Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Publication Date:
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )
UF00072147_00251 ( sobekcm )

Full Text

Vol. 7 No. 23

45 Cents.

SUNDAY JUNE 5, 1977 Fo : T'E STUDY OF ;.i.
3lZ NEW,YORK 21. NX .Y




THIS YEAR even the yellow poui was thrice
blessed with flowers; for so long did the
drought hold off the rainy season. I forget
now how few were the days for which we
still had supply in Hollis, Navet and Hills-
borough. But what I do remember is the
habit of wailing, the habit of protest, the
, constant hoping for magic from both sides
of the equation, from supply and demand,
from WASA and the consumers alike.
Save us, O Miss Alcantara, chants the
Water Now Committee of Cascade or we will
huff and we will puff and we will tear your
house down.
Hold strain, responds Minister Padmore,
Minister in the Super Ministry of. Finance.
Did you' not know that potable water has
attracted '"the largest single government
Don't look now but we are incurring
"phenomenal" capital costs in winning this
water just for you and you and you. And if
you are nof careful, the consumer charges
for water "will now have to form part of the
public debate."
More water- rates for what? thunders

the Guardian Editorial, vex" to kill, and for
once, talking for little people.
Well, chimes in Mr. Mervyn Sankerali,
Acting Technical Director of WASA (cauti-
ously now, pianissimo)! On his mind,clearly
is the Minister's declaration that he antici-
pates an improvement in the water situation

very, very soon.
Now for the news in detail. In nine
months tinie, we will be on-streaming
aquifers at Maracas, Caura, Aripo; next year,
at Guanapo, Lopinot, Tucker Valley, Santa
Cruz, Cumuto.
By the end of 1979, North Oropouche
-will bring in 20m. gals per day and by 1980,
Caroni-Arena will bring in 60m. barrels per
day. We will be putting out $93m. for the
one, $300m. for the other, (not counting
inflation or the Minister's publicly-expressed
fears that shortage of construction materials
might delay these prestigious projects).
The arithmetic of all this? It seems that
current water demand fluctuates between 98m.
gallons per day in the wet season and 112m.
in the dry. The current supply runs to only
71m. gallons per day leaving a deficit of
between 27m. and 41m. '
Even allowing for inequitable distribu-
tion on account of chaotic designs, .and
inadequate storage and pumping systems, it
follows, I suppose, that with well over 80m.
gallons per day coming on stream by the
next elections, into each life some rain will
fall in time to keep the situation from
boiling over. Continued on P.4

Building talks to

focus onwhere

nation heading

building industry are to
be discussed in a very
simple format at the
Holiday Inn on Saturday
July 9, according to
Conference Secretary
Winthrop Wiltshire.
oIn his letter to prospec-
tive participants, Dr.
Wiltshire has advised that,
in the morning after
formalities; the Sympos-
ium will tackle problems;
following lunch, the
agenda turns to possibili-
ties of change.
- The Symposium has
been organised by the
Tapia House Movement
and is being run by a
Committee of five which
includes Architects
Ruskin Punch and Claude
Guillaume, Trinmar Engi-
neer Daulton O'Neil,
Economists Lloyd Best
and Lloyd Taylor and
CARIRI-employed Chem-
ist Winthrop Wiltshire.
The Committee is aim-
ing at a nou-partisan dis-
cussion which would

house and land or better
amenities for sport, music
and drama, or improved
environmental conditions.
Invited to the occasion
are many experts in the
construction industry in-
cluding architects, survey-
ors, builders, engineers,
suppliers, developers arid
S c planners. The National.
SHousing Authority and
Dr Winthrop Wiltshire the Ministry of Works
have also been asked.
focus c current anxieties Papers prepared for the
about the large-scale con- Symposium will be pub-
struction programme not listed and circulated in
on foot following Trini- advance.
dad and Tobago's suddenly Small panels will intro-
acquisition of huge petro- duce the two sessions,
dollar balances. most of which will be
In his letter; Dr. devoted to free and open
Wiltshire remarks that discussion.
people are eager to place Registration fee for
the industry's problems individuals at the Sympos-
against thie background of ium is $1 with lunch ($14)
where the country is and coffee ($5) optional.
heading. The registration fee for
The Symposium, he firms is $200.
adds, Symposi, he Rubric of the Sympos-
add, envisages an ium is "The Construction
assembly 6f citizens whose Industry and the National
interest may be a simple Future."

. S

E S E~

g A~~'~



Alfred Mendes



Health Foods
Keate Street

S tephen son.'s
31A Erthig Road

Wide Range of
Books, Stationery,
Art Matrial.



THE President of the
'United States, Mr. Jimmy
Carter, has only recently
made a major foreign
policy declaration, in which
he seeks to define the
stance of his government
toward the rest of the
Mr. Carter, if we are
to believe him, wishes to
draw down the curtain
finally on that post-war
phase of American history
when it seemed that his
countrymen's sole concern
in international affairs was
the containment of what
appeared to them to be the
world-wide advance of
Mr. Carter is not say-
ing anything that is abso-
lutely neW. "Detente" has
already passed into the
conventional wisdom of
the times, and it is only
with an effort of the his-
torical imagination that we
can recall what Berlin or
NATO or the desk-thump-
- ing figure of Khruschev at
the U.N., thundering his
threats, to "bury capital-
ism", were all about.

The Cold War, and the
American policy of con-
tainment, initially were
responses to the new align-
ment of forces which
emerged in Europe after
the Second World War.
Having engineered the im-
position .of communist
regimes on the states of
Eastern Europe, Soviet
Russia appeared, at least
in the eyes of influential
Americans, to be poised to
make a sweep into-the war-
weakened bastions of
liberal democracy in Wes-
tern Europe.




And here, in the
English-speaking Carib-
bean, somewhat
belatedly the battle-
lines are being drawn
between the forces
of free enterprise
and democracy and of
farleft socialism and
It is as if the intel-
lectual detritus of the
world's political age
of ice had come to
settle in the warm
but stagnant back-
waters of the

The U.S. policy of world entertainment of Communism finally came to grief over Viet- nam.

That Russia, herself bled
white by the war, would
have harboured such a
grand design, now appears
to us to bebeyond the
bounds of reason. Yet, the
men who wielded American
power were irresistibly
drawn into the political
vacuum of Europe, and
heeded a means of justify-
ing the continuing involve-
ment of the United States
in European affairs to con-
stituents who had been
persuaded to set aside their
traditional isolationism and
to support American parti-
cipation in the war, only
with the'greatest difficulty.


In addition to her origi-
Snal sin of bolshevism,
therefore, Russia touna
herself being credited with
ambitions of imperialistic

hegemony. A new mani-
chean age descended on the
world, and the ancient
myth of the struggle be-
tween the forces of light
and those of darkness was
re-incarnated in the modern-
day dress of a contest for
'the soul of mankind
between the traditional
Western vi-tues of free
enterprise and democracy,
on the one hand, and, on
the other, the godless
communism sponsored by
Soviet Russia" and her
This myth, propagated
relentlessly by the Ameri-
can establishment for a
quarter of a century, was
to ,shape- the responses not
only of the American,
people, but also, and even
necessarily, of the great
adversary, itself. Men and
nations lined up with one
or other of the two camps,
led by their respective

superpowers. In American
eyes, and certainly in the
mind of John Foster Dulles,
non-alignment was a sin.
With Western Europe
once more on its feet, and
presumably better able,
militarily and "politically,
to resist the pressures from
the East, the arena of this
-titanic struggle shifted to
the new states of Africa
and Asia, which, having
torn themselves free of one
style cf imperial domina-
tion, were now to be
wooed, or bludgeoned,
into the clutches of


The Middle East, Korea,
Laos these were the new
flashpoints of conflict. The
Caribbean area was not to
remain unscathed, as the
interventions in Guatemala

and the Dominican Repub-
lic, and the. Cuban block-
ade were to demonstrate
while the American police-
man charged around the
world, making it safe for
democracy. /
Until, of ;course, the
policy, or at least that
phase of it, cafe to grief
in the debacle of Viet Nam.
The comforting.assumption
of American military in-
vincibility was shattered.
But all' along their
cherished assumptions of
Cold War diplomacy were '
steadily being undermined.
The communist bloc was.
clearly not the monolith it
was said to be.And Soviet
Russia, in those places
where it enjoyed influence.
was revealed to be more of
a restraining than a subver-
sive influence, as it con-'
sistently put its 'own
national considerations
above those of ideology.



