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Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Publication Date:
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
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03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )
UF00072147_00264 ( sobekcm )

Full Text

,Vol..7 Naf ; *

Mrs. Andfrea Talbutt
Research Institute for
Study of Man
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N,Y. 10021
Sh. Lehigh 5 8448


S -- RESEARCH INaii&.s-

jNE /A AM. '


W~1 ']IEi'.q

By Llo'd Best
exit of Tubal Uriah-Buzz
Butler like whom few so
ME -Lan"er

so ue itifely
- clinches what impact the
Word imposes on the
One incident is etched
forever on the scroll of
my imagination,- serving "
to heff the man heavy,
without recourse to the
balancing evaluations of
scholarly investigation.
I had swung into Fyla-
bad along the Siparia
Road, leaving behind the
school .where Annan
Singh now teaches, rolling
briskly past the Charlie
King Junction, and past
the Hall of the Revolu-
tion there on the left.
I had parked short of
the market there on the
right. Matthews, the
Tapiaman whose Automo-
tique is nowadays a land-
mark farther down the
road on the same hand,
could not yet have instal-
led our office under his
In those days, we were
hustling the hardsell,
hoping that the Oil Belt
would welcome the head-
line "Not Black Power
Bit Black Gold."

Absolutely the first
customer to yield up the
25 cents was a veteran,
three-score years or more,
alert and strong, walking
JH-in: a -softj black -felt-

"Ah, Lloyd Best, you
look a much younger
man than I thought from
the papers; but the only
man 1 interested in is
He iwas following the
politics still. He was clear,
he was conscious. No fuss.
Calm, collected, com-
posed, the Chief Servant
had settled his heart
That must have been
1971, three decades and
change after the Chief
first had sung his siren
song, shattering the silence
of the dispossessed and
disadvantaged down in
the oilfields, and, soon,
by political extension, up
in the cane-fields as well,
unlocking both floodgates
of frustration following-
on the disappointments
with Cipriani.
Now everytime you
swing into Fyzabad, the
one echo you can never
See Page 2

Is a female


children, then Carnival
must be for women.
Whether it's a flag-
woman, a tourist-leggo,
woman, a \iner girl. a
Carnival woman or lust
your ordinary schoolgirl
sister going Junior
Secondary. Carnival
now emphasises female.
Remarkable both for
thi r quantity (75% of
masqueraders, according
to one bandleader's
estimate) and the stu-
pendous variety and
excitement of their
quality. ,
t~'-.,^ rcn_Ffml>'aI har'/p~honl

now indeed!
And, fittingly, it took
a woman to provide
the song most sung, most
played, most wined to
this year.
Calypso Rose who
had given international
woman's year her
unique theme of "Do
Dem Back", won the
roadmarch to prove,
well, that a woman
could do it
And how she did it,
coming from that no-
man's-land between
Sparrow, Kjtch and
now Short Shirt, to win
solidly at the last
Still, no better tribute
is possible than that of
the girl in plaits who
showed what she could
do with Rose's "More
Jerry Llewellyn

February Revolution seven years old

February 26, Trinidad
and Tobago finally achieved
an unillusion with the
hopes of the 1950's.
The Revolution had
been brewing for 10 years
of angry silence following
the easy Smartman's settle-
ment of Chaguaramas in
SDecember 1960.
: .-:;.z .

That had been the first
of the slick solutions which
were gradually to erode
the trust of the population
and to defuse our enthusi-
asm by somehow discount-
ing the costs which a
desperate mobilization had
been leading us to antici-

Between 1960 and 1970,
smartman solutions abo-
unded in relation to Federa-
tion, industrialization, the
independence constitution,
industrial relations and
anything you care to name.
And then after a few
months of unrelenting
skirmish, a rebellion came
in earnest. The youth and

the blacks rejected the pat Not in the colossal crowdT
policy of a plaster for every mobilizations of 1970 and
sore, in an explosion of SeePage 4
indignation, anger and hate.
In the process, we re-
discovered the disadvant-
ages and the advantages of READ AFRO COUTURE
agitation. While the old ON PAGE 5
regime shook at its very ,
foundations, the Govern- BOLL WEEVIL DRAG
Sent didn't fall. r BROTHER PAGE 10


--t "j:;:~ ~-i.sf

~4a~~Ei~ll c~i~tB~a ~H~LA ~ ~ '~I L~b"U~~PU-Yr N-M---lr --K W s=7I1YZ I~~.~

7.-'!- -s-wtmp



,..- r .

F- k pl . . .. ..

b .-





By Michael Harris R
THERE IS little question now that the t
future of Zimbabwe will only be decided f
after a bitter and bloody racial war. Nor is
there really any question of the ultimate b
outcome of any such war. i
The only question now is how long
and how widespread the conflagration will f
be, before the black majority in Zimbabwe t
seize control of their land. e
Such an uncompromisingly bitter
picture of the future course of events in c
Zimbabwe is the only objective conclusion
to be -drawn from the breakdown of the l
Geneva Conference and the last desperate -
attempt to conclude a negotiated settle- I
ment. Patriotic Front now sets the pace,
Since then, apparently left to right Robert Mugabe, George
not content with jettison- Silundika and Joshua Nkomo.
ning the last hope for a
peaceful solution, and
seemingly unconcerned
about the prospects of an I
escalated War, the Smithg
regime has has embarked
upon what it calls "an
internal solution".
The essential-component
of the internal solution is a
structure in which the
whites retain fundamental
power but in the context 1
of greater collaboration
with "moderate" blacks. -
The internal solution t
rejects completely the
principle of one. fan one i
To set the stage for the I a i
implementation of this
solution the Smith regime
hasnounced a number of struggle between the libera- so blithely proceed wili past, but the existent cir-
chngesin ce egiatin on movements and te this irrelevancy is entirely. cumstnces clearly permit-
changes in race legislate Smith regime. The Libera- consistent with the pattem ited if not demanded it.
lacks a greater degre tion movements are not of actions in the past and Much has of course
blacks a greater degree of going to settle for thing with his attitude, recently changed -particdularly ovpr t
It is clear that te whole less than majority rule and described by Common- the last year or so. The t
ofeti of an "internal Smith will never embrace wealth Secretary Shridath most significant devlop-
q u estn h Rmp hal as o as o ,neo in-,- i iien a cl t ge .
n. c... r.diblo. R ad_ s, wen S has cle s b sy aben,-ts eta -

-"'"! to ginreE b he~a tal. F write, feinort me han th-
/a r / n t Kire hUit is necessary legiti ised and encouraged
Sdnan d the Rhodesian Front he ree to p ru edrstri e, of e

~-t ge uted tan ever. Uoee ha i ny
.. .erpiti he moraucstre- rm, Te 'riengt o f tet fro
t o remembers that obdst-, Z ambique and, Angola does
Keep breast ofn hen gacy has never posed a the Smith regime facete tiC
real currents in the since pl the Unilateral Decsla- gvngimiera nd de icora

Caribbean Sea 1965 the Smith Regime tion movement which, with th
has managed to survive all the recent creation' of the A
Sl odge it. fr t un ited than evern c
poewith ee Thte at a re of. strength of the-
ra ino ofomic sanctions t ais sup ort toee oualibe- in
Fresh Comment y avework-d. I nfact, the the rc nei of the
v sanctions imposed by. the UN, the success of OPEC,
Every Frida Morning, United Nations hae been and the struggle between
broken by dozens ofcoun- the superpowers for influ-' be
triesTdigetly and indirectly. ence on the African conti- su
Chief amongst these has nent, all make for a situa- ca
Sb een the United States tion in which few nations th
which is still trying o will risk the wrath of black no

a r repeal the Byrd amendment Africa by supporting, fu
Permitting the importation ove'tly or covertly, the til
of Rhodesian Chrome. Smith Regime.
in addition, Britain made All these factors lan
Sit quite clear early in the Smith is undoubtedly re.
life of the regime that it aware of. Yet prec isely R
Sewas not going to resort to because of these lew. IS
1i arms to dislodge it and the circumstances he may feel ga
SAba st o6rmcs hats never pof that continued obduracy ich
1 l African Nations have neverin his syt b t. li
before been in a position is his best bet. brim t
to launch any serious mil- The history of te regime of
Rates for 1977 tary attack.
Trinidad &t Tobago TT '$25.00 peryear Most important of all,
T$Smith has always ~'known
Caricom Countries 30.00 (unchanged) that at his back stands
SOther Caribbean U.S. $25.00 South Africa the chief
U.S./Canada $30.00 bastion of white minority
E.E.C. (incl. U.K.) Stg. Ct14.00 rule which for its own
protection has had to sup- From Page One
Surface rates and rates for port Smith on every ques-
other countries on request. tion of fundamental 'fail to henar is the voice of Pi
political structure. Butler ricocheting from w
Ti 82-84 S Vincent S.Tunapuna, & 2Cipran v. So that not only was the clif t cliff olf his- t t
PQ8Trnlidad~T~bago, W.Teephone66126. & 62-2541. the obduracy of the tory that we ,Ypaled in,. F
"Regime no problem in the say. I f937: gi

