Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
April 25, 1976
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
vo. N s.. 17 162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.
U.S.A. -

,SUNDAY APIL 25, 1975,
^ /4


FOR A political organisation to take on the
press or a particular newspaper is to engage in
an unequal battle. A political party might
feel it has been hard done by the press.But
how does it go about getting redress?
For obvious reasons you can't conduct
struggle against a newspaper in the pages of that
paper itself, no matter how much it might proclaim
that its columns are open to all shades of non-
libellous, non-defamatory, non-offensive opinion.
No, you can't beat the press at its own game.
There is no solution, then, but for a political
movement to draw to itself its characteristic
equipment for dealing with its "enemies". That is
to say, power. Power manifested most often in the
possession of the means of communication with a
sympathetic audience, independent of the services
of the established media of communication.
Of course, that never happens absolutely,
just as the media never serve as absolutely the only
means of communication.
So a politician can get on a platform and
lambaste the press, often explicitly telling his
hearers not to believe what they read about him
for the press is determined to show him always in a-
bad light.
-A solution not yet mentioned, but also-
obvious, is to found "counter -institutions", papers
dedicated to presenting "the other side" of the
story. But to- do that successfully is far easier said
than done. The established media are, after all,

established media.
was a headline on an Express April 12 front-page
report on the Tapia House Movement Election
Convention. Many Tapia eyes popped on reading
the bold headline: somehow it hadn't been said or
heard in quite that way, if it had been said at all.
And when the Tapia National Executive met
that night a letter to the Express editor calling the
headline "a total misrepresentation of Tapia's 10
Year Plan" was drafted and approved. I
The brief letter betrayed some brusque
impatience. "It is difficult", the letter said, "not to
consider (the headline) a deliberate distortion. The
only things that Tapia intends to bury are blanket
terms such as 'capitalism' and 'socialism' and the-
kind of journalism that encourages their use."
The letter then explained the "precise role"
contemplated in the Tapia plan for "enterprise",
and pointed out that Laughlin had said there would
be no capitalist class in a Tapia-run society as all
citizens would receive profits as well as wages.
The letter finally challenged the Express to
publish the text of what Laughlin had actually said,
in support of a denial of its intent to confuse the
public about Tapia.
In all 16 lines, it was delivered by hand at
2.30 p.m. on April 13, the day after the offending
headline appeared.
By press time of this issue of TAPIA, however,
neither had the letter been published in the Express
of at least two relevant stories. One was the
"Sundav Opinion" and the other the Robert P.
Ingram column, born or Aprn 18:

The above picture shows some members of the Tapia Council ofRepresentatives at a Sitting in

The first 90 days of a

Tapia Gov't


PAGES 2 & 3

The "Opinion" gave the newspaper's "Elec-
tion Policy", containing a solemn commitment
to "carry all the news ,that reach us about the
general election fairly and impartially, giving no
favours and seeking none". The receipt of the
Tapia letter may or may not have prompted this
"policy" statement for it seemed inexplicable
otherwise, if not gratuitous.
Whatever its internal effect, however, the
letter remained unpublished after more than a
week, leaving Tapia with the unhappy options of
complaining about delay in publication and bearing
with the effect of the damage done by the
"capitalism" headline.
So that when Robert P. Ingram (the known
nom-de-plume of the Express editor) described a
TAPIA Carnival Tuesday reportbyme as "ludicrous"
and "an example of the insidious pressures to-whidch
the population is put by people who ought to
know better", the coincidence is intriguing.
In the- first place, it is not clear how my
article could be both as sinister as Ingram sees it
and "ludicrous" at the same time. The columnist,
apparently thought it a misguided effort to dis-
tinguish according to race the people taking part or
not taking part in Carnival.
"Nowhere, apparently,did he see Trinidadians
enjoying their own national festival", Ingram
remarked with some asperity.
The Express editor would no doubt ha'e
approved of a journalistic focus on Carnival "off he.
beaten track" of Port-of-Spain. And he coulee
appreciate that if the journalist doing the storyi".
harboured preconceived notions of what he would

'I tJR~

I t

January this year.




THE April meeting of the
Tapia Council of Representa-
tives will take place this
Sunday 25th at Campaign
Headquarters, Port-of-Spain.
Chairman Denis Solomon
will call the meeting to order
at 10.30 a.m.

find, he might as well have
stayed in Port-of-Spain.
For Ingram surely
appreciated that the idea was
precisely to see what was
happening outside of Port-of-
Spain in order to determine
VAL". The intention was to
look with fresh eyes at what
was going on as a means of
examining the validity of all
the facile shibboleths about
Carnival being a "national"
Any other approach
would be just to beg the
Ingram's own quaintly
ponderous conclusion arrived
at from watching Indian Trini-
dadians applaud the Indian
cricket victory over the West
Indies is that "we are not yet
sufficiently schooled in the
theory and practice of national-
ism", But having brilliantly
discerned as much, how could
he then simply assume the
existence of a "nation" and of
a "national festival"?
In any case, if any big
conclusion could be drawn
from the "Carnival off The
Beaten Track" article (and
none was) it would have been
that both Indians and Africans
do take part in Carnival,
which would make it some-
thing like a "national festival"
in truth. How come the
epithet "ludicrous", then?
How come. the accusation of
imposing "insidious pressures"
on the people of Trinidad and
One clue might liec in
Con I'd on Pg. 11


Our coverage of
is unsurpassed anywhere
for focus and point.
Keep a breast of the
real currents in the
Caribbean Sea.
OWING to the recent increase in the postal
rates, the Tapia House Publishing Co., Ltd., has
found it necessary to increase the subscription
rates for TAPIA.
The new rates are as follows:

Trinidad & Tobago
Caricom countries
Other Caribbean
E.E.C. (incl. U.K.)


- $18.00 per year

Surface rates and rates 'for other countries on
request The new rates are effective February 1, 1976.
Tapia, 82, St. Vincent St. Tunapuna, Trinidad &
Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126. & 62-25241.

San Fernando


B Que

Lion's Civic Centre
Circular Road
Special Bonus
3 PRIZES: $50 $25 $20
Get your tickets at:

Pyramid Drugs,
2C Mucurapo St.,
San Fernando

Adults: $6

San Fernando Centre
8 Mon Chagrin
San Fernando

P.O.S. Centre,
22 Cipriani Blvd.

Children $3



(a) Restoration of

Utilities and Basic Services -

- staggering of working /
- introduction of daylight saving time
- set in motion a new order in regard to motor-car,
- introduce steps to ensure that motor-car parts are
available for all makes of vehicles and at.reasonable
- break the monopoly in the tyre and rubber
i- dustries.


