| Material Information
||Feeding replacement pullets for production of market eggs
||Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
||4 p. : ; 23 cm.
||Harms, R. H ( Robert Henry ), 1923-
Douglas, Carroll R ( Carroll Reece ), 1932-
Damron, Bobby L
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
||Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
||Place of Publication:
||Poultry -- Feeding and feeds ( lcsh )
Chickens -- Feeding and feeds ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||R.H. Harms, C.R. Douglas and B.L. Damron.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 51239445
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
CIRCULAR 203 A
OF MARKET EGGS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
FEEDING REPLACEMENT PULLETS FOR PRODUCTION OF
R. H. Harms, C. R. Douglas and B. L. Damron
The feeding of replacement pullets is a field in which there is a
definite lack of agreement based on experimental data. Each
poultry breeder has developed and initiated a system of feeding
for his own breed, strain or cross and for each particular environ-
ment. So have many individual poultrymen. This has led to con-
siderable confusion among poultrymen and feed manufacturers as
to the proper method of feeding replacement pullets.
The purpose of this circular is to summarize some of the availa-
ble information concerning this subject and to present the method
of feeding replacement pullets employed at the University of
AMOUNT OF FEED CONSUMED
The amount of feed consumed by the replacement pullet will
depend upon the breed or strain used. The expected feed con-
sumption by weeks is given in Table 1 for light breed pullets
grown for market egg production. It should be pointed out that
the energy content of the feed will materially affect the total
amount of feed required to produce a pullet. Lowering the energy
content of the feed will result in more feed being consumed, since
the chicken attempts to consume enough feed to satisfy its re-
quirement for energy. Conversely, an increase in energy content
of the feed will result in less feed being consumed.
TABLE 1. POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED PER PULLET1
Feed Consumed (lbs )2
Age in weeks Per Week Cumulative
2 0.26 0.39
4 0.43 1.16
6 0.62 2.30
8 0.70 3.66
10 0.87 5.31
11 0.89 6.20
12 0.83 7.03
13 0.92 7.95
14 0.90 8.85
15 0.89 9.74
16 0.89 10.63
17 0.93 11.56
18 0.96 12.52
19 1.09 13.61
20 1.13 14.74
1An energy change of 10 kilocalories of productive energy per pound of feed will
result in an inverse change of approximately 1% in the amount of feed consumed.
2B. B. Bailey and J. H. Quisenberry Data presented at So. Agr. Workers Conf., 1958.
(Based on birds with adult body weights ranging from 2.97 to 3.32 lbs. at 21 weeks of
age and receiving a diet containing approximately 940 kilocalories of productive energy
FULL FEEDING VS. RESTRICTED FEEDING
Considerable research has been conducted on full vs. restricted
feeding. However, a great deal of controversy still remains as to
which method is best. It is the opinion of most poultrymen and
research workers that a restriction of feed intake will delay age at
first egg by approximately three weeks and increase the size of eggs
produced. This increase in egg size is very desirable in breeder
pullets of the broiler type, since small eggs are not acceptable for
hatching of chicks. However, size of eggs at a given age will not be
affected by the feeding system followed during the growing
period. Therefore, it is suggested that pullets raised for the pro-
duction of market eggs be fully fed.
The feed given to the pullets at various ages should meet the
nutrient requirements as indicated in Table 2.
TABLE 2. SOME MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR STARTING AND
Age in Weeks
0 thru 6 7 thru 14 15 thru 20
Total protein (%) 20.00 16.00 12.00
Vitamin A (I. U./lb.) 682.00 682.00 682.00
Vitamin D3 (I. C. U./lb.) 91.00 91.00 91.00
Riboflavin (mg./lb.) 1.60 0.80 0.80
Pantothenic acid (mg./lb.) 4.50 4.50 4.50
Niacin (mg./lb.) 12.30 5.00 5.00
Choline (mg./lb.) 591.00 ? ?
Vitamin B12 (mcg./lb.) 4.10 ? ?
Calcium (%) 1.00 0.80 0.80
Phosphorus Total (%) 0.70 0.40 0.40
Iodized salt (%) 0.37 0.37 0.37
Manganese (mg./lb.) 25.00 ? ?
1National Academy of Sciences Pub. Number 1. (Other vitamins and minerals are
required. However, sufficient amounts are contained in common feedstuffs to meet the
2With 1318 kilocalories metabolizable energy per pound of feed.
METHOD FOLLOWED AT U OF F
Full feeding is practiced for pullets being raised for market egg
production at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Poultry
Farm. The starter feed (Table 3) is used for the first eight weeks
and then the protein content is reduced from 21.5 to 14.0 percent.
These are complete feeds and do not require the feeding of ad-
This program is not considered to be the only method, but is
believed to be a sound program for feeding pullets which are being
raised for the production of market eggs.
Regardless of the feeding program followed, sufficient feeders
should be used (see Circular 201 A). In order to prevent wastage
of feed, feeders should never be filled more than half full. Birds
should be allowed adequate watering space (gee Circular 201 A)
and waterers should be cleaned and disinfected as often as needed.
This publication was promulgated at an annual cost of $265.78, or 8.6
cents per copy, to present information on feeding replacement pullets
including methods used at the University of Florida.
The authors: Dr. Robert H. Harms, Chairman, Poultry
Science Department; Dr. C. R. Douglas, Assistant Ex-
tension Poultryman; and Dr. B. L. Damron, Assistant
Professor, Poultry Science Department.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean
TABLE 3. COMPOSITION OF STARTING AND GROWING FEEDS USED
FOR PRODUCTION OF PULLETS FOR MARKET EGG PRODUCTION AT
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION POULTRY
Ingredients Starter Grower
0 thru 8 weeks 9 thru 20 weeks
Ground yellow corn 62.35 81.24
Soybean oil meal (50% protein) 31.00 12.34
Alfalfa meal (20% protein) 2.50 2.50
Ground limestone 1.31 1.26
Dicalcium phosphate 1.94 1.76
(18.5% P & 25% Ca)
Iodized salt 0.40 0.40
Micro-Ingredient Mix1 0.50 0.50
1Provides per pound of finished feed 3,000 I.U. vitamin A, 1,000 I.C.U. vitamin D3,
1 mg. menadione dimethylpyriniidinol bisulfite, 2 mg. riboflavin, 6 mg. pantothenic
acid, 18 mg. niacin, 227 mg. choline chloride, 10 mcg. vitamin B12, 56 mg. ethoxyquin,
27 mg. manganese, 23 mg. iron, 3 mg. copper, 90 mcg. cobalt, 500 mcg. iodine, 16 mg.