Such that most whites in.
Rhodesia obviously feel
hat there can be no peace-
'ul accommodation for
them in the context of a
)lack majority Government
n power.
Their alternatives there-
'ore are either to leave or
:o hold on to the bitter'
In this context, the role
of South Africa is critical.
Andrew Young the black
US ambassador to the UN
declared at the end of his
recent tour of Southern
Africa that Smith and the
Rhodesian Front would
have to do whatever South
Africa forced them to do.
This may be quite the
opposite of the real situa-
tion. For despite the fact
that the Vorster Govern-
ment has displayed f-
willingness to assist in
forcing the Smith regime
to come to a negotiated
settlement, the fact is that
the South African Govern-
ment is clearly constrained
by its own nature,
TheSouth African Gov-
ernment can no more in
the end abandon Mr.
Smith than it can abandon
ts own policies of apartheid.
And the sympathetic
identification of South'
African whites with those
n Rhodesia, and the
encouragement that the
Zimbabwe liberation forces
ive to blacks in South
Africa, effectively ensure
hat South Africa's fate is
ied to that "of Rhodesid'.;

'hat'Sinith-and theRh'de-
an Front are co dnritirigon'
or after the Angolan "l.
experience it is clear that '
ie scale of the conflict
n escalate overnight to
ach international propor-
ons once South Africa
tively intervenes. .
No one wants such an
ternational escalation of'
.e conflict. Not,/ the /
frican countries, not the
oviet Union, not the
united States. Mr. Smith
the only one who wants
and seems-to be assidu-
isly working towards it. i-
He clearly hopes that
fore it gets to that the
perpowers-and the Afri-
n countries will pressure
e Liberation movements
accept a little less than
11 majority rule for the
me being.
If this is the tortured
asoning behind the Smith
regime's obduracy then it
clearly a aespr..,
mble, which cannot
range the final outcome
it will ensure a bloodbath
horrendous proportions.

They say he-was a Pied 'i
iper making music
whereverr he went. If you
spend a little time in
yzabad, you will surely -
elieve it.'

'N -. ~ ~: -t .1

irdif, SY-h. -. -

.;.SUNUAY rmnt YZIw, 1VI APIA PAGt: 3

ON MY OWN SCENE.. Lloyd Best

SELWYN RYANs chronicle,
Race and Nationalism in
Trinidad and Tobago,
identifies a compulsive
agitator from Grenada and
the West Indian Regiment,
a hero-worshipper of Cipri-
ani and member of the
TWA/TLP. In 1936-37, he
was storming the portals
of industrial relations and
political affairs with oratory
and indignation more
magnificent and more in-
flammatory than that of
even the Captain himself.
In Butler's own mind, it
had been written. The
Chief Servant would break
the iron shackles of serfdom
and set the people free.
Was he not the Spiritual
Lion ofthe.Tribe of Judali
voicing through the Home
Rule Party of Trinidad the
troubles and the tribula-
tions of the masses- of
British Empire Workers
and citizens?
It was an age of direct
action in the Caribbean
region and farther afield.


man of th

Everywhere the labour-
ing.multitudes were batt-
ling desperately to jettison
the burdens of the Great
Depression, rising prices,
reduced wages, mounting
The sterling validity of
the politics which Butler
introduced at that precise
historical moment was that
nothing availed us so well
as the'ringing denunciation
of a regime that had
muted the popular voice.
What option did we have
but to threaten to over-
throw the oppressive order
by any necessary means?
Some have defined him
as the "sweaty demagogue"
of the 1930's displacing
the statesman and patriot

' Water gone . water gone. '.could have been a
S Kitchener road march this year. It so happened that the
bonds preferred "more tempo" which, added to the broiling
Carnival sun, must have convinced these onlookers that
water is what everybody really wants more of .. and we
taking it from wherever we could get it


In Santa


THE Area Revitalisation
Movement brought some,
-elour and glamour to
Santa Flora over the Carni-
iral weekend. with the Miss
-Nouth Group Queen Com-
petition held at the Lisa
Seven girls paraded, each
a youth group representa-
tive, and the judges chose
15-year-old Ann Marie
: Fraser as Miss St Patrick
Youth Group.


,!Ann Marie, competing
S ' Miss Erin Student
Council, boasts truly senior
vital statistics. She gives
her interest as dancing,
athletics and reading. She
was crowned by Tapia
Secretary Lloyd Best.
Runners-up were Berna-
dine Celestine and Kathleen

who had headed the ranks
of the barefoot man.
But the context of the
1930's has been so firmly
fixed in history as a time
of emerging labour,, that
these credentials confirmed
the marn as the man for
the moment, the one who
looked like the multitude,
who feltlike the multitude,
who gave tongue to the
message inside their head.


Not one of the ritual
assessments of Bhadase
Sagan Maraj has dared to
describe him as the Cow-
boy that he was, set
against the steelband war-
fare of the 1940's, against
the precipitation of this
colony into a post-Chagua-
ramas world.
Too few of the evalua-
tions of Sir Hugh Wooding
have cast this figure in the
middle phases .of the post-'
emancipation stru ggle
when, for a black man
merely to straddle the Afro.
Saxon world of the com-
pany-director, marked an
advancing frontier of',the
national movement.
Doubtless we sold these
national figures short Only
when we place the entire
pantheon in historical pers-
pective will we discover the
stature of the individual
Butler will probably
come out taller. It has been
seriously suggested that
both he and Bustamante,
when tried in the balance

of political leadership,
were found wanting on the
ground that agitation, mili-
tancy and graduation from
jail do not equip a man for
government, legislation and
planning. Which is true.
Iut then, has not Bus-
tamante become a vener-.
able figure presiding over
the hallowed traditions of
nearly 40 years of two-
party politics?
Have not Butler's own
industrial endeavours, albeit
through the instrumentality
of Rienzi, Rojas and present
company, not created a
Unionism equal to any?
and one certainly no worse,
if no better, than the paral-
lel creations in the world
of parties?
The question here is
whether Butler's apparent
political failure is to be
laid at the door of some
individual incapacity for
political Qrganisation?
Or was he defeated by
the harsh facts of racial,
social and cultural frag-
Or was the futility not
built into archaic govern-
mental arrangements which
denied responsible admin-
istration, placed a colossal
premium on the unrespons-
ible (as against irrespons-
ible) politics of exploiting
crisis 'with the focus on
ritual agitation, and
.unprofitable confrontation?
The appropriate times
for unequivocal answers
to these questions are
those brief seasons of valid
agitation when all is black
or white, and grey is mad-

For better or worse, agi-
tation is now out of season.
Butler's bequest is a
Republic open to profes-
sional and permanent poli-
tics, equal to the demands
of independence and free-
The life-chances of the
Chief Servant did not
easily offer the options of
enduring organisation. His
circumstances denied him
the advantages as well as
the disadvantages of formal
education; they withheld
from him the vast resources
of patronage #nd publicity
and police s', puch. at
the service of the succeed-
ing generation.


Bn-Jhe final analysis
BulTlft is to be judged by
Sthe slender endowments
which fortune lent pm.
Another incident rlt 1
Recall ges back to e st
of the Labol ii-~ l
June. f .af : -caat to
C amn*

JFK Secial Science 4-
jng was packed toa
Never have I imaged
such enchantment ashis
flights of rhetoric wove
that morning. Susan Craig
glanced in my direction.
In the beginning and the
end was the Word and the
Word was with Butler.

*, -? ,
.'., .,, ,
,,, .-... :...:, ,.: - .

* .'