Course begins July, 1977


- Part L 8 weeks.

i) Does Tapia Have an Ideology?
ii) Capitalism: A Critique
iii) Socialism:A Critique
iv) Race Politics and Class Politics in The
West Indies: Jamaica and Guyana as
Case Studies.
v) Party Politics in Trinidad & Tobago:
Race, Class and Nationality.
vi) The Tapia Manifesto: Elements of a
West Indian Ideology.
vii) The Idea of a Professional, Permanent,
Political Party.

PART 11. 8 weeks.
Economics, Politics, History.

i) Government and Politics in the West
ii) The Plantation Economy of the Carib-
iii). Race and Class in Caribbean: The
Plural Society Examined.
iv) Culture and Identity: A Caribbean
v) Models of Caribbean Change: The
Puerto Rican Experience.
-vi) Models of Caribbean Change: The
Cuban Experience.
vii)RADICALReconstruction in the West
IndiesSINCE 1953 1977

PART III. 8 weeks.
Duties of a Political Organiser.
i) A Permanent Party: Nine Years of
Tapia The Message and The Medium.
ii) Mobilization for radical reconstruction:
problems of winning cadres.
iii) Organisation for radical reconstruction:
Need for a Central Office.
iv) The, Party Machinery: regional and
constituency units.
v) Duties of a Tapia cadre: selling the
message, building party groups, win-
ning popular support.
vi) Representation in a permanent party:
Council, Assembly; the Parliamentary
Party, the Executive, the constitutional
vii) Perspectives on the 1981 Elections.

For further information and Registration Forms contact i Education Secretary, TAPIA CENTRAL OFFICE, 22 Ciprini' Boulevard Tele: 62-25241.
-- n i I

I -e~


. 7r

\ I


Within the United States
itself, where the myth had
held a generation of power-
ful minds fast bound in its
iron grip, the moral fervour
it generated had long since -
begun to abate. While the
defeat in Viet Nam repre-
sented a sharp recall to
reality the cost of keeping.
the entire world on the
straight and narrow, in
terms of the neglect of
domestic problems, infla-
tibn and deepening politi-
cal conflict,' had already
begun to override the dic-
tates of conscience and to
turn American thoughts
once again inward.


Mr. Carter's recent state-
ment, therefore, only puts
the seal on the historic
shift of policy away from
the ostentatious and single-
minded role of guardian of
the free/world, towards a
more subtle and discrimi-
nating approach which
seeks to promote the global
economic, political and
strategic interests of the
United States .in the con-
text of recognisably and

President Castro of Cuba...
adept at free-from diplomacy

For the most elegant
cuts in gents
and ladies suitings


unavoidably diverse national,
regional and world-wide
Yet, the distant foot-
steps of the cold-war gladi-
ators still echo through the
corridors of time. Mr.
Vorster seeks to revive the
drumbeat of the Colf War
when he warns South
Africa's Western allies of
the red threat behind his
country's seething black
And here, in the English-
speaking Caribbean, some-
what belatedly the battle-
lines are being drawn
between the forces of free
enterprise and democracy
and of far-left socialism
and communism.
It is as if the intellectual
detritus of the world's
political age. of ice had
come to settle in the warm
but stagnant backwaters of
the Caribbean.
At least its English-
speaking corner. For Cuba,
once cause celebre in the
Cold War, is showing itself
to be quite adept ,at the
free-form diplomacy which
has come to define the
ways of the world's


The Cuban revolution
was originally defined in
Caribbean terms. So much
so that the Cuban Com-
-munist party could dismiss
the men of the Sierra
Maestra as a bunch of
middle-class adventurers.
In the context of the
Cold War, however, the
revolution's inevitable con-
frontation with American
economic interests on the
island was to lead, not
only to short-sighted retali-
atory action on the part of
the United States, but also
to the charge that the'
leadership was communist-
inspired. In the "who is
not for me, is against me"
conditions of the" time,
such definitions had a way
of creating their own


Cuba's diplomatic pos-
tures today must therefore
be seen against the back-
ground of the tight options
which originally forced her
into alignment with the
Soviets, and which, since,
have -put her in hock to
Russia to the reputed
extent of US $lm. per day.
SCastro's friendly stance



A nimaland Poultry Feed Depo t

Local and Foreign


Pets and Pet Supplies
Cor. E.M. Rd and Basilon St, Tunapuna
Telephone: 6624039



toward Carter, and his
wooing of American politi-
cians and businessmen
alike, can only be designed
to win for the Cuban
people greater freedom of
action in pursuit of their
own self-interest, and to
reduce his country's depen-
dence.onany one bloc.


Castro is only taking
advantage of the same dis-
carding of Cold War'stances,
and the consequent easing
of international tensions
which allow his Russian
allies to buy technology
from West Germany and
grain from the United
States, without any qualms
of socialist conscience,
even while the Kremlin
maintains at home the
apparatus of Cold-War pro-
paganda for the purposes
of social control.
Similarly, American busi-
nessmen dream of selling
aspirin to China (imagine
how many million head-
aches a day they have!),
and Coca-Cola to Cuba,
ahid were these dreams to
be realized they could
easily be fitted in to the
prevailing ideology as a
triumph of freeenterprise.


The era of the Cold War
was one of grand concep-
tions. If, in the American
imagination, the struggle
was one of the forces of
light against the forces of
darkness, in the Russian
mind it must have been no
less a matter of good ver-


The good old days Nixon and Batista

sus evil, the international
proletariat pitted against
the capitalists and imperial-
ists of the world.
The new structure of
international relations
which has taken jts place
is a much more workaday
affair. ,It involves the exact
calculation of national
interest, of commercial gain,
of dollars and cents.
SAt times the only guid-
ing principle seems to be
the survival of a ruling
political clique. For, the
former superpowers, the
exhiliration of sending in
the marines has given way
to the anxieties of seamy
covert'" operations and
proxy wars.


Can it be that our Carib-
bean Cold Warriors hanker
after the good, old days?
Is it beoaduse Cold War
mythology still exercises

such a powerful hold on
the minds of so many of
our scribes that we are sub-
jeclted to the reams of rub-
bish written by Spec'al
Correspondents in ,aUr
prestigious Sunday papers
or by equally nameless pur-
veyors of socialism on
badly cyclostyled "revolu-
tionary" handouts?
The journalistic champ-
ions of free enterprise and
democracy tell us- that
Trinidad and Tobago is the
Athens of the English-
speaking Caribbean. We
must guard our freedom
and our wealth from those
hotbeds of socialist subver-
sion to the north and the
south, Jamaica and Guyana.
In this tragicomic,/latter-
day Peloponnesian war of
words, neither-Athens nor
the multiple Spartas are
likely to be the victors, not
at least their people. The
only likely result is the
continued reign of the
tyrants who thrive on our
people's blindness.


President Carter . putting
the seal on historic policy shift.