- Rejuvenation of community hospitals e.g. Tunapuna
and St. Joseph
- the development of Community Clinics by renting
or renovating suitable buildings in the communities.
- upgrading of the nursing profession and the intro-
duction of a drive to recruit our nurses and doctors
in the USA, Canada and Britain, to man the
community hospitals and clinics.
- these measures would relieve the burden on the
-P.O.S. and San Fernando Hospitals and allow for
rational reorganizationn and to make available for
one thing a wing -to house an independent
Children's Ward.
- to set in process the development of a Children's




S_ Stephens


26a Raminar St. Morvant
Foundation to Fixtures




SUNDAY APP IL 25, 1976(


FULL employment, equality and self-
reliance are imperatives of Tapia 's econ-
omic policies but the measures we intro-
duce in the beginning will be decisive
for the overall implementation of our

programme for National Reconstruction
Trinidad and Tobago is plagued by
rising unemployment, inadequate housing,
overcrowding in the cities and suburbs,
a breakdown of public utilities and ser-

vices, traffic congestion, wide-scale state
control of the media. l)emoralisation is
rampant. it is PRLSSURE everywhere.
Our measures therefore for the first
ninety days fall under three heads:


introductiorr of rationing where practicable.
-expansion of the truck-borne.service
-implementation of storage facilities at individual
and community level.

decentralization of a range of services including the
distribution of birth certificates, passports and
death certificates
-rehabilitation of the postal services to ensure..
prompt delivery and to have four post offices one
respectively in San Fernando, Central, P.O.S. and
Tobago open twenty-four hours per day seven
days per week.

.(b) Intr6duction of a minimum wage to put an end to
exploitation. This measure is especially important for agricul-
tural workers, store clerks, barmaids and domestic servants.
To police the employment of domestic servants
recruitment will be through the Labour Exchange. Salaries
will be paid by employers to the Labour Exchange and
received at the District Revenue Offices.


(c) Introduction of a new policy related to land-tenants
and house-rents.

(d) Cutting the dollar free from the pound and restoring
it to health.

(2) To lay the foundation for a new order by:

* assembling our architects, engineers town planners,
land surveyors, quantity surveyors, and land economists to
take an inventory of the environment. To lay the framework
for our major thrust in housing involving the development of
Waller Field as an urban, area and the rehabilitation of the
existing urban areas.

* organising existing crafts and trades tomake our
apprenticeship scheme possible.
"' Reorganising and expanding the Special Works

to remove the play-play basis of work
to allow for training and apprenticeship
to immediately begin a massive, rehabilitation of
the communities John-John, Caiman,, Quarry,
Water-Hole to name a few areas
the object of these measures and the organisation
of existing crafts and trades is to prepare for longer
term productive involvement through our pro-
gramme of National Service.

* Restoring existing playgrounds throughout the country
* Bringing the West Indian cricket captain
live, play and coach here in the West Indies. This is a first
step to making the 'talents of our professional sportsmen
available, to our people.

(3) Political Education:

We have to break the control that this tortured and
twisted regime exercises over the communications media by:

opening up the media to,the opposition
S- establishing a National Trust to run the Electronic
Media and to set up a radio station capable of
transmission to the entire Caribbean region
establish a National Trust to run the Trinidad
Guardian as a national newspaper and a Caribbean


I I L I c ~-~L~IC~F--IPI -se L PIP sS----~-Lb"l~ CY _P~ I~ I

p/%,cf* 3i




A[-i.1.kTi THE


IN JUNE 1958 civil war
erupted in Lebanon.
Beseiged in--his official
residence for over a
month and with over70%
of the country effectively
in the hands of rebel
forces, the then President
of the Republic issued
an invitation to the
United States to inter-
vene and restore peace
to the land and himself
to power I
By July 18, over 70
warships of the Sixth -
Fleet were just .outside.
the Beirut Harbour and
by July 25, the Ameri-
cans had landed over
10,600 men, more than
the entire Lebanese army
at that time.
Today Lebanon is
once more plunged into
the agony of a bitter
civil war. Once again the
call for US military inter:-
vention has gone out
from some section of the

This time, however,
apart from the dispatch
of about seven warships
of the Sixth. Fleet which
are now patrolling, the
waters of the Mediter-
ranean, in readiness, it is
claimed, to evacuate the
1,400 American citizens
resident in Lebanon, no
military action has been
taken by the United
To understand this big
difference between the
events of 1958 and those
of today is to understand
many of tue changes
which have taken place
ih the international
political arena, in general,
and in the Middle East
in particular.
Today, instead of the
intervention from the

United States, Lebanon
is faced with the inter-
vention of more than
2,000 Syrian Army
The Syrian Fleet is
blockading Lebanese har-
bours and Syrian gun-
boats are patrolling the
Lebanese coasts.
All this besides
witi the tacit approval
of the United States, the
Soviet Union and Israel.
Lebanon is a powder keg
which might blow the
whole of the middle East
sky high. For the moment
however, all the tradi-
tional antagonists in the
Middle East want to have
peace restored as soon as

The internal dimensions
of the Lebanese civil war
are, if possible even more
complicated than the
international implications
of the crisis. The roots of
the. Lebanese crisis lie
buried deep in the coun-
try's social composition
and in the constitutional
arrangements under which
the country has operated
since its independence.
Lebanon has historic-
ally been a haven for
minority groups fleeing
religious persecution, or
political and economic
oppression in their
various homelands.
And while the popula-
tion today, which numbers
about 2.6 million people,
can be simply divided
between Christians and
Muslims, such a division
conceals the enormous
differences which exist
within each of these two
In fact, there are in
Lebanon today more
than 17 different religi-


ous sects, each of which
maintains a particular
,.and jealously guarded
lifestyle, and each of
which exists, for the
most part,- in clearly
defined geographical
But in addition to this
religious fragmentation, -
the population is also'
splintered along econ-
omic and religious lines.
So that the tensions
are also fuelled by the
differences within the
Christian community
itself, between the
Maronite Christians and
the others; within the
Muslim community itself,
between the Sunnis and
the Shias; between the
rightwing traditionalists
and the leftwing socialists;
and between Arab loyal-
ists and Lebanese nation-
All of these points of
tension and conflict are
sharpened by the rigid
constitutional arrange-
ments under which the
political and economic
life of the country is
According to the
census taken in 1972,
the Christians constituted
a slight majority of the
On the basis of this
fact, a constitutional
arrangement, devised at
the time of independence
in 1943, allocated politi-
cal power between Chris-
tian and Muslim on a
rigidly proportional basis.

According to the agree-
mdnt of 1943, which
incidentally has never
been formalised in any
written document the
President of the State is
always a Maronite Chris-
tian, the Commander of
the army and about 85%
of the Officer Corps are
Christian, and the Chris-
tians outnumber Muslim
deputies in the Parlia-
ment by a fixed ratio of
six to five.
This constitutionally
guaranteed political dis-
crimination against the
Muslim is reflected too
in the economic distribu-
tion of the wealth of the
country. Lebanon, or
more particularly Beirut.
has emerged in the last
decade as the most
powerful financial and
banking area in the Middle
In 1974, economic
growth was estimated at

10% and the inflow of
petrodollars was esti-
mated at 1.1 billion. Yet
the wealth of the land is'
grossly maldistributed.,
Beyond the glitter and
cosmopolitan atmosphere
of Beirut which in 1974
attracted hundreds of
thousands of tourists, the
rest of the land and the
majority of the people,
particularly the Muslims,
exist in conditions of
appalling poverty and

And while the political
structures have never
changed and the econ-
omic inequalities between
Christian and Muslim
have worsened, since
1943, there have been
significant shifts in the
population ratios.
Another census has
Cont'd on Pg. 9


SINCE 1901






Tel: 668-2523




b acki

alt'e 'I

. ".- .. ,. ..... ....- .
Above: a military band parades at the National Palace in Port-au-Prince.
Right: Haitian businessman poses with some pf the over three million baseballs manufactured in Haiti annually in extremely
low-wage factories for the US market.

