Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
December 14, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text




THE rpembers of the
UCIW branch at the
Guardian newspaper are
demanding a written
apology from James Alva
Bain, Chairman of NBS
610 Radio and T.T.T.,
for his abuse of Guardian
Reporter Ken Loutoo on
Monday December 1.
The day before, a story
written by Loutoo on the
question of access of Opposi-
tion parties to radio time had
appeared in the Sunday
Guardian. Loutoo had gotten
the story from Bain who was
apparently displeased by the
non-appearance of certain
statements he had made to
the Reporter..
Bright and early on the
Monday morning, Bain entered
the Guardian and abused
Loutoo in front of the entire
staff of the Guardian accusing
him of being a scamp who
could not be trusted.
At this point, J. Ince,
Editor of the Sunday Guard-
ian, called Bain to his office
in an attempt to restrain him.
Ince pointed out to Bain, it is
reported, that he above all
persons, should know not to
abuse a working reporter but
to report any complaints to
higher authorities.
It seemed that Loutoo's
story, had been cut by the
sub-editors because of a short-
age of space.


It is reported that Bain
called Ince later in the day to
apologise for his behaviour
claiming that he didn't know
what got into him.
The actual story written
by Loutoo related Bain's
reply to requests for broad-
cast time made by various
Opposition parties including
In his reply Bain had stated
that there was a ban on
political broadcasts at NBS
610 Radio and that in any
case available broadcast time
had been "oversold" to exist-
ing customers. It is still a
mystery how you can "over-
sell" radio time.
SIn addition to the respons-
ible and sensitive post of
Chairman of two of the three
broadcast media, Bain also
happens to be a member of
-the Public Services Commis-
sion and an employee of
Federation Chemicals.
He has already refused to
give any statements to the
Express newspapers on the
grounds that it has refused to
publish lengthy rebuttals to
reports on his activities.


THE Budget for 1976
will be orated this week-
end. Ominously, next
year is going to be a year
of constitution reform,
general elections, and the
climax of the February
Revolution one way or
the other.
The historic convergence
makes that a leap year in
many more ways than one.
If we are not careful, the
leap might be even bigger
still what with the Messiah's
promised newest Coming in
fulfillment of the prophecy
of Dec.2, 1973. On that
fateful Sunday evening, it was
written that the people,
freely and fairly, would
decide on the party and the
leader "to whom they wish
to entrust their mandate."
If we are indeed careful,
we would be warned that the
declamations of Friday Dec-
ember 11, 1975, will be a
crucial factor in the whole
Twenty years of Christmas
have left the Has-Been Na-
tional Movement (HNM)with
but one resource, those tan-
talising petro-dollars in the
public purse, ruthlessly mul-
tiplied by devaluation and



carefully horded since the
Messiah's latest coming.
The game-plan of the
Budget is therefore very
plain and simple:
spend like you mad,
this is Trinidad,
and doh care who say you
Good, bau or indifferent,
the single objective of the
moment is five more teeny-
weeny years during which
everything could hopefully
be straightened out.
To get them, the Govern-
mcnt will be spreading joy
like fire, blowing bread across
the country, painting Port-of-
Spain in red. Otherwise Dr.
Smith ship sink.
It is an old strategy, we
have seen it many times
before; so many times that
even the Special Workers are
in revolt, beyond the pale of
single-digit b ribery.'
There is the tale of the
water-carrier who put on she
eye-shadow and she panty-
hose and walk off the job lest
Burroughs pick she up for
receiving money under false
Morality in public affairs
is once again the central
question. That means one
thing in terms of the practical

Tapia Representatives

To discuss Election

Strategy on Sunday

THE regular monthly
meeting of the Tapia
Council of Representa-
tives will take place this
Sunday Dec. 14th begin-
ning at 9.30 a.m.
For the first time
the meeting will be held
in the auditorium of the
recently opened Port-of-
Spain Centre on Cipriani
The centre has been
in operation now for just
under two weeks and is
being run by Angela
The agenda for the
coming meeting is as

1) Minutes
2) Report from the
3) Report from the
Committee on the
Reform of the Tapia
4) Election strategy
-- a paper to be
delivered by Junior
5) Procedures for
selection of Candi-
All, representatives
are reminded to bring
their own lunches as the
meeting is likely' to be 'a
lengthy one.

politics of the 1976
Double-digit inflation
hit the wages of vote
ing the total outlay to
two thousand million

has now
s bring-


Recurrent Expenditure
Appropriations to Special Funds
Loans & Grants to Statutory Authorities
Development Expenditure




Customs & Excise
Taxes on Income
Purchase Taxes
Motor Vehicles
Other Tax ,.
Royalties Oil
Other Current
Total current
Capital receipts

THE Tapia Fund Raising
Committee has advised
that the Parang Fete sche-
duled to take place on
Sunday 14th December
has been cancelled.
The cancellation Iih.
been caused by an over-
sight on the part of the
management committee
of the Maracas Vjlley
Community Centre, where
the fete was to take
They informed the




Fund Raising Committee
which had already paid
the rental fee. that the
Centre had been previ-
ously booked for another
The Fund-raising
committee extends its
apologies to all supporters
for any inconvenience
caused but reminds them
that an equally enjoyable
time awaits them at the
annual Cle Year's Nite




Parang Fete


Vol. 5 No. 50

I- --


Another Hit Record: But the


song all over again!

