Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Publication Date:
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )
UF00072147_00249 ( sobekcm )

Full Text
45 Cents.


VoL7 No. 25

~Ilvlv C."'- o,



AFTER nearly five years of publi-
cation as a weekly, Tapia will
cease to be a newspaper after this
Edition and will be replaced by
two monthly journals.
One of these will be The T&T
Review, the first issue of which
will appear on Sunday, August 28,
1977, to mark the Independence
The other publication; still
bearing the name Tapia, will be an
"in-house" News Letter circulated
to members of the party and
associates of the Movement.
Writing to advertisers and

subscribers, Managing editor Lloyd
Best describes the Review as a
medium "more fully devoted to
investigation and reflective com-
mentary with room always for
imaginative writing."
"Our coverage," continues.
Best, "will embrace the whole
field of civic affairs: government,
politics and administration; com-
merce, industry and agriculture;
education, sport and the arts; the
home and gardening; and inter-
national affairs, especially the
The Review will retain the
tabloid newspaper- format, .and






a a g is


leave ou

Health Foods
Keate Street

Stephen son's
31A'Erthig Road

Wide Range of
Books, Stationery,
Art Material.

fhe management has asked advert-
isers and subscribers to "transfer
commitments" to the new paper.
Tapia was first published in
September 1969 as an occasional
journal. In 1972, when Tapia
House Publishing Company
acquired printing facilities, the
paper became a fortnightly and
then a weekly serving as both an
organ of the Movement and as a
journal of reports, commentary
and creative writing.
Tapia Publishing Company will
now be continuing operations
from our Port-of-Spain Office at
22, Cilpriani Boulevard. Details
concerning a new printing com-

IF ALL the nation's health service
suffers from is bad .publicity, then
it's well on the way to healing itself.
That is, if the medicine prescribed
by public relations specialist Minister
Kamaluddin Mohammed will have the
desired effect.
What 'is this desired effect?
Sirmply, to tell the public that a lot is
happening throughout the Ministry of
Health . even if, as people can see,
nothing is improving in the areas where
Sit matters most.,
S The "medicine" dispensed from
the Sackville Street offices of the
Minister is a flurry of press releases -
guaranteed maximum coverage on the
government media to indicate a lot
of bits and pieces of developments in
health. The public must know what's
going on.
But all together, these bits and
pieces of news, as if designed for an
internal ministry-newsletter, don't add
up to inens in the maternity ward in
They don't mean that drugs of
adequate quantity and quality for
medical care are being made avail-
able; they don't mean that medical
personnel will be deployed when and
where available; that ambulances"will
come whei called for; or that sanitary
standards in eating places and the like
will be no more be subject
to periodic flying squad-
type "raids" and then left
to return to normal nasti-
No. But we hear that
six new community health
centres are to be opened.
Training programmes for
nursing assistants are to'be
resumed. (Why were they
ever stopped? And 'why
are they now to be
And top health and
medical administrators are
busy travelling around the
world attending confer-
ences, each no doubt
equipped with a sheaf of
documents telling of thee e
exciting new things that The hea
are happening here. On trouble.
paper. what shc

Government doctors had
recently to be told that'
they are obliged to work
where posted?
But after their recent
expose of conditions in

pany involving private share-holders
are due to be announced on July
The changes noW underway
have as "their "major objective"
what Tapia Secretary and Manag-
ing Editor Lloyd Best describes as
an "improvement in the quality of
our product."
Meanwhile, the next issue of
Tapia, delayed by. one week to
assist the' change-over, Will be a
bumper 40-page paper containing a
Supplement for Tapia's Construc-
tion Symposium carded for the
Holiday Inn on July 9. "That
Edition will appear on June 30.
See Text of letter on page 2.


rlth services in Trinidad and Tobago- a password for
Picture shows a broken incenerator in Caura Hospital

would be the show-

piece institution in tme
country, the POS General,
who can blame them for
not wanting to go where
things are, if possible, only
The latest announce-

inent from Sackville Street.
via Whitehall's PR Division"
is that holders of "mass
gatherings" will have to get
a permit before time.
"Mass gatherings' are
not precisely defined, but
it's only left to be assumed


as before:

How Health














We are, writing to advise you that beyond
Vol. 7, No. 27, the Tapia Weekly will be dis-
placed on the news stands by a monthly
review of life in Trinidad & Tobago.
The Tapia House Publishing Company
looks hopefully towards its clientele for the
same ungrudging support which we have
enjoyed over the years since we first came
into existence in September 1969. We sin-
cerely hope that our writers, our readers, our
subscribers and our advertisers and their
agents will continue graciously to lend us
their patronage.
Our Circulation Manager is asking that
Tapia's present commitments be simply trans-
ferred to the new Review for which. the
subscription will be the same $25 per year.
Our Advertising Manager equally requests a
plain transfer of obligations. The proposal here
is that the Review honour the space demands
implied by the current -dollar contracts which-
advertisers have with Tapia.
We Of Tapia Publishing are eager to
effect a smooth transition even as we antici-
ipate that improvement in. the quality of our
product which is precisely the major objective
of the chafiges now in process.
SOur new medium will be more fully
devoted to investigation and reflective com-
mentary with room, always available for
imaginative writing .Our coverage will embrace
the whole field of civic affairs: government,
politics and administration; commerce, indus-
try and agriculture; education, sport and the
arts; the home and gardening; and interna-
tional affairs, especially the Caribbean.
-Our first issue wih appear on Sunday
August 28,1977 and will therefore be marking
Independence Day. In the run-up, Volume 7,
No. 25 of Tapia will appear on June 19 but
will not be followed by No. 26 until July 3
since the latter will contain a Special Supple-
ment devoted to statements prepared for the
Symposium on The Construction Industry and
the National Future carded for July 9, at the
Holiday Inn Hotel. Volume 7, No. 27 of
Tapia, also a vehicle of the Symposium carry-
ing a Report on Proceedings, will appear on
Sunday July 31.
We are happy to say that, in addition to
the Review, Tapia will continue to appear
once a month not for sale to\the public but
as' an in-house journal of the Movement and
the Party.
With sincere thanks for your co-operation,
I leave you.

Lloyd Best.
Managing Editor.







hopes to



that Carnival-type gather-
ings are the ones now
indicated for control.
Says the release: "Organ-
isers of a carnival competi-
tion should obtain at least-
one month before the
event, a certificate from
the relevant Medical Officer
of Health to the effect,
that his premises are satis-
factory, health wise."
Which provokes hilarious
visions of the CDC being
told by some public health
doctor it can't hold Carni- -
val in the Savannah
because its provisions
for sewer and running
water don't come up to


But if that. gratifies -
environmentalists, t,. they -
can-hold their breath.
SFor one of the Minsky---
of Health recommendations -
recently accepted by Cabi-
net is for "a comprehen-
sive design for the
installation of. adequate
water and sewerage facili- '
"ties for the Queens Park ;,,
Savannah area." v
SGoodbye to hopes for.
the Savannali being left as
"the heart and lungs'" of
the city, "our oasis for
relaxation and recreation" 7
as one environmentalist
recently put it.
And enter the savannah
now as the bowels of the
city, dotted with concrete /
block toilets and! sewn
with water and sewerage


A place, in other words,
admirably suited for the
continued holding of the
That's how it figures in
the plans of the Ministry-
of Health, which Mr.
Mohammed recently got
the Cabinet to adopt.
Meantime, weekly mass
gatherings at "open air
markets like San Juan and"
Tunapuna continue heed-
less of any concern for
health: Food: is exposed
inches away from smelly
roadside gutters.
But no TV producer
would dare do .anything -
that might be condemned'
as sabotage of the PR cam-
paign being run from Sack-
ville Street.
And the mixture con-
tinues as before.