TO lN CROWN ..."
Thus sang the MightN
Chalkdust in his original
"Juba Doobal '"caJ pso of
four Nears ago. Since then
the Mighty has won the
crown twice, including last
Sunday. night at the
Dimanche Gras.
Few people who watched
the show in the Savannah
or on TV could have come
away convinced that
Chalkie tried so hard not to
w in.
In fact, the defending
Monarch brought on what
looked like an entire
Shango tent in support of
his winningsong. A kind of
thing reminiscent of a
calypsonian ofeven mightier
renown. Sparrow.
If Chalkie is to bring
back his "Juba Doobai"
theme in any form again.
he might consider including
this line free of charge or
"My aim is really not to
lose crown. "

J.irn Lct ll, I a i -. p(n r1
/' I I 'I s /i-dt i /h 'I't l- ;sI/ -1-
I -l */.' '*gi '- niihr ,_'fp i i I 'I
- cal p s, n,'mart. H,.lih
r/ if .' 'I t',/ WIIllhlg hltltm l tilt/i
Sh'iagu .1 tihe Dim anhe Gras.

Angostura '
aromatic bitters L'" -
the magic touch :'
in famous drinks --, .. -
(and many dishes too) i "
N ^--r


Angostura Old Oak Rum
A mellow blend of light
Trinidad rums. Smooth.
clean tasting

STHi-BIG. sexstory.of ttie .: TdalQ
.eor so far is that.a true- .p
true soldier failed to stand -' At pre- tire
tbo attention, his gun'at the not find -out -wie ie
ready, when his camp was court-martialled ,RegiIme~h
visited ore night by a officer got to play any rnhas
senior officer, this Carnival. But we don't
mind sharing with you an
This masquerade soldier, unnamed officer's wry
his clearly iinlethal gun in comment that the accused
hand, was caught by Jerry probably "play all he mas
Llewellyn on Carnival before Carnival."


seven years old

From C're
again in 1975. not in the.
Army rebellion: not in the
exotic guerrilla enterprises.
not e en in the parli.imen-
tan elections repeated
since 1970.
-The State remains a for-
tress ofcolonial corrtlption.
a fountain ofsell-conitempt
and a fundaientil atl.ick
on the capacity of llhe
nation for hIgliei civiliza-
In thie ini dJ 'l I 0 ,.'IIIIIi.N\
Iinuiles, .l llt ..'e. ih ere is
jusI no 10 n,.' cl' .'pl ol .1 public.
utilt l (nl\ rllc orh.'.l aI nllt
electoral interest in the
pattern of national welfare.
And the only notion of
democracy that receives
official sanction is the
convenience of participa-
tion duly disciplined by
central control.
The con tervailing move-
ment properly dates from
.1970 and is to be discerned
in the cultural field, always
the place where resistance
uncannily escapes the re-
pression tlat accompanies
the demand for radical

The banner of the cutl-
tural revival came in the
simple affirmation that
black is a beautiful thing.-
Tlus positive re-ev.aluation
of self suddenly threatened
one of tie major pillars of
Atlantic ci\ ilization. neces-
sariT opening up a whole
new \IIsta on race relations
in tlie C.nbbean and
therefore on economic
organ utllon and on politi-
c l .lginiiien1 t.
TIc polency ol the possi-
bLlhl w\.L too explosive
e\en for lie carriers of the
\ Iru' lbred in ite same
world of smart colonial
The 1970 Revolution
never achieved the cutting
edge of enduring organi.a-
tion. The resulting con-
spiracy bf the oppressors
and the oppressed has
driven the Movement back
to wait for.fresh initiative.
Now Tapia records the -
fact that seven years have
gone. Ile will be a fool who
thinks that time has .
settled al .
.. ,.% .:. -_

,:.'#, -







The February Revolution led to adoption of African names and forms of

The man-child


a sign of


THINGS will never be the
same, since the start of
the February Revolution
of 1970.
The pride and interest
in African history and
culture that was the social
aspect of the "Black Power"-
upheavals, have found a
permanent place in the
lives of black people here.
The once exotic or
"radical" dashiki has come
to be accepted as a popular
form of dress. The "sandal
revolution" came to stay.
_We have had'African
weddings, naming-day
ceremonies, cultural occa-
sions, apart from the great
- 2--emphasis on the drum that
: marked a process of burrow-
ing back to the roots of.
Sthe musical heritage.
The following extracts
describing Nigerian head-
wear and hairstyles were
taken from Nigeria News,. a
publication of the Nigerian
High Commission in Port-

THE attention given to
the human head in Nigerian
fashion culture is unparal-
leled in history.
A man is never con-
sidered fully dressed with-,
out a cap or hat to match.
No man worth his salt
ever appeared in public in
a national dress without
some kind of cover for his
Although there is a wind
of change affecting the
custom of cap wearing,
this element is still very
much alive in Nigerian
Thus it is not unusual
for a fashionable Nigerian
man to have about one.
hundred caps, each with
its name, different method
of wearing it, and each
selected for the right occa-
sion and place.
The cap is therefore not
only an instrument of

adornment. It also per-
forms high social functions
spiritual, royal and
Generally there are three
categories of caps namely,
the "Peki" (cute) group,
the "Ikori or Gobi" group
and the "Zanna" group.
One can count scores of
modifications in each group.
The Peki is a mini kind
of Ikori. The cylinder of.
,the Ikori could be of
medium length, the type
-eommonly worn, or longer
enough to satisfy the
hunter's whims. -
Both are either made
plain with hand-woven
cloths or velveteen material.
To. add colour and
beauty they 'could both
be touched with silk or
even gold thread embroidery
And when they are
made to carry gold tassel,
they both become classical:
There is the unusual
Ikori, not commonly seen
in urban centres, called
"Abetiaja", which literally
and as it implies to the
look, means "like the dog's
The "dog's ears" of the
cap can either be thrown
up or spread out to cover
the real ears of the wearer.
The "Zanna" is totally
hand crocheted. It could
be made short as commonly
worn in the northern parts
of Nigeria or long as in
"Okpu-Agu" commonly
worn in the Eastern parts.,
The latter style has found
its way to the USA and
the Caribbean.
NO DECENT Nigerian
woman goes without plait-
ing her hair or wearing a
decent head-gear.
Even when she wears a
head-gear, under it is a
beautiful hairdo.
Low hair cuts and the
wearing of wigs have made
their incursions. But most
times they are only used
to .give some effect to the
traditional methods of hair
dressing known to her for
The angle, slant and
height that a flat two-yard
piece of cloth has to be
tied to become a beautiful
'head-gear with intricate
pleats, knots and flaps,
demand so much skill that
a wig under it can help as a
Don't he llurnric Pd that

S"Igbin ngungi"

- Kolese" -



'lkori" or "Gobi" with gold threat

"Torch of Unity"
under the wig may be a
beautiful hair plait or a
low hair cut.
Hair plaiting is a tradi-
tional occupation domi-
nated by women.
There is the itinerant
hair plaiter, carrying just
the wooden comb "Oriya"
(Afro comb), some hair
pins, hair creams and oil.
Of the woman generally
goes to the market where
such hair plaiters are based.
There are uncountable
styles of hair-do each with
its name. significance and

status role. The principal
method employed by thl
hair plaiter is to comb ou
the hair into a fine "wool'
draw section into the hai
pins, .then part out with
comb into thin, parallel
She then takes up very
few strands at the begin
ning of a section and work
them into a number ol
braids. As she goes along
more hair is worked into
the braid along the row
until there is a thin braid
alonP thll middle .M-titnl

"Onile Gogoro" '

repeating the same process
for each section. ,
The braid can start from
any part of the head,
arranged and finally packed
in vanrious-ways-depending
on the style desired.
The most commonly.
worn styles are "Suku"-
when all the ends of
braids are packed and
knotted at the centre of
the head; "Kolese" (with-
out legs), "Adisipako"
(tied to back of head) and
"Igbin ngungi" (snail is
climbing the tree), when
each braid is knotted into
small circles along the
centre of the head. Then
there- are very intricate
styles, usually reserved to
royal family and religious
festivals and which could
takefrom a whole day to
a week to make such as
"Ogo", "Agogo"; "Awo-
yoyo", (marching soldier);
Aoso"; and "Abebe" (the
Men don't plait their hair,
except for the "Sango"
worshippers during the
religious festivities. It is
common to find ,coins and
beads worked into the hair
braids to-add beauty to the
hair do.-
S Tien there are modLer
t embellishments like using
S a wig piece to end the
r knot of the traditional
"Suku" styles or using
black threads around the
hair in sections to create a
The material used to tie
s the head-gear is determined
f by the status or wealth of
the woman. Like the hair
plaiting, various styles of
v headties are named after
S important events;, national .
ln. a in ll intrm ,_tK'traily ' -.-'.-,'...t "W




