VOL. 6 NO. 28
Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Leh-gh 5 8448.
.JNDAY IULY 111, 19/i()
16,2 ,-'--T 73
~~i-i~ Y N-I Y- 10021
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE TAPIA HOUSE PUBLISHING CO. LTD.,
TO OUR READERS: BECAUSE OF PRODUCTION DIFFICULTIES WE HAVE HAD TO LIMIT THE SIZE OF THIS ISSUE TO EIGHT PAGES
THE successful projection in 1976 of
"Karl" as a somehow exciting figure of
controversy owes much to the single dis-
tinction enjoyed by Karl Hudson-Phillips,
the high-strutting Attorney General of
1970-73, that of being the most actively
detested politician in the PNM -- if not in
It is "Karl's" moment, his own trial
for mutiny. The trusted lieutenant of six
years ago is now himself facing the axe.
That is the drama of the present situation:
the man is seen to be "fighting" an unhappy
and undeserved fate.
So presented it was an irresistible at-
traction ior me Port-of-Spain crowd which
turned out in large numbers in Woodford
Square last Monday night. The crowd
naturally included those who couldn't be-
lieve the development they were seeing.
and who were prepared staunchly to dislike
what they saw.
The hecklers. A natural part of the
unofficial programme of last Monday
evening, they remained active to the end.
They made their presence felt.
Interjecting an endless chorus of
comnfentary, their role was to annotate the
Hudson-Phillips text, constantly to enlarge
and clarify the context of what he was gay-
ing and doing that night.
And their insistent presence on that
night of would-be glory reflected above all
the determined, widespread and even
systematic opposition to the PNM and to
Hudson-Phillips which remained despite the
apparent success of the meeting.-
Their effectiveness was all the more
because the platform, ironically, had only
its members to defend and assert their right
to be heard free of molestation and harass-
As the night wore on, the insecurity
grew, with Hudson-Phillips himself evincing
the uncertainty that comes from a sense of
He just did not dare take control of
the dark masses that engulfed him on the
bandstand. He was unable to guage the
extent of the hostility. expressed by the
hecklers and to determine whether the
majority of the crowd was with him. '
The hecklers won. Fazed and shaken
from his insecure perch, he came in the
last 10 to 15 minutes of his 53-minute
speech merely to speak his lines like the
actor that he was, but distractedly and
.The crowd was never Karl's in any or-
ganizational sense. There wasn't a poster, a banner
or anything proclaiming the "party" which was
coming on stage that night.
Circulating in the crowd before the meeting
began were cadres of the ULF, T-apia, and DAC -
but none from the PNM, whether the Williams or
In ones and twos there came to fill the 27
chairs set on the bandstand the members of the
Karl party a score or more of self-conscious un-
So it wasn't a recognisable party platform
SUGAR BELT CAMPAIGN
TAPIA CAMPAIGN TEAMS WILL BE BUSY IN THE
SUGAR BELT NEXT WEEK.
A BIG ALL-DAY GROUNDING IS PLANNED
FOR COUVA ON FRIDAY JULY 16, ENDING WITH A
MEETING IN THF CAR-PARK AT 4.30 P.M.
ON THURSDAY THE TAPIA FRONT-BENCH
WILL SPLIT INTO TWO TEAMS TO SERVICE MEET-
INGS AT FELICITY AN,. CHARLIEVILLE. BOTH
MEETINGS BEGIN AT 7-00 P.M.
TOPICS INCLUDE THE TAPIA PLAN FOR THE
SUGAR BELT; THE UPCOMING GENERAL ELEC-
TIONS AND THE ONE-MAN REPUBLIC.
TAPIA PEOPLE from the Tunapuna Region are
invited to a meeting at the Tapia House, 82 St.
Vincent Street, on Monday, July 12. The meeting
will elect a Central Committee for the Con-
stituencies of Caroni East, St. Augustine and
Proceedings will begin at 7 p.m. with a show
of slides giving an architect's impression of Tapia's
New World. The same show will be repeated at
Kandahar Village on Thursday July 15.
or even a party crowd. Which was the reason for
the large turn-out: for it was not even a multi-
party occasion like that of the United People's
Front on March 22; it was a non-party occasion.
One's presence in the Square that night
bespoke no commitment to the "party" or the
personality sponsoring the occasion. It was an
indulgent response to the promptings of the ad-
vertising, in much the same way as pop music be-
'comes eventually irresistible.
There had been no promise of new "bombs"
to be dropped, just the presentation of a man with
"a definite point of view".
And as it turned out, presence on the plat-
form also bespoke no commitment to anything
that the meeting was supposed to represent or to
promise. Simonette announced himself _as a
"friend and colleague". Hudson Phillips and said
he was glad it had been "possible and convenient"
for him to chair the meeting.
Ferdi Ferreira, early identified as the one
who had applied for the use of the Square,
stressed that he was "not here to attack, deflect
(sic), or even cross the floor." Neither was he
there "to praise Caesar Caesar has been doing
That was the style of oblique sniping at
Williams and his party which characterized the
evening. Williams was never mentioned by name.
but both Ferreira and Hudson-Phillips played
around with the provocative line "he who has
ears to hear."
Simonette's very first words reflected, the
uncertainty of the political no-man s iand in
which these three were electihg to keep them-
selves. "Welcome to this pol... public meeting,"
he said, betraying a ludicrous care not Lo define
the meeting as "political", and the nervousness
which would lead a practisea politician like him-
self so embarrassingly to stumble over his words.
tHudson-Phillips, when his turn came was
concerned to emphasise that "I come not seeking
confrontation, but peace with all. I don't come
here to fight but to reason." Again he stressed:
"There is no attack here, and no attack intended";
he made reference to "'the beloved Political
Leader"; and admitted that "we seldom disagree
with the views of our Politicl Leader".