By Allan Harris
TOO MANY thoughtful
persons, the principle of
the rule of law is the very
definition of a civilized
existence&Mr. de la Bastide's
Report on the St. George
West Magistracy discloses
that, in an importanf-sec-
tion of our judicial estab-
lishment, and for a very
long time, there was an
unprecedented reign of the
The Report points to a
level of fraudulent practice
which amounted to nothing
less than the systematic
and massive frustration of
the course of justice.
To the ordinary citizen,
it must be apparent that
justice becomes equally
arbitrary, whether sub-
jected to the whims of a
despot or to the venal
impulses of judges and
In the supremacy of the
law the weak and indigent
are said to find the main-
stay of their defence. It is
impossible to say whether
we are a more litigious
people than any other, but
what is for sure is that a
primitive notion of justice.
lurks in our breasts, which
tells us that, despite differ-
ences of station or fortune,
within the precincts of the
courts every man stands
equal in / freedom and
But what equality and
what protection can we
have, when the courts are
corrupt and the majority
of the law is. mocked by
those who are supposed to
S b7 e -its faithful servants?
It is only natural to be
alarmed over what Mr. de
la Bastide's Report has

If the courts are corrupt'
and 'justice has broken
down, why shouldn't we
take -the law into- our own
hands? ,
Anyone who. thinks
-through the likely conse-
quences of the perversion
of the processes of justice,
*must see that, of the perni-
cious effects of the break--
"down of all valued social
institutions, those, relatifig
to the loss of respect f6r
the law are among the
most' grave.





game played

on voting day
III .. . . ..

Isn't everybody playing the same. game when we vote, as we 'have tended to, fbr
the parties which represent the interests of our rac e?

The question that quite ,
rightly. has been posed,
then, is why did the gov-
ernment leave this Report
unpublished for such a
long time? The Report was
Handed in in 1973. It
comes to.public attention
in 1977. Surely it is not
acceptable to lay the blame
on a succession of
It is inconceivable that
a Report of such far-
reaching consequences did
not merit the attention of

the Prime Minister and
political leader of the
ruling party-himself, and
indeed"of the entire Cabi-


There must have been
very powerful political
reasons, therefore, why this
Report was not published
sooner than it was.
We may speculate\ as

to what the consequences
of early publication would
have been for the PNM. Or
as to the fears which were
felt within the inner
reaches of Balisier House.
Certainly it was a time
of great uncertainty for
the government. With
accusations of corruption
at their height. With the
government doing its best
to appear to be the guard-
ian of law and order
against the apostles of the

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violent overthrow of the
Certainly not the time
to release a Report which
would confirm the worst
fears of its critics,. and
provide ammunition for its
political opponents.
Yet, despite all the com-
pelling reasons of real
politik for the suppression
of the .Report, it is not an *
action that we can afford\
to condone. "

.It is not in our interests
to be so permissive as to
allow the survival of any
political party to take pre-
cedence over the preserva-
S tion of the sanctity of the
law. The genuine virtues of
political parties are evident
only in conditions. of stable
law and order.
But what is worse, by
withholding such impor-
tant information from the
public, the ruling party not
only sought to protect
itself from the damaging
effects of disclosure, but
also to put itself in place
to effectively manipulate
an unsuspecting population.
For, as we have noted,
it was an essential part of
the PNM's political and
electoral strategy to'exploit
the anxieties generated'by
a period of-political turbu-
lence by posing as the
party of law and order.
The, publication of the
de la Bastide Report would
have blown that scheme
sky high. Its suppression:
reveals that," far -from
having any respect-for the
law, the leadership of the possessed 'f a ruth-
less cynicism which allows
for the destruction of the
most cherished values in
the service of its ownl
partisan survival.
x /

What kind of order is it,
that such a party upholds
which knows nothing of
the most basic elements
of justice truth and plain
What reveals clearly the
double-dealing and chic-
anery which is now second
Continued-on Page 10

' *


LABOUR Day 1977 marks the
Fortieth Anniversary of what
has become known in history as
the Butler Riots the spate of
spontaneous rioting led by work-
ers in the. oil industry. June 19,
1977 was the day when the
epoch making events were preci-
pitated at a meeting of striking
workers who gathered to hear
from their leader and spokesman
T. Uriah Butler.
The events of that year, as Ryan
points out in his Race and Nationalism
in Trinidad and Tobago, intensified the
class-consciousness of workers as well
as publicised the plight of the West
Indian masses.
Such gains were without doubt
an advancement on those, such as the
introduction of tradeunion legislation,
secured by Cipriani, his Trinidad
Working-men's Association (1919), his
Trinidad Labour Party (1934) and his
lieutenants of whom Butler was .one.
That the labour movement was
brought more forcibly and deter-
minedly into the vanguard of the new
national movement for social and
political change is perhaps the most
crucial consequence of the 1937
upheavals. Not least, the way was
paved for the granting of Universal
Adult Suffrage, almost a decade later,
in 1946.
Thus it was Butler's promptings
for the adoption of more direct
methods and the increasingly parlous
state of workers that prevented labour
from slipping backward after the
failure of Cipriani and TLP to secure
minimum wage legislation. It is not
surprising then that the period immedi-
ately following 1937 should witness
the direct involvement of labour in




The first obvious demonstration
of the central role of labour was to be
seen in the elections of 1946. All the
significant political parties revolved
around some trades union base. There
was the United Front, a conglomeration
the West-Indian National Party, Negro
Welfare Cultural and Social Associa-
tion, the Indian National Council, the
Federated Workers Union (FWTU) and,
before the pre-election split, the
leaders of OWTU, FWTU and the,
Southern Workers Trade Union.