Asians victims of Cold War


Queen and Abercromby Streets
St. Joseph



- -r ----'R -7 1


From Page 1
Personally, I have never
been any good at this
-arithmetic business. I have
long since learnt that the
numbers game is not for
If I go and take a posi-
tion on all these figures
one of the quantitative'
giants might come and
point out that demand
may be doubling in five
years or less, what with
the giant industrial pro-
jects, the big boom in
housing, the changes in
life-style that inevitably
follow the distribution of
petro-dollars, and factors
now too numerous to


And then where will I
poor Lloyd Best be?
I am therefore sticking
to the algebra, the mean-
ing of all this confusing
arithmetic of dollars and
gallons and supply and
demand. I not taking on
what reminds me frankly,
of an old college-exhibi-
tion nightmare which
always began with a tub
and two cisterns....
At my level, I just
don't feel that you can
solve the water problem
by increasing supply. I
just can't see it. Nor can
you solve the 'telephone
problem by installing new
lines; or the, balance of
payments problem of
earning more foreign ex-
The algebra that
worries me in all our
current planning (no,
pardon me, in all our
current outlinging of cer-
tain strategies) is that
often we perceive the
solution in creating more
There is a transport
problem? O.K. more
buses, more highways,

and taxi permits for the
world/and his brother.
But what is to happen
when the demand catches
up again? Will we build
more roads, buy more
buses. Is there no frontier
for the expansion of tele-
phone lines, of water
dams, of this and that
and the through?
Perhaps not. Perhaps
they put we so and our
perpetual preoccupation
will be to keep on chasing
an impossible equilibrium.

Still, I think, that
plenty' room' exists for
limiting the essential
futility of this existence.
Take water for instance,
how much room is there
for reducing the amount
of water we use, for-
increasing the amount of
rain water we catch and
the amount of water we
re-cycle even at the level
of the individual home?
And for rationing the
distribution of water in a
socially more equitable
way? How much room is
there in fact?
I don't suppose that
anybody kn9ws the
answer but can there be
any dispute that there
lies the true direction of a
solution which could



Phone 649-5847
Santa Flora

The finest cuts
Gents Suitings

probably be very much
less expensive than all
these colossal expen-
ditures on winning new
- Not less expensive per-
haps, in terms of the
arithmetic of dollars and
cents. But consider the
algebra of getting our
people to see that the
texture of the life-style is
the most crucial of all
the factors, that the
critical ingredient is the
management that we




Eastern Main Rd.

And then might we not
see that our existing
supply of cars and buses
and roads would be more
than equal to our needs?
if we drove dif-
ferently, maintained our
vehicles properly, changed
our working hours, decen-
tralized population and
administration, and so
Would we not see that
the existing supply of
telephones is more ade-
quate than is'commonly
supposed if we had
more public and fewer
private phones, if we
called economically, if we
maintained the equip-
m'ent properly and so


Would we not see that
our current levels of
foreign exchange are more
than we need by far if
we simply abandon the
colonial principle that if
you can import it, why
on earth do you ever
bother to produce it?"
Clearly;, there is no
total solution in seeking
such an adjustment: we
would still need expan-
sion in supply from time.
to time.
No magic in this algebra,
and that precisely is le
point. But I doubt we
will get this. message
across to WASA (or. any
of .the other Public
*Utility Corporations); not
until the currently pro-
jected expansion bring us
inexorably back to square
I suppose that is why
Senator Michael De la
Bastide has put before
the Senate that one way
to solve the utility pro-
blem is to abolish the
Public Utilities Commis-
sion altogether.







28 Mucurapo Street



Shop at

Ill Belmont Cir. Rd.
For quality clothes

at reasonable prices





THE Notting Hill Carni-
val Festival is, perhaps,
the largest cultural event
held in the United King-
It takes place on
August Bank Holiday and
will be held, as usual,
this year, 1977, on
August -28th and 29th
on the streets of Notting
Steelbands and cos-
tumed revellers parade the
streets; sound systems
spin out a web, of Carib-
bean sound from different
locations in the Carnival
area; thousands of people
make their way to Notting
Hill to view, listen to and
participate in this range
of artistic and cultural
The Carnival Develop-
ment Committee is the
body responsible for co-
ordinating the festival.
In 1974, the Carnival
festival assumed grandiose
proportions. Steelbands
and Costumed Bands
increased in numbers.
The artistic quality of
the festival improved
immensely. From hund-
reds, the crowds grew to
quarter of a million.
The festival, from its
tentative beginnings, had
arrived. It is now a per-
manent institution in the
social and cultural life of
the United Kingdom.
. This sudden leap in the
development of the event
has given stre ngth and

W;M. C(

gets own

confidence to those of us
who have made it possible.
The major negotiations
with which the Carnival
Development Cofnmittee
is preoccupied involve the
question of policing,
amenities for the festival
.to be provided by the
Kensingtoh and Chelsea
Borough. Council and tne
Greater London Council
ana fund raising.
The issue of policing is
perhaps the most impor-
tant question we have to
Last year, 1976, more
than one thousand police
officers were present in
the area, as opposed to
sixty officers in the pre-
ceding year. This was the
root cause of the fighting
which disrupted last year's
Leading politicians,
journalists, white and
black organizations and
individuals went on record
condemning the high pro-
file adopted by police
The principle has been
long established in the
United Kingdom that the

state subsidies the Arts.
In- practice, subsidies
go to the theatre, the
ballet, the opera and a
-whole range of cultural
and artistic activities.
The Carnival Develop-
ment Committee has taken
the position that Carnival
is not a junior partner in
On crowd response
alone, Carnival is the
senior partner in the
artistic and cultural field.








-r= 5~


With Distinction








WITH unwarranted superiority, Gomes asserts in
Through a Maze of Colour (p; 17) that the Beacon
writers "gravitated towards the status quo and ceased-
to protest, or continued to find solace from its
humiliations in dilletante devotion to the arts." It is
easy for us too, to. be unjust. Mendes's literary career
was -in 1933 when with Trinidad, The Beacon, and
the days of the group behind him, the manuscript of
Pitch Lake completed, he left Trinidad for the free
air of the larger world. The second climax came in
1940: "Between 1920 and 1940 I wrote nine full-
length novels, seven of which I destroyed by burning,
even before I had offered any one of them to my
publishers. That was in New York in 1940 and now
I lament a rash act performed on the edge df a
ghastly experience."l In an earlier account Mendes
makes his return to Trinidad and the decision to stop
writing look reasoned enough: ". . Already a diffi-
culty problem faced me: it was the problem of the
size of my talent as compared with the size, the vast
size of the world's crisis. My small talent although
genuine, Was no where near coming to grips with what
I saw happening everywhere. Time and again I tried
to plan a novel on the grand, scale, the large canvas -
but I just could not do it. I began to realise that my
novels were small novels, things made only to please
and entertain in spite of the critics saying that they
were universal in their implications ... I grew more
and more discontented with my work; I was poor and
my wife and baby were beginning to haunt my con-
science. It soon developed into a conflict in loyalties:
loyalty to my wife and child versus loyalty to my
limited talent. And so, to cut a ong story short, I
gave up writing in 1940 and have never since returned
to it in the creative sense."1 One senses behind this
rationalisation, and behind that "rash act performed
on the edge of a ghastly experience", a torment that,
in more fruitful days, had been given formal control
and expression in the creating of the disturbed and
disturbing central character of Pitch Lake.