COUNCIL THIS SUNDAY
THE COUNCIL ofRepresentatives assembles this
Sunday July 11 at Campaign Headquarters,
Cipriani Boulevard, Port-of-Spain.
Reps are urged to be on time for the start at
10 am. so that proceedings could end in time for
the Maracas Rally in the afternoon.
PUBLIC MEETINGS wil! be held this weekend in
Marabella (Main Rd.) on Friday July 9 and in
Point Fortin (Hi Lo Corner) on Saturday June 10.
Both meetings begin at 6.30 p.m. Speakers
include Billy Montague, Dalton O'Neil, Arnold
Hood, Patricia James, Mickey Matthews and Lloyd
Tuesday July 13
Wednesday July 14
Thursday July 15
,Friday July 16
Santa Flora Seminar
Couva Car Park
What was it all about then? Was it a venture
of what might be called private enterprise in the
PNM? A show of independence? A dramatization
, of defiance of the wishes and will of the "beloved"
Political Leader and his party convention?
Hudson-Phillips seemed properly anxious to
claim the occasion, not for himself, but for the
PNM, though he was not consistent on the point.
Needled by a heckler that he had quit the At-
torney General post in 1973 because he had no
-choice, he replied sharply:
"I have a choice tonight. And 20,000
people have come to hear my choice tonight."
(Significantly, he overestimated the size of the
crowd, which .was put by more disinterested
observers at less than half Hudson-Phillips' figure.)
There were grunts of surprise in the crcvwd
when Hudson-Phillips had begun to welcome
people back to "the University of Woodford
Square, the cradle of political discussion".
in claiming unbroken tradition, hervwas
neglecting to mention that the cornerstone of 'hat
tradition was neither dead nor off the scene.
merely not present not invited to give the
keynote lecltire as was his wont before a larger
crowd than hehad seen there in many years.
it was a heckler again who sought to hold
Hudson-Phillips to correct perspective on this
point, by reminding? him that the last time such
a crowd had gathered in the Square was not for
PNM but for Black Power in 1970.
The historical message was lost on Ferreira.
Simonette and Hudson-Phillips: that only a move-
ment which is strongly anti-Williams in sentimern
could draw a cro-d in the Squaic.
Didn) theysknow wvhyithe crowds.had gaiered
in 1970. again in 1971 to hear the ADCD-DL?,
again in 1974 and 1975 to bear witness auain on
the ULF's struggle for "peace, bread and justice":
and therefore why the crowd would, surely com-n.
in 1976 to the launching of the Karl Hudson-
People have been invariably intrigued by
anything that has appeared to be dealing with
the Doctor and to be doing so suLcessfully n th
Turn to Back Page
-)U ,- I -^
SUNDAY JULY 11, 1976
Attack on radical elements
'FIGHT TO THE FINISH'
A CLEAR case of the
denial of justice in St.
Vincent has touched the
consciences of freedom-
loving peoples in the same
way as it has done in the
case of Desmond Trotter
Below are the facts
as documented by the
Movement (YULIMO) of
In May 1973, the
Acting Attorney General
of St. Vincent, Cecil
Rawle, was shot at his
home and died in the
hospital three days later.
On the same night,
in a separate and quite
distinct incident, a super-
market proprietor, Allen-
by Gaynes, was shot and
wounded in an apparent
unsuccessful robbery at-
tempt. Gaynes survived.
Police acting on in-
formation allegedly re-
ceived from the late
Rawle, launched a massive
manhunt on an -unpre.
cedented scale for three
suspects Junior "Spirit'"
"Blackie" Laidlow, and
Marcus "Raycan" James.
Later, Gaynes also
alleged that it was
"Spirit" and "two others"
who had shot him there-
by strengthening the
police case. But from
here on, it seems as
though anxiety and over-
enthusiams by the ruling
class to seize the op-
portunity to get rid of
Cottle, long feared and
sought after because of
his political activities,
blinded the administra-
tors of law and order in
Cottle was then a
leader in the "Black
P o w e r" organisation
BLAC and the other two
suspects his associates.
Accordingly, t h e
stateused the shooting of
Rawle as a pretext to
carry out a brutal
campaign of repression
against the "Black Power"
and other dispossessed
elements of the society
who were then in the
vanguard of the struggle
for social change and
In their search for
the murder suspects the
numerous excesses. Police
broke into persons' homes
without charge, beat up
Premier Milton Cato
This shop was destroyed by the police, acting on the orders of
big business interests, and as part of the general attack on 'little
people' by the St. Vincent Government.
Junior 'Spirit' Cottle, was denied proper medical attention whilst being
imprisoned in the Central Prison, seen above.
and arrested others on
framed-up c h a r g-e s,
destroyed a community
project, seized literature
and equipment belonging
to the organisation BLAC
and allegedly murdered
one of the suspects,
Cottle, himself was
shot in the neck and un-
armed, was persuaded to
give himself up by his
Half-starved and suf-
fering from a serious bout
of pneumonia, Cottle was
only allowed two days in
the hospital before, un-
able to walk, he was
taken to a punish-
ment cell in the Central
Prison and there im-
prisoned without, as much
as a bed.
