aldrin dust may be used at the rate of 10-15 pounds per acre. The
poisoned baits mentioned for mole cricket control in seed beds are also effective.
CAUTION: These dusts and baits should not be applied directly to plants but only in
spaces between the rows and plants.
WARNING: TO AVOID INJURY TO THE OPERATOR, OBSERVE MANUFACTURER'S PRECAUTIONS AS
GIVEN ON CONTAINERS OF ALL INSECTICIDES.