THE Budget for 1976 is
here. It will be followed
by constitution reform
and the election cam-
paign. Friday, in fact,
marks the beginning of
the high season of the
campaign in what will be
the most important elec-
tion ,this country ever
will have had.
There are many plain
idiots who insist that people
have no interest whatsoever
in the electoral process; and
that the coming poll will be
the lowest in history.
We do not entertain any
such nonsense in Tapia and
the Government is equally
clear on the point. Never has
Trinidad & Tobago been
more desperate about the
state of the State and the
.participation is likely to out-
run even the 88% of 1961.
Never have our spirits been
so corked in bottle as during
the course of the February
Revolution and never has a
bottle been more ready to
If, as is entirely possible,
revolutionary violence is to
come, as distinct from idiotic
undergraduate intellectual
revolt and rebellion, it will
come only after the constitu-
tional options havw, been
fully exhausted.
Only then will the man
and woman in the street
throw their weight behind the
ultimate solution.
Nobody understands that
better than Dr. Williams. It is
not by chance that he has
retained office for nearly
twenty years.
Ours is a country where the
civil service personality pre-
dominates and the civil service
personality is the same as the
demagogue's it oscillates
between complete submission
or total excess, between
bovine quiescence and chanm-
pagne confrontation.
It has no concept of power
as a continuing process of
adjustments with its moments
of high and moments of low
but enduring forever and ever
and ever.


Dr. Williams is a political
personality and he under-
stands power even if his
strategies and tactics rely on
the resources of the State.
In any event, the Treasury
is not the slightest of the
State's resources and cur-
rently it is the biggest of the
Government's trumps.
It tollows that the Prime
Minister has not scrupled to
make the most of this desper-
ate chance; when a regime is
bankrupt of all moral resource
there can be nothing noble in
the struggle for survival.
On Thursday, September
18, came an improbable
cabinet reshuffle "ofjokers".
Improbable only if you fail
to see the importance of the

Prime Minister's assumption
of the ministry of Finance
with trusted Chairman Boysie
again at his side.
April 1967, at the time of
the controversial Finance
Bill, was the first time that
the Prime Minister took the
exchequer back in his grasp
after he had relinquished it
to ANR Robinson.
That was the first simul-
cast crisis, the beginning of
Government by pure announce-
ment, the start of the open
Pussonal Nonarchy.
It spawned the idea of a
Super-Ministry of all the
Talents with the King himself
in the driving seat.
In 1970, the Revolution
boiled over and in November
Prevatt again was put in
charge this time to launch
the perspective for the new
Now the two are together
again hoping to work the
scenario out even as they
worked the comeback on Karl
when the Team managed the
latest Coming after the simul-
ated resignation of two years


Number one,the team is in
place in Trinidad House. For
Number two, the Minister of
Finance has this year dis-
pensed with the etiquette of
tabling the Expenditure Bud-
get in advance. How can you
give hints to the Opposition
when life is at stake?
Especially when the politi-
cal alternative warned on
December 9 that it was pre-
paring to demolish the spend-
thrift Budget "with all the
political and technical re-
sources that we undoubtedly
No hints. No time either.
Last year the Budget was
brought when we all were
drunk; this year it comes
even before we could buy the
rum. Customarily the Govern-
ment accounts are closed off
on December 15, this year
the axe fell on November 15.
The only reason why the
Budget is as late as Decem-
ber 12, is that general paraly-
sis exists in public administra-
tion and even the most
feverish preparations took
interminable time.
But now the thing is on a
boombay and the question is
how the Minister go play?
Clues we can find partly in
the failings of yesteryear,
partly in acknowledging that
certain areas of the national
life have been deliberately
starved of servicing the better
to dramatise the ultimate
merciful act of rescue.
It is easy to see that one
of the biggest promises in
the coming Budget will relate
to the ministrations of a
nrore spiritual environment.
The regime has emerged
from 20 years of office and
two richly favoured petroleum
bonanzas with only a Lock

Joint stamp to show. Now at
last, we will have a National
Theatre, a National Museum,
public squares, parks and
botanical gardens for the
environmentalists, stadiums
and gymnasiums for the youth
and the sportsmen, an Aca-
demy perhaps to embrace the
Elders and a well endowed
Technological Institute to
attract the men of philosophy
and science.

$ $ $ $ $
Of equal priority will be
education with emphasis on
five-year schooling and train-
ing at the Secondary level.
The appropriate Committee
has already met to provide
the darkness so that the light
will now shine before all
On September 20 gone,
the Guardian headline re-
ported "Petro $$ to Boost
Education." Right orn, now
with vast expenditures, huge
payouts to new found friends
in the denominations all
within a framework of "the
national model" the full arti-
culation we will see only if
the election is safely con-
cluded with the clergy snugly
in the official camp.
Equal priority number
three is the repair, renova-
tion and expansion of the
national equipment so as to
restore the capacity for
national welfare.
In this regard, few areas
will rate the kind of sound
and fury we will hear on
account of housing even if it
has been a priority for years
and even if last year the Bud-
get made abig thing of private
initiatives by swinging young
couples aided and abetted
by tax incentives.
Another Committee has set
up another boombay for this
year's gimmick.