Mendes" fiction and

the slum-dwellers

Mendes's second novel Black Fauns belongs to
what is known as "the literature of the yard", having
those features outlined above as characteristic of the
bulk of the stories in the two issues of Trinidad. The
world of the, man-hunting, dialect-speaking slum-
dwelling ladies (the fauns of the title) was not
Mendes's natural habitat: it had to be researched and
analysed beforehand. The middle-class author tells us
so much in the interview appearing in World Literature
Written in English: "What I did. in order to get the
atmosphere, to get the sort of jargon they spoke the -
vernacular, the idiom what I did was: I went into
the barrack-yard that was then at the bottom of Park
Street just before you come, into Richmond Street,
_ and I lived in it for about six months. I did not live
completely there, but I ingratiated myself. They
knew what I was doing; they knew what I felt about
their way of life that I was sympathetic towards it.
So I was persona very grata.
I slept there frequently, and a lot of the inci-
dents that appear 'in my second published novel,
Black Fauns, were taken almost directly from my
experience with the barrack yarders." Roger Mais's
dramatic structuring and imaginative intensity in The
Hills Were Joyful Together(1953); and C.L.R. James's
narrative strategy in Minty Alley allow these two
writers to escape the worst dangers inherent in giving
prominence to material, not intimately and un-self-
consciously known. If the episodic Black Fauns does

IIU stnKe us as having been properly synthetised into
a whole, and if at times the author makes his.local
material appear exotic, the same cannot be said about
Pitch Lake in which Mendes writes about the Protu-
guese community in cQlonial Trinidad, and in part-
icular about the psychic disturbance of one of its
members who cannot escape social conditions and
social conditioning partly because what he wishes to
escape has already become so deeply internalised.

Mendes' fiction and

the Portuguese

The community that occupies the foreground of
Mendes's novel is portrayed as full of prejudices
against other groups in the island; and divided intern-
ally along class lines. Those who are at the top of the
socio-economic ordering are full of prejudices against
those below too, and these prejudices carry traces of
certain historical features in the immigration of
Madeiran Portuguese to Trinidad which began in the
1840's. Some of the earliest of those who came were
Presbyterians (Kalleyites after their minister Kalley
who helped them to pay their passages), and they
wished to escape Roman Catholic domination and
persecution in their own island. In theory they were
voluntary migrants, paying their own way, but once in
Trinidad they indentured themselves some to
work in the cool cocoa plantations: others on the
sugar plains so that in terms or their economic
roles they were just like those migrants who were
indentured before taking passage. In a short time,
moreover, both types' of indentured labourer began
to drift into shop-keeping and into the merchant
class (this, incidentally, was also adrift tothe city of
Port-of-Spain); and the differences between them now
were essentially a matter of who had moved into
business, for a longer time or who had been more
successful at it. The old division into Presbyterian
and Roman Catholic nevertheless persisted, as such
- forms' usually do, into the early twentieth century.
In the novel, Henry da Costa, elder brother of
the main.character Joe, is married to Myra, a Presby-
terian, and the narrating voice tells us: "Myra's grand-
parents, who had been converts in Madeira, were
amongst one of the first batches to leave the island
during- the persecution period. That too, Joe had
learnt from his mother, was another reason why old
Antonio did not like Myra. When he had heard of
Henry's rushing Myra he had been very angry with
Henry, telling him that he did not like the idea of his
marrying a Protestant; but Henry, in his phlegmatic
manner, had disregarded the old man's injunction
and had gone his own way." (pp. 106-107). Myra is
also a second generation Creole (born in the island)
from a family established in the city; Henry and Joe
are the sons of an immigrant who has stuck at the shop-
keeping stage, and whose wife and daughters have
left him to do better for themselves in New York. The
division between Presbyterian and Roman Catholic
corresponds in the novel with Creole or established
Creole as against Maderian immigrant or first genera-
tion Creole. The fiction accurately reflects the
absurdities of the facts. As in the society, so in the
novel, the lines are not so rigidly drawn. Henry, first
generation Creole with determination and character
rushes, and marries, Myra.
Mendes portrays Henry as an almost constricted
being, steady at his job and rising in the commercial
world, but a man without joy (note the pathos of his
stamp collection) and with little to say; he maintains,
however, a steady dislike for Myra's Reverend Stan-
hope, and he has a controlled but bitter attitude to
Myra's matchmaking schemes- on Joe's behalf. When
Joe asks Henry about possible vacancies in the city,
reminding Henry that he is running out of money,


9... -C-,.

Henry reveals more of himself than Myra realises
(which is part of Henry's burden, too);

"There'sa way out of that difficulty,' Henry
said, glancing at Myra.'My ra ised her, eyes
from her coffee and looked at her husband with
the expression of one expecting to hear what is
not agreeable. Joe was silent. -
'Why not marry Cora's mpney as Myra sug-
gested? You solve the difficulty then. '
'Oh you fool!' Myra exclaimed 'You seldom
&peak, and when you do, it's sarcastic.
Joe is asking you a serious question about a
job and you make fun of him.'

'Of him? Think again.'

(pp. 198-199)

Because of his intimacy with the Portuguese com-
munity and its tensions (religion was the source of a
bitter conflict in his parents' lives), Mendes can
reveal many things about that community as it then
existed without any conscious determination to do so;
and he can be illuminating about the factors condition-
ing that immigrant group, without straining after a
didactic effect. Crucially, as a novelist, he registers
through his characters, peripherally and in depth, the
kinds of death bred by the spirit of commercialism,
and the woeful effects of snobbery and prejudice:
Henry's undeveloped tragedy is not the only one of
its kind in Pitch Lake. We have Cora's sister ("there

Shop at

hI Belmont Cir. Rde.

For quality clothes

at reasonable prices




was a furtive look in her eyes that told you she was
wondering all the time if people noticed how brow-
beaten a creature she was") who has married an older
man and for the security thus achieved has to put up
with his "domineering boastful manner". And we have
old Antonio da Costa who spends months in the
citv orior to emigration but who, except for a brief
farewell visit, cannot bring himself to his son's resi-
dence because he knows he woull be regarded as an

The novel satirises the Portuguese community
for its commercialism and its snobbery, and its pre-
judices against other groups. But the author also
writes compassionately about his world. Ashamed of
its immediate past, it is surely sealing off its own
future; its materialism is a direct corollary of its
insecurities' and uncertainties as an uprooted com-
munity. Through Cora, "the modem girl" chosen for
Joe by Myra, Mendes allows sone of the consequences
of dislocation to get on the agenda, as it were. At a
dance at the Portuguese Club, Cora tells Joe that
parents are only "nuisances to young girls", following
this up with a contemptuous reference to the
dreary marriage of her sister. In a later, more
extended conversation Cora describes the fate of
woman in the new colonial world:
'A young girl from the age of fifteen begins to
think of getting married. She marries and settles
down to what sort of life? Obeying her
husband by making and rearing children for
him. Great life! And all the world is there
before her, a closed book. If. she has studied,
say, the piano, after marriage she has to forget
all about the piano because children have
arrived to take up all her time. If she used to
be fond of running around, she has to give that
up or else her husband is going to be jealous
and going to make her as miserable as she can
possibly be.'
(p. 246)

The depressed fate of woman is only the most dra-
matic instance of the community's sickness. In the
conmmunityportrayed by Mendes, family life hardly
exists; marriages are dull, and the relationship
between parents and children is either coloured by
shame and guilt or nullified by the fear of repression.
If Pitch Lake is one of the earliest West Indian novels
pleading the case for the liberation of woman,
it does so by showing how one perverted approach
to marriage can lead to an equally sad-perversion.
When Cora agrees to marry Joe, she reminates thus:
'Well, yes, this is my chance: she murmured
ruminatingly. 'You see, you're so weak but
don't be hurt. I am telling it to you. You're so
weak, you're just like a child, like a lumn 'r
putty, and wouldn't it be nice for me to take
you and shape you as I would my own child?'
She chuckled softly. 'And then, of courseI
coula shape you to my own liking. I could
shape you, for instance, not to boss me. That's
why, I think, I'm afraid of all those other
fellows. That's probably why I've not been
ried as yet. But you are so different; so
weak, so childish! I know you more than you
think I do. And to be serious, Joe, I couldn't
marry a man who wanted to lay down rules for
me. I want fo be just as free after marriage as
-before. And, little boy,'she murmured teasingly,
'wouldn't you be willing to do what I tell you
to do, to become my child?'
Such is dreadful which Mendes's alone and
bewildered hero toils, and it is to the struggleof that
limed soul that we must at last turn.

