Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experimetn Station ; 56-5
Title: Florida cold pressed lemon oil
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Florida cold pressed lemon oil
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kesterson, J. W
Hendrickson, Rudolph
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1955
Subject: Citrus oils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lemon -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lemon -- Composition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
Statement of Responsibility: J.W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 4, 1955."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072374
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74717610

Full Text
Citrus Station Mimeo Report 56-5
October 4, 1955

Florida Coldpressed Lemon Oil
J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson

During the past four or five years, a considerable amount of interest has
developed in the possibility of raising lemons in Florida for a frozen lemonade
concentrate market. It is becoming increasingly evident that lemons may be-
come a horticultural crop in the near future. There is no published information
on the physical and chemical characteristics or the flavor quality of lemon oil
produced in Florida. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to obtain as much
information as possible relative to the quality of oil produced from the various
lemon varieties grown in the State.

Florida Lemon Varieties. To date, the essential oil from two lemon varie-
ties has been evaluated. These varieties are as follows:

MORELAND LEMON This lemon, source and rootstock unknown, is the
property of Mr. W. H. Schultz, Jr., a nurseryman at Winter Haven. There
are four trees located north of Highway 92 which were planted by Mr. W. H.
Schultz, Sr. in 1942. The fertilizer program is the same as used on adjoining
orange trees. According to Mr. Schultz, the four lemon trees yielded about nine
boxes in 1953 and received no injuries from freezes in past years.

AVON LEMON The original tree of this lemon is located at Avon Park,
from which it derives its name. It is located on Minute Maid property near a
Mr. Williamts house. The fruit is very seedy and acid to taste.

Physicochemical Properties of Florida Lemon Oils. The physical and chem-
ical characteristics are presented in Table 1 for three lemon oil samples; ultra-
violet absorption curves for these samples are also shown in Figure 1, which were
obtained using dilutions of 0.25 gram oil in 100 ml. alcohol. The CD value for
an oil was obtained, as indicated by Sale et al. (2), by drawing a line tangent
to the points of inflection of the curve at approximately 285 and approximately
370 millimicrons and then measuring the length of a vertical line from the point
of peak absorption, approximately 315 mu, to this tangent. Two of the samples
analyzed were made from the Moreland and Avon lemons, while the third sample was
a composite of all the lemon oil produced by Libby, McNeill and Libby during the
1953-54 season. Characteristics of California (1, 2) and Italian (1, 2) lemon
oils are also included in Table 1 for comparison purposes.

Examination of the Moreland lemon oil in ultra-violet light revealed that
the CD value of 0.38 was well within the A.O.A.C. (2) range of 0.23-0.74 for
California oils. The peak at 315 mu of 0.86 is also well within the range of
0.53-1.50 for California oils. The aldehyde content, 2.6 percent, is somewhat on
the low side but compares favorably with the California oils which range from 2.3
to 3.5 percent. This sample of oil was prepared from fruit which had been kept
in cold storage for about three months prior to making the oil. This probably
accounts in part for the low aldehyde content. The flavor of this oil is good,
but somewhat different from California oil, and has a character faintly reminis-
cent of bergamot and lime. This oil meets all requirements of the U.S.P. (3).
Florida Citrus Experiment Station '.
Lake Alfred, Florida.
630a 9/21/55-JWK V

K, 'I


Table 1. Physicochemical Properties of Florida Lemon Oils.