I.UL U i-' OUOMUMW rcbriUMn V U, liIT

PERHAPS the first piece of creative writing
in the West Indies to express explicitly the
quarrel with history is Lamming's In The
Castle of.My Skin (1953). Here we can trace
some of the origins of the quarrel. In this
novel we follow the development of the sensi-
bility of the boy-protagonist, G., in the Barba-
dos of the 1930's, and the growth of his
social consciousness against the background of
critical social change in the latter part of that
decade. G. and his playmates have very inquir-
ing minds, and one of the concepts to which
-they address themselves is the concept of
history. They talk a lot about history and
seek, in their comical way, to define it.
But even before that, at the very begin-
ning of the novel, we note that G's. family
situation and his attitude towards it are in
effect a microcosm of the society's sense of
historylessness and its search for history. Like
Dickens' Pip, G's birth, as he tells us, "began
with an almost total absence of family rela-
tions". Consequently, "for memory (he) had
substituted inquiry". And so we get the scene
in which he questions his mother about his
lost relatives a kind of ritual catechism.
The boys' concern about history is determined "
by the way in which history has been taught them at
school. They have been taught nothing about the
history of their own people, nothing about what
actually happened in the West Indies. So when the
old woman talks about slavery, the boy is puzzled:
He asked the teacher what was the
meaning of slave, and the teacher ex-
plained. But it didn't make sense. He
didn't understand how anyone could
be bought by another. "He knewvhorses
and dogs could be bought and worked.
But he couldn't understand how one
man could buy another man. He told
the teacher what the old woman had said.
She was a slave, And .the teacher said
\ she was getting dotish. It wad a long,
long, long time ago. It had nothing to
doAwith people in Barbados. No one
S there was ever a slave, the teacher'said.
SIt was in another part of the world that
S". those things happened.: Not in little


.xr~ '..*


England. 17
The conspiracy of silence which that passage docu-
ments is part of the reason why Naipaul could-write
in 1962 that West Indian historians were only then
being able to face up to West Indian history. From
the historian's point of view, the general truth of
this is confirmed by the fact that as late as 1973
Philip Sherlock, in the introduction to his West
Indian Nations, finds it necessary to say that "Today's
West Indian scholars begin, very properly, with the
basic assumption that Caribbean history exists in its
own right . I, in common with others of my
generation, reached this conclusion through hard
years of doubt, questioning, discovery, certainty."
To Lamming's G -And his schoolmates, history
is unreal, funny or fabulous stories about kings and
other such legendary figures, like William the Con-
queror and King Canute, who have nothing to do
with Barbadian life. History is an alien world, but
the world' of the powerful, and the only way they
can conceive of breaking .into. it is by desperate,
violent action, as when they think of getting revenge
on the Headmaster for his cruelty by stoning him
when he is taking his evening stroll:
2nd Boy: We stone them, that's what we
do, stone them.
4th Boy: It won't cost you a penny to
do it. Not a penny to stone him.
1st Boy: 'Tis true. Stones is free. Free
free free. Not a cent it cost.
3rd Boy: 'Tis a big thing to do. 'Tis a
very big thing yoi, doing.
4th Boy: What is'a big thing? Why is it a
big thing as you say?
1st Boy: What make it so big as all that?
3rd Boy: {ause of who the head
teacher is. Remember who" he is'here.
SHe's a big school master. Nobody in all
this Creighton village would think of
stoning him. He got power and authority
here. 'Everybody respect him here, an
,whatever he do or not do, people will be
on his side. In a matter like. this we won't

PH- 62-31421







have nosupporters at all. We'd be making
history if we stone him.
4th Boy: We going to make history. I
always want to make some history.
2nd Boy: Me too. I read 'bout all those
who been making history, William the
Conqueror an' Richard an' all these. I
read. how they make history, an' I
say to myself 'tis time I make some too.
1st Boy: We going to make history by
Foster Fence. Let's make history 18-
What the boys are searching for, however
unconsciously, is not just a history, but a concept of
history' which will help them to-make sense of the
world, of their lives, which will bring all aspects of
their experience into- harmonious relationship. At -
the end of the novel, G., nowseventeen and gradu-
ating from high school, has reached the point where
history seems to him only like an "intolerable pile',
a rubbish heap: .
The newspapers, and the radioreported-:'"
S what was happening in Europe and people '
S 'seemed very concerned. But at the High
School the boys weren't particularly
shaken. If we 'regretted the war it was .-,
simply because we foresaw another date' i
added to the intolerable pile which they
called history.19
Walcott, like Lamming, was also to come to regard
history as an "intolerable pile", and this feeling.also
had its origins in the history which he was taught at
school. (If Walcott seems to have taken a littlelonger
than Lamming's G to feel uneasy about what he was
taught, this difference may no doubt itself be subject
to historical explanation.) In his autobiographical
poem Another Life, Walcott tells us how he became
fascinated by history as he grew drunk on the sagas
of British imperial history:
I saw history through the sea-washed
eyes of our choleric, ginger-haired head-
master, beak like an inflamed hawk's, a
lonely Englishman who loved parades,
sailing and Conrad's prose.20
And in his autobiographical essay "Leaving School",
Walcott tells us of that same headmaster, "He left
the names of battles drumming in us, Blenheim,
Waterloo, Malaplaquet ."21 To Walcott all this was
fabulous and real; he imagined himself into it; this
was history. Lying across his desk, "Wlliamson's red-
jacketed History, of the British Empire" beside him,
he dreamed himself redcoatt ruminant".22' What is
more, he was better able to feel himself part of this
history because it had touched his own island and the
imprint was clearly visible in the decaying battle-
ments of Vigie and the Morne, where famous
battles had been fought between English and French,
and where "heroes" "had actually quartered" 23 -
Moore, Rodney, Abercrombie. These battlements
were "visible history", monuments which, to his
idealising eyes, bespoke history as achievement and
creation. To those eyes, the "rational, Romanesque
brickwork" 24 of the barracks at Vigie and the Morne
were, apart from the Castries Cathedral, the island's
only "architecture".'In an early poem, "Roots", he
grew lyrical about the
yellow fort (that) lodks from the historic hill,
(As it were Poussin, or fragment from Bellini). 25
In other words, his historical sense was encouraging
in him what he himself was later to deride as- a
nostalgia for noble ruins. But even as he was being
entranced by the mythology of redcoats, of "redoubt -
and repulse", of "hymns of battles not our own",26

.- . . -

the tribe, the race, all of the nameless people. Like
the almond-trees,
SWelded in one flame,
huddling naked, stripped of their name,
for Greek or Roman tags, they were lashed
raw by wind, washed
out with salt and fire-dried,
bitterly nourished where their branches died.



Part II

even as he was falling victim to a history whose
morality divided the world between "superior" con-
queror and' inferiorr" "native", a more secret part
of Walcott was being drawn towards the-life of the
supposedly historyless people around him, the folk.
The language of "the street and the bush" was begin-
ning to beguile his tongue no less than the language
of "literature" and "history". A conflict was begin-
ning. And as he came increasingly to realise that the
history which Vigie and the Morne represented was
not his history, so his need to fill the growing void
increased. What he has called the "fever for heroic
examples" turned him towards the Haitian Revolu-
tion and his first important play, Henri Christophe,
Explaining-.the fascination which Haiti and the
Christophe story had for him, he says:
The parallels were there in my own island,
but not. the heroes. . They seemed to
(me), then, those slave-kings, Dessalines
and Christophe, men who had structured
their own despair. Their tragic bulk was
i massive as a citadel at twilight. They were
S our only noble ruins . Christophe:s
massive citadel . was something we
could look up to. It was ll,we had. 27

Christophe was the last time thatWalcott was to go
directly to history for a plot. He gave up his search
for history as a saga of heroes and a sequence of
grand events as a way of meeting the threat of
historylessness and of achieving a dynamic for truly
W st Indian creativity. And so it is partly with his
own earlier self that he is quarrelling when he says,
in 1964.

Those who claiin that there is no sense
of history in the West Indies, that its
peoples are without that sense of) the.
past which fertilises art as tough weeds
fertilise a ruin, suffer from alonging for
that decadence. They want to share the
glory as well as the decline. The idea that
is hardest to take root in the English-
speaking nations of the archipelago, as
compared wyith the Latin countries, is this
sense of a new world.