Greg Chamberlain
reports on recent
moves in Baby Docrcacy

THE ousting of Interior
and Defence Minister Paul
Blanchet and his replace-
ment by a senior Tonton
Niacoute has snuffed out
hopes of liberalisation and
given Washington a new
public relations headache.
Paul Blanchet, the eccen-
tric journalist and former
Marxist was seen by many
as the man to wean the
Duvalier dictatorship from
its old, deadly ways into
some semblance of liberal
Last week Blanchet
finally lost his two-year
battle, which began from
the moment he took oice,'
Against the old guard
Blanchet's nationalist
initiatives controls on
foreign land ownership, a
mining code, stiff new
taxes on the Reynolds
bauxite operation, over-
tures to the rest of the
Caribbean, including even
hints of links with Cuba -
looked good on paper.
But they were under-
mined in their application
by the Duvalier family and
their closest allies.
The land controls were
flouted, seven million
dollars of the extra
revenue from Reynolds
quickly- disappeared into
the Duvaliers' foreign bank
accounts, and Kennecott
reportedly paid $500,000

for its concession last
month to mine the rich
new copper deposits near
Limbe in the north.
One of Blanchet's allies
Trade Minister Serge
Fourcand, who led the
approach to the CARI-
COM states, was publicly
destroyed (though" acquit-
ted) in last year's much-
trumpeted multi-million
dollar stamp forgery trial:
His successor, -when
faced last December with
CARICOM'S rebuff of
Haiti's bid for membership,
simply denied haughtily
all knowledge of Fourcand's

But Blanchet and his
friends continued their
oblique criticism of the
regime in their newspaper,
And the minister did
no more than verbally
rebuke Dieudonne Fardin,
the young editor of the
weekly, "Le Petit Samedi
Soir," whose criticisms of
the regime over the past
nine months have been
much more daring, and
have made his magazine
the most avidly-read pub-
lication in Port-au-Prince.
It was these chinks of
daylight, together with
what appears to have been
an assassination attempt
on President Jean-Claude
Duvalier in January (he

reportedly made a secret
overnight trip to Guanta-
namo for treatment), that
resolved the old guard to
take advantage of the
widespread personal dis-
like of the notoriously
ill-tempered Blanchet and
of his barely-concealed
contempt for the person
of the President, -to get
rid of him.


The cabal was led by
secret police chief Luc
Desyr, Mrs. Simone
Duvalier, and Regie du
Tabac Director Henri
All of them in their -,
sixties, they are sometimes -
referred to in Port-au-
Prince as "The Dinosaurs".
They began preparing
their ground last year,
soon- after defence lawyers
in the televised stamps trial
followed Fardin's example
and spoke obliquely against
the regime.
A mini-revolt in the Air
Force in protest against
badly-maintained accident-
prone helicopters, an
assassination attempt last
September on Siclait, the
abortive hijacking of a
small domestic plane by
two leftists the same
month, an uprising by 600
peasants who reoccupied
stolen lands at Bocozelle,
in the Artibonite, and
various minor acts of
sabotage, also encouraged
them to act.
By last November, the
obedient former Port-au-

Prince Police Chief
Frederic Marc Arty, had
been promoted to General
and named Deputy Army
Chief. This was an effort
to neutralise the Com-
mander, Gen. Jean-Baptiste
Hilaire, who had shown
some signs of- indepen-
dence, notably in a decree
saying that only the Army
had powers of arrest and
command during civil


A few weeks later,
Rosalie Adolphe and
Zachadre Delva, two feared
Tonton Macoute (VSN)
chieftans sacked after
Papa Doc's death, were
reported to have been
quietly restored to their
old jobs at Fort Dimanche
and in Gonaives.
The VSN also received
shipments of Israeli and
British arms last year. And
one of the "Dinosaurs",
palace guard commander
Gen. Gracia Jacques, called
a meeting of VSN officers
to stress that there was a
political crisis and told
them to be ready to fight.
Recently, amid reports
that Fardin's increasingly-
bold reporters were being
harassed by officials in
the countryside, the old
guard finally moved against
Blanchet and his allies and
installed in his place Pierre
Biamby. the private secre-
tary to the President and
before that to Papa Doc.
Biamby, a former foot-
ball star in his mid-fifties,

is a member of the three-
member "General Staff"
(Etat Major) of the VSN.
He won his Duvalierist
spurs in 1964 when he
supervised and personally
took part in the massacre
of about 100 inhabitants
of Jeremie, an act which
led to the public execution
of two rebels in the capital
watched, on Papa Doc's,
orders, by thousands of
Out along with Blanchet
went, among others,.
Transport Minister Pierre
Petit, one of the few
ministers of any compe-
tence, and Social Affairs,
Minister Max Antoine (in
office a record 13 years),
who seemed to be making
efforts to get the largely
American offshore assembly
plants to obey laws on
pay and working condi-
The young President
appears to have played
little role in the palace


The resurgence of the
old guard, unless it can
tame them, may present
Washington with a- few
problems image-wise.
The liberalisationn"
propaganda campaign had
been going reasonably well.
The stamps trial was
amply exploited in this
respect, and an official
attack mounted on alleged
corruption on the part of
the capital's mainly Levan-
tine business community,
thus conveniently divert-
ing attention, in foreign
though not in Haitian
minds, from the ever-
burgeoning material extra-
vagances of the Duvalier
The US Ambassador,
Heyward Isham, said on a
New York radio station
that there were no real
political prisoners in Haiti
and that the press was
A few political prisoners
were actually freed. Ameri-
can aid doubled last year,
as did Canadian, while
France's increased four-
The IADB' made a
record $41.1 million worth
of loans to Haiti last
year, a tenfold jump over
An inter-agency, inter-
governmental committee
was set up by the OAS in
December to direct and
organise aid to Haiti.
More US and Canadian
banks opened up shop and
Continued on Page 8




Were he an opposition political
leader, that is how the Express television
and general arts critic Jeremy Taylor would
have responded to the "policy statement"
on political broadcasting of the National
Broadcasting Service.
Critic Taylor wrote as much in his
Monday April 19 column that contained
his own comments on the NBS .statement
as well as on the reaction to the same
statement expressed by opposition politi-

cal parties.
"None of the objections so far,"
Taylor remarked, "at least as reported in
the press, has gone beyond making routine
noises of disapproval towards stating any
specific ground of protest or why the
policy should not be welcomed and
The country's only regular television
critic agreed with the condition laid down
by the NBS Board that to qualify for
political broadcast time a party must

nominate candidates for at least 60% of the
seats in the election.
Taylor did not consider that the
availability or the use of political broadcast
time would make all that much of a
difference. He said that experience in
other ,countries had shown that people
can't take much of political broadcasting.
He offered no comment on the NBS
Board decision to give the ruling party an
extra broadcast period to have the last
word before the election. He did, however,