Keep abreastt of the real

currents inthe Caribbean Sea

with fresh commentary
every Friday morning

Econo Lm I _'[[ics: i

Rates for 1977

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Stg.- 14 00

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P.O.S. Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126 & 62-25241.

the magic touch
in famous drinks
(and many dishes too)



Angostura Old Oak Rum
A mellow blend of light
Trinidad rums. Smooth.
clean tasting



David Michael freed on charge of
killing PC in 1973.
Senate passes Ombudsman Bill.
Stringent measures planned to -ration
water supply. Dry spell reduces Hollis to 55
days, Navet fo 106, Hillsborough to 67.
Senator De La Bastide says water
above party politics. WASA'S failure a viola-
tion of const. rights. Adds that Public Utili-
ties Commission should be dismantled.
Minister Mahabir: we must prepare
to export LNG. Committee on L-shaped oil
block soon to report.
PTSC slowed down by worker refusal to
drive unroadworthy buses.
Guardian Editorial discusses rush of
Ombudsman Bill through Senate: habit must
inspire dread in the tninds of some citizens.
TT Chamber Head Quesnel describes
"desperate state" in Tobago of food and
building materials.
Pt. Lisas port capacity to triple POS,
declares Admin. Manager of PLIPDECO.
Complex will create 7,000 jobs.
Demas Committee. on University
reports; calls for Carib national service.
Foreign calypsonians must pay to sing:
Association'Sec. Sydney Benjamin.
Gary Sobers retires from cricket.
Stollmeyer says no one can condemn the
35 "rebels".
Jamaica merchants still owing $6/7rr:
TMA's Barker.

PTSC cancels all bus charters.
O level graduates to get 100 jobs
clearing.up mail backlog. Pay from Unemploy-
ment Levy: PM's PRO.
Harold Koylass appointed first DPP.
W.I. Boardto honour Sir Gary.
Independent Tribunal being set up to
review NIB claims.
Hovt. to seek House permission to
increase External Loans to $875m.
Tapia Education Sec. in letter to
Express: Take closer look at Panday and party.

Govt. to borrow $360m. on Euro-
market. Strong Opposition from ULF in
ACP sugar price from Europe $784
per ton. Caroni expects to break even at
$900 per ton cost of-production. Girwar see%
industry heading for disaster at current-
Opposition remains silent as Ombuds-
man Bill passes Lower House. Rep. Nizam
Mohammed complains- that policewoman
makes monkey face at hi~.
What is PSA pay formula? Asks
Guardian Special Correspondent.
Hardware Dealers: Govtt. should im-
port more cement.
Let AleRander lead ULF: Express itself.
Greig fired as England captain.
Bhutto agrees to referendum in Pakis-


DLP to decide Friday next on its own
fate. Leader Mootoo: party has never been
anything but an elections party.
DAC bans members from making un-
authorised statements. Reportedly aimed at
Dr. Winston Murray: Express Political
Dr. Selwyn Ryan discusses the failure
of planning in Express Column: institutions
have not been able to contain demands of,
strategic interest groups.
Top officials in Guyana on charges of
Nigeria talks may offer more incentives
to oil companies.
DAC letter to Guardian compares turn-
out in 1976 and 1977 elections in Tobago:
less participated in local.

Bhutto places Opposition head under
US plans hard line policy for S.
Africa, press concludes from Mondale/Young
briefing in Lisbon. ,
Make Seemungal formula law, asks
Sugar Industry Cpntrol Board.
Caroni revises sugar target down to
180,000 tons from 200,000.
Senior Sec. students In South strike
for extra year for O Level.
Pqnday to move for abolition of
capital punishment.
Archbishop Pantin to pursue decentral-
isation of Church authority.


PTSC and TIWU to meet on bus strike.
Govt. to take up full option on L-
shaped block: 60% in all.
Muhammed Ali beats Spaniard Evan-
'gelista in 15 rounds.
Crawford beaten by Riddick in Hamp-
ton 100. Time 10 flat for both.
Express Report: the many faces of Dr.
Ken Julien.
Barbados sugar producers unhappy
with ACP price
Jamaica names Ombudsman.
Guardian Editorial discusses teacher
absenteeism:, incentives and guidelines
needed to enforce discipline.
Express Editorial: The DLP is dead.
Quarry operators challenge San Fer-
nando "Save Hill" Committee.
Waldheim warns against African disaster.
Dr. Williams walks out party's Gen.
Council. Special Convention planned for

July 2i and 24.

Police Association ask for salary
increase of 80% (50-20-10).
Minister De Souza boasts: 15 interna-
tional bankers in rush to lend money to T&T.
$200m. offer.
Jamaica gets credit to buy from Vene-
Black diplomat, Richard Kenneth Fox,
said named to T&T by Carter.
Express Editorial: Dr. Julien has too
much on his plate.
Manley in Maputo: Armed struggle
only realistic solution for Rhodesia.
Carter to S. Africa: Black rule or
strong action by US.
Congress party facet crucial test- of
survival: reports from India.
Dr. Romesh Mootoo: role of DLP still
very relevant; "we are not just playing with
Finance Minister Coore holds up on
extra Jamaican taxes in Budget Speech.

ECA estimates heavy loss from
absenteeism: in 1976, 75m. man hours for
$150m. cost. GNP loss equals $525m.
New housing policy to be discussed at
ruling party's local gov't consultation on June
Chief UN delegate Frank Abdullah
calls for stronger pressure on Smith's Rho--
Senate passes Bill to give Municipal
councils wider powers. Councils ill-eqiJipped
to handle extra-responsibilities.
Victor Questel: nobody coming for
the theatre; we have failed to marry the
theatre and the politics (Guardian column).
-Bird's Antigua will refuse independence
until "all the people of the Caribbean
become one independent nation."
NIS injury benefit to date from July
1977. Minister Cartey: We are in fact only one
year late.
La Basse Republic: Guardian letter.

PM opens NIB $1.3me building in

'And even these pots leaking', P.O.S. Hospital dietician seems to
to be telling Minister of Health Mohammed.

Murray "named" -

\Crawford beaten
Board in fact.
Minister Joseph promises secondary
school places for all in early 1980's.
Express Editorial discusses Dr.Julien's
letter, blowing his top over reporting of his
Interview. First part of interview published.
Deosaran Express Column celebrates
Ombudsmar's potential.
Stokeley hits press attacks on Amin.
Guardian on Dr. Murray; A Coward's
Way of Using the.fouse.

Following aid talks, more aid seems to
have been agreed on by T&T for Jamaica and
Guyana. Main. recommendation from Barsotti
team is for aid in the form of credit facilities
and cash via the CDB.
Electric switch for mill holding T&T
rice production: CTO in Min. of Agriculture.
W.I. Board would okay Packer-like
circus: Allan Rae. *
Andrew Young tells S.A. students to
head anti-racist drive just as US students did
over Viet Nam. Repeats private view that
the British.chicken over race.
SMinistry of Petroleum shelves plan to
hike the price of gas in spite pf demand by
Petroleum Dealers.
Hudson-Phillips to lead Bird Govt's case
against Walters on corruption.
Dominica to gain independence by
January reports Premier John..
US Congress report urges trade ties with
Mcintyre Report for Commonwealth
Summit. New economic order projected.
TTTU's Gopaul proposes that pensions
be tied to movement of current salaries.
Five hundred off jobs in sugar strike
in dispute over payment of employees at
Picton-La Fortune. Strike could spread: All
Express Editorial' Panday should pre-
sent sugar motion.
Orlando. Bosch: Perez gave ok for tar-
CSO's Quarterly Report places un-
employed at 60,100 mid-yr. 197B.