Just as the last phases of a period's
poetry are the elegy and the satire, one
nostalgic for a great past, the other
savaging the present, a love of tombs,
fragments and broken sculpture, a bur-
rowing into middens, and the worship of
excavations are a prelude to the "dying
fall". 28

That sounds like a sweeping condemnation of
archaeologists and historians; but what Walcott is
doing is refusing to make his future and creativity
depend on replacing one set of ruins by another,
one glorious past by another; in short, he is claiming
his freedom from bondage to the idea of having some
glorious past to worship (or, conversely, some sorrow-
;ul past to lament). Which is not to say that he
wants to jettison all sense of the past. In one of his
finest poems, written at about the same time as the
Comment I just quoted, a sense of the past is a
central, positive idea. At the same time, in this poem,
"The Almond Trees", we find him modifying his
earlier view of history. 91
The poem begins at the uncertain hour before
dawn on a deserted West Indian beach:

There's nothing here
this early;
cold sand
cold churning ocean, the Atlantic,

VS. Naipaul

S George Lamming
no visible history,

except this stand
of twisted, coppery, sea-almond trees
their shining postures surely
'bent as'tnetal, and one
foam-haired, salt-grizzled fisherman.
his mongrel growling,, whirling on the stick
he pitches him; its spinning rays
'no visible history'
until their lengthened shapes amaze the sun.29
Here is our recurrent "nothing" again. As Walcott
has commented, by "early" he meant not just day-
break but "historical time". 30 And, of course, "here"
means not just the particular beach, but the entire
West Indies. Already the poem's development is
foreshadowed in its beginning: the transformation of
that nothing into something. And that.transforma-
tion will be imaged, in terms of an identification
between the almond trees and the people, an identifi-
cation already suggested by the adjacency of the old
fisherman and the trees. Setting the history into the
landscape, Walcott has commented:

In (this) poem, trying to describe the
absence of history, tradition, ruins, I saw
the figures of ancient almond trees in a
grove past Rampanalgas on the north
coast (of Trinidad), as a grove of dead,
transplanted, uprooted ancestors. 31

But the poem does more than just describe the
absence of history; it attempts to come to terms with
that absence. Or I should say with the seeming absence
of history. For the poem will embody the idea that
there is history here, even if it is not the history
made "visible" in monuments, great architecture and
world-shaping events. There may be no "visible
history" in that sense, but we begin to see a history
when the sun rises and the "lengthened shapes" of
the trees "amaze the sun". These "shapes", the
shadows which the trees, the ancestors cast into the
future, the spirit of the ancestors, their capacity to
endure, is history. In the image of the lengthened
shapes, Walcott is using, and modifying, Emerson's
view of history as the achievement of a few great
men, a story ,of "heroes": . ." (A)II history,"
Emerson had said in his essay on "Self' Reliance",
"resolves itself very easily into the biography of a
few stout and earnest persons" "... (A)n institution is
the lengthened shadow of a man". But here, in
Walcott's poem, there are no few heroes in the-
traditional sense. What-is historic is the endurance of

p ;' But Walcott, while acknowledgingn) that
past", 33was to push himself further, to the point
. where, in theory at least, he seems not to need it, to
a point beyond history, so to speak. The latest stage
in the development of his quarrel is best-exemplified
in Another Life, especially chapter 22, and in the
essay "The Muse of History", which is the discursive,
theoretical twin of chapter 22. Significantly, too,
chapter 22 ,was first published as a separate and
complete poem in its own right, under the title "i he
Muse of History at Rampanalgas". In Another Life,
Walcott's confrontation of his personal history gains
wider significance as a confrontation not only with
the history of the Caribbean but with the very con-
cept of history.
That chapter 22 is set in Rampanalgas, the
same setting for -"The Almond Trees", is crucial.
Rampanalgas, this tiny remote and generally unheard-
of fishing village on the north-east coast of Trinidad,
is for Walcott a good vantage point from which to
meditate on Caribbean history, because beyond
Rampanalgas is the Atlantic, and on the other side of
the Atlantic the shores of Africa and Europe, and
further still the East, from all of which regions had
come the various races which went into the peopling
of the modem West Indies. Moreover, Rampanalgas is
important to Walcott's purposes precisely because it
is so insignificant. It is so utterly without history
that it becomes a living symbol of the so-called
S historylessness which has been seen as a basic condi-
tion of the West Indies. It is a point of awareness at
which one could be so overwhelmed by a sense of the
absence of traditions that one might be reduced to
despair. But by the same token one could see it
otherwise, as an inspiriting-challenge, symbol of the
"virginal, unpainted world" with which New World
man is "blest", the challenge to the poet of"Adam's
task of giving things their names" (to quote Walcott
quoting Carpentier). 34 Rampanalgas, in this view, is
a metaphor of the nothing which is everything,
the nothing out of which something can be Vnade.
Hence, as he says in his essay' on "The Figure of
Crusoe", "We must not commit that heresy of think-
S ing that because we 'have no past', we have no
S In Another Life, as well as in "The Muse'of:
S History," he suggests _that they wboship history.
unduly, or at least a limited concept-of history,..
S..who remain fascinated
n i ttitil- nf mpn


ai arama es oj prayer,
by the festering roses made from their fathers'-
or praise their silver chalices flecked with,
who see a golden, cruel, hawk-bright glory
in the conquistadors malarial eye,.
crying at least here
something happened 36
Such attitudes are static, uncreative, confining, per-
petuating only shame (and pride, which is its obverse)
or revenge. To fall into the trap of the shame-pride-
revenge syndrome is related to placing too much
emphasis on history as a searching out of causes and
results and, consequently, an apportioning of guilt and

. (T)o fry and understand why this
happened, to condemn or justify is ... the
method of history, and these explanations
are always the same: This happened be-
cause of that, this was understandable
because, and in days men were such.
These recriminations exchTanged, the
contrition of the master replaces the
vengeance of the slave ... 37

History's concern for pin-pointing causes and results
is part of its general worship of "fact" and historical
time. This worship involves a "vision of man" as "a
creature chained to his past," rather than an "ele-
mental" being "inhabited by presences" The New'
World writers whom, Walcott says, lie values most are
those who

reject the idea of history as time for its-
original concept as myth, the partial
recall of the race. For them history is
fiction, subject to a fitful muse, memory.
Their philosophy, based on a contempt
for historic time, is revolutionary, for
what they repeat to the New World is its
simultaneity with the old. 38

Of course, since man exists in time, in history.
he can never put himself literally beyond or above
history, as Walcot seems to wish. nor can lie.achieve
that complete "imitation of God" which would

Continued on Page 11 ..
SP".._-e.. _




TO VISITORS and locals alike.the coverage of Carnival in TT's
colour was either a national scandal or an annual ole inas joke.
If any one man is r ,onsible for this particular item of mas. it is
James Alva Bain, the c ',awed Chairman of the National Broad-
casting service.
Immediately he took the job, his presence began to be felt part-
icularly at 610 Radio where Bain introduced a regime of draconian
efficiency, as he summarily removed from the staff potential resisters
and vowed to straighten the business s o'!e f things.
The first person to get the axe was RAOUL PANTIN, who was
fired from his job as assistant producer. ,-
Noting that general obscurity still surrounds the man.
Pantin has put together, .below, some little known information on
the man who is Jimmy Bain
EVERYTIME he's appeared
in the news, it's been men .
fired on the spot, a mad-
bull in a China shop, a
kind of brutal bulldozer
quality and, clearly, a hell
of a lot of power.
But ever since March
1975 when he succeeded
the suddenly deceased
George Lushington Bowen
as Chairman of the Govern- Jimmy Bain

ment-owned media, Radio
610 and TTT, the average
citizen has been asking,
with increasing exaspera-
"Jimmy Who?"
James Alva Bain, 66, is
no stranger, however,
either to prominent Gov-
ernment position or authori-
tarian tactics.
Bain went to school at
Richmond Street, E.C., at
Tranquillity and at St.
Mary's College. The first
job he landed,'at age 21,
was that of a clerk in the
Customs & Excise Depart-


In 1942, eleven slogging
years later, Bain was in
the same Department. But
.he had now risen to the
position of Senior Clerk.
In the next eleven yeais,
Bain worked his way
quietly up into the Gov-
ernment of Albert Gomes.
By 1953 he was attending
Oils & Fats conferences in
the.region as a member of
the Government delegation;
by 1954 he had a new
title: Commissioner of
Industry & Commerce.
Old friends who remem-

OfLter ou a private world q
po'.'er and elegance a world
of smooth luxuriou- .
'dependable motoring.
(all harmonnized into a car of
such splendid design and

available at NEAL&MASSY

ber Bain in those days
recall: "Jimmy was always
like that. Very headstrong.
He likes to, have his own
When the PNM swept to
power in 1956, Bain
didn't panic. He stood his
ground and first served
the then Premier Eric Wil-
liams as Permanent Secre-
tary in the Ministry
of Industry, Commerce,
Tourism and External
Communications for five
years. And then, in 1961,
he suddenly went over to
Federation Chemicals Ltd.
Bain's exact date of
retirement from the Gov-
ernment civil service is
uncertain. He went to
work with FEDCHEM, a
W.R. GRACE subsidiary
that meant a lot to-the
nation's new industrial
thrust in the early 1960s.
Reports put Bain down
as "a retired civil servant".