THE Tapia House Movement has
considered the policy statement
on political broadcasts issued by
your Board of Directors on
Wednesday, April 7. We wish to
register our strong reservations
concerning the unduly restrictive
character of the policy, and our
concern that it fails to meet the
requirements of a society with
democratic aspirations.
You will recall that in our
letter to you of February 3, 1975
we laid emphasis on the question
of paid political broadcasts. It is a
serious omission of the policy

statement that no consideration
has been given to this matter. As
a consequence, political parties
are being asked to rely solely on
the good graces of the Board in
allocating broadcast periods of
unspecified duration, and after
Nomination Day.
It is to be noted that Nomi-
,nation day could be as little as

Yes, we're also into

publishing and


The Political Alternative
Prospects for Our Nation
Whose Republic?
Letter to C.L. R. James 1964
Democracy or Oligarchy
The P.M. & the Constitution

- Lloyd Best

- C.V. Gocking

Why Did PNM Fail?
Another View of Tapia Method
The Inside Story of Tapia
The Machinery of Government
Black Power in Human Song
We are in a State
A Clear Danger

Augustus Ramrekersingh
Lloyd Taylor
Lennox Grant
Denis Solomon
Syl Lowhar
Ivan Laughlin
Michael Harris

Grenada Independency Myth or Reality.
(International Relations Institute, U.W.I.)
i Readings in the Political Economy of the
Caribbean (New World).


Social Stratification in Trinidad. (I.S.E.R.)
"Revo" poems by Malik
"Cheers" by Yvonne Jack.
i The Dynamics of West Indian Economic Integration (ISER).

And we can do a job

for you too


662-5126, 82-84 St. Vincent St, Tunapuna 62-25241, Cipriani Blv'd P.O.S.

A heckler is dealt with at the "Great Debate "in 19 74



IL 25, 1976




seek to direct attention and concern to the
"occasional editorial slant observable on
Citing one instance of a blatant
presentation of PNM propaganda disguised
at "news" on TTT, Taylor called it -
perhaps with tongue in cheek "a slip no
doubt." He added: "Opinion masquerading
as fact can have much the same effect as a
political broadcast, even though unconsci-
ously, so it's a point to watch."
The Tapia House Movement on April

15 wrote a detailed criticism of the NBS
policy statement. The Tapia statement,
sigried by Administrative Secretary Allan
Harris, and delivered to NBS chairman
Bain, denounces as "unnecessary humbug"
the several restrictions -imposed by the
Board of state-owned TTT and 610 Radio.
Harris' letter pointed to the already
advantageous position enjoyed by the
ruling party and' queried the decision to
allow that party an extra final-say broad-

On the stipulation that a party must
nominate 60% of the candidates to qualify
for broadcasttime, Tapia said it represented
an usurpation of the right of the electorate
to determine which parties were serious
and which not.
The Tapia statement, a letter to the
NBS, had never been released. to the press.
Below we publish both the Board's "policy"
and the Tapia comments contained in a
letter to the NBS Board Chairman.



seven days before polling day
Moreover, with broadcasts to
cease two days before polling day,
the possibility exists that the
period, of political broadcasting
could be as little as five days.
We are convinced that the
public stands to gain more from
the exposure of the differing
political viewpoints before the
election period. If, as the state-
ment implies, parties are to have
access to the State-owned media
after the General Elections, then
the Board seems to concede the
point that it would be beneficial
to provide that access now..
With elections legally no
more than five months away, if
we are seriously concerned with
informing the choices of the elec-
torate, immediate provision must
be made for opening the State-
owned media to political parties,
on the basis, of paid broadcasts:
and conceivably also on the basis
of time freely given.
-The statement fails to explain
the basis on which the qualifying
mark for the allocation of free
time is set at 60% of the total
number of seats to be contested.-
The intention seems to be to
eliminate the supposedly "non-
serious" parties, in which case the
Board is usurping a privilege which
belongs to the electorate. A more
liberal policy of universal expo-
sure would provide the public
with the information needed to
make their own judgments, which,
to our mind, is the democratic
way to proceed.
The limitations imposed on
the format of the broadcasts
also strike us as unreasonable.
Does the restriction on the use of
sound effects mean, for instance,
that no music will be allowed?
Is this a necessary restriction,
especially given the fact that the
Board has specified as unaccept-
able five classes of statement, and
also reserves the right "to decide
whether a script or any part of it
is acceptable for broadcast ."?
More important, does not
television lend itself to the inter-
view format which, by the Board's



definition, becomes a prohibited
"dramatic broadcast"? Such res-
trictions are nothing more than
unnecessary humbug.

By the very fact of its con-
trol of the State, the ruling party
enjoys widespread and unrestrict-
ed exposure for its views and
policies. The major aim of a policy
on political broadcasts should
therefore be to redress this im-
balance by presenting adequately
the entire range of competing
organizations, plans and men and
women to the electorate. _

THE Board of Directors of
the National Broadcasting
Service RADIO 610 and
after considering the prac-
tice in democratic Com-
monwealth Countries and
the recommendations re-
ceived from the local
political parties who
responded to an invitation
to make recommendations
regarding a policy for politi-
cal party broadcasting, have
decided on the following
policy to operate during
the period from nomination
day up to two (2) days
prior to polling day:
"Free Broadcasting
time will be allocated only
to parties which nominate
candidates in not less than
60%- of the total number
of seats for the General
Elections to the House of
Representatives. Equal time
will be allocated to all
qualifying parties except
that the party which has a
majority in the existing
House will be given an
additional and a final broad-
cast period. The duration

There can, be no democratic
justification for allocating two
extra periods of broadcast time
to the ruling party over and above
those provided to the opposition.
It is to be regretted that no
opportunity was given to political
parties to comment on a draft of
the proposed policy beforehand.
It is to be hoped that, in the
spirit of democratic participation,
this letter, together with other
responses to your Board's policy,
will provide the basis for a com-
prehensive, timely and necessary

Lloyd Best at the "Great Debate"
in 1974

of the broadcast periods and
their specific times will be
allocated by the Directors
when the qualifying parties
are known."
The following rules
will apply:-
"A party may nomi-
nate any per son to use the
time allocated to it. A
party wishing to use its
allocated time must apply in
writing at least two working
days before the date on
which the broadcast is due
to take place. All broad-
casts must be pre-recorded
at least twentyfour (24)
hours before broadcast.
The political involved must
be clearly identified before
and after the broadcast.
The script of the broadcast
must be submitted not
later than six (6) hours
before the time for record-
ing the broadcast.
Broadcasts must not
include: -