Tunapuna. Gives Govt. side on Barclays share
issue. Says $3 price named in Barlcyas' appli-
cation on Jan. 13, 1977. Describes NIB as
only true rep. of the funds of all working
men and women hence it should share
priority. Demonstrates thatlmost share issues
ultimately by-pass small savers: 95 out of
every 100 initial-small buyers had been elimi-
nated from Barclays holdings of 73 and 76.
PM sets out measures for review of localisation
policy; announces divestment of NCB up to
NIew insurance laws being drafted:
Minister De Souza.
PNM's Secretary recommended for pay
Panday threatens no (sugar) work on
British Leylands bribes for overseas
contracts: Daily Mail charges..
SOS wins: it is illegal to drive or park
in the Savannaft-AG's ruling.
Express Editorial: Piper should kiow
BWIA's tune.
Dr. Winston Murray "named" in the
House of Reps. and suspended on a Motion
by Leader of the Hopse Mohammed. Action
follows his disclosure of names of police
said to be involved in corruption and his
failure to withdraw charges at the Speaker's
Panday hits Trinidad concept of
Opposition: "an institution completely irrelev-
ant to our society."
New President Emile Elias: General
Contractors Ass'n to study inflationary
trends in the building industry.
Indonesia freezes oil price till year end
in support of one-tier pricing.
More water curfews announced by
Old age pensions to be paid by
cheque: Senator Cartey speaking on Mr. ANR
Robinson's Motion for higher pensions.
Leyland Executive says he forged letter
to Daily Mail.

IDC now functioning without Board
of Directors. Barrister Ewart Thorne, tipped
to be new Chairman, reportedly not to be on

New housing policy down for PNM June 5 talks



1. I .....


IT WOULD be reassuring
to conclude that we are
not, in fact, faced with a
serious global water short-
age, since the quantities of
water of fair quality on
which we can reliably
count are well in excess of
present and foreseeable
However, the fact is that
present water demand-is
largely concentrated in a
number of relatively small
but densely populated
areas of the world, usually
not located close to the
largest sources of supply
which are the tropical
rivers and some subarctic
For this reason, the
dependable streamflow per

capital is, for instance,
much smaller for Europe
and Asia where it is of the
order of 2,000 cubic metres
(70,630 cu. ft.) per year,
than for South America
where it is over 20,900 cu.
metres (706,300 cu. ft.)
per year.
The question naturally
comes to mind of the
possibility of increasing
the amount of water
.supply, or of improving
its quality, through uncon-
ventional means.
The potential use of
groundwater is often
limited by. high drilling
and pumping costs.
Similarly the transpor-
tation of water over long

distances, which

can be

combined with under-
ground storage for subse-
quent pumping, is also
rapidly limited by cost
The towing and melting
of icebergs remains for
the moment in the realm
of futurology.
More significant al-
though much less spec-
tacular is the improve-
ment in amount, regularity
and quality of supply which
relatively simple methods
of watershed management-
can bring about.
There are also the possi-
bilities offered by desalina
Specialized industries,
tourist resorts or the
inhabitants of small islands

and of arid coastal regions
might consider it worth-
while paying t&e high price
demanded for the relatively
small amounts of water the
desalination process can
But it seems obvious
that in the foreseeable
future desalination can
offer no help for irrigation
to produce commercial
crops on a market scale.
It seems, however,
equally true that for certain
industrial and municipal
uses, provided present costs
are considerably reduced
through scientific and
technological advances,
desalination of brackish or
saline water can play, a
significant role in the

Ultimately, therefore,
the problem of balancing
water needs and resources
appears in general to be
more an economic and
managerial problem than
one of availability.
Whichever way one
*looks at it, the develop-
ment of vatef resources, at
the scale and at the pace

required by expanding
populations and increasing
demands, will call for
enormous, investments all
over the world amounting
to several billions of dollars
per year, whether for
building reservoirs and
irrigation channels, sewage
-treatment, pollution con-
trol, desalination, or other

1 Alfred Myndes, personal communication, September 10,
2 Mendes was awarded the Military Medal for bravery at
Poet Capelle in the Ypres Galient in 1917.
3 Mendes, personal communication, September 10, 1964,
4 Author of Minty Alley (1936), The Black Jacobins (1938),
Beyond a Boundary (1963), and numerous other b6oks and
articles on a wide range of topics.

1 Author of Crown Jewel (1952) a novel built around the
industrial unrest of the late 1930's with a hero modelled
upon the labour leader T.U.B. Butler; other novels by de
Boissiere are Rum and Coca Cola (1956) and No Saddles for
Kangaroos (1964).
2 The Turbulent Thirties in Trinidad: An Interview with
Alfred N. Mendes' in World Literature-Written in English,
Vol. 12 No. April 1973, pp. 66-79.

1 Trinidad Guardian, 22nd December 1929, quoted by
Mendes in 'Editorial Notes' p. 56 of Easter 1930 issue of Trini-



2 'A Commentary' in Trinidad, Easter 1930, p.65.
3 As above, p.66.
1 A leading political figure in Trinidad from around 1946 till
the coming of Eric Williams's People's National Movement in
1956. /
2 Albert Gomes, Through a Maze of Colour, Key Caribbean
Ltd. Trinidad (1974).
3 There are several accounts of the activities of the Beacon
group, See K. Ramchand, The West Indibn Novel and Its
Background (1970) pp. 63-71; Voices, iVoL1 No. 5' Port-of-
Spain, TS95), pp. 3-7; The Journal or Commonwealthl
Literature 7, (1969) pp. 59-87; and World Literature Written
in English Vol. 12 No. 1 (1973) pp. 66-79 Albert Gomes
devotes Chapter II pp. 15-26 of his autobiography Through a.

Maze of Colour to The Beacon. A re-print of the magazine
with an evaluative introduction by Brinsley Samaroo is forth-
coming from Kraus re-prints.
1 Stories of this period include 'Sweetman' in Story maga-
zine; 'Marie and Rampatia' in The Magazine (San Francisco);
and 'In Port-of-Spain' in The Little Magazine.
2 Alfred Mendes, personal communication, March 31, 1976.
3 Part of the United Front's manifesto; quoted from Selwyn
Ryan Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago; Univer-
sity of Toronto Press (1972), p. 74.

1 Alfred Mendes, personal communication, March 31, 1976.
2 Alfred Mendes, personal communication, March 31, 1976.

1 'The Turbulent Thirties in Trinidad: An Interview with
Alfred H. Mendes' in World Literature Written in English,
Vol. 12 No. 1, April 1973.

1 Alfred

Mendes, personal communication,

September 10,J
I I .11

- I




t*THE FIV* l TB1

P t ;-TM~t



p PS




TIRED of trying to get
an unconditional, indefi-
nite defence guarantee
from a reluctant Britain,
premier George Price has
set his sights on a more
modest goal,'a ten-year
defence treaty.
Hitherto Price's govern-
ment has maintained that
without such a guarantee,
Belize cannot risk moving
towards full independence.
But the argument now is
that .it if could survive the
first decade of independence
without attack from Guate-
mala, 1it'-diplomatic position
in international forums would
be established, and its survival
thereafter assured.
At the same time Britain
would be freed from the
nightmare of an open-ended
deferce commitment to a
distant territory of which the
British people know and care
In trying this tack the
Belize government will prob-
ably also intensify its efforts
to associate its comhonwvealth.
Caribbean partners in the
-defence treaty.