Despite mass pro-
tests, the authorities have
refused proper medical at-
tention and the bullet
remains lodged in his
head to this day.
In October, 1973,
Cottle and Laidlow were
convicted and sentenced
to be hanged for the
murder of Rawle.
They were also each
sentenced to four years
in jail, for discharging a
loaddJ firearm at Allenby
Cottle and Laidow
appealed to the West
Indies Associated States
It was not until May
7, one month after the
Privy Council decision -
that the Attorney General
released Cottle and Laid-
However, they were
on offences pertaining to
the same incidents for
which they were original-
Cottle has. been
charged for discharging
a loaded firearm at a
police corporal on May
27, 1973, shortly after
Laidlow has been
charged for escaping from
prison between 21st and
22nd July, 1973 when
he was awaiting trial.
Cottle, although in
Court of Appeal and at a
hearing in 1974, they
succeeded in having the
On April 5, 1976,
the Privy Council to
whom they appealed
revoked the conviction of
The Privy Council
held that there were
certain irregularities at
the October 1973 trial,
which were legally bad
and prejudicial to both
Cottle and Laidlow.
110 Eastern Main Road 662-4087
Knows The Way to The
Magic Kingdom of
Furniture At Family
Ruby 3 PC Living Room Set
CASH OR TERMS
MTH. $ 45
For the better type of book
111 FRED E RICK STREET PORT-OF-SPAIN
'" I ----
prison, is a member of
YULIMO and Laidlow,
a supporter. YULIMO
which demands the re-
lease of Cottle and Laid-
low --- especially the
former are the im-
mediate victims of the
.i. r__1 political persecu-
tion of radical groups and
To re-arrest Cottle
and Laidlow on charges
for which they could have
been originally indicted
is a prime example of
Under British juris-
prudence, which applies
in St. Vincent, the general
practice is that when an
accused is freed on a
more serious charge in
this case murder the
prosecution does not
subsequently proffer in-
dictments on lesser
charges arising from the
same set of incidents.
Eastern Main Rd., Laventille
( Near to Trotman street)
GRASS ROOTS PRICES
etc, etc. _
SUNDAY JULY 11, 1976
WATCH Th A-I
bago was finally put to
rest. Making her platform
debut, Eutrice Carrington
impressed significantly in
Allan Harris, Allan
Richards and Arnold
Hood of La Brea were
so well received that
Lloyd Best needed only
to add "extras" to com-
plete the big score.
With Tapiaman Al-
fred Wafe and Joe Lind-
say supplying leaflets on
Tapia plans and Patricia
James chairing the meet-
ings with such accom-
plished skill, it came as
no surprise that t h e
question people were ask-
ing was: "When will we
see you again?"
Eutrice Carri ngton...
made an impressive
at Delaford and
IT'S ONLY a matter of
time before the single cry
all over Tobago will be
'Tapia! Tapia! ".
This is the prediction
in reports coming from
the Tapia cadres who
spent the last weekend in
the island, holding meet-
ings at Charlotteville,
Speyside, Delaford and
In what was describ-
ed 'as Tapia's second
"weekend blitz" in To-
bago, the Tapia folk dis-
covered that the island
was "wide open" poli-
tically, a discovery which
would be disturbing to
smugly complacent PNM-
DAC candidates who felt
things were sewn up
That such self-de-
lusion is fostered by the
misreporting of the daily
Press seemed confirmed
last Tuesday by an Ex-
press story from Tobago
stringer Horace Leighton-
Mills which claimed that
only three parties PNM,
DAC and LAP had
shown interest in the To-
be blind and deaf," said
a Tapiaman of the aging
Following is the re-
port from the Tapia team
which went to Tobago
THE TOUTED front
runners the PNM and
the DAC have had
their tracks uncovered;
their self-claimed bastions
of support have been
-stormed and the situation
is now clearly open.
The Tapia team of
Patricia James, Eutrice
Carrington, Lloyd Best,
Allan Harris, Yaxee
Joseph and Arnold Hood
began the weekend
campaign with a grand
meeting at Charlotteville
on Friday, July 2. It was
a real sing-along.
The crowd of some
250 villagers listened
keenly and eagerly to
presentations by Allan
Harris (history of Tapia),
Hamlet Joseph (Tapia's
New World), and Lloyd
Best (Home Rule for To-
each of their deliveries
and animated discussion
At Speyside the same
evening, Allan Harris,
Allan Richards, Arnold
Hood and Lloyd Best
dealt with a similar range
of issues. They spoke to
a crowd whose enthusiasm
might have been dampen-
ed by the inclement
The protracted after-
meeting discussions, how-
ever, showed that definite
contact had been made,
with persons actually
volunteering to form a
group in the community.
Delaford and Belle
Garden on Saturday were
The result was that
the propaganda re-
portedly put about by
the DAC -that other
parties had nothing to
offer the people of To
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2Th2E article "JAMAI4CAN REBEL MUSIC" first
appeared in the Spring 1976 issue of the journal
"RACE AND CLASS" which is published in London
by the Institute of Race Relations and the Trans-
For publication in TAPIA it has been edited
slightly and-avidled inio two parts, the second part
or which will appear next week.
Thie auUho, is LINTON KWES1 JOHNSON
Sometimes I cry
when I see my people
pure pain and poverty
we black people
and yet 1 know
history will show
how long we suffer so... (1)
THE popular music of Jamaica today is a
music whose pulse is "the ground-beat of
survival itself." (2) It is a "music of the blood/
black reared/pain rooted/heart geared," a
music "all tensed&up in the bubble and the
-bounce and the leap and the weight drop."