1. Any matter in coptra-
vention of the Laws
of Trinidad and To-
2. Any abusive comment

upon any race, creed
or religion.
3. Any obscene, indecent
or profane matter.
4. Any malicious, scandal-
ous, or defamatory
5. Any matter which
contains any false or
deceptive statement.
Broadcasts by Trade
Unions or broadcasts of a
controversial nature are
considered political broad-
The Directors reserve
the right to decide whether
a script or any part of it is
acceptable for broadcast
and once passed for broad-
cast, a script may not be
departed from. No dramatic
broadcasts or paid political
advertising will be permit-
ted and the use of sound
effects will not be allowed.
A broadcast which carries
more than one voice is
considered a dramatic
A policy regarding
political broadcasting to
apply after the General
Elections and until the
following nomination day
will be announced later.



c -- ----- ~r ~ c I ~e o I



Hello, hello Africa

THE Nigerian High Com-
missioner has made a call
for greater appreciation
of the social value of
His Excellency Em-
manuel Kolade in
remarks prepared for
delivery at the opening
last week Saturday of
the first ever all-year
National Calypso Theatre
at the Legion Hall,
Port-of-Spain, said that
all music had as the
original aim that of
"fulfilling some social
He explained: "Some
are meant to be work
songs, play songs, recita-
tive, social commentary
or plain entertainment,
roles which generally
help music to penetrate
into human feelings and,
psychology and interna-
tional understanding."
The Nigerian envoy
was represented at the
opening of the Theatre
by the High Commission's
press attache who read
Mr. Kolade's statement.
He raised Lord
Superior, founder, pro-
ducer and director of
the NCT, as "a man of*,
the firsts in building what
we might like to call a
modern calypso industry".
Speaking indirectly
about calypso to avoid
-being caught in the con-

From Page 5
Haitian capital has begun
flowing back into the
country again.
Yet the picture was
tarnished by such things as
:the opening of a $2.5
million mausoleum intend-
ed for Papa Doc only five
days before the govern-
ment declared that 300,000
people were dying of
famine in the arid north-
west. To .the 'relief of the
victims the Duvaliers con-
tributed nothing except a
pious call for more foreign
The current develop-
ment budget of $104
million, 64 per cent of it
provided by'foreign sources.
sets aside only four per-
cent for health and an
almost invisible 0.2 per-
cent for housing.
The regime's racketeer-
ing has driven small
farmers to abandon coffee
and production of it fell
by nearly half last year.
Tourism, worth some
$13 million dollars a year,
is declining disastrously

T A.

troversy between what he
called the "traditionalist"
- and the "modern school
of calypso", Mr. Kolade
"I am aware that we
are not in a static world.
Whatever changes that
might attend our music
we must make sure that
the changes take place
within the confines of
the traditional roles and
characters of the musics"

It was to be regretted,
the Nigerian High Com-
missioner said, that more
time is not spent on
"rationalising the great
role that music can play
in national building,
national unity, interna-
tional peace and under-
For, to a great extent,
he noted, the real value

again, and as the foreign
aid rises, so does the flight
of Haitian technicians out
of the country.
The Duvaliers have also
been busy denying stories
in the American press of
bribes received from
foreign firms.
Publicity has been given
too to continued arrests
and disappearances of
Haitians returning from
exile abroad.


Graham Greene, author
of the "The Comedian's",
has publicly appealed for
the release of political
Progress is however at
last being made in surfac-
ing the road to Gonaives
and the south, and a start
has been made on the
capitals' new port.
The capacity of the
Peligre hydro-electric dam
will be surpassed by next
But so far the visible
activity on the roads and

of music has been lost in
the popular concentration
on .'wining, twisting,
quick step, foxtrot and
Mr. Kolade, in sup-
port of his argument that
music knows no bound-
aries, referred to Nigeria
where he said "any urban
Nigerian between 30 and
4o years of age can at
least 'daba-daba' some
of the very early calypsoes
like 'All day all night,
Miss Mary Ann': 'Ugly
Woman' by Roaring
Lion; 'My wife left me in
November' by Lord
Kitchener, 'Maria Darl-
ing', 'May May' and
'Benwood Dick' by Spar-
Indian music, too, had
made its "indelible im-
pact" on Nigeria.
)Mr. Kolade described
another role of music -
"forging a valid continu-
ity with the past" and
he pointed to the African
influences in North
American and Caribbean
music which had in turn
' influenced modern Afri-
can music. He said:
"We know quite clearly,
that the Latin-American
music, the Calypso, and
the Black American Jazz
contain very strong Afri-
can elements.
"The rythm, lyric-
dominance, and the use

the port after two
decades of stagnation -
combined with a wider
distribution of wealth
among the capital's ruling
elite and to a lesser extent
the small middle class,
provides a certain stability
for The Duvaliers.
The removal of of
Blanchet and Fourcand
has also conveniently
too for Washington -
isolated Haiti from the
"radicalism" of Jamaica
and Guyana.
It remains to be seen
whether in the new turn
of the regime back towards
the controversial roots of
Duvalierism, the VSN, will
upset its ever-delicate
balance, especially where
the Army is concerned.
If the retrenchment"
fails, the Duvaliers have
only to climb into the
lavishly-furnished, and so
far unused, $1.4 million
Sikorsky helicopter they
had delivered to the
palace a few months ago,
and fly away to their bank
accounts and villas abroad.

of calypso as a weapons
of social commentary
are the popular forms of
a number of West-African
music such as Highlife,
Ju ju, East-African
sounds and Congo music.
"Originally, Jazz is a
music of the American
blacks, a unique blend
of African folk song,
simple missionary hymns,
spontaneous work songs
of field hands.
"It is equally impor-
tant to note that although.
African music have
played a very strong part

m forining both Latin-
American and Caribbean
music, these music have
in turn flowed back to
Africa to influence the
growth of modern Afrian
music like Highlife, Ju ju,
Congo music and Afro-
"The pop- and soul
music of the West which
have also featured promi-
nently in this universal
musical journey, have
also made their tremend-
ous impact on the deve-
lopment of modern music
in all these areas we are




We've got what you
need at minimum cost.



TonmTo'ns r'd 'again,


Lloyd Taylor

WHEN IN October 1974
Prison Officer Johnny
Rodriguez put pen to
paper and submitted a
memorandum to the
Commission of Inquiry
into Corrective Institu-
tions, he never thought
that single act would cost
him more than the time
it took to prepare the
The young Prison
Officer Grade-One took
his constitutional right
to: freedom of speech
seriously and wrote:
the bureaucracy
functioning at these
(corrective) institutions
is not accepting its
responsibilities in the
right perspective, eschew-
ing their rightful roles,
thereby forcing their sub-
ordinates into dens of
torture and dishonour".
Since that day Rod-
guez has become- yet
another in the long and
growing list of citizens
who have been punished
for daring to speak what
.hey see as the truth.
First came the intimi-
After he submitted
.his memo he was trans-
ferred to Golden Grove.
Then on the New Year's
Day of 1975 he was
posted to the Royal
Gaol. Irregular shifting

He dared

to, say


he. saw

in prison



around for one who till
then had seen five and a
half years' service.
Then came the victim-
isation. On March 9 and
10 his wife's illness origi-
nating from pregnancy
forced him to stay away
from work.
He phoned the gate
-officer and asked for
two days' casual leave.
The next day was his
day off, and the day
after that there was a

meeting of the Executive
of the Prisons' Officers
Association for which
time-off is customary.

