Title: Canned dietetic citrus products
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072365/00001
 Material Information
Title: Canned dietetic citrus products
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Greenleaf, C. A
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1953
Subject: Citrus products -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dietetic foods -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Greenleaf.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072365
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74327443

Full Text

Canned Dietetic Citrus Products
C. A. Greenleaf

The packing and marketing of dietetic citrus products is one aspect of a
subject that has been increasing rather rapidly in scope and complexity during
the last few years. Prior to that the marketing of special foods for people who
had, or thought they had, special dietary needs was confined to drug stores and
so-called health food stores. Now we observe that dietetic foods and canned
foods in particular have followed the lead of infant foods in breaking away from
their earlier restrictions. Like infant foods, they now appear alongside the
traditional grocery items. Well, not quite alongside. Actually, we usually find
them displayed in groceries and supermarkets in a section of their own.

No accurate statistics are available on the present production of dietetic
canned foods. An approximation made in 1951 indicated about five million cases
at that time, and there has been a continued increase since, but pack reports have
not been forthcoming.

What are dietetic foods?

In the N.C.A. bulletin, "Dietetic Canned Foods", appears the statement, "The
expression 'Dietetic Foods' has gained general acceptance as a convenient desig-
nation for those foods which, because of their composition, are especially useful
in the formulation of therapeutic diets." This statement bridges two points of
view, in one of which dietetic foods are characterized by their function, in the
other by their composition. The distinction is worth making, because in practice
the canner will find himself dealing almost entirely with composition and leaving
function to the dietetians and physicians. We may know, to be sure, that certain
foods are suitable for persons suffering from diabetes, overweight, or hypertension,
but we do not offer them as such; what we actually offer are low-calorie foods or
low sodium foods. This is what governs the labeling of these products, and we
might as well recognize it as a working definition of dietetic canned foods in

Whether the requirement is low calorie, low carbohydrate, or low sodium,
citrus products already occupy a prominent place in the picture. If we look at
special diets designed for therapeutic use, we find citrus appearing again and
again. To cite one example, "The Merck Manual", a popular handbook for physicians,
lists a series of five reducing diets, ranging from 1600 down to 600 calories
per day. The basic menu includes three servings of fruit, one of which is
specified as citrus. Reductions in calorie content are made by successive elimi-
nation of items, but the last to go, at the lowest level, is one of the three
servings of fruit. In the same book, in a sample menu for low salt diet, citrus
fruit is listed again. Another widely distributed menu guide is the American Can
Company's pamphlet, "So you're on a Diet!", which gives menus for diabetic, low-
sodium and low-calorie diets. Citrus is listed in all these plans.

Examples like these could be multiplied, but would only reinforce the familiar
fact that citrus fruits are already well entrenched in menus for special diets.
This is something that they have earned on their merits, that is, on the basis of

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.


their natural composition, without any intensive effort being made to promote
them as special dietary foods and without their being labeled as such. How much
additional acceptance can be gained by offering dietetic brands of citrus products
is a question for the marketing experts, and not one that will be tackled in this

Packing of dietetic citrus products

There is really not much to say on the technique of packing dietetic citrus
products. These fruits have a built-in status as low-calorie and low-sodium
foods. Obviously the objective is to process and package them without losing
those virtues.

Deferring for the moment the question of sweetening, the principal technical
problem that arises is in the packing of grapefruit segments, if they are to retain
the virtue of low-sodium content. The problem here is due, of course, to lye
peeling. The effect of this was reflected in some samples that were analyzed in
one phase of the N.C.A. C.M.I. Nutrition Program. iWhile the fruit had a natural
sodium content of about 1 milligram per 100 grams, various lots prepared by lye
peeling ranged up to 9 milligrams. As to the degree to which this variation
could be controlled by washing after lye peeling, the results were somewhat
contradictory, indicating that even a uniform washing procedure at times permitted
a relatively wide variation in the sodium content. In absolute terms, these
quantities of sodium are not large, but the relatively wide variation would pose
a problem in labeling and in analytical control. The answer may be a more prolonged
wash after peeling, or some other method of peeling, possibly with caustic potash
instead of lye.

Labeling of special dietetic acks

Under Section 403 (j) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, if a food
"purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses" its label must bear
such information as is "necessary in order to inform purchasers as to its value
for such uses". This requirement is implemented by detailed regulations, but
the general purpose is simple, namely to insure that the food is really what is
promised, and to give an intelligible measure of its suitability for the special
dietary uses indicated; if it is a low-calorie food, or low-sodium, just how low.

As an illustration of how this works out, the following might be the display
panel of a can of dietetic grapefruit sections:


Packed in water without added sugar
for special dietary use
Net Contents 1 lb. 4 ozs,
N.E. Goode Company, Anywhere, U.S.A.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.


The back panel of the same label could be much as follows:


This product has been packed in water without added
sugar for special use in low calorie and low sodium diets.

Average Analysis -- Per cent

Carbohydrates (by difference) 7.5
Protein 0.6
Fat (ether extract) 0.1
Ash 0.4
Crude Fiber 0.2
Moisture 91.3

Calories per 100 grams 34
Calories per ounce 10

Sodium 2 milligrams per 100 grams
2 milligrams per 1/2 cup serving

For juices the labeling would be a little simpler, but the same general
scheme would be followed.

