Title: Utilization of Murcott oranges
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072347/00002
 Material Information
Title: Utilization of Murcott oranges
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo series
Alternate Title: Fruit
Florida coldpressed Murcott oil
Processed products
Physical Description: 3, 3, 2 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Deszyck, E. J
Ting, S. V., 1918-
Kesterson, J. W
Hendrickson, Rudolph
Olsen, R. W
Barron, R. W
Wenzel, F. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1960
Subject: Oranges -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Orange oil -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Orange products -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 21, 1960."
Funding: Citrus Station mimeo report
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072347
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 75268554

Full Text

Utilization of Murcott Oranges

II. Florida Coldpressed Murcott Oil
J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson

During recent years a number of groves have been planted in Florida with
the Murcott (4,6) which is sometimes referred to as the Smith tangerine or
Murcott Honey Orange. This fruit has found favor with the fresh fruit industry
and is becoming more important as a specialty item. In anticipation that in-
creased plantings may someday result in the utilization of surplus and cull
fruit for processing, in which event Murcott oil would become an article of
commerce, the physical and chemical properties of the oil are presented.

Experimental Siaples

Coldpressed Murcott oil samples were prepared at the Citrus Experiment
Station pilot plant by using an FMC In-Line extractor and auxiliary equipment
as previously described (3). Sample No. 1 was prepared from 23 boxes of
Murcotts grown on sour orange rootstock while sample No. 2 was prepared from
30 boxes of Murcotts grown on rough lemon rootstock. Dancy tangerine is a
commercial sample of EMC In-Line extractor oil.

Method of Analyses

The values for refractive index, optical rotation, specific gravity, alde-
hyde content and evaporation residue were determined in accordance with the
procedures given by Guenther (2). Ultraviolet absorption data were secured in
accordance with the procedure of Sale et al (5), while the infrared absorption
data were obtained on each oil without dilution in a sodium chloride cell of
0.0139 mm thickness by using a Beckman IR-4B spectrophotometer.

Gas chromatographic data were secured using an Aerograph A-100-C with a
Brown recorder. The parameters for this study were as follows: 2 ul sample,
40 cc/min gas flow, temp. 1400 C., filament current 150 ma, range 1 my, helium
as carrier gas, diethyleneglycol succinate DEGS as stationary phase, column
length 5 feet and a chart speed of 20 in/hr.

Discussion of Results

The physical and chemical properties of the two pure samples of coldpressed
Murcott oil are presented in Tables 1 and 2. It is evident that these oils are
identical for all practical purposes. Although the aldehyde content was slightly
higher in one sample, there is no reason to believe that rootstock has an im-
portant influence on oil quality. The physical and chemical characteristics
meet those of the United States Pharmacopoeia for orange oil, but the CD and
peak absorption values are more similar to those for tangerine oil. Organo-
leptically Murcott oil differs somewhat from normal orange oil and has a
tangerine character.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
988 9/21/60 JWK

Table 1. Physical and
Murcott oil.

chemical characteristics of coldpressed

Murcott No. 1 Murcott No. 2

Sp. gray. 250 C./250 C. 0.8442 0.8441
Ref. Ind. n2B 1.4737 1.4737
Ref. Ind. 10% dist. n2D 1.4721 1.4721
Difference 0.0016 0.0016
Opt. rot. a25 +96.48 +96.48
Opt. rot. 10fo dist. a2 +97.76 +98.40
Difference + 1.28 + 1.92
Aldehyde Content--% 1.26 1.09
Evaporation residue--% 3.37 3.26

Table 2. Spectrophotometric analyses
Murcott oil in ultraviolet

of coldpressed

U. V. Spectrum Mu log E 0 m5

Sample CD Peak Mu

Murcott No. 1 0.152 0.980 270.0
0.540 1.020 327.5

Murcott No. 2 0.163 1.000 270.0
0.532 1.040 327.5

Essential oils from plants of different genera normally give very distinct
infrared and chromatographic "trace-patterns" and in many cases it is possible
to distinguish between oil from different species of the same genus. Since
these trace-patterns are invaluable aids to experienced workers for identifi-
cation, these data are presented in Figs. 1 and 2.

When compared to curves representing tangerine oil, the infrared curves
show identical absorption areas while the gas chromatographic traces show that
the detectable components are in the same definite positions. The approximate
relative concentrations of these components are shown by their peak heights at
the following sensitivity adjustments: (Xl) for peaks 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; (X2)
for peaks 1, 2 and Air; (X64) for peak 3. In Murcott the relative peak heights
for components 6 and 7 show different concentrations; whereas, in tangerine
peaks 6 and 7 are in equal concentrations. There appeared to be a greater con-
centration of components 4, 5, and 6 in Murcott oil while components 1 and 7

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
988 a 9/21/60 JWK





p ~fl p p p p

12 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 20 11 12 23

24 15

Fig. 1. Typical infrared curves for coldpruesed Muroott and
Danoy tangerine oil.







0 *




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 15

Fig. 3. Infrared spectrophotoaetrio cmuves to establish the
identity of tangeretin in coldpressed Murcott oil.

were more abundant in tangerine oil. This probably accounts for the difference
in flavor and aroma since both have definite mandarin characteristics.

On standing in a refrigerator a yellow precipitate formed in the oil.
This precipitate was removed from the oil by filtration and washed with
petroleum ether to remove excess oil and wax. It was then recrystallized
three times from alcohol. A very fine crystalline substance with a pale
yellow tinge resulted. This product melted at 153.20 C. (uncor.) and the
mixed melting point with a known sample of tangeretin (1540 C.) was 153.80 C.
(uncor.). A rectangular potassium bromide pellet was prepared for infrared
analysis according to the procedure of Edwards (1) as follows: 2 mg of sample
was mixed with 200 mg of infrared quality potassium bromide and ground in
carbon tetrachloride and evaporated to dryness. (This is essential to give
a uniform crystal--since a decrease in crystal size will give increased ab-
sorption.) The powder was then pressed into a 25 mm X 6 mm pellet at 16,000
Ibs. of hydraulic pressure for 5 minutes. The infrared curve for a known
sample of 100 percent tangeretin (Fig. 3) when superimposed with the unknown
gave identical absorption areas. This further characterizes the precipitate
from Murcott oil as tangeretin and gives additional proof that Murcott oil is
more typically tangerine in character.


The chemical and physical characteristics of coldpressed Murcott oil ex-
pressed by the FMC In-Line extractor have been determined and presented. These
data show Murcott oil to have characteristics similar to those for tangerine


Grateful acknowledgment is made to Mr. G. J. Edwards for the infrared
and ultraviolet analyses.

Literature Cited

1. Edwards, G. J. "Description of a Rectangular Pellet Die," to be
published in Jour. Anal. Chem.

2. Guenther, E. "The Essential Oils." 1:427. 1948. D. Van Nostrand
Company, Inc.

3. Kesterson, J. W. and R. Hendrickson. "Two Commercial Methods for the
Production of Citrus Oils in Florida." Amer. Perf. and Aromatics
67 (2): 35-38. 1956.

4. Knorr, L. C. and W. C. Price. "Fovea--A Disease of Murcott." Citrus
Magazine 22 (1): 16-19, 26. 1959.
5. Sale, J. W. et al. "Analysis of Lemon Oil." Jour. Assoc. Office Agr.
Chemists 36 (1): 112-119. 1953.
6. Savage, Z. "Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries July 1, 1928 to
June 30, 1959." Agr. Econ. Mimeo Report 60-7, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1959.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 988 b 9/21/60 JWK

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