And then there are the
miles of road, the telephone
lines to be 'installed, the
generating capacity reliable
enough to cut-out black-outs;
there are Sham's interim
dams and also Kam's eight
local madhouses appropriately
spread toprovide accommoda-
tion all over the country.
With so many priorities in
in public spending, Dr.
Beaubrtn is rightly anticipat-
ing endless custom.
Equal priority number
four is food production. Oil
and food have receded into
the distance owing to the
Corporations' anxieties on
account of the election. This
vear it is Grease and Food.
More money for rice, more
excuses for the slow progress
with last year's programme not
to mention the programme
from year before.
And fish with the Fleet
of trawlers coming to come,
coming to come since 1968
when the Third Five Year

Plan and the February Revolu-.
tion were beginning manus-
Number five is manufac-
turing industry with special
reference to the assembly in-
dustries in respect of colour
television, coloured fridges
and all the amenities of
jaundiced living.
Last year we gave tax
concessions to encourage
spending; this year we will
,simply give cacadah to en-
courage spending.
Number six is fuller em-
ployment. In the last Plan
we had to hold strain until
1983 but that was a revolu-
tionary miscalculation.
Fortunately, since then
we have perfected the techni-
que of the five-days extra -
special employment, so that
the Continuous Sample Survey
automatically produces the
warranted rate of employ-


Angle to suit with bigger
and better projects, more and
more weed. The only thing
that can happen is that black
people will give up trades and
crafts and get money for
The project, in any event,
is only a holding operation.
All through 1974 we have
been planning a gigantic pro-
gramme of downstream opera-
tions. Seven fertilizer plants;
any number of refineries;
steel (and brass); with all the
expansion of water, electri-
city, construction and port-
services involved. Soon we
will be importing labour from
as far afield as Jamaica and
Mr. Eugenio Moore and
Mr. Dodderidge Alleyne have
been appointed to head Com-
mittees to work out the
manpower needs of this
colossal programme.
Manpower for the down-
stream projects will close the
door on recolonisation. We
must therefore budget heavily
for the West Indian nation.
That is equal priority num-
ber seven.
We must intervene mas-
sively in the balance of pay-
ments of the region; we must
support the Caribbean De-
velopment Bank; the food
plan and joint productive
ventures of every soft.
Above all, we must revive
the smelter project for which
new documents will become

available after the elections.
In the long-run, only colla-
boration on this scale could
beat imported inflation now
running at a level of 65%.
In the short-run, priority
number eight is inflation at
home. Last year, we fought
inflation by tax concessions
to consumers, taxi-drivers,
motorists manufacturers, and
many others all of whom had
more money to spend causing
more money to chase the
sane goods.
Last year we also moved
to control drugs, as we did
in 1970 and again at Inde-
pendence Day in August and
agi in only last week.
We will also be thinking of
building materials, seriously
this time. The last time we
announced it in August, the
hardware stores promptly put
up prices by 40% overnight
and unfortunately the new
controlled prices went up
instead of down.
But this year we will
definitely control inflation in
so far as that is possible with
an increase in total public
expenditure from $936.6 mil-
lion to $1,500 million.
Yes, it is a Budget of the
highest importance. When
you check it out, it is another,
record Budget, a record of
records when you reaqy


We have eight equal
priorities; we will earn prac-
tically $2,000 million; our
expenditure will reach a
billion and a half; our re-
current surplus will be more
ample than ever leaving
plenty not only for the de-
velopment programme but
even more for balances held
In fact, we can now lend
abroad till we mad at rates
of interest lower than the
rate of inflation. Capital
losses? No sweat, our credit is
At home, we can eat,
drink and be merry; we can
fix up taxpayers, consumers,
citizens, housewives, taxi-
drivers, manufacturers,
farmers, West Indians, artists,
scientists, friends, romans and
countrymen. And voters, we
must not forget. And voters.
Yes, a record in every
sense. It is not quite eight
and a half hours but it is
surely the longest money bill
speech we have ever had. Yes
a record, a gramaphone re-
cord what stick.




Foundation to Fixtures

Call 62-44698

--- --- -- ---


From the Promised Land

To A Land of Promises

A Look at the Last 3 Budgets



to continue on-going projects in forestry
development the construction of access roads,

to improve fisheries

to emphasise marketing, training and animal

to construct a new market in Princes Town

to construct a new abattoir in Sangre Grande

to complete the Rio Claro market
to complete additional facilities at wholesale
section of CMA

to complete enlarged agricultural training
facilities at Centeno

to introduce a Farmer Training
mobile training units

to expand and improve facilities
and control animal disease

Centre and

to diagnose

to upgrade local herds of cattle

to develop a cheap source of animal feed using'
local materials


to complete the first set of 14 Junior Second-
ary schools (part financing by World Bank)

to complete and open new schools in
Sangre Grande
Point Fortin
Princes Town

to commence work on construction 6 Junior
Sec. schools, 4 Combined Junior and Senior
Sec. Schools, 3 Senior Comprehensive schools,
1 Teacher Training College, 1 Technical Insti-
tute, 1 Technical Training Centre, 3 mobile
Training Units for farmers
to continue work on the conversion of Gov-
ernment Secondary Schools, into Junior
Secondary Schools at Woodbrook, San Juan,
Tunapuna, Arima, Palo Seco and Vessigny
to finalise plans for the construction of.techni-
cal and vocational schools in Fyzabad, POS,
Chaguanas and Tobago
to improve John S. Donaldson Technical
Institute and the Point Fortin Vocational
to continue work on the construction of 1
Government Primary School and 4 Assisted
Primary Schools
to undertake repairs and improvement works
on 17 Government Primary Schools, 38
Assisted Primary Schools, 2 Government
Secondary Schools and 19 Assisted Secondary
to finance a research programme into indigen-
ous music and other art forms
to improve the National Library Service