(3) It is a music that is at once violent and
awesome, forceful and mighty, aggressive and
cathartic. It -is a -music that beats heavily
against the walls of babylon, that the walls
may come a-tumbling down; a music that
chucks an heavy historical load that is pain
that is hunger that is bitter that is blood, that
is dread. Yes the popular music of Jamaica is
full of dread for it is dread down- Jamaica
way this day; it is dread down there 1 say.
Jamaica is -red with the blood of in-
nocents who are daily slaughtered by babylon;
red with the blood of repression and rebellion
that flood the streets of Kingston as the guns
.rage in the noon-day sun, as the guns bark
throughout the troubled nights; red with the
fratricidal blood of the oppressed.
And it is this tale that the musician,
singer, and the dub-lyricist (DJ turned poet)
tells. They tell of the burden of the
history of oppression, rebellion, and re-
pression. of the "tribal wars', the political
"scank", (Jamaican dialect for "fooling
around") the despair and desperation.
Not only does the poetry of Jamaican
music lament the suffering of the "sufferers",
it also asserts their strength and their de-
termination to struggle on relentlessly, and
prophesies the coming Armageddon wherein
"only the fittest of the fittest shall survive"
and "no weak house shall prosper", because
"it dreads down a babylon/dreaaaad". (4).
Jamaican music embodies the historical
experience of the Jamaican masses it
reflects, and in reflecting, reveals the con-
temporary situation of the nation. 'He who
feels it knows it, the saying goes, arid it is the
sufferer from the urban ghettoes, the "crea-
tion rebel" who has "travelled up that- old
rough -oad" to imd his bread who really has
the say as to what is happening down Ja-
maica way today. So forward we now go with
this musical exploration, the ."creation rebel"
will guide us on our way.
I shall say it again: the popular music of
Jamaica, the music of the people, is an
essentially experiential music, not merely in
the sense that the people experience the
music, but also in the sense that the music
is true to the historical experience of the
people, that the music reflects the historical
experience. It is the spiritual expression of the
historical experience of the Afro-Jamaican.
In making the music, the musicians them-
selves enter a common stream of conscious-
ness, and what they create is an invitation to
the listeners to be entered into that conscious-
ness which is also the consciousness of their
people. The feel of the music is the feel of
their common history, the burden of their
history; their suffering and their woe; their
endurance and their strength, their poverty
and their pain.
This is precisely what Leroy Sibbles of
>. 'L;'-\' .I\J
the Heptones means when he says of "dub" or
"drum and bass music', the music or the
sufferer of Jamaica today: "well...it signifies
some kind of African feeling, the beat and the
drum and the bass. We are all black and we
have Africa deep within us. Yea we feel it.
It's cultural and you just gotto get with it be-,
cause you feel it. Deep down inside from you
hear it, you feel it."
The youth sufferers who live in the
ghettoes and shanty towns of Jamaica describe
the music in terms of their own existence,
which is basically a rebel existence: they call
the music "rebel music" According to Leroy
Sibbles, "they use the way they feel to describe
the music" and this is so precisely because
the music is expressive of how they "feel".
The musician, singer and dub-lyricist are
mostly "sufferers". Through music, song and
poetry, they give spiritual expression to their
own inner beings, to their own experience.
But in so doing, they are also giving spiritual
expression to the collective experience of
sufferation that is shared by all sufferers.
Perhaps Toots and the Maytals "Time
Tough" will help us to explain the reciprocal
relationship between the spiritual expression
of experience by the artist on the one hand, f
and the experiencing of this spiritual expression
by the people on the other hand. In this song,
the lyricist is lamenting the hardships of life,
the bitterness of life.
I go to bed
but sleep won't come
get up in the night
couldn't stand my feeling
early in the morning
it's the same situation
then come the landlord
just a knock knocking upon my door
I've got four hundred month rent to pay
and I can't find a dollar (9).
Here the lyrics are sung in the first
person, so that it is the individual experience,
the personal situation, that informs the song.
But the individual experience is the experience
everything is out of sight
it is so hard so hrl1d
everything is going higher and higher (10).
Everyone feels it for they immediately
recognize the pain in this'song as their own
pain as the music takes them to the very
depths of their being.
Music totally encompasses the lives of
the oppressed in Jamaica this day. From the
old and disillusioned to the young and re-
bellious, music is the "food of love", their
spiritual and cultural nourishment. For ,A f
through music, their dreams are unveiled, their "ubor "drum and bass m
souls exorcized, their tensions canalized, their --
strength realized. In the Afro-Jamaican
churches, men, women, and children gather ,-'
together to rid themselves of their pain and
their agony in a remorseful outpouring of the
souls as they sing those mournful sones,
a M a
bleeding on the cross, stretching forth their
cupped hands, reaching, reaching out for the
The dances which complement the
popular music, the ska, the rock steady, the
reggae, the scank, and the chucky, are at once
erotic and sensual, violent, aggressive and
cathartic. The music invokes what Fanon
calls the "emotional sensitivity" of the op-
pressed and gives vent to it through dance.