So it was
1975 that
reported for
Gaspard the
forbade him
duty 'as he
produced a

March 13,
duty. Mr.
to take up,
had not
sick leave

Later another Officer
Julien swore that he had
come to Rodriguez'

home and told him to
report for duty on one-
of the two days of his
leave but that Rodriguez
had refused.
At the end of March
1975 a cheque for his
month's salary was
deposited at the Royal
Bank in Arima. But Mr.
Tom Isles, then Commis-
sioner of Prisons, tele-
phoned the bank's
manager requesting that
the money be returned.


From Pg. 4

not been taken since
1932; but it is estimated
today that the Muslims
constitute over 65% of
the population.
In recent years, there-.
fore, the entire system
of Government, politics'
and economic distribu-
tion has come under
increasing attack from
the Muslim community,
particularly the Shia,
Muslims who are the
most deprived of all.
It is into'this whirlpool'
of tensions and antagon-
isms. that the most
volatile element of all
nas emerged.
The element which
in faqt is central to the
present conflict and which
links all the internal
considerations in Leba-
non to the wider Middle
East conflict, the Pales-
There has, of course,
been a Palestinian pre-
sence in Lebanon ever
since the -first Arab-
Israeliwar in 1948.
With each succeeding
war the number, of
Palestinians in Lebanon
have increased until today
it is estimated that there
are over 250,000 Pales-
tinians living in that

The Palestinian pre-
sence has always been a
source of tension in
Lebanon. This is hardly
surprising. The Palestin-
ians are Muslims and
mainly Shia Muslims so
that their very presence
has served to increase
-the numerical superiority
of the Muslims and hence
aggravate the political and
economic imbalances in
,the country.
So that from the start
the Palestinians found a
natural enemy in the
Christian movements in
Lebanon who saw in
-their presence a threat to
their own position and
But the tensions be-
tween Christians and
Palestinians only reached
their most bitter levelsat
the beginning of the 1970s
when both Syria and
Jordan took a series of
measures which effec-
tively curtailed the ability
of the Palestinian com-
mando groups to launch
raids into Israel from
their territories.
Both Syria and Jordan
have absorbed the Pales-
tinian fighting forces
into their own National
Armies so as to have
some control over the
Palestinians' military

The only base of
operations now left to
the Palestinian fighters
is in Lebanon, whose.
army of just over 18,000
(before the present civil
war) is too small and
much too divided in its
allegiance to be used to
control the heavily
equipped Palestinians

The south of Lebanon,
which borders on Israeli-
occupied territory, a fact
of considerable impor-
tance in the whole
situation, is now known
as Fatahland.
It is from this point
that the Palestinians
launch their raids into
Israel and it is here that
'the Israeli reprisals'are
Israeli raids into
southern Lebanon are
now almost daily occur-
rences. And the toll of
lives and buildings and
crops has been enormous.
The threat of a total
Israel attack into Leba-
non hangs heavily on
the minds of many people
It is ,in this context
that' the antagonism
between the Christians

and the Palestinians has
reached ifs highest levels
and it is this conflict that
has triggered the present
civil war.
The actual event which
precipated the war was
the shooting of a Pha-
lange supporter and the
revenge ambush by the
Phalangists of a Palestin-
ian- bus on April 13,
1975 in which 26 un-
armed Palestinians were
By the time the ensuing
fighting subsided over
150 people were dead
and many more injured.
Since then the violence
spread rapidly from town
to village with all the
old internal divisions and
antagonisms coming into
Today after ten months
of violence, the loss of
14,000 lives, the destruc-
tion of millions of dollars
worth of property, and
the flight of some 200,000
refugees, Lebanon at
last seems to be standing
at the edge of a lasting
peace. And the country
which has emerged as the
guarantor of this peace
and hence has .gained
the most influence in
Lebanon is Syria.

To be Continued.

The Bank complied.
Yet between March
and June, Rodriguez con-
tinued to report for duty
as he was rostered. Still
he was not allowed to
Later in June he waT
/rostered AWOL (Away
Without Leave). But no
charges were preferred
against him under the
Our Prison Officer
Grade I was finally debar-
red from even entering
the prison in July 1975.
A month later he received
a cheque for the first
nine days of March. Two
months later the official
axe fell.
John Rodriguez re-
ceived a letter stating
that he had resigned
from the Service conse-
quent upon his absence
,from duty on the 9th,
10th, 11th and 12th of
March, 1975.

Johnny did not know
where to turn for help.
The Association of which
he was an Executive
member responsible for
'Education had long ago
abandoned him to the
As a member of the
Education Committee he
had -begun to look into
and to speak out against
the discomforts affecting
both prisoners and prison
So on April 14,-1975
he began to look to
ipublic-servants on much
higher rungs for some
justice. He had written
the Chief Personnel
Officer, but got neither
acknowledgement nor
On September 29,
1975 an undaunted
Johnny Rodriguez pen-
ned another letter. This
time- to the Prime Min-
ister. Things began to
look up. Or so he thought.
His letter was ack-
nowledged and was
referred to Mr. Victor
Campbell, Minister of
National Security. He
finally met the Minister
- himself on November,14,

He found Campbell
armed with a copy of the
memorandum he had
submitted a year before
to a supposedly indepen-
dent Commission of
Enquiry. The Minister
did not like the language
used and likened it to
what he called "Black
Power talk".
Yet for all that he dis-
liked in Johnny's memo
the Honourable Minister
was at a loss to know
what could have Johnny
Cont'd on Pg. 11


miniscing, and me trying
to find words to put down
this history, when Spree
came calling at my two-
room house cluttered with
pieces of metal, tools and
the general confusion
made by my friends; who
insist on keeping the
drawing-room of the house
like a snackette and 'the
outside like the back of a
chinese kitchen.
Around me, men who
were with me from the very
beginning, and now that we
had reached the period of the
sixties everybody was remem-
bering some incident in which
he figured prominently and
which was deserving of a place
in this story. Voices raised to
screeching heights and I trying
to exercise control until I -re-
minded myself once again that
Trinidaoians does talk in gang.
Spree put paid to all this,
not with a tfireat of force as
he might have done in the old
days, but with an articulate-
ness acquired as a result of
touring so many different parts
of the world.
Much of his talk couched
in the terms of the 70's, show-
ing. quite clearly that the old
man was aware that his 30-year-
old struggle with pan had con-
tinued in one unbroken line up
to the present time.
I have described him as
old. But I speak relatively for
the face in front of me and the
boys didn't bear out the years
of strain and excitement that
were the lot of he who was in
fact the father of all that is
steelband. I
So to hear him talk, to-
day, of the need he feels to
spread his talent "for the -use
of black brothers and sisters",
is to sit and listen, straining the
ear as he agonised over the
future of the art while offering
encouragement by recounting
the troubles and hardships of
the past, seeming to say that if
we had reached this far, then,
the depressions of today were
but detours in the path of an
already programmed future.
We talked about the six-
ties, the era that we knew best,
and he knowing' them both -
the 40's and the 60's was
able to argue that the connec-
tions were there all the while.
Picking up the threads of
the past and weaving them
with the present, while we in
tent ob the anecdotes, and in
deference to one who knew it
all, were silent. The gang, now
humbled to size.
Using as a springboard
the ensuing discussion of the
'65 riot in which we were in-
'volved, he spoke of the fury of
the 40's and of his own stature
in that strange world of creati-,
vity and destruction out of
which the modern pan was
Now for him the bad-
john days are over, but I felt I
caught more than a trace of
satisfaction in his voice as he
/ "Other bandleaders used
to run into a fight just so. Not
me. My band was divided into
two distinct divisions. On one
side the beaters themselves, on
the other my riot squad. Man, I
used to drill the men like
soldiers and that is why up to
today Tokyo's reputation is
such that no band will trifle
with them."
"We fought among our-
selves an'd we fought the police.
We would roam the hills beat-