64 new buses to hit the road

to extend the sewer connections in POS,
Laventille, San Fernando, Pleasantville

to improve the systems at Trincity, Chaguara-
mas, and Techier Village

to continue the execution of the major water
supply project at Navet, Oropouche, Caroni-
Arena, Las,Lomas and Palo Seco

to extend the water schemes at Freeport, El
Socorro, Arima, Waller Field, Hollis Reservoir,
Tacarigua and Navet

to enlarge local water schemes at Fyzabad,
Sangre Grande, La Brea, Cap de Ville, Moruga,
Tucker Valley, Blanchisseuse, Matura and

to undertake experimental borings in Palo
Seco, La Brea, Point Fortin and Mayaro

to extend the water supply system in Tobago
at Hillsborough, Richmond, Kingsbay, Parla-
tuvier and l'Anse Founni

to construct single family and duplex housing
units in Pleasantville, Malabar, Maracas, River
Estate, Cedros, d'Abadie, Toco, Beetham
Estate, Balencia, Gonzales Place, Buccoo,
Blenheim, Boni Accord, and Charlotteville,
New Field and Fairfield Estate

to complete urban flats under construction at
Foster Road Quevedo Road,Plaisance Quarry
Road, Marcano Lands, St, Francois Valley
Road, Dundonald St., Harpe Place, Awai
Lands, Duncan St., John John Transfer Centre
and Quarry St. Transfer Centre

to start the construction of new flats in Harpe
Place Block V Thomas Place, Gonzales Place,
Marcano Lands, Quarry St. Minachy Alley-
Monsegue St., Quarry St.-Lastique St., and
St. Thomas-St. Rose-Fromage Streets

to continue the development of sites for sugar
workers' housing at Bien Venue, Cedar Hill,
Forres Park, Golconda, La Fortune, Picton,
Tarouba and Waterloo

to commence a new development at Orange
Field Road, Ste. Madeleine-Petit Morne,
Brothers Road-Garth Village, Ben Lomond-
Reform and La Fortune-Pluck Road

to give momentum to the redevelopment of
the area East POS to the Croisee



to open the southbound carriageway of the
Solomon Hochoy H'way

to continue the construction of the Diego
Martin Highway between Union River and
Crystal Stream

to continue the construction of the North
Coast Road between La Fillette and Blanchis-

to complete the feasibility study of the East-
West corridor stretching from Mucurapo road
to Arima

to make improvements to several main roads
and bridges drainage, irrigation and anti-
coastal erosion works


to construct new
Town and Siparia

work complexes at Princes

to construct a new Court House at Mayaro

to improve public buildings in various parts
of the country

to undertake projects for the redevelopment
of Scarborough

to build a Court House, a County Hall, a new
Scarborough Police Station, Post Office, Bus

to extend the Scarborough Fire Station and
the Scarborough Market

to improve the Roxborough Fire Station

to continue the development of access roads
for the Kendal, Lure, Goldsborough and
Richmond Estates and the Hope Farm

to construct a new abattoir

to improve the marketing services and facilities

to convert the Castara Methodist and Patience
Hill R.C. Schools into Government schools

to extend Bishop's High School

to construct an Industrial Arts Centre at

to make available loans to boat owners and
guest house owners for the provision of ancil-
lary facilities for tourism.

to complete the construction of the Rox-
borough-l'Anse Fourmi Road

to continue construction of the Spur Road to
Crown Point, the Windward Road and the
Grafton-Shirvan Road

to start new works on the road from Bloody
Bay to Parlatuvier, on the Hope River Bridge,
the Carrington Street Bridge, and the bridge
over the Bloody Bay River.

to continue the programme of work related to
Community and Youth Development Services

to improve facilities for basketball, volleyball
and lawn tennis

to upgrade village playgrounds

to improve the Arima and Siparia velodromes
to provide more swimming pools

to expand the coaching programme particu-
larly to areas where these facilities are not now