The presence of some
black faces among the foreign
contingents guarding Belizean
territorial integrity would be
no bad thing, though whether
the fledgling defence forces
of Jamaica and Guyana
*would, be able to spare even
a token force is open to
Price is meanwhile increas-,
ing his efforts to persuade the
Carter administration to stop
'sitting on the fence and warn
the Guatemalans off any
.invasion of Belize. He may
The factors which made
Henry Kissinger equivocate
on the Belize issue his
view of right-wing -extremist
governments in Guatemala as
bulwarks against creeping
Communism in the Carib-
bean, and his fear of Cuban
involvement on Belizean terri-
tory weigh much less with
the Carter administration.
the Carter administration,
which has already had dis-
putes with the Laugerud
regime over human rights,
and is moving towards a
rapprochement with Havana.

The recent ECLA gather-
ing has nevertheless illustrated
the delicacy of the Belize
issue in Guatemalan internal
The presence of a Belizean
delegation at the conference
was sufficient to produce
paroxysms of rage from the
'Movimien'to de Liberacion
Nacional (MLN) and from
some daily newspapers.-
Price himself decided at
the last minute that it would

Premier George Price


EVEN as the tide is
rapidly turning in favour
of Cuba's re-entry into
American councils, one
old foe of the Castro
regime is holding firm on
the line.
Ex-President Romulo
Betancourt, founder of
the Democratic Action
Party and a prime target


all ears as


blasts ties



under the direction of
President Carlos Andres
Perez. The Party inherited
re-opened relations with
Cuba from the last Admin--
istration under President
Rafael Caldera.
Since out of public
office, Ex-President Betan-
court has never ceased to
influence his party from
the political wings,
whether, on its internal
power relations or on the
question of national


J.ust returned from a
visit to New York for
treatment, Betancourt
addressed a strong letter
to the Executive Com-
mittee -of the party
attacking any involvement
in the Havana festival.
Betancourt described
Fidel Castro as the Dada
Amin of the Caribbean
This intervention is
expected to create pro-
blems for Andres Peres
and for the party as pre-
parations are advancing
for the selection this
summer of a presidential ,
candidate for upcoming


Perez has emerged as a
major figure in Caribbean
diplomacy, credited with
-the standing to be a
mediator between Havana
and Washington and
reported to have been the
man behind the recent
rapprochement between-
Kingston on the one
hand, and Washington
and the IMF on the
All the indications are
that Port-of-Spain regards
with great suspicion, this
new-found popularity of
Caracas in the Indies.
Prime Minister Williams
has long since branded
Venezuelan adventures as
an exercise in "recolonisa-
Although Trinidad and.
Tobago now has diplo-
matic relations with Cuba,
Dr. Williams must be
listening with interest at
the noises of Betancourt,
the old war-horse who,
reports Latin America,
may well be "nursing
further dreams of presi-
dential office."

of Che Guevara's revolu-
tionary thrust into South
America in the headier
days of the 1960's, last
week virtually forbade his
party's youth to partici-
pate in the forthcoming
World Youth Festival in
Democratic Action cur-
rently rules Venezuela

The people of Belize a mixture of MayaMestizo, Carib,African and Asian

be better if he did not head
his country's delegation, and
Adolfo Molina Orantes, the
Guatemalan foreign minister,
who was ex-officio president
of the plenary sessions, was
diplomatically indisposed arid
-replaced by a Peruvian vice-
president on the day.

Carl 'Lindy' Rogers, the
Belizean deputy premier,
delivered short and uncon-
troversial address to the
Many influential Guate-
malans realise that after the
two crushing votes against
their country and in favour
of Belize in the United
Nations (LA X, 46) the diplo-
matic war against Belize is
lost; but this is not accepted
by the army or by politicians
of the extreme right.
Some officers are still
tempted by the idea of a
blitzkrieg against the terri-
tory, so that the army, which
played! no part in freeing

Guatemala from Spanish
colonial rule and in 1954
surrendered to Castillo Armas's
mercenaries virtually without
a fight, could gain some
battle honours for itself.
The project of a road to
link Huehuetenango, the
oilfields of Alta Verapaz and
the Belizean border is certainly
not without, military impor-
The army's sabres will
doubtless b~ rattled in the
direction of Belize during the
run-up to the elections next

And the Israelis, from
whom Laugerud intends to
buy more arms following:his
repudiation of the defence
treaty with Washington,
might have less compunction
than the United States in sell-
ing weapons to the army for
possible use against Belize.
In Guatemala itself only
the Ejercito Guerrillero de

los Pobres (EGP) has pro-
duced public arguments in
favour of abandoning the
claim to Belize, illustrating
its stand with examples of
how the affair has. tradition-
ally been used by the right
to sidetrack public debate
from the central issues of
political repression and the
gap between rich and poor.
Meanwhile, since General
Torrijos's stopover in Belia'
earlier this month, the Pana-'. ,
manians have become the
territory's newest and most
outspoken defenders.
Last week Panama City
radio pointed out that Guate-
malan territorial demands had
intensified since transnational
companies had found oil
deposits in southern Mexico
and northern Guatemala, and
said the Guatemalan claim
had to be seen 'in the context
of the voracious appetitescof
those who seek to exploit the
Belizean subsoil for their owr
(Courtesy Latin America)

old foe

-- r l I






Jeff Thomson




By Owen Thompson

AS England and Australia
prepare for battle over the
Ashes, they both have cause
for concern. Without Lillee,
Redpath and lan Chappell,
- the Australians have so far
failed to achieve the type of
tour for which they must
have been hoping. England,
with Tony Greig fired and
little new talent emerging
from cricket in the Counties,
are doubtless uneasy as they
square up for the series.
Kerry Packer's idea has
thrown the cricket world into.
confusion over the prospect
of more engaging super-tests
but its most immediate and
significant effect has been
the sacking of Anthony
William Greig as Englands
Test Captain an act des-
cribed by Packer himself as
"the act of a bully."
While Greig's statement
after the decision showed
that he was disappointed, of
mpre importance is the fact
that England now must select
a new captain to match wits
with Greg Chappell. whose
ability in this respect already
has been proven.
From all indications, the
likely choice is Middlesex's
34-year-old Captain, Mike
Brearley, described by Chris-
topher Martin-Jenkins, the
English cricket scribe, as "prob-
ably a shrewder tactician than


Should the selectors
appoint him, it would mean
that they would have appoint-
ed a Captain who himself has
had little Test experience, a their appointment
of Glamorgan's Tony Lewis
for the India tour of'1972/73
and Sussex' Mike Denness for
the West Indies tour of 1974.
L Brearley has played in'a

mere seven Tests (including
tw6 against the West Indies
last year). He has totalled a
mere 70 runs in 4 innings.
The captaincy is not how-
ever the only headache of the
England selectors. If they are
to be consistent with their
"rebel policy", pigheaded
though that may seem, they
must think seriously of a
complete exclusion of Greig,
Knott and Underwood, even
if they have left room for
themselves by underlining
Greig's deal as incompatible
with his special role as cap-
Personally, I find! it very
difficult to believe that, given
the state of the. batting line,
the selectors can afford to
leave out Greig. How much
less can they truly afford to
omit Underwood whose 11
years of Tests have earned
him over 250 Test wickets?
Can they gamble on inexperi-
enced spinners such as Cope,
Miller and Edmonds?