S* Reprinted from SUNDAY NOVEMBER 26, 1972


of Spree


ing pan, knowing that police
were going to make a raid that
night, but the law didn't care
about us so we didn't care
about the law. And on these
same nights the preachers
would be out with their
'candles, bells and marked cir-
cles, prophets of doom, really,
telling us about -dreams that
foretold destruction not in the
well-to-do -areas of St. Ann's
and St. Clair, but always in
"I wasn't selfish. I used
to show other panmen where
and how they should thief pan.
acting as guide-and conductor,

showing them the narrow ledge
leading from the drum factory
to the stinking mud in the
La Basse, watching, shaking
with laughter as the panmen,
scared once by a watchman
shooting into the air, swayed
arid scrambled on the narrow
ledge, trying' to run along a
path, narrow enough for
"If that was adventure
it was only an extension of the
adventure of life, itself, that I
was living in 29 Old St. Joseph
Barrack-yard, panties
hanging on the line, the in-

By Keith Smith
evitable cussing and steam
'come from living too many in
a room, toilets and bathrooms,
makeshift things in the yard to
be shared, but the humour, too
and the friendlhIip formed
that are preserved to this day,
borne as they were out of an
intimacy -forced on us by years
of seeing each other in various
forms of nakedness neither
scars nor deepest thoughts be-
ing hi4den.
'And if anybody hearing
me drumming on the pans were
to ask what I was looking for I
wouldn't have had the words to
tell them. All I knew that in my
heart I was looking for some-
thing and it was that looking
that produced the beginning of
the note range in pan today.


"And you talk about
your supporters. Which band
today has a supporter like Ab-
dul, Rouffs father who on the
night when we lost in the first
island-wide steelband competi-
tion met me in the road and
cried in his high, lisping way:
'Pree, come here!'
'Wha happen Abdul?'
'Wha all yuh play in the
'Stardust, Abdul.'
'And who tell all yuh
play Sawdust'.'
"And using his stick he
destroyed every single one of
the band's pans.
"Characters like bush.
Like Thick Lip who when he
drink used to ketch a spirit.
And one time I see him with
mih eyes, big, big, big, standing
like Odysseus and holding on
to the top of a young tree,
struggling with it and tearing
off the top, breaking it with a

"And with all your in-
tricate arrangements, we hav(
lost something. How maly,
steelbandsmen today are abte.
to improvise on the spur of
the moment. Like in the calyp-
so we have lost the ability to
get up and solo on the spot.
More skilful' with their hands'
perhaps, but everybody stick-
ing to the lines that the
arranger draws for them."
We heard Spree say that
he couldn't be positive that he
was the first man to beat a pan.
All he knows is that he was the
first to put notes on it. But his
point when he elaborated was
that many people had made
many contributions, or as he
put it "there have been many
turning points in pan".
Spree, Elie Mannette,
Tony Williams, myself. And I
would have been less than
human were I not satisfied
that this giant of the 40's
approved my experiment with
the Bertfone to the extent
that he sees it as the single
greatest innovation in pan in
the 70's.
And when I come to talk
about that particular innova-
tion, and show those who have
been following me a step-by-
step description of the pan -
broken down into its various
parts and assembled together
again, I will do so, assured by-
Spree that I am following the
course of adventure and ex-
periment started not by me but
the men who began it in those
"dread" but exciting times 30
years ago.


But Spree was out the
door and the house was empty.
ing.The moment ended. Before
he left"Catano" who had come
with Spree showed us what he
could do. The younger steel-
bandsmen listened and from
the smile that played on their
lips it was clear that he had
made Spree's point about the
lost art of improvising.
And the discussion that
followed as to whether in fact
improvisation was really neces-
sary meant that the atmosphere
was as before.Screeching voices,
ashes on, the floor and all the
men talking all at once in


Anthony Harris
Lennox Grant
died poor.The man who
is credited with being
the first to play a tune
on pan died waiting to
get a home. of his own.
In 1974 Spree suffered
a stroke and became
bed-ridden. The news of
this stirred the public and
a committee which was
formed, launched the
house-building fund.
A. fund-raising show
held in Woodford Square
that year was massively
attended by the public,
but when the hat was
passed only a small
fraction of the targeted
sum was received.
In December 1974 the
organizers of the Regal
Calypso Tent invited
Spree Simon to declare
their tent open for the
season, thus hoping

symbolically to elevate
the panman to the status
of a dignitary.
Came 1975 and the
tune "Tribute to Spree
Simon" won the Road
March, Chalkdust also
sang a tribute to the
pioneer panman.
Mas man and mystic
philosopher Rudy Piggott
portrayed a character
called Sun Rising on
Winston Spree Simon.
Still to be released is a
'45 recording by Lancelot
Layne entitled "Sweet
Boy" which was a song
originally introduced to
Trinidad by Spree Simon
and played a generation
or more ago by Spree's
own Fascinators steel-
But the highlight of
the national tribute to
Spree that appeared to
be gathering support was
the building of the house
in which the 49 year old

pannfan could spend the
rest of his days in the
comfort and secure know-
ledge that his efforts in
pan are appreciated.
This never came about.
During the 1975 Carnival
season a Port-of-Spain
City Council spokesman
loudly promised that
Spree's house would be-
come a reality before the
end of the season.


The enthusiasm for
Spree in the 1974-75
period had some other
ludicrous high points.
One was at Panorama
finals at the Dimanche
Gras last year when both
Lord Kitchener and
Tokyo Steelband brought
Spree onstage in a litter
presumably to convince
the judges that the vener-
able folk-hero endorsed
their efforts.