to continue the environmental sanitation pro-

Continued on Page 10

UI a I




Towards a New

International Economic Order

THE seventh special session of
the United Nations general
assembly, which concluded its
deliberations on 16 September,
unanimously adopted a compre-
hensive document proposing
several measures to promote
development and international
There were, of course, some
reservations expressed by the United
States and, to a lesser extent, by
Canada and some members of the
European economic community (EEC).
Nevertheless, the document adopted
at the U.N. special session represents a
further step forward in the progress
towards evolving a consensus on a new
international economic order.
In this background, an interim
report entitled Towards A New Inter-
national Economic Order published
by the commonwealth secretariat in
August 1975 and prepared by a group
of experts appointed by the common-
wealth heads of government at their
meeting in Kingston, Jamaica, in May
1975, acquires special relevance.
The nine members of the group
were appointed by the secretary-general
of the commonwealth secretariat after
consultation with member governments,
but the members were chosen for
their expert knowledge of contem-
porary international economic develop-
ment and were to function in their
personal capacities.
The group was asked to prepare
an interim report for
comprehensive and interrelated pro-
gramme ofpracticalmeasuresdirected
at closing the gap between the rich
and the poor countries
and were asked to submit their report
in time for consideration by the com-
monwealth finance ministers at their
meeting in Georgetown, Guyana,
towards the end of August, 1975.
The meeting of the common-
wealth finance ministers commended
the report as a valuable contribution
to constructive international dialogue

and consensus building in the critical
area of international economic rela-
Without necessarily committing
the respective governments to every
specific recommendation in the interim
report, the finance ministers generally
endorsed the recommendations and
agreed that the early implementation
of these proposals would constitute
a first step towards achieving progres-
sive removal of the wide disparities of
wealth now existing between different
sections of mankind.
The main thrust of the interim
report is that "a solution to global
poverty cannot be found through
adjustments of an essentially marginal
character." Aprogressive redistribution
of economic activity in favour of the
developing countries is a pre-condition
for progress towards a new interna-
tional economic order; and this will
demand bold and complementary
action on several fronts.
The group also stressed the pres-
sing need for importing a sense of
urgency to international action aimed
at assisting the developing countries
in their economic transformation. The
report stressed that
it is far less dangerous to err on the
side of the experimentation than to
make such a virtue of perfection that
it results in deleterious delay and
In defining the nature of the
problem of poverty and the objectives
to be armed at, the report of the team
of experts is, if anything, more modest
than the terms of reference given to
it, viz, to suggest measures for closing
the gap between the rich and poor
The group's report concentrates
on the immediate objective of alleviat-
ing the extreme forms of poverty in

which a sizeable proportion of the
developing world lives. The report
concentrates on measures which would
at least arrest, and hopefully reverse,
declines in standards of living in the
poorest developing countries and the
poorest sections within their econ-
It is this emphasis on giving
highest priority to minimum needs of
the poorest sections, internationally
and nationally, which marks the
group's approach to the problems of
international economic co-operation.
The report emphasises that such
an approach is necessary not only to
bring the mankind to tolerable mini-
mum standards of existence but also
to lay the foundation for effective
self-help and sustained improvement
in the conditions of life.
While recommending various
proposals for international action in
the field of trade, aid and transfer of
technology, the group stressed two
other points which are also important.
It is pointed out that the pattern
of development need not and,
indeed, cannot be uniform in all
countries; and the economic and social
patterns which now obtain in indus-
trial societies are not necessarily the
ones which developing countries would
want to emulate. In spite of the perva-
sive nature of international cultural
conduct, developing countries will do
well to follow their own path, condi-
tioned by their own circumstances and
The other important point made
in the report is that a viable develop-
ment process cannot be imposed from
above but must be generated from their
grassroots in developing societies
themselves through popular participa-

A discussion of the Report of the 9-member Com-
mittee set up by Commonwealth Governments to investi-
gate perspectives for a New Economic Order.
Indian and Foreign Review.

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for focus and point.

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-- I

tion and self-help. External assistance,
however large in volume or conces-
sional in character, cannot be a
substitute for self-reliance.
The pace and content of develop-
ment will ultimately depend upon
sustained national efforts in a frame-
work of soundly conceived policies.
Economic and social transformation
is a complex process, calling for pro-
longed national self-discipline and
sensible order of priorities. There are
no simple solutions.
Nevertheless, as the report
the actions and policies within deve-
loping countries required for deve-
lopment will only be fully effective,
and often will only be at all possible,
if supported by the-necessary exter-
nal conditions and co-operation ....
The role of international framework
must be to create the conditions and
provide the support within which
self-reliance can flourish.
This has to be the perspective for
the new international economic order.
The group attaches considerable impor-
tance to the role of trade in the pro-
cess of growth for the developing
world. The principal purpose of com-
modity policies, as reflected in the
report, should be to introduce a new
dynamic relationship among develop-
ing, primary-producing and industrial-
ised countries with a view to securing
a progressive increase in the real
export earnings 'for developing
The report recognizes thatmarket
forces are an important factor in the
determination of international prices
for primary products. But in the
absence of fully competitive markets
for many of these products, the system
has tended to work against the interests
of primary producers.
It is, therefore, necessary to
evolve arrangements for protection of
exporters against the major short-term
fluctuations of earnings, just as it is
necessary to see that importers are
Continued on Page 9