.His new title at FED-
CHEM was now that of
Assistant to the General
Manager. According to the
1972-1973 edition of
"Who's Who in, Trinidad
:and .Tobago" Bain has
beefi working for FED-
CHEM since 1962 as
Administrative controllers._
A secretary-in the FED- -
CHEM office in the TATIL :
building in Port-of-Spain
says Bain "retired" from.
the company in November,
That means that Bain
was holding a top job in a
foreign corporation while
he was also working for
the Government as Chair-
man of the State-owned
Another secretary said
Bain usually comes in
here from time to time"
and he has an office avail-
able to him whenever he
visits FEDCHEM.
His address in "Who's
Who", is listed as: "Fede-
ration Chemicals Ltd.,
Salvatori Building, Fred-
erick Street".
The strike by oil work-
ers and sugar workers in
1975 was boiling to a
climax when Bain was
appointed Chairman of
the Government media.
His first action was to
ban the "voices" of George
Weeks, Raffique Shah
and Basdco Panday, now
ULF Members of Parlia-
ment (Bain has since lifted
that ban).
He also fired five journal-
ists from 610 (including
Ihe Prime Minister's
younger brother, Tony)
and issued a series of
decrees on "editorial
Bain was also the archi-
tect of the Government's
S'Cont'd on Page 10.


-p ;'i~




YOU heard them. Now see
what they looked like -
these members of the 610
team covering the
Dimanche Gras and other
big Carnival shows recently.
Dressed modishly for
the season, the 610 com-
mentators are survivors of
the Jimmy Bain new-
broom-clean-sweep policy
at the NBS Abercromby
Street offices.
Some of them have even
done better in the new

schemes of things. Take
the announcer, second
from left, none other than
Philip Simmons, the self-
described "Phil the Thrill
from Laventille" who wows
fans of a Saturday morning.
Standing next to him is
Jeff Lewis, now news
editor following the axing
of Jerome Rampersad, no
doubt giving hints to the
younger Simmons and
Vernon Allick, extremeleft,
on the correct news angle
of Maestro's "No Fooling".

IT's the story of Carnival:
everybody cuss the judges
and everybody bow and
scrape before them in com-
petition the following year.
It's a thankless 'ob.
Even the accommod tion
at the Savannah for them
is bad. But then, there are
consolations ... the always-
open (free) bar, the
authority to tell journalists
move from in front them
etc. etc.
This year, in the three of
the most contentious cate-
gories; the judges 'simply
returned the reigning
monarchs. Chalkdust in
kaiso; Stephen Lee Heung
in Band of the Year mas;"
and Desperadoes in pan.
Jerry Llewellyn's picture
catches the judges making
up their minds about
Despers'. supremacy last
Sunday night

'' I.

"OF all the Caribbean
newspapers, only the EX-
PRESS has the technical
expertise to produce a
Carnival 1977 magazine in
all its glorious colour ..
Book your copy now ..."
So went the breathless
promotional story in the
Exp.'ss last Carnival Mon-
day m 'ing.
vn... the people who
booked got for their buck
last Thursday must make
us wonder if tht Caribbean
is not truly ..e Third
World of t' Third World
in mode A colour printing.
Page after page carries
photos that are either
washed in sepia tints or
with colour so badly
messed up as to make the
ordinary black and white
prints the best in the
whole magazine.
All that for your dollar.
Rushing the job to catch
the departing tourists, the
Express must know from
experience that their maga-
zine would be just a repeat
of the annual failure to do
justice to the colour of
We just can't wait to see
some pious Express
editorial intoning about
the evils of ripping off
-* '*' '
*1 -: -'


The glory

-that was




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Bo wev.i

Looking for
By Lloyd Taylor
SEVEN YEARS are per-
haps, time enough for
people bent on fending
for themselves to win from
"society" a place that is
conducive to the working
of their crafts, and arrange.
ments that guarantee their
handi-work a ready market.
But such gain have not
come the way of the "drag-
brother?. On bankers' row
they have known, more
than anything else, only an
obvious insecurity of
Like Brook Benton's
boll wevil, the "brothers"
seen destined to be forever
looking for a home.
Witness the perennial
threat .. a eviction by the
Port-of-Spain City Council,
the latest of which came
with a wrecking party.
Yet no authority or

a home
agent of "society" can
find the strength actually
to evict the brothers.
According to one news-
paper report, a delegation
of brothers seeking a
reprieve for the third time
in four years heard the
Mayor say it ain't he
responsible, is the Council.
Nor could the wrecking
party attack the unauthor-
ised constructions with the
kind of efficiency it had
only recently displayed to
Gonzales Place squatters
and to Carnival wayside
This tendency for official
dom to hesitate whenever
it comes to dealing with
the "drag-brothers" is
For one, tt.e brothers
are valid leaders of a
movement to establish the
independence of the small.

They display craftsman-
ship in leather, producing
belts, shoes, sandals and
That puts them among
the more notable and last-
ing offshoots of the revolt
for change that witnessed
a high point in 1970.
Valid, because they
make use of their own
enterprise and initiative as
a means of escape from
Or, they would face
extinction. The common
fate of the unimaginative,
the indolent, the uncrea-
But one hand can't clap.
That is to say official-
dom or "society" must
move with dispatch and
foresight to provide the
facilities the brothers
Which simply means
reversing the process that
enriches the 'haves and
leaves small business, co-

operatives (producers and
consumers), sou sous and
credit unions artisans and
trade-unions, forever on the
With that we could never
implement lasting solutions
to the problems of the
poor man.
This new episode has
highlighted at least one
thing: that nobody knows
who is responsible for the
drag brothers in bankers
And so an opening has
been created for the Guard-
ian's editorial (Feb. 18) to
begin promoting "the
popular feeling for a long
time" that IDC is respons-
No doubt, the City
Council has been left
holding the baby. But the
question is why?
The answer, to my
mind, is to be found i.
the conditions of haste in
which the Government

came perilously close to
falling and was anxious
only to quell the disturb-
ances of 1970. Not to deal
with their root causes.
Naturally, IDC's Board,
responding to the urgent
political demands of that
time could opt only for a
now-for-now solution.
For one thing, the
brothers were not to be
removed too far way from
the downtown shopping
centre So, to bankers'
row they were sent, right
on the property of the
City Council.
The longer term solution
would have been to house
the brothers properly for
production and training in
the craftsmanship of their
Economies of scale
would have been a healthy
rby-product of bulk pur-
chasing arrangements.

Continued on Page 11

- -L I-


out for

the Reds
S from Pagp 8
Srecelectien decision to' -:;
give radio and TV time to
t pe opposition albeit in
*^^ bhpled the-

j1, JAsanary this yearP ; -
nain moved to stop CLR
"ames from coming to
Trinidad for a BBC film
documentary based oli
James's cricket master-
piece, "ey.qnd A oeund-
When news of the Bain
ban on James leaked out,
Prime Minister Williams
issued a statement in Parlia-
ment denying he had
anything to do with stop-
ping James from "freedom
of movement". (But Wil-
liams also read out a letter,
which he claimed came to
him by surprise, from
James pledging he would:'
not get involved in domes-
tic politics while here
with the BBC. James got
' Bain's volatile role as
Chairman efAs GGvetage
meant Media and his cenT '.
nectiens with a major
foreign company are not
jhs only claims t .fame,.
He is also a memfier of
the Public Service Commis-
sion (and during the Qei ---
4 .Alieynze affag.
for Alleyne's
SWl',the Police
Bain is an ardent physi- >
cal culturist. "Who's Who"
lists his hobbies as "swim-
ming, weightlifting and
It does not list Bain's
current favourite exercise
walking around the hills
in Trinidad, keeping an
eye on these "communists".
behind the trees.