But it so happens that, at times, the
catharsis does not come through dance, for
the violence that the music carries is turned
inwards and personalized, so that for no
apparent reason, the dance halls and yards
often explode into fratricidal violence and
general pandemonium Whenever two rival
sounds systems meet, violence often erupts
between the rival supporters, so the D.J. is
often both the musical pace setter and the
musical peace keeper. He tells the dancers,
"those who deal in violence shall go down
5' -;. '~
Members of the ca;t o' ihe reggae musical '0 Babylon!
f Jamaica today... Drawing by Mick 1Hawthorne
written by Derek Walcott which was put on in Trinidad
Similarly, the dub-lyricist who has de-
veloped the DJ talk into a form of music-
poetry, tells his listeners that they are invited
to a musical happening, but he warns them,
"when you come/I don't want you to bring
your skeng (pistol) I want you to leave your
skeng at home." (16) Big youth tells his
you should make a love not war _
cause war is ugly love is lovely
cause if it's war then you'll be double double
and if it's love then you71l be a double double
Jamaica, that "Caribbean island paradise
in the sun", is one of the most violent places
under the sun. This is not surprising when we
recall that Jamaican society, like all colonial
societies, is one which was founded upon,
and is maintained through, violence. Gordon
Rohlehr, the West Indian literary critic, has
commented on the fierceness of the "forces
of despair and erosion" that permeate Ja-
maican society and culture, and its relation
to the music.""Each new weight of pressure"
in the society, says Rohlehr, "has its cor-
responding effect on the music, and the
revolution is usually felt first as a perceptible
change in the bass, the basic rhythm, the inner
pulse whose origin is in the confrontation
between the despair which history and iniquit-
ous politics inflict, and the rooted strength
of the people." (18).
The music responds to changes in the
society so that as the society becomes more
violent, more dread, more tense, the beat
becomes more dread and the rhythm more
taut. The bass and the rhythm are the city's
"grounded heart beat"' as Rohlehr puts it,
and the beat of the music "dominates the
city". So "when the rhythm goes dread, the
whole society feels the tension, and why not?
After all it was the cruel tension which
determined that the beat should go dread in
the first place." (19).
And every sufferer from the old to the
young in Jamaica today wears the look of
dread, a look of flame, a permanent grimace,
a "permanent screw". (20). This look of dread
testifies to the inner tension they feel, an
agony that is real testifies to the volcanic
eruption inside their heads. I Roy's "screw-
face man" (21) is the, "mafiah", the "dread",
the man who has completely internalized the
historical experience of violence and the
violence of his existence, and acts out this
violence through an existence of violence;
f-or "'screw-face carrying skeng/and a screw-
face carrying bucky (shotgun)." Bob Marley's
"Talkin Blues" is here enlightening. Marley
I've been down on the rock for so long
I seem to wear a permanent screw (22)
In this song, Marley is talking about a
bitter existence in babylon which is "blues".
He is "saying talking blues" because "cold
ground" was his bed last night "and rock was
my pillow too". (23) The permanence of this
blues experience and existence is the historical
experience that is facially expressed in the
"permanent screw". But along with this
"blues" feeling, this inner agony and outer
look of dread, there is an urgent desire to
tear down the walls of babylon:
But I'm gonna stare in the sun
let the rays shine in my eyes
I'm gonna take just one step more
for I feel like bombing a church. (24).
So that when Laxton Ford implores his
listeners to: "take some time and learn to
smile/it's a better way to stay", we im-
mediately understand the meaning of his
musical say. (25)
The historical experience of the Ja-
maican masses, part of the wider Caribbean
experience of colonialism and neocolonialism,
is one that began with slavery. The barbarity
of the slavemnasters and slave drivers has been
well documented and does not have to be
repeated here. Neither do we have to recall
L- A I I. I >- I V-
the rapings, plunder and murders.
It was a violent and bloody beginning, a
brutal and traumatic beginning. Slavery was
the name and capital accumulation the game.
And although it is four hundred years hence,
the violence of the people's existence persists
like a naked light in a house full of dynamite.
And the blood has not ceased to gush but con-
tinues to flow over. And the brutality is
intensified under a different name. And the
original trauma is the cause of the protracted
drama that threatens the rule of a ruthless
native bourgeoisie. For the wounds of history
have not yet healed, butfaster in the hot sun
from day unto day so they multiply.
So for the oppressed Jamaican, history is
not a fleeting memory of the distant past, but
the unbearable weight of the present. That as
captives they came and as captives they remain
is the veritable tale their history tells. And
the people,_ O0 my people, they still feel the
terrible sting of 'the whip of oppression, of
poverty, of fruitless toil, and that is why the
four hundred years
we have been here as a slave
must find a way
of not being enslaved
no shackles on our feet
no whip on our back
Yet I an'i
we're still being enslaved (27)
Chattel slavery was finally abolished in
1838 in Jamaica, but already with the intro-
duction of the system of apprenticehsip in
1833 the slaves could sing: "we free!/Lawd
we free!" (28) But it did not take the people
long to realize that. "the jangling chains", as
Andrew Salkey puts it, were "replaced by
different noises"; it did not take the ex-
slaves long to realize that they were still being
IMAGE OF SLA VERY
And ever since then the Afro-Jamaican
has been praying: "0 father free us from/
the chains of babylon/and let us live to walk
in zion/for we are pressurised just like the
Israelites". (33) Ever since the days of slavery,
my people have been singing this sad sad song:
took us away
and brought us down here
where we can't be free
I wanna know how long
how long shall evil rage
evil rage over my people (34)
The image of slavery persists in the minc
of the Afro-Jamaican, and the conditions of
of slavery weigh down his existence. Though
it was his sweat, blood and tears that built
Jamaica, he shares no part of it. All he knows
is "pure pain and poverty" and all he sees
around him is despair and sufferation and
hopelessness. So the rastafarian refuses to
accept this barren existence in a "foreign
land". He has never renounced his African
citizenship for he has never been given a
citizenship and so he sings this song of
despair, dreaming of the day when he will
"sail/on the Black Star Line/homeland bound."