According to Ryan, the United
Front described itself as being socialist
and "... primarily a working-class little
man's front". In addition were the
Butler Party and ithe Trades Union
Council and Socialist Party. The
latter was the result of the split in the
United Front. All told labour returned
to the Leg-Co in 1946 nine representa-
tives. Of these three Albert Gomes,
Roy Joseph and Patrick Solomon
went to the United Front; three in the
persons of "Fargo" James, Chanka"
Maraj and Timothy Roodal went to
Butler's Party and the remaining two
(Victor Bryan and C.C. Abidh) were
Won by the TUC.
Labour therefore reigned power-
lessly in the Council of Crown Colony
Government and did so in disunity. Apart
from Gomes' and Joseph's acceptance

of Ministerial. responsibility
Executive Council, labour's
tiveness had more causes. i
there emerged no single lea
the moral authority to we
disparate elements of labour
single striking force. Butler
without doubt the most
leader was unacceptable to th
oriented- personalities in the
Front. There existed too, an inc
ism which led Gomes and J(
jettison the party on whos
,they fought, over the crucial
constitution reform. Disun
made all the more easy by the
lack of organisation in labour
when unionisation did not ne,
create organisation.
There existed as well
between conservative and pro
labour that was foreshadowed
differences between Cipriani
lieutenants Butler and Rienzi
months'before the upheavals o
Such experience was to reoccu
1948/49 when differences b
.orthodox and 'leftist' trade u
"hardened into an open split"
in the United Front.
So the state of our f
national movement, then synor
with emerging labour, was,
which no leader could comm
respect of a substantial major
over-riding world-view; and ab
no over-ridiing principle of o
tion. The, so-called conscious
the working-class was not large


in the to provide 'the movement with an
ineffec- all-embracing capacity to transcend
For one, the bases of disunity.
der with Perhaps the most crucial aspect
ld these of the disunity was the racial cleavage
r into a between African and Indian. Most
who was parties found out that bridging race
popular was no easy task. For example,
ie urban- the United Front in the elections of
United 1946 had presented itself to the public
dividual- as a genuine multi-racial unit with a
oseph to racial mixture of candidates all of
e ticket whom insisted "that their politics was
issue of based on class rather than pn the ethnic
ity was factor." (Ryan). The Party failed to
Swoeful win fndian support.
in times
a split
by the
and his Butler perhaps came closest to
in the securing a genuine multi-racial alliance
)f 1937. as was evidenced in the elections of
r during l1950. For one he had a Tooting in
between labour throughhis British Empire,
nionists Workers and Rate-,Payers Union 'and
S(Ryan) the support of Ranjit Kumar. The
latter was most instrumental in the
ledgling sugar strike of 1947 which paved the
nymous way for fruitful collaboration between
one in 'sugar and oil' as it were. In. the
and the elections, Butler's party won the
rity, no largest single number of seats (six)
ove all, four of which went to Indians.
rganisa- However, Butler eventually
ness of found that he and his Leg-Co members



on Page 9-


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* IaBbyDo SuvieTh a : ea?

SIX weeks after his face-
saving defiance of Wash-
ington over the life presi-
dency, President Jean-
Claude Duvalier last
weekend felt sufficiently
restored to do his United
States benefactors the
favour of getting rid of
interior and defence
minister Pierre Biamby in a
cabinet reshuffle.
Biamby, a former foot-
ball star 'who was part-
icularly notorious for his
personal role in the
Jeremie massacre of 1964,
had been forced on the
young President 14 months
ago by his mother and the
old guard and did not
exactly contribute to the
regime's desired image of
'change in continuity'.
The meaning of' this
catchphrase was illustrated
in the choice of justice
minister Aurelien Jeanty
as his successor and new
chief minister. Jeanty, 52, a
former taxation official,
has been energetic, but to
little real effect, during his
three and a half years as
justice minister.
However, his occasional
liberal noises, some timid
gestures in the direction of
minor legal reforms, and
-his official association with
the recent release of a few
political prisoners, obvi-
ously made the President,.
-to whom he is close, see
him as ideal to revamp the
regime's image.

If Jeanty's appointment
was meant to answer human
rights criticism, that of the
new agriculture minister,
Edouard Berrouet, head of
the national planning
council (Conadep), was
presented as a dynamic
answer to criticism over
the famine crisis.
A pistol-packing old
Duvalierist in his fifties,
Berrouet has been dubbed
in official circles the
country's 'greatest expert'
on rural problems. But
some observers were rating
him as less effective than
the outgoing minister,
Remillot Leveille..
The famine is meanwhile
spreading to all parts of
the country as well as,
inconveniently, into the
United States press. The
government has done little
more than make the usual
appeals 'for help abroad
and the relief agencies see
no hope of immediate
improvement. Hundreds
more people are reported
to have starved to death.
- The foreign press reports
were brought sharply into
focus with the publication
- 48 hours before the
reshuffle in the New
York-based exile newspaper
Haiti Observateur of ex-
tracts from a draft version
of a World Bank report
late last year _on the
Haitian economy.
The confidential report,
which was obtained by the


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leftist Mouvement Haitien
de Liberation, said that in
1975 a year in which
several thousand people
are estimated to have died
in an earlier famine -
'almost half'- of Haiti's
public revenues of 95
million dollars were
'credited directly to 300
or so special accounts' in
the national bank and
'used for a multitude of
unspecified purposes'.
The finance ministry
had 'neither access nor
control over these
accounts', the report said,
adding that a third of
total public expenditure

was not subject to of
The implication
clear but the Presi
who according, to
source has given a tot
84 luxury cars, wo
more than a m
dollars, to. friends
allies since he cam
power, remained unm
and rhetorical. 'I en
you,'with an urgent ta
to get the economy
again,' he .told his
ministers on Monday
have only just avoided
It the electricity


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S has eased slightly with
S imported emergency gene-
rators, the acute drought
and water shortage con-
,; tinues. The regime's
failure to take action, or
even to admit to the pro-
blems fully for fear of the
consequences, is making its
Thousands of anti-
Duvalierist leaflets denounc-
ing the famine and the
government have been.
Scattered in the streets of
Port-au-Prince over the
past three weeks and walls
painted with slogans
against the regime, some-
thing that has not hap-
pened for many years.
Scores of arrests have
failed to stop the flood of
propaganda, and this may
have been a factor in
Biamby's dismissal.
official The Carter administra-
tion has so far made no
frontal attacks on the
wwa Duvaliers, as it has else
dent, where. But work is being
one done behind the scenes.
'al of It will be a relatively
)rth easy task for Washington
million to ensure that a friendly
and reformist regime succeeds
e to the Duvaliers; but a resur-
ioved gence of the old and bitter
trust colour lines, which Papa
ask Doc made some effort to
going break down, seems to be'
new/ aggravating divisions among
.'We the Duvalidrists and could
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THE main character in Pitch Lake is pre-
sented initially in relation or lack of relation
to two social worlds. The surroundings are the
town of San Fernando and the Southland's
mixed rural-industrial labouring population;
the immediate context is the grocery and rum-
-shop where Joe da Costa has spent the last six
years with his father, "selling rum and cigarettes
to common niggers and coolies who were not
even fit to tie his shoe-laces" (p. 14). He despises
himself for having become another "un-
ambitious, cheap member of his racial com-
munity in the island" on account of a fleshly
liaison contracted with the coloured girl Maria
under the supervision of her investing mother
Miss Martha.
In the distance beckoning is the city of Port-of-
Spain where he pictures his well-married brother, his
well-off cousins, and an enclave of acceptable kith and
kin living a more gracious life. Old Antonio da Costa
being about-to sell the rum-shop, Joe sees a chance at
last to turn this page of his life and never open it
again, for "it was a page ugly with smudges of ink and
scrawls that were unintelligible, and words that-roused
the spirit to anger and rebellion."'Soon the San Fer-
nando phase would be behind, and once in the city he
would be able to look ahead to "something unknown,
* but new and different altogether."
Although we come to make many reservations
about the unlikeable Joe da Costa, we are never
totally out of sympathy with him because Mendes's
novel which is about the confused aspirations of an
individual already corrupted and warped by social
conditioning is also a novel engagingly .about the
spiritual longings of youth going round and round in
a world that seems lacking in stabilising beliefs
and purposeful directives, and therefore shortin ulti--
mate satisfaction for anyone: "Too much wind: If
there wasn't too much wind, there was -oo much
sun; if there wasn't too much sun there was too much
rain. Never satisfied. Strange{ Why strange? Nobody
was ever satisfied, not since the world began, and
nobody would ever be satisfied if it lasted on and on
and on. Everybody was unhappy. He was unhappy,
Myra was unhappy, Cora, Henry, the whole world,
because none of them had ever been satisfied"
(pp. 257-258).
A description of the protagonist's response to
Cora's piano-playing finfor us the full-extent of
Joe's yearning:

She struck a chord and began to play. She sat per-
fectly still, while her fingers raced over the keyboard
madly. At first, sounds assaulted his ears, but gradu-
ally they took shape and he listened, spellbound. His
Spirit was-lifted into a world he had never known

before. He forgot where he was. Cora, sitting at the
piano before him, was blurred in outline, but he saw
her now as he had not seen her before, and when the
music ceased, suddenly, he was afraid.
Her fingers moved lightly over the keys again
for a while and then she began to play. He listened and
was lost in a world of sadness. The music filled the-
room, rising to a mood of anger, falling to sadness
and pain, and all the time Joe was drowned in it.
When it ceased he caught his breath and gradually the
objects of the room assumed their right proportions
until they were once more objects to him. (p. 251).
It is one of the ironies of the novel, however, that
Joe's inward hunger can only express itself in the form
of social aspiration, or negatively as a series of embar-
rassments and fears lest his ambitions be frustrated.


S in Black Fauns (1935) where Mendes makes
himself write about a yard community, some of the
best moments come when the author is giving imagi-
native expression to the mental disturbance of an
isolated and lonely character called Martha. In the
earlier Pitch Lake this strength is given its head. So
the pitch lake that Mendes fictionally re-locates
closer to San Fernando than it is ih fact, progressively
establishes itself as an image of the external circum-
stances Joe sees himself sinking into ("he was going
down, down"), the blackness of pitch and the
imagined tackiness are used to heighten our seqse of
Joe's dread of Maria'and Miss Martha clinging to him,
threatening like menacing shadows, cutting off the
light, and frustrating all his efforts to pull free. The
thought that Miss Martha wants him to marry Maria
nearly makes him laugh.
But the' next instant fear, bloomed within his heart
like a black flower, spreading its petals up past his
throat and into his brain. His mind was a blank board
on which his thoughts scratched all sorts of crooked
lines. A film suffused his eyes, with bright beads
moving across its surface in all directions. Hours
seemed to pass, and he "saw Miss Martha, her evil
yellow face,smiling distortedly. She was looking at
him as though she was eexpecting him to say some-
thilg. Hetried to-speak but his tongue.was so heavy
it could not form the words he had in his mind. He
wanted to tell her that she was talking damn nonsense.
He returned her look with a stupid stare. (pp. 42-43).

Later, in Port-of-Spain, Joe seduces the servant-girl
Stella When Maria and Miss Martha turn up and
create a scandal Joe is only too glad to buy off his.
tormentors. Stella witnesses the episode, thinks of
her own position, and self-pityingly reproaches Joe.
At this point we have a good example of vertigo,
the giddy downward-plunging feeling (associated with -

the sensationof-being sucked into quicksand or the
pitch-lake) ty which Mendes suggests, several times
in the novel, the protagonist's sense of displacement,
helplessness and confusion: "The-blood beat like a
sledge-hammer in his brain; then a film fell over his
eyes, and he saw himself standing at the edge of an
abyss taking the final step that would send him
hurtling through space. He felt giddy, though his
eyes were riveted on.Stella, now standing in a comer
away from the door like a timid creature at bay"
(pp. 228-220). .
As the quotations illustrate, Mendes tells his
story by taking us inside Joe's consciousness, and by
making us inhabit the character's point of view. It is-
almost axiomatic, and a source of fiction's power to
corrupt or correct, that once an author does this we
tend to identify with the fictional personage for at
least part of the time, no matter how objectionable
we judge him to be. But we ought not to allow the
imaginative expression of Joe's fears and confusions
to prevent us from noticing and responding to the
critical analysis of the character's social hang-ups
and aspirations. Mendes works to achieve both


A critique of the life-style and values of the
Portuguese community (described earlier in part 2
Sof this article) forms a background against which
Mendes is able to show Joe's inferiority complex
extreme self-consciousness and self contempt as very
real and sad, and in truth absurd. Thus, when, Joe
comes to live at his brother's house in Port-of-Spain,
he is hardly able to speak to Cora, to wihon'he is
introduced by his match-making, sister-in-law Myra.
And at the dance held in diie New Portuguese Cluhb,-
Joe's launching into society is threatened' by the
youth's extreme consciousness of selflIn the folliw-:
ing extended passage we can see Mendes's flexible---
. use of the omniscient narrative conventiornto suggest ,,
the character's way of feeling and thinking, and at the
same time to analyse it critically:
A sense of inferiority was now upon. Joe. At least; ,
that's what he, wold have said had he been asked. '-' '
"I'm inferior to all these people," he would have
said. It was impossible for one of his kind to discover z
the mental mediocrity underlying all this glare and
glamour of movement and sound. If even he had
known he would have doubted his knowledge arid
would have felt just as despised as he was feeling
now. He could see only the outward refinement of the
function: the well-dressed men and women, their
cultured greetings of each other, the dazzlingly -
lighted hall. The atmosphere was redolent of a scent
that was rare to him. He was a stranger in the midst "



Course begins July, 1977


Part L 8 weeks.

i) -Does Tapia Have an Ideology?
ii) Capitalism: A Critique
iii) Socialism:A Critique
iv) Race Politics and Class Politics in The
West Indies: Jamaica and Guyana as
Case Studies.
v) Party Politics in Trinidad & Tobago,:
Race, Class and Nationality.
vi) The Tapia Manifesto: Elements, of a
West Indian Ideology.
vii) The Idea of a Professional, Permanent,
Political Party

PART II. 8 weeks.
Economics, Politics, History.

i) Government and Politics in theWest
ii) The Plantation Economy of the Carib-
iii) Race and Class in Caribbean: The
Plural Society Examined.
iv) Culture and Identity: A Caribbean
v) Models of Caribbean Change: The
Puerto Rican Experience.
vi) Models of Caribbean Change: The
Cuban Experience.
vii) RADICAL Reconstruction in the West
IndiesSINCE 1953. 1977

PART III. 8 weeks.
Duties of a Political Organiser.

i) A Permanent Party: Nine Years of
Tapia The Message and The Medium.
ii) Mobilization for radical reconstruction:
problems of winning cadres.
iii) Organisation for radical reconstruction:
Need for a Central Office.
iv) The Party Machinery: regional and
constituency units.
v) Duties of a Tapia cadre: selling the
message, building party groups, win-
ning popular support.
vi)' Representation in a permanent party:
Council, Assembly, the Parliamentary
Party, the Executive, the constitutional
vii) Perspectives on the 1981 Elections.