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THE streets of Port-of-Spain are crammed with
self-satisfied men. They wear an aura of
grandeur which highlights softly falling
crimpelene suits. These are fat men, fat men
whose jowls fall in thick folds of skin towards
their bowties. They suffer. They dornot show
it these birds, each have a canker to their
centres a cancer perhaps that is why there
is no cure for cancer, like V.D., it is a social
disease and like this worm which ulcerates
thesebuIll dogs frowning fat men who live in
the town, their malady is the international
phenomena the ills of each grab and go
society. They all suffer from the communal
malady of possession.
So that day when I stole, I.was not sorry. I
will do it again. You see when I stole, it was to cure
others from the disease of possession. But in my
theft I can hear my mother's remonstrance. '"Then
you are inflicted with the disease". What should I
answer her when she showed up to see me? Human
nature I guess, the.marxist doctrine, man is a selfish
animal. Power breeds power black power and
what about them? I am in a cell, I would not have
been here if it were not for our co-partners in crime,
those grey short trousered pistol toting pariahs who
have licked the heel of the frowning fat men, (those
self satisfied men). Yes, I would not be the guinea pig
the chimpanzee behind bars today, if they did not
hug me with their iron breasts.
That day when I robbed a man, I was running
toward the light for I had emerged from a church
where I learnt from the parson that wealth was no
crime; that the community was great. He denounced
communism, praised the community and took up a
second collection. I watched him, this frowning fat
man who suffered from the same malady of which I
spoke. I decided to sever relations with the world, so
here I am. I was running towards freedom and sud-
denly, I felt the street sinking beneath my feet and
the vitriolic sky hanging above my head while two
hands gripped me by my shoulders ..... "brother
.... ease me up" .... The Children have rumblings
of thunder hunger in their stomachs "Come! is jail
for you" I hated, but exhausted, panting, I fainted
into his embrace with shivers of saliva like flakes on
pale lips.
So I am in jail. For there years now my wife
has brought me news of my little ones. For three
years now there has been no rain, cane leaves wither
and lack green in their drying stems. Thirst and
hunger ride the land like the three horseman of the
appocalypse in one band. Time-- old .man river, takes
a circuit and rounds a gully bringing back dry tendrils,
field, sweat, dried ip cassava and the osriaburgs are in
fashion. For make up the go is shackles for those
who try to cure others of the malady of self-
possession like me.
No growth on this land there is suffering.
feet trample on petitions, the red house runs
red with blood, streets have become battlefields and

"Mode rn

" Short Story

brother turns against brother. Religion like fever
eats up the poor.
Good pastors from their pulpits say we must
be calm. Estate owners and priests of the established
churches curse the baptist preachers and laugh at the.
hunger of our people. Soon, labour will be cheap but
rage and bitterness walk the land. Others follow in
my wake. I hear strange tales of uprisings, revolts and
power-black power and a strange epileptic who wears
African robes and pleads with the bishops to march
to the land there to join in the brotherhood till
death do them part till hunger do them part.
Outside in daylight, sea breeze puts anger marks
on the face of the bay. Carrera rocks are hard. Even
the earth is angry.
My wife I think of writing you. You were a
good wife. I can reproach my parents with nothing.
My parents are secure people. On reading of me, I
know they do not tremble. Their house is firmly
rooted in the grounds; why should they be alarmed.
My mother You have no doubt by now seen
my name in the newspaper, or did you not recognize
it? Why did you not visit me at reform school. Those
years, as you used to say I was sliding quickly
down hill. Where am I headed now? to heaven or hell?
That arrest was the green night of my cold
incurable pride. The blows on the neck, the kick in
the guts gave me a bitter satisfaction, a test of
strength, sadism on one hand masochism on the
This feverish sea called Jife has. been a long
time. Yes I robbed a man but what is a man. My
small theft did not touch him. Iwas tired and hungry.
In those days, I had set myself the task of stealing
everything I could lay my hands on..I thought I was
doing society a big favour; Society thought they were
doing me a bigger one.
Cell inmates increased. I learnt of Gene; You
remember that girl who stood up for what she
thought was right? In my prison, tension mounted.
Bearded men spoke in whispers. One was writing a
book. One was keen on violence, another was study-
ing for his final exam. One big happy family. They
talked of George Padmore, Cuffy, Paul Bogle, Tous-
saint, Christophe.
Marcus Garvey. A couple had come from Sir
George Williams University "to visit us". They had
wrecked a computer, and the first time they made
love with white folk was when they felt the embrace
of those iron breasts of people they called the "fuzz".
One morning across the bay gunboat fire split
the dawn with saltpeter. We later learnt that this was
mutiny in the army. Some crept into the hills, dogs
followed. There were guns .... machine guns! Some
gave themselves up. Some were traitors. The ranks of
the prisoners swelled. A new society was forming.
What I was running from was soon coming back to
me. Man the territorial imperative of African
genesis. They fought, swore, were removed to other
places of confinement. My island society of doctors
of society was dwindling.
Several *monthslater, he collapsed against