(ust can't take it no more5)
I just can't take it no more
I just can t stand it no more
So let me go home to Ethiopia land (36)
The rastafarian's demand of repatriation
back to Africa then is not unreasonable or
unrealistic but quite legitimate. And it is the
historical experience which legitimizes this
demand. .In fact it was the same hopelessness
and despair which substantiates the rasta-
farians' demand that lead to mass emigration
since the turn of the century to places lik4
Cuba, Panama, North America and the UK.
As one lyricist explains"
the time is getting hard boy
we've got to travel on
the time is getting hard boy
we've got to leave this land
a man can't stay where trothinggoes right
and everything goes wrong
I've got to find somewhere else
where I can help myself (37)
SUNDAY. JULY 11, 1976
S S -
BY MICHAILL HARRIS,
Tapia Shadow Minister of
External Affairs and Can-
didate ]or P.O.S. West.
IT HAS been reported
that President Marcos of
the Phillipines reacted to
the news of the spectacu-
lar Israeli raid on Entebbe
airport by describing it as
being like "the plot of a
movie thriller", which
'cannot but warm the
hearts of freedom-loving
f would suspect, how-
ever, that freedom-loving
peoples who also possess
some foresight, particu-
larly those who belong to
small countries incapable
of developing any signi-
ficant military capabilities,
would have viewed the
entire episode with some
trepidation and 'fore-
The source of this
trepidation lies neither in
dhe initial act of hijacking
perpetrated by what has
been described as "pro-
palestinian guerillas" nor
in the response of the
Israelis to this act of
The fact remains that
the Palestinians and the
Israelis are locked in a
struggle which both per-
ceive to be, and with
'little exaggeration, as one
of life and death.
As unfortunate as it
might be, the truth is
that in the entire history
of the Middle East con-
flict, the spotlight of
world attention fell on
the Palestinians, their
problems and their search
for a homeland which
they can call their own,
only after the rise of the
Black September move-
ment and their use of
terrorism as a weapon in
the war for survival.
Israel, on the other
hand, is a nation born in
violence and illegality
which for its own survival
has had to perpetuate
that violence and, that
Surrounded as it has
been for its entire history
by Arab Nations whose
loudly declared goal was
its total liquidation, Israel
has had little choice but
to eschew the niceties of
international law and
ethics, in the struggle for
The point is that in the
conflict between Israel
and the Palestinians both
sides will do whatever
they perceive to be neces-
sary to ensure their sur-
vival and protect, their
The task of "freedom-
loving" peoples every-
where in the context of
this struggle is surely to
seek to confine as far as
is possible, the inter-
national dimensions of
It is as well as to seek
always to' work towards
the kind of resolution
of the crisis which would
'promote the principles of
international law, peace
It is in this crnlext
that the source of trepida-
tion which "freedom-
loving" peoples every-
where should feel over
the entire episode lies in
the unrestrained and ill-
conceived expressions of
joy and approval with
which so many of the
world leaders have greeted
the Israeli action.
The Israeli raid on
Entebbe airport was,
whatever its motives an
act of war.
To say this is neither
to deny-nor to minimise
the problems posed by
Yet the uncritical support
given to such a flagrant
act of aggression does
nothing to eliminate the
threat of international
All it does do is to
strengthen the philistine
notion that might is
For those of us.in the
Caribbean the entire epi-
sode should serve as yet
another salutary warning.
approval with which the
United States greeted the
Israeli action, should serve
to remind us of what is
now going on in Jamaica
and Guyana, and to re-
inforce our commitment
to redressing the iniqui-
tous balance In our social
and economic conditions,
without which we can
never commit our peoples
to the struggle for our
sovereignty and survival.
Yes, we're also into
publishing and printing...
Freedom and Responsibility ...... Lloyd Best
The Political Alternative .......... "
Prospects for Our Nation ........ "
Whose Republic? ............ ..
The Afro American Condition .. ... "
Honourable Senators .......... ..
Letter to C.L.R. James 1964 ..... .
Democracy or Oligarchy .......... .C.V. Gocking
* Grenada Independence Myth or Reality.
(International Relations Institute, U.W.I.)
* Readings in the Political Economy of
the Caribbean (New World).
* NEW BEGINNING
Why Did PNM Fail? ......... Augustus
Another View of Tapia Method Lloyd Taylor
The Inside Story of Tapia ..... .Lennox Grant
The Machinery of Government .Denis Solomon
Black Power in Human Song .. Syl Lowhar
We are in a State ........... ..Ivan Laughlin
A Clear Danger .. ............ Michael Harris
\ .. Trinidad. (I.S.E.R)
"Revo "- poems bv Malik.
"Cheers" by Yvonne Jack.
The Dynamics of West Indian Ecoiomic integration (ISER)
w Call Lennox[Grant
can do a job
mV~~iZiCIL1~PII~ITr~E~WI~-*PB ~ __~ --
I \iPA PACG'
66 2-5 126, 82-84 Vncn tTiapni
for you too,
IN TAPIA June 13, 1976 we reprinted an article by Darcus Howe
entitled "The Stylistics" from the UK-printed magazine "Race
The article reviewed the progress o.f two young black players,
Trevor Lee and Phil Walker, in British professional football, and it
has drawn critical comment from several writers connected with the
I FIND difficulty as
yet another white obser-
ver, in commenting on
Darcus Howe's analysis
of "The Stylistics" Trevor
Lee and Phil Walker.