For further information and Registration Forms contact Education Secretary, TAPIA CENTRAL OFFICE, 22 Cipriani Boulevard Tel: 62-25241







--- -- .-*~--

of this because he was unaccustomed to it; and
though the girl to whom he was just introduced
might be thinking him a rather nice fellow, and
though even now Cora -might be scanning the ball-
room to see if she could locate him, he was_con-
vinced that this was' no place for him, that he was out
of his element, as a fish must be when if is out of
water; or better still, as a worm must be when it is
taken from its earth-hole and deposited on the clean
table of the scientist. His lonely sensation was a sign
to him of the falsity of his being in this room. And
bitterness expanded within.him. Why should many
make one feel so wretchedly small? That was an
injustice, for many were stronger than one, and all
these crowds of men and women were taking
advantage of him for they were league against him
to jam him against the wall and shout at him that
they did not want him because he was not one of
them, because he was beneath them. Even Henry and
Myra had deserted him; and perhaps they had lost him
in the crowd purposely because they were ashamed of
him. If only Nature had endowed him with a fine
body a tall body and the miracle would have been
wrought. As it was,,. he was short and insignificant-
looking and people could look down on him, both
literally and socially.. (my italics, pp. 118-119)
What Mendes also unsparingly traces is how this
condition leads to a compensatory ability to move
twistingly from self-recrimination to self-exonefation.
_ Stella tells Joe that she is pregnant just when Joe is
finalising his--lans to improve his social standing by
marrying Cora:

He thought of his last days in San Fernando and how
he had vowed then to seek the social recognition that
his colour and connections told him should be his--
natural inheritance. Why had he been so blind as to
have allowed himself to slide into a liaison with Stella?
Should not his experience with Maria have taught him
a lesson? He shuddered to think that not ten yards
away from him, under the same roof, so to speak,
Stella slept at the very moment (he couldn'timagine
that she was herself not asleep, tortured with pre-
monitions of disaster like himself), and she was
carrying a baby that was his. Why had he been such a
weakling? But at this stage the desire for exonerating
himself from all blame in connection with Stella's
condition set him futilely on another tack of ratioci-
nation: he began to see the hand of Fate as the
directing agency in his life. If Stella had not been
taken on as a maid he would never have come to his
present pass. And how had it happened that amongst
so many applicants Myra had chosen Stella? Was there
not some outside, all-powerful influence at work, an
influence against which he was hopelessly inadequate?
In, that case he war not to blame.. .(pp.319-320).

Mendes's control of distance is such that reader
and author can come close enough as to be fully
involved in the character's feelings, and yet be free to
pull away from Joe and see him much more clearly
and critically than he can see himself. It follows from
this that we must be careful not to assume that Joe's
opinions and attitudes are automatically or necessarily

those of the author. Joe begins by despising the
"niggers and coolies" he has to serve in his father's
rum shop, and ends by murdering the "coolie bitch"
Stella whose pregnancy is the obstacle to his marrying
Cora Goveia. Joe is also a snob, scornful of people of
a lower class including his shop-keeping father and the
dark-skinned Portuguese Jose' with whom he goes
carousing in the city. Mendes shows us that Joe is a
racist and a snob and is quick to run to these postures
because he is unable to translate his dissatisfaction
with life and with himself into any other terms and
values than the superficial ones endemic to his society.


Had Joe been seen a, mple character, however,
it wouldn't have been necessary to point out that
Mendes wants us to recognize the character's racial.
and social hang-ups as hang-ups. And indeed, the
subtle control of distance in the novel has a more
important function than to undermine Joe. Its chief
effect is to reveal Joe as a confused and vacillating
creature, one with high ideals, but one capable of
'those binges with Jose,' sexual encounters with Stella
in spite of his resolutions, and a farewell rendezvous
with Maria in which he must yield to appetite even
though he is engaged to Cora, his job is going well,
and the world seems to be offering all its sweetness to
him at last. He can feel and think deeply but equally
cannot accept the logic of his feeling and thinking.
He has therefore to deceive himself out of tight crises
of conscience and guilt. When that final tryst with
Maria is over, Joe sets out from Brunswick Square
tospend the evening with his.fiancee:
As he walked back he could scarcely believe that he
had done what he had done what he had done. His
conscience smote him with hammer-like blows. He
felt unclean in every part of his body and mind. He
was a-dog, nothing but a dog that liked the filth of
other dogs. "Little bitch, little bitch," he kept mur-
muring to himself ferociously. He hated Maria now,
hated her, and what he had done? kissed her good-
bye instead of kicking her and sending her to the
devil. That's what he had felt like doing, and because
she had inspired him unaccountably with a sudden
cringing fear, he had kissed her good-byel He hated
himself, hated Maria, hated everybody and everything.
He wouldn't see Cora to-night; he couldn't. Then he
fell to pitying Cora, himself. "Poor little Cora, poor
innocent Cora," he murmured. He had betrayed her.
because he loved her. She was waiting for him and
perhaps worrying over his non-appearance. What
could he possibly say to her when next he saw her?
Tell her everything,-make a clean breast of it and
thus get the weight off his chest. He must let her see
how unworthy he was of her and she would tell him
that it was impossible for her to marry him. But there
was so much to tell her; not only Maria: there was

Stella, too. Stella perhaps he was already doomed;
perhaps his engagement was a farce! Something he
could not touch, some evil spirit incarnate was laughing
hideously at him and playing tricks with him. He
walked faster as if pursued. His face burned, his eyes
smarted with the hot tears. (pp. 298-299),
Next day, however, Joe overhears a conversation
between two fellow-workers at the office, and his
guilty mind finds a-way to dismiss the previous night's

This snatch of conversation came to Joe like a light
to his darkness, for it gave him a queer satisfaction.
"If", he thought, "Wrigglesworth, who is a married
man, can go to other women, why can't I, who am not
married, have another woman?" but immediately he
corrected himself and thought: "but I didn'tgo toany
other woman. It was in a moment of temptation that
I fell and any man is likely to fall." And then until the
office was closed at two o'clock, he communed with
himself, oscillating between the points of self- condem-
nation and self-justification. 3


Mendes takes us through all the mad conflicting
emotions of the protagonist as the failure to procure
an abortion for Stella and growing guilt and despair
lead to the final unhinging. "Looking at Stella now,
helpless in her inexperience, in her parentless condi-
tion, a great compassion flooded his heart", but think-
ing of Cora being married to anyone else he argues
himself Jesuitically into being unwilling to accept any
responsibility or blame for what has happened.
("What sin? If I have no control over the incidents
that have led me to this,-if everything has been pre-
pared for me, against me, if God sits smiling in Heaven
over His own work, how can he presume to judge me?
How can He say- that I. have sinned? I have done.
nothing of my own free will.") In the next moment,
however, Joe loathes himself, and then almost
immediately feels himself glorified as a martyr, a
scapegoat of circumstance. Finally, in brie mad ruth-
less'surge of rage and despair Joe murders Stella and
steps out'into .the night.
The convincingness with which Mendes pre-
sents his portrait of an unanchored soul, and the story
of a man who deliberately and disastrously turns
away from true feeling in pursuit of social goals would
suggest the presence of a real-life situation or proto-
type. Be that as it may, one cannot help noti-
cing that Mendes was never to write again with such
intimacy and insight into personal and social dilem-
mas. When Antonio da Costa's ship leaves for New
York, his son Joe is at the wharf to see the last of the
old man:

He could see the old man now, standing at 'the stern
of the launch taking him off to the steamer, his beard
flowing to the wind, his bent figure supported against
the rail. That was the last, perhaps, he was seeing of
him. Six long years he had spent with him in the
rum-shop and he had never grown to love him.
Why; he could not tell now. However, with Henry,
he would say: "That's that." No longer would he have
any fear of the old man's spoiling his chances socially;-
and he was relieved and glad, although he didn't admit
it to himself, that the old man was gone.
Did Mendes write all that needed to be written
about the struggles of this particular immigrant group
to re-locate itself and adjust to a new society, or had
he written so close to the 'grain and taxed his talents
and his courage so heavily that only a relative silence
could suggest that within and passing the exotic show
of Black Fauns? Pitch Lake is one of the earliest of
our novels to throw light on a particular immigrant
group while essaying towards a definition of the West
Indian person and the West Indian experience.


i -


Dr. Murray must apologise first, then ban will be lifted: Govt.
Minister DeSouza explains Granado pension delay to Senate.
Option forms had not been signed. Payment of $30,419 due in
addition to $48,163 net of $37,360.
US and Cuba agree to exchange envoys.
Guardian editorial: investigation needed into BWIA enterprise.
Amoco GM Charles Carr claims that the high quality of crude
prevents refining byTexaco and Trintoc.
Why- four years to publish De La Bastide Report:
Guardian frontline.
Demas and Mclntyre fund raising mission to EEC yields
$33m. for capital investment projects.
Stollmeyer and Rae announce continuing dialogue with Ja.
and Guyana over apartheid visits. Ground for optimism.
Tesoro under probe in US in connection with pay-offs by
large corps.
PM tells Adventist Golden Jubilee Celebration that TT
worried about UWI. Contingency plan for education angling to
embrace large adult-education scheme.
Commission of Enquiry recommends Ministry of Social
development with responsibility for social care, children, aged.
CARICOM putting up good show: Sec-Gen. Mclntyre.
Movement has shown clear signs of resiliency.
Amin backs down on London trip: Uganda radio.
Food situation in Tobago critical: Leighton-Mills report:
Forkliftson Trinidad wharves not working.
Workers win paternity leave at South Company.

Amin says he is going: Uganda Radio.
express Editorial: Wahted a brand new State-machine.
Response to NAC's. Dr. KenJlulien's claim that management systems
not geared to implementation.
Gopaul's TTTU rejects 50% increase for teachers over four
years; deal smells of politics.
Steelbandsman Goddard quits Pan Trinbago for fourth time.
PTgoing around in circles, he says.
Barbados to double size of port.

D "K ,

Dr. Ken Julien

Minister of Works holds Consultation on port problems.
Prevailing view that improved streamlining and efficiency necessary
prior to any move to round-the-clock work, TMA, Chamber, Ship-
ping Assn, Clerks & Brokers Assn. present with SWWTU as
Work on Eastern Corridor halted as Moonan and Seereram
workers take industrial action.
Caribbean leaders meet in London fo take position on
Mclntyre Report on New Economic Order.
President Amin's fails to turn up in England or Europe.
Andrew Young brands Nixon and Ford as racists.

Working group appointed at end of Port Consultation to
draft plans for short, medium and long term solutions. 13 short
and medium proposals to be considered, 5 long term. Resumption
of talks October 4.
US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance to visit TT to explain
Carter's new style Latin American and foreign policy.
lManley leading Caribbean in pivotal role at Commonwealth
ANR Robinson tells House he was the only Minister to have.
resigned on principle in the history of the PNM. He,was nobody's
puppet, he said and would never be.
ANR Robinson's Pension motion passed with Amend-
ments. Pensions of both government pensioners and old-age pen-
sioners to'be considered by Cabinet for adjustments to price and
income levels.
Cabinet Committee considering final, report of Govt.-
appointed Committee re-speeding up provision of houses: Padmore
replies to Panday's question on land prices.
Tobago calls for return of MV Tobago as basic food short-
age reported.
Regard for Caricom high; says Bank President Demas; EEC
to disburse 32m. Units of Account to region ($95m).
Barbados PM Adams- Backs Belize vs Guatemala claim.
Guardian Editorial on port congestion; oil producing coun-
tries havq become so prosperous they are ordering greater quantities
of goods.
Cassava production recommended for Point Lisas agriculture
by Mr. Louis DeVerteuil of South chamber. TT spends 124m$.
on wheat and cereal while Brazil used 20% cassava in flour.
OWTtU ranted police permission for Labour Day March.
Dr. Basil Ince retained as NAAA President as Ince faction /
returned in elections.
Commonwealth divided on strategy for Southern Africa Free-
dom. Carib and African countries condemn British. policy of
peacefull negotiations." TT contribution to:struggle in the form of-
education facilities: Donaldson.
Manley: Commonwealth must not play'down role of armed
Struggle in ending white supremacy in Southern Africa.

two reasons
why Angostura
products are



aromatic bitters
the magic touch
in famous drinks
(and many dishes too)


PI c


ir,- ~ i = !=n. -
2''rrrm[" 9-

Angostura Old Oak Rum
A mellow blend of light
Trinidad rums. Smooth.
clean tasting


62 -221.75




28 Mucurapo Street


Agents .for.

And General Insurance Agents
No. 5 Concession Rd. Sea Lots
Phone: 62-37813

if ^.;

From Page 4
were denied any taste of executive
responsibility. His Party was to remain
m the wilderness. Working-class con-
sciousness, again, was not a sufficient
condition for sustaining multi-racialism
in the party. Butler, besides, had
no patronage todispense (the Colonial
Government saw to that) and so the
SIndian support in the party defected.
The thin base of the multi-racialism
in the party was therefore exposed.
The drive for change received
impetus and crusading zeal with the
arrival of Eric Williams and the Peoples
National Movement in the late 1950's.
With Wiliams and the advent of party
politics, the vanguard role of labour
which marked the political era of
Cipriani and Butler went into eclipse.
A number of factors were res-
ponsible for this development. One
Williams hirnself who was then seen
as the best product of a century of
education, the path through which
generations of Afro-West Indians sought
to win their liberation. Blessed with
a rich command of the word and the
history of the Caribbean he was able to
draw the largest single support.
Another factor was PNM's nationalist
appeal which sought to cut across
race and class. By that approach,
Williams sought to incorporate labour
within the national movement on
terms different to what the latter had-
Thirdly, the movement, without
doubt, appealed to Negro sentiment.
In. later years, this feature was to
become more overt.
African consciousness, there-
after, took a marked precedence over
class consciousness. Fourthly, that
Williams attempted to establish party
politics with nationalist perspectives
implied a purely political constituency
independent of any trade union base
as such.


Jun 18
Printers, publishers, authors,
librarians apd others in-
volved in the production of
books and magazines have -
been invited to meet at
the Trinidad Public Library
in Port-of-Spain on Satur-
day, June-t-8.
The meeting will be
the occasion of the official
launching of the Trinidad
& Tobago National Biblio-
graphy by the Minister of
Education, and has been
organized by the Editorial
Board of the publication.
The National Bibilio-
graphy was first published
in 1975 and is currently
produced as. a Quarterly,
with annual cumutlations.
Among other things,
the Board is hoping that
Saturday's meeting will
lead to greater collabora-
tion with printers and
publishers in the compila-
tion of a comprehensive
bibliography of national



Cor. Edward Lee
Cipero Streets

Main Road








The rumblings in the ULF tell an old tale' .