a tree. He had killed a priest. I asked him his motive.
He only shook his head. "To know everything", he
said is to suffer for 'Death alone is ours", he told
me. He was the essence of an adventure without
memory, though I do not want you to understand
that. He was prey to one of the whims of what he
termed 'a female bourgeois whore". He had been
jilted by a priest who offered his lady friend some
measure of security. Later on she started as he said
to become "promiscuous in an elistist sortofway".He
killed the priest. He too, as he said was tired. He
sighed often. He was to hang in three weeks time. I
loved that frail thin youth. I felt could identify
with him. There was a time in my life when I loved
also. Atime when love was not returned, but I bore
it better than he did.
O my friend, victim of suicide, prey of a harsh
heroism. You who had read a great deal, I see your
blood drying slowly on the cold bare. stones of
My friend', your crushed body ......what has
become of it.
Amen, amen ...... we are praying for you. I
and the epileptic and the betrayed soldiers have to
follow your path in a different way.
Whether today or tomorrow
Whether out or in prison.
It is the same to us.
There you are careening in the clear water after
your leap from the rocky cliff.
Your weary body
swallowed up -a watery grave.
In the mind, in salt, in the water.
Lord have mercy on us but still better -
Lord have mercy on the frowning fat men, the grey
men and the bourgeois women.
The men Lord the men
who live in the town. Save the
children Lord Kumbayah.
Save the children Lord Kumbayah. (I am calling
Lord this is just a surrogate name for I don't know
what Allah, Budha, Khrishna, Christ Infinity. The
fraternal clan smiles upon you our hero (my friend)
who had the guts to-leave this world not like us. We
are cowards, We sought safety selfishly. What about
our children, our wives. We did not think of them.
The fraternity smiles on you, and I know that if
there are saints, all litanios which I laughed at are
lying like thin froth on their lips.
I remember when he jumped. In that instant
time stood still and I knew the meaning of existence
of good and bad of priest and prophet, of pope
sinner and that woman which he talked of. I remem-
ber the faint cry when my young friend nonchalantly
took the last flight towards his crucifixion. How
strange, that on a lovely sunlit morning a man whose
only crime was love "a brilliant student" could
take that fatal forbidden, leap. "May he rest in
The following day, it was as if nothing had
existed only the thought of that frail youth who died
for love for us.

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FOR obvious reasons of conven-
iende, the criticism of modern
poetry tends to be made up of
studies of themes, touching upon
a large number of poems in
piece-meal fashion. This useful
method sometimes allows a critic
to be evasive (especially when
dealing with difficult poets or
poems), but even when there is
no bad faitL, the method seldom
shows us the critic making a
response to a whole poem and
organising that response into an
orderly account.
Too often, the emphasis
falls upon what the poet is held
to be saying (erroneously called
the 'meaning' of the poem), with
little respect for the ways in
which the 'how' contributes to
the total effect of the poem.
A further disadvantage of this
method is that it can be made to yield
patterns generalisations that cannot
be sustained by a reading of any com-
plete poem; on the strength of such
generalisations, indeed, the critic may
pass over particular poems as 'uncha-
racteristic' or 'untypical'.
The approach used in the follow-
ing reading of 'aventille' is brought
into play as a necessary complement,
at this stage in our critical history, to
some of the general approaches to
Derek Walcott's poetry that have been
in evidence in recent articles.
Laventille appears in the volume
The Castaway and OtherPoems (1965),
whose main device is the Robinson
Crus.oC figure, and whose unifying
experience, expressed and explored in
various situations is the sense of being
cast away and having to begin again:
........ ......... We left
somewhere a life we never found,
customs and gods that are not
born again,
some crib, some grill of light
clanged shut on us in bondage,
and withheld
us from that world below us
and beyond,
and in its swaddling cerements
we're still bound
The naturalness with which this
notion fits the West Indian scene is
obvious enough; and it is interesting to
note that Naipaul's The Mimic Men
uses the notion of shipwreck with
associated imagery similarly in the
presentation of Ralph Singh.
But Walcott's exploration in The
tlan Naipaul's, to a large extent,
because the poet interprets the attempts
of the castaway figure to possess his
green world as a type of the literary
artist's attempts to invent an appropri-
ate language:
......... So from this nouse
that faces nothing but the sea,
his journals assume a
household use,
We learn to shape from them,
where nothing was the
language of a race
'Crusoe 's Journal'

The identification between the.
Crusoe figure and the poet is one of
the ways in which Walcott wears the
mask in the Castaway poems. But in
Laventille there is no intervening
mask between the person of the poet,
and the living material he journeys to
For convenience, the poem may
be divided into four broad movements.
In the first, lines 1 -3U, there is a
description of a slum settlement in the
hills overlooking a city; and we meet
the poet and his companion making a
foot journey to a church at the top of
the hill.
The next section, lines 31 .43,is
more reflective; in it the poet realises
with a growing compassion that living
conditions in the settlement of Laven-
tille are no better than the cramped
conditions in which his and their
ancestors on the slave ships covered

the middle passage from Africa to,
the West Indies.
In the third section (lines 44-77),
which takes place before and during
the Christening ceremony that he has
come to be a -odfather at. the poet
overcomes an imtial contempt for the
apis habits of those with whom he
has a common ancestry; he recognizes
that they are still under the influence
of that religion which had suffocated
him ns a child, but he is not prevented
by hisprogress from seeing that he and
they are derelicts in the new world.
This feeling dominates the last
section of the poem (lines 78 89),
where the poet watches the sunlight
falling on Laventille and spreading
over the city towards which Laventille
crawls, and he feels again the com-
munal anguish of being in the limbo
passage between two worlds.-
Any attempt to produce some-
thing akin to a narrative account of a
poem like Laventille. or of any poem
for that matter, inevitably leads one
into oversimnlifications. Yet it is
something we do unconsciously all the
time. We do it not because our sum-
mary or 'story' can ever become a
substitute for a sensuous grasp of the
whole poem, but because ithelps us to
a rudimentary sense of the structuring
of the poem and to a quick holdof its
more immediately apparent themes.
From the summary given above,
for example, we can see that
Laventille is concerned about the