Trevor and Phil are
different. The problem
seems to be in what way
is that significant.
Not just because they
are black, since there are
other black footballers
playing in comparable ob-
Not just because they
are skilful, since there are
other skilful players in
the Millwall team. I
would mention John
Seasman who will be able
to show his immense
talent more clearly in the
"ENTER TA INMEN T"
The difference is that
they both can play with
magic touches that sway
and win a game; not to
mention provide excite-
ment and, dare we say it,
Not a skill apparently
inherent in white English
footballers, Lesser mana-
gers" now seem to search
for team players, lesser
coaches draw up plans
rather than coach indivi-
dual skills, lesser players
It gives me immense
pleasure to be associated
with Millwall, a club that
contains not one of these
Our national game then
lessens at the same time
that society itself lessens.
The media bludgeon us
constantly, to conform to
the average ideal citizen.
It is easier now to reject
our individuality and be-
lieve the stereotypes.
Our mental environ-
ment as well as the
physical is threatened.
Still, we have this dif-
ference though. Darcus
Howe suggests that it
cannot be genetic but "is
a certain spirit, an atti-
tude to life and society
born in different histori-
Genetic differences, we
would all agree, are out
and it is hard to find fault
in the 'spirit' theory.
Theie are however one
or two worries. The diff-
erence between "genetic"
and "spirit" is, I fear,
too small for the white
The door now opens
to the'generalisation that
all blacks are physical;
it could be that Trevor's
and Phil's popularity is
partly because they con-
firm what Eldridge Cleaver
called "the Supermascu-
That "they are dif-
ferent" is always the first
step towards discrimina-
tion. It also worries me
that this popularity is
used to appease guilt
SUNDAY JULY 11', 1976
It is of course, usefuid to be able to consider Darcus Howe's
views against the background of a wider range of opinion on the
issues with which he treats,
lhat is why we are publishing ,n !his page two comments on
his article which came in ti. .;orni of letters to the Editor of "Race
feelings. How do these
same white fans treat
their black colleagues at
Perhaps I am being
pessimistic because I have
seen white lads fighting
white lads because they
TAPIA PAGE 7
I have seen people
fighting for a piece of
their shirts; I still remem-
ber a lad showing me a
piece of Trevor's shirt,
telling of the trouble he
had had to get it and how
it was eoing above his
bed to be kissed for luck
' when needed.
Finally, I do feel that
in all this talk of "black-
ness", "spirit" and-"diff-
erences" it is sometimes
lost that Phil and Trevor
are, in their own right,
two highly talented indi-
viduals. I do not wish to
see any of the praise they
THE budding footballer
starts playing football on
the hard grey asphalt
playgrounds the day he
arrives at junior school.
On the fast, friction-
less surface of the asphalt,
ball skills and shooting
are forever being prac-
When the player
reaches ten or eleven, he
makes his first contact
with organised football.
Players are picked for the
school team by the school
PE teacher and, on the
recommendation of the
same teacher, players are
sent to area or borough
There are many foot-
ball teams one can join
outside school. They play
mainly on Sundays, and
many young players play
on both days, Saturdays
Scouts from the
league sides watch inter-
borough matches, and
certain Sunday games for
On recommendation from
scouts, PE teachers,
borough team managers
or Sunday team managers,
the professional clubs sign
young players on school-
On signing, the
young player is invited
to train once or twice a
week under the guidance
of the club coaches, until
heis 15-16. After entering
secondary school, new
fields are open to the
Each year group has
its own football team;
there are borough team
trials, country team trials,
and the national school-
boy team. The Sunday
teams are now very "pro-
All football at this
level mimics the methods
employed by league teams.
The majority of country
team players are invariab-
ly also schoolboy sign-
A PPR ENTICE
Scouts and clubs are
even more interested
when players get to the
ages of 15 when ap-
prentice signing are
As an apprentice the
player is taught the trade.
He trains full time at the
club and is paid a wage.
Those who are not
signed as apprentices join
amateur sides and in some
cases go out to play pro-
Few black players
have the enthusiasm to
battle on to the English
professional scene as it
British football is
presently played with a
great deal of physical
contact and stamina train-
ing for the purpose of
chasing long high balls.
This type of foot-
ball is very organised,
with the offside rule
dictating all play.
Many black players
find that there is little
respect for skill with
skilftil players at the
receiving end of the
majority of fouls and
When these players
complain, they are told,
"it's a man's game", the
anthem of British foot-
There are few play-
ers in the game with true
flair and skill, for they
do not last under this
constant barrage of at-
VA L UES
which stress the physical
are carefully cultivated
and nursed by managers
and trainers at all -levels
of' the game, especially in
the league teams.
The black player
rejects these values. He
knows how he should
play, he knows how he
likes to play.
He has seen his way
of football win the 1970
World Cup for Brazil.
Talking to many
black players about why
there aren't many black
footballers in the league
side, many reasons arise.
These range from the
based training, to the dull
A basic reason to
recur over and over again
is the conflict of ideas
between the British
trainer (from PE teacher,
to club coach), and the
black footballer, on how
the black footballer
should play football.
On many occasions
the black player finds the
trainer saying or implying;
"It's alright to be flash
son, but you are going to
play football my way."
When the black
player does not comply
with these orders two
things occur. Firstly, the
black player elects to be
rid of any form of or-
ganised British football.