Ever since the enthusiasm for
Williams' national movement began
to wane, there has come on stream a
new drive for multi-racialism and
renewed attempts by labour to
redefine the terms of its Darticioation
in .the movement for change. In the
face of these developments Williams
has sought to keep militant labour in'
check by the introduction of stabilisa-
tion policies. In addition, he has subtly
manipulated the fears of the African
population in order to secure the base
of his own mass'support.
\ Twenty years after Williams let
his bucket down, we have been witness-
ing attempts by the United Labour
Front to reverse the role of labour in

the historic struggle to get oil and
sugar' united. Their quick success in
the polls of 1976 landed them twelve
seats and the role of official Opposition
in Parliament.
According to James' Millette in
an interview in Socialism, theoretical
organ of The Workers Liberation
League of Jamaica, ULF, by supplant-
ing all other opposition groups as the
'main force opposed to the PNM,
"have dealt with the whole question
of fragmentation". Millette believes
that "the ULF has espoused a working-
cass position and has been supported.
by a significant portion of people. ..
who .. have supported precisely
because of what they (ULF) have
espoused anti represent".

These are extremely large claims
for -an historian to make in the light of
our rapid retrospective survey of the
fortunes of labour from the times of
SCipriani to those of Williams. As we
approach Labour Day 1977 and the
futilities of Parliamentary'life become
more brutally apparent to an over-
night party only rhetorically com-
mitted to the high costs of radical
politics and national integration, Dr.
Millette's facile interpretations already
are coming apart at the seems.
The rumblings in the ULF tell a
long, long story and indeed, an old,
old tale, one, that doubtless will
unravel itself before too many (more
Labour Days have gone.


~ I

I : .- -------- ---~



From Page 3
nature to the PNM, is the
Attorney-General's post-
election "anti-corruption
For it was Mr. Richard-
son himself who presented
urgent pleas 'to the public
to provide his department
with tip-offs on any form
of corruption which came
to their notice, with the
promise that such leads
would be vigorously
And,yet, Mr. Richardson
was sitting, as his govern- ':
ment had been sitting for
four long years, on the very
de la Bastide Report, which
provided him with leads to
fill a lifetime, and in the
vigorous pursuit of which
he' night well have proved
beyond the shadow of a
doubt his government's
commitment to morality in
public affairs and to the
maintenance of law and four


in pi


But. the anti-corruption
drive was never anything
more than a hoax, a part
of the Continuing con game
*to -which the PNM have
reduced the -business' of
At its heart is that slick
"realism" which says that
if you can't beat them,
then you join them.
So the anti-corruption
drive at one and the same
time confirmed the popu-
lar allegations of wide-
spread corruption, and its
promoters hoped to-bene-
fit from that piece of can-
dour by appearing to be
the only effective remedy
against the spreading
But the neatest part of
all is that Mr. Richardson
and his principals could

. As a member of the riding party, Mr. Richardson was sitting, as his government was sitting for
Years on the very de la Bastide report which provided him with leads to fill a lifetime, and in
vigorous pursuit of which he might well have proved his government's commitment to morality
public affairs and to the maintenance of law and order. .."

quite reasonably anticipate
not having to pursue such
matters through all their
embarrassing ramifications.
So .enervated had the
public will become, so
inured to vice the public
conscience, that the popu-
lation itself set the limits
beyond which Richardson
could not vgo. . "he
could never touch Mr. X
and Mr. Y and so and


The greatest corruption
is the corruption of the
public spirit, the ceaseless-
and insensible whittling
away over the years of our
original expectations and
standards for performance
in public, and private, life.
That is why we are
susceptible, or are thought

to be, to the kind of black-
mail im licit in the "anti-
guerrilla" operations of the
"flying squad.".
The unsubtle, message-is -
that no matter how bad we
may think things are, they ,
could still be worse. ThankV
our lucky Flying Squad.
But should we be sur-
prised at such develop-
ments? The protection
-racket is at the very root
of our political system.
On what other basis do
we vote for the parties we
habitually support at elec-
tion time than that they
are the, parties which
represent, or are supposed
to., he interests of the race
to which we belong?


From the way we wail
and grumble over the ydars
our support most certainly

cannot be, based on per-
It is usual to talk about
and to belittle "racist"
politicians. But isn't every-
body playing the same
game when we vote the
way .we have tended to?
In our "cynical.realism'"
we provide the foundation
for the corrupt system.
The breakdowp- of
Services, and the 'general
chaos that reigns in Trini-
dad and Tobago are the
inevitable results of such
an irrationally-based 'state
of affairs.


But anarchy is only
further occasion for cor-
ruption. It is he who has
the. clout, the pull, 'the
strings who will get things
The 'system demands

First ball in corruption

played on voting day



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For the most elegant
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greasehand and kickbacks
if it is to function at all.
Inevitably the weak and
the indigent get crushed
Might is right and we
are back with the law of
the jungle. \
How did we get into
such a fix, and how do we
get out of it? This wide-
spread acquiescence in cor-
ruption,. or at, best, the
resigned acceptance of it
as a way of life?
How do we go beyond
gimmicks like anti-currup-
tion drives?


One thing is clear. It is
not enough to talk about
Sdue process, and respect
for. the rule of law, and
such like, when the formal
equality of all men before
the law is subverted by the,
fact of inequality of wealth
and power and status.
But may we assume that
social justice is enough to
create the love of justice
in, our hearts? "The-diffi-
culty for democracy,"
wrote Matthew Arnold, "is
how to find and keep high '
ideals". -


Is there an irreversible
tendency, once we are all
enfranchised,. to rdach
down to the level of the
lowest common denomina-
tor? Are all great and noble
values beyond our reach?

How else are we going
to deal, with corruption
unless we enshrine the
values of truth and justice
in. our hearts? And what a
great opportunity our gov-
eminent missed. Or didn't
they know? ,

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St. Joseph /





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THE MAJOR talking point of Sir Gary Sobers-selection of an All-
Time-West Indies XIV is his improbable omission of none other than
Sir Frank Worrell, in some ways the most senior of the celebrated
Bajan' W's. OWEN THOMPSON, one of Tapia's cricket writers,
reacts to the naming of this squad.

OF course it is very diffi-
cult to .compare players
belonging to different eras
of-sport, hard to measure
or weigh them one against
the-other and say defini-
tively that this one must
get the nod.
Hard, yes, but person-
ally, I cannot see by what
means can Sir Frank
Worrell be left' out of the
greatest' West Indies four-
According to Sir Gary,
the yard-stick for selection
Swas "the strength of their
performances, and their
consistency." -


Well, Sir, Frank, essenti-
ally a surgeon, was perhaps
never as "terrible" as either
of the other two, but the
most terrible thing of all
to my mind is that he
indisputably has been the
greatest of the 15- West
Indian Captains from Clive
Lloyd back to R.K. Nunes.
Worrell must therefore
be, the person best able to
lead an all-time West Indies
team. On that ground
alone, his place is secure.
Apparently, the alterna-
tive, as the team. now
Sstands,,is Sobers for leader.
S For the rest, Hall and
Griffith of the 60s and
Roberts and Holding from
the current bunch, have

Gary Sobers
undoubtedly been the two
pairs of fast bowlers to
make the most devastating
impact on batsmen since
we first acquired Test
status'in 1928.
On that / score, Hall,
Griffith and Roberts all
clinch their places while
Sir Gary prefers Manny
Martindale to the still
young Michael Holding.