It worked for Kitchenei
Spree had more
"honour" coming his
way. Pan Trinbago pre-
sented him and other
pan greats with citations
during the "Pan In a
Rage" finals in late
Little public embarrass-
ment was shown by any-
one when some weeks
ago a lame Spree Simon
was led into newspaper
offices to say that
nothing about his pro-
mised house had material-
It wasn't until the
panman died last .-week
end that Jack Lewsey,
PNM party hack and
round-the-town public
relations windbag, had
the gall to blame a short-
age of materials for the
delay in building the

Cont'd on Pg. 11


'----.,JINDAY APRIL 25, 1976





From Pg. 1
the fact that the March 7
issue of Tapia with t the
Carnival article also carried a
front page headline "WHERE
WRONG" which directed
attentiq to an article inside
by Allan Harris that took the
Express Opinion of February
27 sternly to task.
It fell to the Express
Editor in the person of
Robert P. Ingram, writing the
following week, to redeem-
the paper's lost honour, so
to speak. While not seeking
to retrieve the editorial position
of the Express which had been
demolished by Harris, Ingram
chose instead to attempt to


ridicule the Tapiaman for his
heard, his spectacles and his
intellectual "gymnastics".
This is a fairly new
development with the Express,
dating roughly from the
assumption of duty of the
present editor who sees his
role as that of resident oracle,
complete with spirit-name,
and ever-vigilant Defender of
whatever is the Express' faith.
In fact what we are seeing is.
the nearest we can get to new-
broom vigour in the situation,
given the present incumbent's
declining mental and physical
Capacity, his; advancing de-
moralization and his conse-
quent inability to face up to
any but the faintest challenges
in his new assignment.


From Pg. 9
sitting, before him then,
hoping to retrieve his
Was he with some big-
J boy's woman and was
therefore getting some
pressure? Campbell won-
Anyway the National
Security Minister pro-
mised to look into the
matter and that was the'
last that Johnny heard
from him since.
But what kind of
"Black Power" submis-
sion could cost John
Rodriguez his job?
Johnny charged that,
prison officers were
being discouraged from
coming before the Com-
mission of Enquiry for
fear of victimisation.
Within his department
laws were enforced on
two kinds of people:
"The subordinate staff
and inmate, leaving us
only to assume that the


From Pg. 10
Spree Simon House.
But if that kind of
excuse would do in the
case of a panman, it only
shows something about
the steelband movement
and the way it's held in
the public regard.
Look at the lukewarm
reception some of the
big names in pan got
when Pan Trinbago
honoured them at the
Pan Fever finals this


hierarchy can, do ,_no
wrong being above the
At Golden Gr ove
Prison, he said, the food
crops grown by prisoners
were appropriated by
"the bureaucratic regime
and their allies," leaving
the remainders for the
inmates "when all its
nutritional value is des-
troyed -by' the elements
of decomposition."
The use of force, he
claimed, was still a per-
manent feature of, the
institution. And among
,the basic grade officers
there was a yearly in-
crease in the taking of
sick leave since there was
"no other legitimate way
of escaping depressed
John Rodriguez also
proposed some reforms.
He called for, inter alia,
closer scrutiny of staff
appointments, a revision
of the antiquated laws


Their names apparently
didn't mean anything
and their exploits un-
known. Pan Trinbago, in
any case, didn't help by
providing such information
at the opportune time
that these men were
being introduced to the
huge Savannah crowd
and the nation on TV.
Pan Trinbago must
not make that mistake
again. There will not and
should not be another
Spree Simon.


THE Tapia programme
of public meetings
continues apace. On
Friday April 23, pro-
ceedings begin at 6.30
p.m. at the Shopping
Centre, bottom of
Tunapuna Road, Tuna-
On the platform will
be "Pressy Prescott",
Angela Cropper- Lloyd
BestiBeau Tewarie and
Ivan Laughlin.
At 7 p.m., also on
Friday April 23,
another meeting will
come off at the Junc-
tion of Symond Valley
Road and St. Anns
Main Road. Speakers
include Syl Lowhar,

Next Week

Denis Solomon and
Lloyd Taylor.
Next week, on Wed-
nesday April 28, the
scene shifts to Laven-
tille. Hamlet Josenh,
Lloyd Taylor, Syl
Lowhar, Allan Harris
arid Lloyd Best will
be on hand at the
Corner of Pashley
Streets and Old St.
Joseph Rd. in Success
Village from 6.30 p.m.
On Friday April 30,
the caravan will move
to the Croisee, San
Juan in time to start at
6.30 p.m.
At all meetings
there will be a presenta-
tion of candidates and
campaign managers.


governing officers and
inmates, the resting and
reorganisation of YTC,
punishment centres in-
stead of concentration
camps, modernised trade
shops and better living
accommodation for in-
He also felt that the
Judiciary should take a
more active role "in the
reformation, rehabilitation
of prisoners by carefully
studying the social up-
bringing of- the convicted
before them, working in
close c611aboration with
its probation, welfare
and after-care services,
before awarding a part-

icular type of corrective
The submission ended
with thanks to God "for
the spirit-of endeavour...
to make this documen-
tary possible."
But how would Johnny
end up? The Public Ser-
vice Commission has
reported that his file was
lost and that it could
therefore take no action
on his behalf.
He has been to lawyers
but with the kind of
money they talking
Johnny won't be able
to reach the Courts for a


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1. THE Government have completely dashed
the hopes of the people for dignified nationhood,
for social equality 'and for identity all our own,
won by a cultural revival, amoral resurgence and a
spiritual regeneration,
2. THEY have proven themselves utterly
incapable of taking advantage of the vastly im-
proved revenues from two oil booms with which
they could have promoted the enduring welfare
and upliftment of the people of Trinidad &
3. THEY have wilfully substituted crash pro-
grammes, half measures and special works for
responsible long-term planning and have imposed
intolerable hardships and inhuman burdens on the
people by an outrageous incompetence in the
management of such ,public utilities and public
services as water, transport, health, education,
sanitation, telephones,electricity, drainage.
4. THEY have systematically suppressed econ-
omic enterprise among the people in the fields of'
small-scale and kitchen-garden agriculture and of
small-scale, backyard and drag-brother industry
with the result that our economy has thrown and
continues to throw huge numbers of people -
especially the youth permanently out of employ-
ment and has created and continues to create a
widening gap in income and wealth between the
top 20% of privileged elites and the bottom 70%
of disadvantaged little people.
5. THEY have wantonly disregarded the valid
hopes of the people on the question of constitu-
tion reform and have imposed post-haste on the
sovereign people a Republic of Cabinet design?
6. THEY have deliberately disgraced and humili-
ated distinguished members of the Public Service
as part of a policy of intimidating the citizens in
the cause of central power.
7. THEY have promoted a breakdown not only
of public administration but also of peaceful and
harmonious relations at the industrial, social and
political levels by muzzling free expression in the.
communications media and by restricting funda-
mental rights and freedoms.
8. THEY have repeatedly antagonished oui
Caribbean neighbours to the detriment of the
West Indian nation.
9. THEY have rendered us virtually impotent in
international affairs especially in regard to the
historic developments in the sphere of Southern
10. THE result of such a gross dereliction of duty
at almost every level of governmental responsibility
has been to maintain our people on the brink
of revolutionary upheaval for a period of more
than, seven years?

Il -- C-- -L --- 91

I le 'I-6' I -- I-' ~s-