SHigh ..Sa

14.C.a, T.T, independenSquare: l-i Buildirkg: Idgood Plaza. tnma Cor. High t.PAPienE Sts~.9Sn Frnanda
... ,..

. J -. ... ...

-- k



W From Page 7
result in "the perfect annihilation of present, past,
and future, since God is without them, so that a man
who has achieved that spiritual mimicry immediately
annihilates all sense of time." 39'We cannot take this
statement as identifying a condition which a man
could achieve in this life, except perhaps in isolated
moments, only as an ideal in terms of which we
might regulate our dealings with history. Besides, the
Whlcott who has lbng been engaged by the problem,
the necessity, of attuning himself to the rhythms of
time, with cultivating his "sense of season".40
Nor do I take Walcott to mean that'we should
simply ignore our history and not seek to uncover/
recover it. I take him rather to be expressing caution
against making too much depend on historical
exhumation and assertion, against getting caught in
"the mere repetition of human error which passes for
history." 41 It is really not history with which he
quarrels, so much as the way in which men (and in
this context West Indians more particularly) have
tended to use or abuse history. He himself writes
out of a strong sense of history, and a sense of the
strength of tradition. And if he can now feel that
"history is irrelevant," he has been able to reach this
position only after his personal, anguished confronta-
tion with history. Perhaps his idea of transcending
history is best imaged by the lines in chapter 12 of
Another Life which suggest the idea of getting beyond
history by working backwards through history:


Wes Id'an rgte's

Quarrl Wi

Where else to row, but backward?
'Beyond origins, to the whale's wash,
to the epicanthic Arawak's Hewanora 42
But the metaphor which I think best holds in
balance all the contradictions and complexities of his
relationship with history is the bonfire metaphor in
his essay on Crusoe. I shall close with it. I shall not
mangle it by any attempt at explication. It is the
image of

a lonely man on a beach who has heaped
a pile of dead bush, twigs, etc., to mak a
bonfire. .. The man sits before the fire,
its glow warming his face, watching it
leap, gesticulate, and lessen, and he keeps
throwing twigs, dead thoughts, fragments

References (Part and 11)

1. Walcott, "The Caribbean: Culture or Mimicry?"'
Journal ofInteramerican Studies, vol. 16 (Feb.
1974), p6.
2. V.. Naipaul, The Middle Passage, London, 1969
(1962), p.29.
3. See John Figueroq, "A Note on Derek Walcott's
Concern with Nothing,".Revista Interamericana, IV
(Fall 1974), 422-428.
4. Edward Brathwaite, Rights of Passage, London,
1968, p.12.
5. Ibid., p.r4.
6. Aime Cesaire, Return to My Native Land, trans.
Emile Snyder, Paris, 1971 (1947), p.110.
7. Wilson Harris, "History, Fable and Myth in the
Caribbean and Guianas," Caribbean Quarterly, Vol.
16 (June1970), p.17
8. Wilson Harris "The Unresolved' Constitution,"
Caribbean Qiarferly, Vol. 14 (March-June 1968.),
~O ctavio Paz, The Labyrinth of Solitude, trans:
Lysander Kemp, London, 1967, p.63..
10. Ibid, pp. 63-64.
11. V.S. Naipapl, The Loss of El Dorado, London,
S1973 (1969), p.17.
12. Ibid, p. 371.
13.Ibid, p.375.
14. Peter J. Wilson, Crab Antics. New Haven &
London, 1975, p. 29.
15. Ibid, p.39
16. George Lamming, In- The Castle of My Skin,
SLondon, 1970 (1953 p.12.
17.Ibid, p. 57.
18. Ibid, 48. -
19. Ibid, p. 221.
20. Derek Walcott, Another Life, London & New
York, 1973, p. 70.
21. Derek Walcott, "Leaving School," London Maga-
zine Vol. 5 (Sept. 1965), p.5.
22. Derek Walcott, Another Life, p. 69.

23. Derek Walcott, "Leaving School," p.5.
24. Ibid, p.5.
25. In A Green Night, London, 1962, p.60.
26. Another Life, p.-70.
27. Derek Walcott, Dream on Monkey Mountain,
New York, 1970, pp.11-12.
28. Sunday Guardian (Trinidad), 12 Jan. 1964, p.3.
29. Derek Walcott, The Castaway, London, 1965, p.36.
30. Derek Walcott, "The Figure of Crusoe," unpubd
paper, 1965 (UWI Library, Trinidad, pi 1.
31.Ibid, p.10.
32. The Castaway, p.37.
S33. Ibid, p-37.
34. Another Life, p. "152.
'35. "The Figure of Crusoe," p.12.
36.AnotherLife, p.144.
37. Derek Walcott, "The Muse of History," In Orde
Coombs, ed. Is Massa Day Dead?, New, York, 1974,
38. Ibid, p.2.;
39. "The Caribbean: Culture or Mimicry?",-p.,fl.:
40. The Castaway, p.15.
41. "The Caribbean: Culture or Mimicry?", p.13.'
42. Another Life, p.75.
43. "The Figure of Crusoe," p.3.
44. Ibid, p.13.

r SC3- .

of memory, all the used parts of his life,
to keep his contemplation pure and
bright. .43
Crusoe's triumph lies in that despairing
cry which he utters when a current
takes his dugout canoe further and further
away from the island that, like all of us
uprooted figures, he had made his home,
and it is the cynical answer that we must
make to those critics who complain that
there is nothing here, no art, no history,
no architecture, by which they mean
ruins, in short, no civilisation, it is "0
happy desert! 'We live not only on happy,
but on fertile deserts, and we draw our
strength, like Adam, like all hermits,
from that rich irony of our history.
It is what feeds (Crusoe's) bonfire. We
contemplate our spirit by the detritus of
the past.44
SConcluded From Last Week.

Looking for a home

From Page 1.0
The marketing of their
productswould be best
approached through import
controls on certain kinds
of shoes, purses, sandals
That would have brought
more brothers off / the
drag, more small-scale inde-
pendent craftsmen and
more genuine democracy.
SInstead, we continue to,
repeat the errors of seven.
Forever on the drag Will
,remain the people's sector.


Lloyd Taylor

.While the February
Revolution remains
i :,. ,,..,.. .
* .. ;,,
', .




Agents for:

Manufacturers Representatives
And General Insurance Agents
No .5 Concession Rd. Sea Lots
Phone: 62-37813



fO roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd. cross crossing

S. -; *.,* .'


Wes Hal f orMnae

THE series is off to an
excellent start The Pakis-
tanis cannot, of course, be
happy over the fact that in
both innings it was the late
batsmen who pulled their
chestnuts out of the fire
but they must be telling
themselves that that's un-
likely to happen again.
If Zaheer is fit then
Javed 'may have to make
room for him unless, as
Mushtaq is doubtless hop-
ing, his form improves.
There does not seem, how-
ever, to be much cause for
concern in that camp.
The West Indians? Both
Croft and Garner with
match figures of4810-132-
7 and 54-11-190-6 and
good batting performances
as lagniappe roundly
satisfied with their debut

Roberts, now that the
other half of our Australian
tandem is back in the line
up, can be expected to
improve on his 55-8-190-4.
And we wait to see how
Mushtaq's men will fare
against the Jamaican who
humbled England on his
last outing for the West
Foster's bowling was, as
expected, economical (23-
11-47-2) but he did not
get many runs when he
batted either. One hopes
the selectors will resist the
inevitable temptation to
drop him for it is unwise to
dispense with a talented
player after only one or
two failures.
SThere are. prcedents
that spring immediately to

mind: Foster's compatriot
Lawrence Rowe. And who
can forget the agony of
Gordon Greenidge in
Australia and the ecstasy
in England?
Murray did take a superb
catch to dismiss Mushtaq
and a lot of the bowling
was wayward and the
bounce of the pitch uneven
at times but 29 byes (out
of 68 extras!) is extra-
ordinary. Murray may
simply need a rest.
Kallicharan (17) and (9)
and Foster (15) and (4)
were the only batsmen
not to get a useful score
and the former's present
lack of form cannot but be
disturbing. He is often
ranked as the best of the
present crop of West Indian
batsmen precisely because
of his ability to get useful

scores in any situation on
any type of wicket.
Kallicharan was reported
to have been favouring his
right shoulder during his
long second innings stay in
the crease. One hesistates,
however, to think that he is
still being plagued by
bursitis. Everyone is hoping
that the problem is
nothing that a couple of
long net sessions and
another knock in the
middle will not solve:
All of the batsmen have
looked to be less than
comfortable against the
Pakistani attack but it is as
yet too early to make con-
So. on then to the
Queen's Park Oval where
-Tests are apt. to be conclu-
sively completed. Within
the last decade or so, the

home team has lost to
Australia under Chappell,
England under Cowdrey
and India under Bedi in
Without the steadying
influence of a manager -
those who heard Wes Hall's
comments on the radio
during the first Test will
know that he's just the
man for the job for
one, will not be too sur-
prised if Pakistan under
Mushtaq is added to that
list. (E.B.)