Manny Martindale, he
has explained, was des-
cribed by old-timers as the
best fast-bowler ever to
have come out of these
Using the yardstick of.
"strength" and "consis-
tency", one wonders
whether Jackie Hendricks
deserves a place ahead of
Deryck Murray.
Statistically, Hendricks
played 20 tests between
1962-69 and had 46 dis-




missals (41 caught, .five
stumped) and he scored
447 runs tor an average of
Murray has so far repre-
sented the West Indies 49
times, scored 1,624 runs
for an average of 23.20 and
had 150 test dismissals
(142 caught and eight
stumped). .
One immediately realises
the inadequacy of these
statistics Murray having
played s6 much more than


Sir Gary compared the
West Indies of the early
1960s with the team which
is currently playing and
to the latter outfit-he has
given only two picks.
It is not surprising that
Sobers rates the team which'
was captained first by Sir'
Frank and later by himself
ahead, of the present one.





In that 'team the fast
bowlersers e as dynamic:
as Roberts .and company,
the batsmen were probably
safer and more reliable,
the. spinners, different by
far from the current crop,
stood in the highest class,.
and of course, neither
Worrell nor Sobers was
particularly fond of "ah-


As openers, Hunte and
Fredericks are the. only
logical choices. In terms of
consistency and strength 6f
- performance, --no othei
opener even comes close.
In the middle-order,
Headley, the W's, and
Sobers, all select themselves
in spite of the extremely
powerful competitionfrom
Kanhai and Richards.
Of the spinners, dibbs,
Ramadhin and Valentine
are automatic selections in

terms purely of the scale
oftheir contributions.
And talking about ter-
rible, the spin-twins, Ram
and Val, were no less.
notorious in their time
than Australia's -demon
speed combination of
Lindwall and Miller. *
Gibbs, on the other
hand, achieved that kind
of menace all by himself
alone and his place at the
top may never be seriously

How will we



to keep



SIR GARY displayed a
great optimism about the
future of West Indies
cricket and saw the annual
Youth Tournament, which
has already unearthed
people such as Larry
Gomes, Wayne' Daniel. and
Michael. Holding, as impor-
tant to the cricketing life
of the region.
. Whatever Sir Gary's
ground for his faith, the
West Indian Board of
Control must doubtless be
very concerned about cer-
tain notable trends.
The one is the shadow
of political problems and
the other the commercial
intervention of the tycoon
Kerry Packer.
Packer probably
stirred up as much confu-
sion in the world of flan-
nels as has President Idi
Amin in the diplomatic
and political sphere.
According to reports,
Packer has been signing up
additional West Indian
players to appear in his

Larry Gomes
Julien, Murray, Holder,
Rowe, Greenidge, Gomes,
Inshan Ali, Fredericks,
Daniel and King have all
signed up to play in this
so-called circus over the
next three years.
This means that, barring
Croft and Garner so far,
our entire cricket team has
become a "rebel" force,
standing to make more
money than they could
ever- have dreamed of
making when playing in
normal tests.
While this first round of
super-tests will not directly
affect our competition
with Australia next year,
since the latter begins only
after the former ends, our
tour of India in 1978-79
will probably be placed in
How will we find the
money to keep our players
away from Mr. Packer?

_ _I

Sports & Games ftd.
*4 41 07 K 0 Port of Spain 0 San Fernando 0 Scirbor,,.jqh
62-36286/7/8 652 2229/3340 6 314 2 .1

L ~L

l-its. Area Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of Nan,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N,Y. 10021
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448
U. S.A.


PPIN I :U t -v NA ETNI.. ,

Now lawn tennis

requires an


By Earl Best
MOBILITY. I am con-
vinced that therein lies
the reason for Trinidad's
defeat by Jamaica in
the final of the recently
concluded Caribbean'
Lawn Tennis Champion-
ships down at the
Tranquillity Clay Courts.
It is, of course,
beyond dispute that
both Alan Price and
-Alichael Valdez remain-
very good players, their
72 Ears (total) not-
But the years- have-
taken their toll on the
tandem and the percept-
ible paunch that Valdez
is carrying is the
physical evidence of it.
Pribe has' not yet
begun .to show the
ravages of Time 'on his
physique but who can
forget how close, he
came to humiliation
against Adrian Clarke,'
.some 14 years his junior
and far and away the
most mobile of the
players on show.


Both Bell and RUssell
as well as Davis (who
partnered Russell in the
doubles) were at the net
far more often than
Valdez and were able to
hit winners under pres-
-Even allowing for
Valdez's pronounced
predilection for the
baseline, his sallies for-
ward to the net 'whence
he might more easily
succeed with his passing
shots were too infre-
quent and, in the final
analysis, lost many,

many vital points on
Friday afternoon in his
crucial opening singles
match against Russell.
Furthermore, on the
following afternoon
when he teamed up with
Price for the doubles
the uninitiated could
hardly tell, when he/was
at the net, that he pre-
ferred to play from the
And if- this wasn't
- evidence enough, Val-
dez's inability to stop
short on the rare
occasions that he
sprinted combined with
his obvious breathless-
nesst thereafter, and in
every rest break, left the
matter beyond doubt.
The call, then,, for
the -selectors -o start
investing in the youth
must be seen not-simply

" Russell
and Davis
of Jamaica
on court

as an emotional reaction
to a crushing defeat but
also as a plea, for early
(in so far as thisis still
possible) action to pre-
vent what has happened
with the national crickel
team from happening in
lawn tennis as well.
'And Lee Lum anid
Attongdemonstrated on
Sunday afternoon that
they are almost ready
to take up where'Valde2
and Pricb must leave

Though neither of
them won, both showed
that they are in fine
condition and equally,
good form.
Lee Lum, in particular,
raised local hopes high
while he defied the
explosive power of
Audley Bell's services

Richard Russell and Sandra Manning, Brandon TenfgIs,.,-,'
and volleys for almost champion of the. '
three hours before-he Springs, showed; hat
eventually succumbed in he's got grit ahd-ieter-
the last set. .mination and twice.
Even allowing for the pulled back from.a-set
fact that the Brandon down to even things out .
had already been won before Sarnis left hirp.'i -
and Bell may thus have standing in the last :et :. .
been taking things'fairly So by the time o~Ie'
easy, those present and Price make roo-. ,?
could sense that Lee. for thee., two y iung-
Lum was extending the sters innext year Cham- .
Jamaican further than pionships it may well
his senior Price had be that the two best.
done two evenings players in the country
before. are -on the team and
Attong in his game not just that the selec-
against Stuart Sarnis, the tors have decided to
18 year old junior give youth a chance.



four roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd.- cross crossing

- . . ... . , - -- I- I-

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