Florida California Italian
Moreland. Avon Composite (1, 2) (1, 2)
Type Extractori Fraser-Brace FMC In-Line FMC In-Line-- -
Quantity oil Ibs. 2 2000 4000 --

Sp. Gray. 2500/250C 0.8510 0.8500 0.8501 0.849-0.855 0.849-0.855
Ref. Ind. 21.4749 1.4745 1.4744 1.4742-1.4755 1.4742-1.4755
Ref. Ind. 10 dist. N2~ ~2
Ref. Ind. 10 dist. N2D 1.4729 1.4730 1.4730

Difference 0.0020 0.0015 0.0014 -
Opt. Rot. a25 +64.13 +62.14 +64.66 +57.0-+65.36 +57.0-+65.36
Opt. Rot. 105 dist. a25 +63.53 +61.64 +62.64 j -
Difference -0.60 -0.50 -2.02 -
Aldehyde % (citral) 2.60 3.90 3.70 2.3-3.5 3.7-5.0
Esters before Acetylation % 2.73 2.71 2.40 -
Esters after Acetylation % 5.11
U. V. Spectrum 315 mu log E 0.25 g
100 cc
CD Value 0.38 0.67 0.43 0.23-0.74 0.49-0.96
Peak Absorption 0.86 1.19 0.92 0.53-1.50 1.00-1.70
Evaporation Residue % 3.52 3.06 3.02 1.5-1.8 1.5-2.2
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida.

Fig. 1. Ultraviolet Examination of Florida Lemon Oils










Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.

0 L


6 Moreland Lemon

C Avon Lemon
0 Composite Sample

Avon lemon oil in ultra-violet light showed that the CD value of 0.67 is
well within the range for California oils, and also well within the range, 0.49-
0.96, of Italian lemon oils. The peak at 315 mu of 1.19 is well within the
range for California oils and also within the range for Italian oils of 1.00-
1.70. On this basis the Avon lemon oil could qualify as either a California oil
or an Italian oil. The aldehyde content,3.9 percent, of this oil is higher than
most California oils which range from 2.3 to 3.5 percent. The odor and flavor
differs from the best type of California oils, and although somewhat different
from the"Italian type is more similar to Italian than to California lemon oil.
This oil meets the U.S.P. requirements. A CD value of 0.43 for the composite
sample is well within the range of 0.23-0.74 for California oils. The peak at
315 mu of 0.92 is well within the range of 0.53-1.50 for California oils. This
sample also met the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. Flavor-wise this
sample was like the Avon lemon oil, being different from both California and
Italian oils, but more similar to the Italian type.

During the summer of 1954, Minute Maid Corporation collected budwood from
about forty different sources in the State in sufficient quantity to topwork
thirteen grapefruit trees to any one selection. As soon as these trees come into
production, samples of oil will be made from each selection of fruit in sufficient
amount to make a proper evaluation of the oil. It is hoped that through such
studies a survey of as many lemon sources as possible can be made under controlled
conditions so that the best lemon varieties may be selected for essential oil


The physical and chemical characteristics of three samples of Florida
lemon oil have been determined. All of the samples met the requirements of the
U.S. Pharmacopoeia. While this work is still in the preliminary stages, it is
evident from the data at hand that Florida can produce an excellent oil which
is equivalent in quality to the finest Italian oils, provided the proper variety
of lemon is planted. At the present price (4) of lemon oil, $4.50-5.50 per
pound, it is estimated that a gross return of $1.25-2.00 per box of fruit can
be realized from the oil, provided yields of oil are comparable to those ob-
tained in California (6-7 pounds per ton fruit (1)). Therefore, it is most im-
portant to find those lemon varieties which produce superior quality oil, so
that growers, if they so choose, can plant those varieties with the greatest all-
round economic possibilities.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida.
630b 9/21/55-JWK


The cooperation of George J. Edwards in making the spectrophotometer evalu-

ations in the ultra-violet range is gratefully acknowledged.


1. Guenther, E. The Essential Oils. Vol. III: 777 pp. 1949. D. van
Nostrand Co., Inc.

2. Sale, J. W. et al. Analysis of Lemon Oils. Journal of the Association
of Official Agricultural Chemists. 36: 1: 112-119. 1953.

3. United States Pharmacopoeia. 13th revision, 957 pp. 1947. Mack Publish-
ing Co.

4. Oil Paint and Drug Reporter. September 12, 1955.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida.
630c 9/21/55-JWK

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