One point worth noting here is that the sodium is stated first in milligrams
per 100 grams and then in milligrams per average serving. This is in accordance
with the order published by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare on
July 1, 1954, amending the regulations for labeling of dietary foods.

The analysis quoted above is from the N.C.A. bulletin "Dietetic Canned Foods".
In practice, the canner would have to investigate his own product thoroughly
enough to insure that his label analysis is conservative, and does not promise a
lower level of carbohydrate, calories or sodium than he can attain on the average.
To be safe, the stated analysis might well be somewhat above the average. A
program of periodic analytical checks would be necessary; there is no fixed rule
for stating how often these should be, but experience would soon give a guide on

Artificially sweetened fruits

Mention has been made several times of the N.C.A. bulletin "Dietetic Canned
Foods", which was published in 1953 to give canners guidance in the packing and
labeling of these products. One topic covered was artificially sweetened canned
fruits, a subject then and even now in a state of flux.

For some time the Food and Drug Administration has been granting temporary
permits for shipment and sale of artificially sweetened canned fruits that would
otherwise be in conflict with the Standards of Identity. The American Medical
Association formerly would not approve these for use of its Seal of Acceptance,
but has more recently decided to do so.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.

The Food and Drug Administration is endeavoring to work out policy on the use
of artificial sweeteners in foods, and has asked a committee of the National
Research Council to make a study of their health aspects, and to advise on regula-
tory policy. The first phases of this activity have dealt with the fruits for
which Definitions and Standards of Identity are in effect. For the Food and
Drug Administration this constitutes the knottiest part of the problem, but it
is not of concern in the present context because citrus fruits are not yet in
the list of those standardized. Therefore the citrus canner does not need to
worry about permits for experimental marketing, but does have to comply with
the regulations for labeling foods for special dietary purposes, if he uses
artificial sweeteners.

Both saccharin and cyclamate calcium are regarded as safe, in the quantities
needed, for artificial sweetening of canned fruits or juices. Such artificially
sweetened products are definitely foods for special dietary use, and as such are
subject to the labeling requirements for those foods. The sweetener, if saccharin
is used, must be declared prominently in the following way:

"Contains -- saccharin (or saccharin salt, as the case may be), a nonnutritive,
artificial sweetener which should be used only by persons who must restrict their
intake of ordinary sweets." The blank should be filled in with the percentage by
weight of the saccharin or saccharin salt in the food.

If Sucaryl Calcium )is used, the following statement is necessary:

"Contains -- Sucaryl Calcium 'r (Cyclamate Calcium, Abbott Laboratories), a
nonnutritive, artificial sweetener which should be used only by persons who
must restrict their intake of ordinary sweets." Here also the blank should be
filled in with the percentage by weight of the sweetening agent in the food.

The name Sucaryl is a registered trade-marked name of Abbott Laboratories,
North Chicago, Ill., and when it is used, it should be used as illustrated in the
statement quoted. Otherwise the non-proprietary synonym, Cyclamate Calcium, alone
may be used. The sodium salt similarly may be designated as Cyclamate Sodium.

Undoubtedly, artificially sweetened canned fruits have accounted for an
important part of the increase in sale of dietetic foods in recent years, and
seem to have established a solid place for themselves in the market. There are
still some problems to be worked out, particularly with respect to the standardized
fruits. Some apprehension has been expressed lest artificially sweetened fruits
be sold, not as dietetic foods, but as spurious substitutes for the ordinary
products containing nutritive sweeteners. This may be a chimera; thus far we have
no indication of abuse in the marketing of these products, and if it should occur
existing regulatory weapons are probably adequate to control it.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.

Variegated Orange Ice Cream

W. A. Krienke

The ice cream industry of this country produces about 600,000,000 gallons of
ice cream annually. Various fruits have been used and continue to be important
flavoring materials to give variety and consumer appeal to ice cream.

Based on the method of preparation and the formula recommended for the orange
injection material to produce the variegated orange ice cream, and considering only
5 percent of the total volume for this new ice cream, frozen orange concentrate
from 1.5 million boxes of oranges will be required annually. A consumer accept-
ance survey of sales at 3 fountains on the campus of the University of Florida
during 12 months (Oct. 1952 to Oct. 1953) showed that the variegated orange ice
cream commanded nearly 10 percent of ice cream sales when 7 flavors were always
available. This record was established with no display advertising of any kind.

The formula for the orange injection material specifies approximately 50%
orange concentrate (42OBrix), 19% sucrose, 22% corn syrup, 1.0% pectin and 8.0%
water. Variations are possible, therefore a standard of composition should be

A selling price of 30 to 35 cents per pound will compare to the price of
other fruit injection materials now used by ice cream manufacturers.

The use of concentrate from early oranges has received consideration and
study; some oil seems necessary. The use of early fruit for this purpose may
enable processors of concentrate to open the season earlier than is now possible.
Quality-minded ice cream manufacturers, however, will demand a superior product
with respect to microorganisms as well as flavor.

Development of a market for variegated orange ice cream will depend on efforts
used in promoting this new Florida product. The combined efforts of all who are
to benefit from the sale of this new product into a unified program of promotion
can make the launching one of overwhelming success.

Consumers want variegated orange ice cream: a potential market for 3 million
boxes or more of oranges per year.

1Luncheon presentation (with samples).

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.

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