|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
EEB 15 1954'
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
February 8, 1954
N.F.E.S. Mimeo Rpt. 54-4
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE GROWN TOBACCO FOR THE
by Frank E. Guthrie, Assistant Entomologist
W. C. Rhoades, Entomologist in charge
The control of insects attacking shade grown tobacco remains essentially the same as
during the past few seasons. However, the appearance of several new insect pests, and the
availability of safer or more effective materials may bring about some change in control
recommendations in the near future.
A brief discussion of several new materials which will be available next season is
given below. These materials cannot be given blanket recommendations until further data
are obtained, but growers may want to use them experimentally.
New diluents.--Experiments conducted with Fasco
season have indicated that these materials are as safe
diluent. Although more data will have to be collected
definitely recommend these diluents, they appear to be
comparative tests, and their use will depend on grower
and Niagara diluents this past
and effective to use as tobacco
before the experiment station can
as satisfactory as tobacco dust in
Malathion.--This material is chemically similar to parathion (3422) but is much less
toxic toward humans. A 5% malathion dust gives as effective control on aphids as does 1%
parathion. Any grower who is concerned about the safety of parathion should give malathion
serious thought as a substitute aphicide. Malathion will be somewhat more expensive to use
Endrin.--This is a new material which is extremely effective against hornworms. In
laboratory studies conducted at this.station, endrin. has .been shown to be 75 times more
effective than TDE (rhothane, DDD) and 30 times more effective than toxaphene. Taste tests
of cigars prepared from endrin treated wrappers have been satisfactory in all cases. It is
also effective toward loopers and budworms (based on one season's work) and is reported as
being very effective on grasshoppers elsewhere. It is about as residual as DDT and 2DE.
Any grower who has not been getting satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to use
12' endrin in place of these materials. Present trends indicate that endrin will be
substituted for DDT in the near future, thus avoiding the necessity of making separate
applications for grasshopper control.
Prevention of Infestation
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept closed as much
as possible, is probably the most effective means of controlling insects on shade tobacco.
The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco as possible. Plant beds and
shades should be plowed under as soon as possible after harvesting. Weeds should be
destroyed from around the outside of shades, especially for the control of grasshoppers.
Aphids.--Weekly applications of 10-20 pounds of 1l parathion or 5% malathion dusts
should be made beginning 3 weeks before transplanting whether or not aphids are observed.
and should definitely be made within one week of transplanting.
Cutworms.--Applications of 10-20 pounds of 10% DDT dust should be made if cutworms
damage is noticed. A bait containing 5% toxaphene or l1 chlordane applied at 4-5 pounds
per 100 sq. yd. along walkways, margins of bed, and in open spaces where plants are missing
will also give good results. Do not apply baits directly on plants. Best results will be
obtained if baits are applied late in the afternoon.
Mole crickets.--Applications of 2 pounds of actual aldrin or 4 pounds of actual
chlordane per acre in the fertilizer will give control of mole crickets if treatment is
necessary. These applications should be made so as to overlap the beds for several yards
or some marginal damage will occur. If mole crickets appear after seeds have germinated,
a 5% toxaphene bait or l~ chlordane bait is recommended as for cutworms.
Vegetable weevils and flea beetles.--l5 applications of parathion or 10/ DDT will
give satisfactory control of these insects.
Aphids, budworms, cutworms, and flea beetles.--Within one week after transplanting,
a dust mixture containing 1% parathion or 5', malathion and 10T DDT should be applied and
followed by weekly applications until the end of the season. The first application should
be at the rate of 7-8 pounds per acre and gradually increased to 15-20 pounds per acre as
the plants increase in size.
Hnrnworms.--If hornworms are observed, 10l TDE (DDD, rhothane) or 1-% endrin should
be substituted for DDT in the regular weekly dust application.
Loopers.--One year's data indicate that 10I toxaphene, l~ endrin, or l- dieldrin
dusts will give control, although toxaphene is slow in its action.
Grasshoppers.--If grasshoppers occur, lf endrin may be substituted for DDT or TDE
in the regular weekly dusting program. Separate applications of 10% toxaphene or lt'%
dieldrin dusts will also give effective control.
Wireworms.--Apply 4 ounces of 50T chlordane wettable powder or 4 ounces of 50% chlor-
dane emulsion or 2 ounces of 72/S chlordane emulsion per 50 gallons of transplanting water,
or apply 4 ounces of 25% aldrin wettable powder or 4 ounces of 25% aldrin emulsion per 50
gallons of transplanting water. In those cases where transplanting water is not used, it
is recommended that 4-6 pounds of actual chlordane or 2-3 pounds of actual aldrin be applied
per acre (40-60 pounds of 10l chlordane or 5 aldrin dusts per acre) with a dust gun to the
soil surface 2-3 weeks before transplanting and immediately plow in. This treatment should
be effective for 3-5 years. It will not be necessary to treat for wireworms if the shade
has been broadcast fumigated for this season's crop.
Mole crickets.--4-6 pounds of actual chlordane or 2-3 pounds of actual aldrin per
acre should give effective control of mole crickets if applied 2-3 weeks before transplant.
WARNING: TO AVOID INJURY TO THE OPERATOR, OBSERVE MANUFACTURER'S PRECAUTIONS AS GIVEN ON
CONTAINERS UF ALL INSECTICIDES.