Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo series - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 61-4
Title: Butylene Glycol
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Butylene Glycol a fermentation by-product from citrus wastes
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo series
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Long, Sterling Krueger, 1927-
Patrick, Roger
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1960
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- By-products -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Waste disposal -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
Statement of Responsibility: Sterling K. Long and Roger Patrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 21, 1960."
Funding: Citrus Station mimeo report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072408
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 75258852

Full Text

High-Density Frozen Orange Concentrate Opportunity for a Product

of Improved Quality F. W. Wenzel

This paper was not completed in time for mimeographing prior to

the date of the meeting and, therefore, could not be included with the

other reports. As soon as it is completed, it will be mimeographed and

made available for distribution.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
999 9/21/60 FWW

Citrus Station Mimeo Series 61-4
September 21, 1960

Butylene Glycol--A Fermentation By-Product
From Citrus Wastes

Sterling K. Long and Roger Patrick

Disposal of liquid citrus cannery wastes is a difficult and expensive
problem of the processing industry and, with future increased production, will
become even more so. Thus far, the processing of press liquor to citrus
molasses seems to be the best way of disposing of this waste, although under
usual marketing conditions it is, at best, a break-even situation.

Fermentation of press liquor to obtain compounds of greater marketability
and, it is to be hoped, greater profit to the processor, seems to be one answer
to the problem. In past years fermentation studies on these wastes have yielded
ethyl alcohol and feed yeast (1) which, while useful, could not compete economi-
cally with other existing processes.

Present studies indicate that fermentation production of 2,3-butylene glycol
may be a better solution to these problems than existing methods.

Physical and Chemical Properties of 2, 3-Butylene Glycol

Butylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid. It occurs
commonly in only two forms, the meso form which is produced by Aerobacter
aerogenes, and the levo form produced by Bacillus olymyxa. From a practical
viewpoint, the most significant difference between the two forms is the effect
they have on the freezing point of aqueous solutions. Meso butylene glycol has
little effect on the freezing point of water while the levo form is a strong
freezing point depressant and may be considered as a substitute for ethylene
glycol in the manufacture of "permanent type" antifreeze.

Either form of the glycol is readily converted by chemical means to other
compounds which can be used in the preparation of solvents, rubber, coated
fabrics, lacquers, fine chemicals, inks, hydraulic fluids, printing pastes,
dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber, detergents, plasticizers, and moisteners for
adhesives, glassine paper, composition cork, stencil paper, and artificial

The Fermentation

The conditions required for production of either form of butylene glycol
are approximately the same which permits use of the same equipment for either

Laboratory-scale fermentations were run in a 13.5 liter fermenter con-
structed of a large glass cylinder with a stainless steel cover equipped with
a stirrer, air sparger, and antifoam feed. The temperature of the fermentation

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
993 9/21/60 SKL

was maintained at 300 C by immersion of the unit in a temperature-controlled
water bath. The progress of the fermentation was followed by periodic analysis
for sugar content (2) and glycol concentration (3).

The sugar source most favorable to good glycol production with lowest
residual sugar was citrus molasses diluted to 200 Brix or press liquor con-
centrated to 200 Brix. The only supplement required to make these liquors
adequate for fermentation was 0.4% (w/v) urea, which was added after sterili-
zation and cooling of the liquors. Apparently the mineral content of these
substrates was adequate since no changes were observed upon addition of a
number of mineral supplements.

During the course of the fermentation, considerable amounts of acids were
produced which made addition of alkali necessary to maintain an optimum pH of
6.0-6.2. Addition of a buffer to retard reduction in pH appeared to be the
most practical solution to this problem. However, use of calcium carbonate,
which was the most likely choice, was found to inhibit production of glycol.
The best means of control was found to be the addition of ION NaOH at given
intervals, especially during the most active period of fermentation (6-24 hours).

Although aeration and stirring were required for glycol production, little
effect was observed upon varying either over rather broad ranges. A stirring
rate of 420 rpm and aeration rate of 1,500 ml/min were found to give desirable
low foaming of the fermentation beer while still permitting formation of high
levels of glycol.

Recovery of 2, 3-Butylene Glycol

Recovery of the glycol from the fermentation beer has been one of the more
difficult problems encountered due to the miscibility of this compound with
water and its high boiling point (1800-1820 C). Ordinary distillation at
atmospheric or reduced pressure, although effective, resulted in considerable
loss of product due to charring of residual sugar and consequent binding of the
glycol. This means of recovery also created clean-up problems since the charred
residue was very difficult to remove from the distillation apparatus.

A more promising method involves a continuous counter-current liquid-
liquid extraction in a column with ethyl acetate as the solvent. Little or no
loss of the solvent has been experienced and no clean-up problems are involved.
There are indications that passage through second and third columns may be re-
quired for greatest recovery.

Literature Cited
1. Nolte, A. J., von Loesecke, H. W. and Pulley, G. N. 1942. Feed yeast and
industrial alcohol from citrus waste press juice. Ind. Eng. Chem., 34, 670-673.
2. Morris, D. L. 1948. In Analytical Methods for Bacterial Fermentations,
2nd rev., pp. 33-35. Nat. Res. Council Can., No. 2952, Saskatoon, Sask.
3. Desnuelle, P. and Naudet, M. 1945. In Analytical Methods for Bacterial
Fermentations, 2nd rev., pp. 37-38. Nat. Res. Council Can., No. 2952, Saskatoon,
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
993 a 9/21/60 SKL

Missing no. 61-5

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