If you missed the ball- by- ball while doing the leggo, here's

EVEN in the first thr
days of the Test, the sig
oflater alarums were their
Uoyd (157) and Murr
(54) had together coni
buted almost exactly 5(
of the West Indian tol
and Majid (88) and Wasi
Raja (117) between the
had scored only a slight
lower percentage of t
Pakistani total.
Moreover, in both ir
ings sizeable partnerships
the second half of t
batting had been respoi
ible for adding respe
ability to modest total
Raja's century had tak
Pakistan from an unea
207 for 5 past 271 foi
on to 400 plus wh
Lloyd's had pulled
team back from a p
carious 183 for 5.
Both of these wc
aided by indifferent fie
ing with the most cruc
miss being Mushtaq's
bUoyd when he was on 4
Javed Miandad had tw
extracted a bit of spin fr
the strip but far m(
significant was the f;
that 16 of the 19 wick
to have fallen were clairr
by the six quickies
In terms, therefore, of
successes of Garner (37-7-1
4) and Croft (32-6-85-
Roberts (30-3-124-1) havir
bowled rather indifferen
the decision to omit Jumad,
would se-m to have been vir
Yet, one cannot but 1
that there was just that bit
imprudence in it give the f
that Holder's services as
bowler ceased to be availa
before lunch on the first d
he having succumbed to,
"old" muscle injury, the sal

presumably, as had caused him
to leave-the .field several times'
during the Barbados vs Pakis-
ree tan game. -
Is It is true that Pakistan had
re. excluded both Intikhab and
y Qasim, the real spinners in
ri- their party, from their team.
tri- But all of Majid, Sadiq,
0% Mushtaq and Javed together
tal make up a useful though not
m brilliant spin department. And
am West Indies were due to bat
tly By lunch on Tuesday, the
he forecast had changed drastically,
an inspired spell of bowling
in- from the West Indian pacemen
i having routed the Pakistani
S forces. Sadiq (9), Mushtaq (6),
he Javed (1) and Asif (0) had all
ns- fallen very cheaply and Majid
ct- (28) and Haroon (39), although
S getting-into double figures had
als. not really fared any better.
cen Croft had claimed 4 of them
asy and Roberts, visibly dispirited
S7 when Greenidge failed to hol4_
ile on to a snick from Haroon,
found new life shortly after-
his wards and accounted for both
re- Haroon and Mushtaq.
Apart from Garner who had
ld- Kalli
off out Of
ice form


also bowled well though so far
without success, Foster had
had one over to be the only_
other bowler used in this
session. Lloyd had evidently
brought him on to exploit
Haroon's tendency to flash
outside the offstump.
But Haroon having been
bowled by Roberts in the next
over, it was Croft and not
Foster who resumed at the
other end and immediately
accounted for Asif. At lunch,
then, several dropped catches
notwithstanding, the score-
board read: Pakistan 115 for 6.
An hour later, elated Bajan
fans must have been making
alternative plans for Wednesday
afternoon as Garner, getting
into the act, had had Imran
well caught by Fredericks in
the gully and uprooted Saleem's
off stump as he tried, once too
often, to give himself room for
a square cut. He might also
have had Raja, had Greenidge
at slip accepted an easy chance.
At the other end, Roberts
had had Sarfraz caught by
Murray but not before he, true
to form as "a bit of a charac-
ter", had invoked a rarely-
invoked rule to force substitute
King out of forward short leg
into the covers.
Shortly before this, Murray
had thrice been loudly cheered
by the crowd (in good spirits
in view of the West Indian
successes) for taking three con-
secutive balls cleanly after he
had conceded byes off the two
previous deliveries.
Their jubilation was due to
turn sour before long forrfrom
158 for 9, Pakistan rallied to
291 before Garner finally held
on to Raja's pull off Foster to
end the innings.
In the course of his record

133-run partnership with Wasim
Bari (60 n.o.), Raja (71) had
been dropped at 9, at 46-by
Kallicharan off Roberts, at 50
by Murray again off Roberts
and finally by Lloyd at mid-
wicket off Foster. Wasim's only
chance come in the next ball
when he, then 56, gave Foster a
return catch.
As in the first innings, the
pacemen simply could not find
the energies in midafternoon
to produce the delivery needed
for a single-handed dismissal.
Lloyd, in his capacity as
selector and more importantly,
as captain would be well
advised to make a special note
of it. His insensitivity to this
was, arguably, one of the con-
tributory factors to the defeat
Down Under and it may well
cost us dear some one of
these days.
Holding's availability for the.
rest of the series should not
-be allowed to blind us to this
important shortcoming.
Set to get 306 for victory in
6 hours on the last day and
one on Tuesday, the West
Indies lost Greenidge (2) before
the close. At 12, he hooked
Sarfra' high to Raja at long
leg and lie gleefully accepted
the catch. With a mixture of
caution and luck, Richards and
Fredericks survived till the
These two inched from the
overnight 41 for 1 to a fairly
comfortable 129 without further
loss, thus allaying the fears of
those who remembered Tues-
day's pre-lunch debacle. But
in the next session, the "glori-
ous uncertainties" preachers
had a field day.
Fredericks, made to fight
for every one of his 52 runs,
was bowled by Sarfraz; Richards

got within 8 of a hard-fought
century before he holed out
to Sadiq at point off Sarfraz.
Thus, far the runs had been-
hard won and Richards' 92
showed clearly how he had
amassed 1,710 runs last year as
he kept the good balls out of his
wicket and unfailingly punished
the bad ones.
But Lloyd, coming in at 166
for 3, seemed, as Clyde Walcott
later put- it, "to want to carry
on from where he'd. left off
'in the first innings" and, pre-
dictably, was soon back in the..
pavilion, his 11 runs coming in
18 imins. off 12 balls! "
'Foster (4) found the going -
too hard for him and he became
Sarfraz's fourth victim I the', -
innings. At tea, the score was-',-'-
.195 for 5 with Murray _7 and,
Kallicharan 5.
Kalli, who'had taken a "con-
vincing" century off-, the!_
tourists in-the President's XI
game,had been atfthe crease
for 90 minutes!-He struggled
to add 4 in the next half an -
hour before being caught by
Wasim off Saleem as he tried
to get'bft of the rut
The old ball accounted for
Garner, (OJ bowled by a "rat"'
from Saleem, and Murray (20)
splendidly caught by Wasim'
off the same bowler. Murray
came back as Holder's runner
at 217 for 8 and for the next
hour he overseered the resist-
ance, astutely refusing runs to
ensure that the "right" bats-'
man took the strike.
With the West Indies (who
now needed 70 runs to win),
clearly content to hold on for a
draw, Mushtaq, with 10 overs
left in the game, gave the new;
ball to Imran. With it, he
almost immediately bowled
Holder for 9 and Croft had
greatness thrust upon him.
Oblivious of the collar of
close fieldsmen, the frequent
bowling changes, the divers
other little schemes hatched by
Mushtaq, oblivious of the
vagaries of the wicket, the
ratters, the'no-balls, the tension,
the excitement, the frenzied
crowd, he wielded a straight,
solid, broad bat in a fashion
that would do a i- 5 proud.
When it was over, he had
batted for 40-odd minutes and
Roberts for 105, West Indies
had made 252 for 1) and
Mushtaq's men had been-
frustratingly-thwarted in their
bid for victory.
Imran (2 for 58 in 32 overs),
Sarfraz (4 for 80 in 34 overs)
and Saleem (3 tor 32 in 21
overs) had bowled splendidly
and taken their team to the
brink of victory. Though
Javed too (0 for 31 in 11
overs) had bowled as well as
could be expected, Mushtaq.
one feels, must have wis~ he -
had Intikhab's experience to
call on for those last couple of .-



how it went


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