There is consequent-
ly an enormous waste of
talent among these young
blacks as they refuse, to
play for any team, even
the junior school side.
The players, whose
enthusiasm for the game
has not been completely
repressed or stifled, form
themselves into teams or
groups for park "kick
Others form them-
selves into their own or-
ganised teams which join
Saturday leagues. A good
example is The Con-
tinentals of North Lon-
The second result of
the conflict is that
trainers, coaches. and
managers see the black
player as undoubtedly
skilful but rebellious,
stubborn, hard to train
and therefore unsuited to
It is Britisl football
that has to.change before
blacks can play a bigger
part in the game. In the
last five years we have
witnessed the beginning
of this change.
MICHAEL LA ROSE
Young and gifted, but
His own muf i / ftti
From Page One
Yet all the Karl Hudson-Phillins movement
had to offer on Monday night was a procession
of genuflections to the almighty Doctor. Even
when the obeisance is not as obviously dis-
ingenuous Williams has never given anything like
approval so far from his blessing or sympathetic
understanding to such private initiatives in his
Hudson-Phillips himself in 1973 was openly
rebuked for attempting to involve the Doctoi in
"party intrigue" when the then Attorney General
tried to claim Williams' endorsement of his
campaign for the party chairmanship.
And then the most resoundingly ignominious
flop of all was the "If Loving You Is Wrong..."
campaign run by Earle Lewis and others intended
to urge Williams to reconsider his "resignation".
but which was not even noticed by the Doctor.(
So the Karl Hudson-Phillips movement got
a crowd through false pretences. And having got
thousands to come and listen to him, Karl could
only reiterate arguments he had made before
agamst signing the undated letter and preach by
implication to the converted about Williams'
Of course, for those who had ears to hear,
Hudson-Phillips was saying a good deal more. He-
referred by innuendo to those who had corruptly
got rich through holding public office on a PNM
He raised again by innuendo the
question of race in the probable claims by Kamal-
uddin Mohammedto be Williams' successor ("They
tell me to sign and stay in the party because they
don't want Mr. X or Mr. Y to succeed the old
"Hudson-Phillips, Is This a Conspiracy With
Williams?" asked a placard held aloft by Clive
Nunez and paraded before Hudson-Phillips' eyes
at a critical point in his speech. The other placard
held by Nunez' companion read: "Hudson-Phil-
lips, Expose PNM Corruption 1. Scoon Report;
2. Corrupted Ministers etc."
Both the crowd and the speaker were dis-
tracted by the dramatic appearance of the placards
with their bearers invisible, as if floating on air
over the heads of the people.
Karl mopped his bald forehead and appeared
to laugh goo d-humouredly, but he never recovered
his poise, shortly thereafter saying (Freudian slip?)
"letter of corruption" instead of "letter of resigna-
tion" and earning a laugh for his error.
But if Hudson-Phillips intended to burn his
bridges he was using only a single cigarette lighter.
Had he signed the letter since 1973, long ago his
'throat would have been cut, he said. Now he
could not sign for there was no guarantee if he did
that he would be chosen as a candidate.
He has chosen to opt out of the elections
altogether and seek to work within the party. But
that, is one party where nobody can do anything
to make it what it is not. Better socks (C.L.R.
James for one) have crowed that same note and '
still ended up on the Doctoi' plate. In any case ,
Williams knows there are many other ways to kill
a fowl than to cut its throat, and he has simply
given Karl endless rope with which to hang himself., -i
Unwittingly, what Hudson-Phillips did last |
Monday rniht was to toss an end of the rope up
to the topmost branches of one of the trees in
Woo dford Square.
Starting out to make a party issue a public 1'
issue, he ended by returning the issue to the party
and vowing to struggle there, strenginlened by the )f
memory of that vast crowd in The Square one
night in July '76.
But the public which has seen all these
movements fail to beat Williams from OUTSIDE
the party will have little faith that the Karl Move-
ment could do it from the in:;ide the party which
the Doctor made and moulded with his hands.
And it's in that sense that last Monday's.
11 lB Belmont Circular Rd. Belm
per ;'c:L: i as fatal. Hu I H ,...ii i.,_.
Ferrera ::'. Simonette appea:ie then as men
ho have given Wi' lthir ii, pledged to him
I; t-ir creative ca citiesie. ,'iih similar effect to
i1mt of an undatea letter ol resignation which
they got on as if incy had all handed over already.
Like insects caught in a mess of cloying
sweetness, they are unable to comn...ad the effort
i,, disavow the oartv that hasoffered them the
the prospect of office, security and position, to
spread their wings and take off to a new nest.
Not that it's easy, after A.N.R. Robinson's
example, for the one thing that's more dread than
the PNM's is opposition politics. And in any case
who would carp to embrace men discarded by
Williams as millstones?
innonette fouid it necessary to end with a
weak little speech about the value of working
within the party. Willkins has been the chief
shoveller of excreont ,un ilie head of the party.
Now that Hudson-Phillips challenging Wil-
liams, betwixt them both they are simply scuttling
an already unseaworthy ship of the PNM.
nont (Next to St. Francis Church
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invite one and all to their
Luengo Village, Maracas Valley, St. Joseph
art g, m
Meet the Tapia representatives
for the Valley
- Lloyd Best and Ivan Laughlin.
Take in the sounds of -
Old Oak Serenaders .,7 Somnds Inc.
DJ Supr- d
Sforzata Steei 7i- ta
Jorts galore pelau, souse, roti,
mauby, rum punch
_ ~ j _I Y~I~