Allan Knott has been
Greig's Vice-Captain in addi-
tion to being a wicket-keeper
batsman able consistently to
keep out Bob Taylor.
Fortunately for the selec-
tors, the rest of the team
pieces together comparatively
well. Amiss, Raridall, Barlow
and either Wodlmer or Fletcher
will take the other batting
places while Willis, Hendrik,
and, given Old's injury and
Lever's failure to make noises
this season, Botham comprise
the new-ball attack.
Nottinghamshire's Randall,
hero of the Centenary Test,
has reportedly\looked the
best of the English batsman
so far and it is hoped that he
would provide the much
needed' answer to Thomson
and the Aussie pace attack.
The Australians for their
part are also still searching

for solutions to some pro-
blems, and are rather less
favourably placed than we
were at the same time last
Up to.end of the MCC
game, they have won one
more' match than they have
lost and the score is 2-1. But
only Greg Chappell's recent
batting and Max Walker's
bowling are cause for rejoicing.
Disappointingly, Thomson
has had only six wickets in
this time while the new pace
bowlers have given little re-
assurance. Rain of course has
been a major handicap to
performance especially by
the middle-order batsmen but
the fact is that the returns of
Cosier, Hughes, Serjeant,
Malone and Pascoe have been
decidedly meagre and even
Hookes has got going only
with a century off Somerset.
It again seems likely that
Rod Marsh would have to
bolster up the middle while
Walker and Dymock will
need to provide the support
for Thomson who will clinch
his place for psychological
reasons alone.
McKosker's return has
solved one problem and he
will probably be partnered by
Ian Davis who enjoyed a fair
series against Pakistan six

months ago.
O'Keefe is possibly the
only spinner in contention,
Malone having declined so far
to make him fight for the
place. In some ways he will
serve as an all-rounder at No.
7 or No. 8.
The other position in the
team naturally falls to Walters,
once dubbed as the reincar-
nated Bradman after his suc-
cess a la Vivian Richards
against us in 1968-69. Walters
has not however had any
great success outside of
Australia except for the
Caribbean tour of 1973.
In fact, his tours to
England in 1972 and 1975
were more or less failures a
record the Aussie seledtors
will doubtless bear in mind
in assessing his chances for
the captaincy on the coming
West .Indian tour if Greg
Chappell is serious about his
"retirement; though tempb-
rarily," after the current
England series.
Whatever the fortunes of
the Australian team and,
players, West Indians will be
monitoring the finest details
for, political problems and
Mr. Jeff Stollmeyer's diplo-
macy permitting, the big
game will be shifting to our
own shores next year.

Your family





on bread



Agents for.
And General Insurance Agents
No.5 Concession Rd. Sea Lots
Phone: 62-37813

Tony Greig

Dennis Lillee

Greg Chappell





,rs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute f
study of Man,
162, East 78th Stree
New York, N,Y. 10021
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,
U.S.A. W

Here a young player
demonstrates his skills

THE game between a Trini-
dad Colleges XI and a Tobago
Youth Team, originally 'carded
for Fatima Grounds at Mucurapo,
had had to be shifted to'thagua-
nas at very short notice. Those
cricket fars who didn't find out
,until it was too late missed a real
The two day game had a
huge chunk washed out of it by
Saturday morning's rains but by
midafternoon the underfoot con-
ditions had improved enough to
allow the players a chance to
take the field.
STrinidad, put in to bat on
the drying matting, scored a tidy
155 all out with under half an
hour to go to the close.
Topscorer was Gary Siewdass
who earlier this season had scored
double century in the Colleges
His 57 contained 6 hard-hit
fours and came in only 75 mins.
off 67 balls.
B. Rambachan survived long
enough to get 29 and Brian
Gitteris hit two towering sixes in
making 18 in 21 mins. off 21 balls
For Tobago, Gareth Scott
claimed the first three wickets to
Fall to finish with figures of 13-2-
But just when the middle
order seemed poised to post a
sizeable total, skipper Alston
Daniel, a left arm orthodox spin
bowler, broke the back of the
resistance to capture all of the'
other wickets that fell to bowlers.
His figures (12-2-24-6) accu-
rately reflect how well he bowled
and he was later awarded a gold
medal inscribed "Player of the
Match" for his performance.
On the Trinidad side, Siew-
dass' performance won him the
medal at stake.




llege League



out on



With only one run on the.
- tins, Tobago last opener Clint
Yorke before close on the first
day but they, recovered well to
be 64 for 3 at lunch.
After lunch,. however, once
Stopscorers L. Alleyne (28) and'E.
Walters (35) were back in the
pavilion, the rest of the batting
collapsed to the slow medium
right arm seamers of Viiay
Subratee who finished with 19-
4-35-5 and R. Jagroop (15-6-20-
.2) whose left arm spinners kept
the-visitors quiet for long periods.
M. Gordon (19) and G.
Scott (11) defied the attack for
25 minutes to add 26 for the last
wicket before Scott was bowled
by a Subratee full.toss and the
innings ended at 137, 19 runs
short of victory. -
On a proposal from the
Tobago coach the two teams
then opposed each other in a
very- entertaining 20-over game.
Trinidad again batted first
and with Siewdass getting 30
inns, Gittens 36 (1x6, 5x4) in
30 mins. and R. Beharry 36 in
36 mins. (including 21 off the
last 5 balls he faced!) they scored
50 in 30 mins, 100 in 57 mins.
and ended with 131 for 4 in 71
Most of those present fell
that the game was safe for
Tobago had scored 50 in
32 mins, 100 in 50 mins. and
needed a four off the last ball to
tie the game.
As it turned out, a hefty
swing, towards midwicket yielded
two runs and an overthrow and,
the batsman being run out in
attempting a fourth run, Trini-
dad were left visitors by just a
single run. .(E.B.)


Raul Betancourt and Martha Rosa Bae. Gale two of the af players -

Cuban senoritaS

out point T'girls

FANS who turned up at the-
Chinese Association on Friday
evening expecting the Cubans to
serve up the same brand of ping
pong to which we were treated
during the visit of the Chinese
last year did not quite get what
they expected.
Yet there were almost 4
hours of. entertaining tennis as
the visitors eked out a narrow
5-4 win over the national team
comprising Mansingh Amarsingh,
Lionel Darceuil and Hamilton
Earlier, the Cuban womedi
had defeated their local counter-
parts Tara Hansrajsingh and Nadira
Abdool 3-1.
*Hansraysingh remains very
much the one shot player we
saw against the Chinese but
Abdool's game has come a long
way since then.
She showed excellent con-.
trol and aplomb in defeating the
seemingly temperamental Maria
Lastra in the night's second game
and, though she lost to the more
experienced Marta Baez in the
return singles, she managed to
cause her several anxious
,When the men played,
Bridgeman early seemed out of
his class and he not surprisingly
lost all three of his games includ-
ing the deciding 9th set.
SDarceuil, -in contrast, often

seemed to lose vital points
through overconfidence and;
though, he woni his second match
after losing his first, he lost the
crucial 7th and thus allowed
Cuba to go ahead at 4-3.
'Had Darceuil won (as he
should have), Amarsingh's vic-
tory in the subsequent match
would have meant a 5-3 victory.
Amarsingh was indisputably
once more the pick of the nome
team as he has been for the last
,three tours at least. /
In attack as in defence, he
produced some really fine shots
as he won all three of his games.
Trinidad will. probably
emerge victors in this three match
series against this Cuban second
team since Darceuil's is unlikely
not to get his game together
after Friday.

In Tuesday night's singles
events, neither of the Trinidad
pair seems likely to make the,
women's final and the Cuban men
are, one feels, not quite going to
make it to the. final where, if the
draw allows, Amarsingh is likely
to meet and, perhaps, best
Whatever happens, though, -
Tuesday night promises to pro-
vide some really exciting .tennis
for starving fans.


four roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd. cross crossing


Tal --

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