socio-economic plight of these 'lives
fixed in the unalterable groove of
grinding poverty' throughout the West
Indian islands; and that the poem
moves beyond the expression of a
socio-economic plight to'an awareness
of something unhealthy in the men-
tality even of the earth's wretched,
symbolised in the postures of the
Blacks at the Christening.
The poem recognizes, too, the
wide gap between rich and poor ('the
impossible drop'), the defensiveness of
the class structure separating the two
main groups, and the insecurities of the
stratified and devitalised inhabitants
('merchant, middleman, magistrate,
knight') of 'the flat coloured city'.
Still. dealing broadly, the poem
comments ironically on the empty
ritualistic nature of a Christian religion
imposed upon descendants of Africans
since the middle passage; it suggests
how this religion cloys the sense of its

adherents into gratitude for arrival
('across the troubled waters of this
life .') at a promised land that is a

Which of us cares to walk
even if God wished
those retching waters where our
souls were fished

for this new world?

If the language of literary works
is more complex than the language of
sociology or history, our grasping of
themes should only be the beginning
of a literary criticism that will not be
satisfied with itself until it responds to
a complex verbal ordering, and begins
to see how that ordering deepens the
themes of the work.
An examination of lines 1-30
shows how what seemed like pure
description contains or anticipates
meanings that only begin to clarify
themselves after we have gone through
the whole poem.
The description of crows as
'episcopal turkey-buzzards' is not only
visually appropriate; their dropping
down from the church images the sense
we gather later of religion's pickings
among these left-overs of the middle
If this is going too far, we can
still see how the vocabulary 'episcopal',
'miraculous', 'shrine' prepares us for
the explicit concern with the Church
that comes in lines 44-67, and which,
in any case, is inherent in a poem
built around a Christening.
The simile in line 11, which
likens the rooftops of Belmont,Wood-
brook, Maraval, St. Clair to peddlers',
tin trinkets in the sun' contains some
contempt for the materialism of an
uncreative commercial class who can
only peddle, and peddle only 'tin
Again, this may be reading in
too much, but the simile at least
refers to that class;and a sense that the
homes and values of- the rich are
merely show, that something is missing
in their lives, too, seems to come out
in the 'flat' of the 'flat coloured city'
in line 24, catching on to the accumu-
lating impressions of 'fell', 'fall', 'drop'
(ines 4, 5, and 8) and leading into the
literally true but spiritually ironic 'To
go downhill from here was to ascend'
in lines 26 and 27.
What is even more remarkable,
in this opening movement, is the way
in which the description of the Settle-
ment's physical properties also contains
suggestions about the lives of the in-
habitants what they are, what they
can become under continued oppres-
sion, and the music that is part of their
technique of survival.
The sound of the steel pans

1. It huddled there
2. steel tinkling its blue painted metal air,
3. tempered in violence, like Rio's favelas,

4. with snaking, perilous streets whose edges fell as
5. its episcopal turkey-buzzards fall
6. from its miraculous hilltop

7. shrine,
8. down the impossible drop
9. to Belmont, Woodbrook, Maraval, St. Clair

10. that shine
11. like peddlers' tin' trinkets in the sun.
12. From a harsh

13. shower, its gutters growled and gargled wash
14. past the Youth Centre, past the water catchment,
15. a rigid children's carousel of cement;

16. we climbed where lank electric
17. lines and tension cables linked its raw brick
18. hovels like a complex feud,

19. where the inheritors of the middle passage stewed
20. five to a room, still clamped below their hatch,
21. breeding like felonies,

22. whose lives revolve round prison, graveyard, church.
23. Below bent breadfruit trees
24. in the flat, coloured city, class

25. lay escalated into structures still,
26. merchant, middleman, magistrate, knight. To go downhill
27. from here was to ascend.

28. The middle passage never guessed its end.
29. This is the height of poverty
30. for the desperate and black;

31. climbing, we could look back
32. with widening memory
33. on the hot, corrugated iron sea
34. whose horrors we all

35. shared. The salt blood knew it well,
36. you, me, Samuel's daughter, Samuel,
37. and those ancestors clamped below its grate.

38. And climbing steeply past the wild
39. gutters, it shrilled
40. in the blood, for those who suffered, who were killed,

41. and who survive.
42. What other gift was there to give
43. as the godparents of his unnamed child?


heard on the approach to the settle-
ment is made to merge sharply into the
colour of the hot sky ('steel tinkling
its blue painted metal air' line 2), those
who play the pans being like the pans
themselves 'tempered in violence'.
Long before we actually meet
'the inheritors of the middle passage'
(lines 19-22) our sense impressions
have been built up by Walcott's appa-
rently objective description of things
seen on the journey up. The alliterat-
ing gutturals in 'gutters growled and
gargled wash' (line 13) suggest both
the harshness of the lives in those 'raw
brick hovels', and the morning sounds
in a crowded tenement without
privacies; the 'lank electric lines and
tension cables' (lines 16-17) gives a
physical picture of the slum dwellers
and of their explosive state as well as
suggesting the criss-crossing of their
The gutters growling past the
Youth Centre fittingly enacts the
rapidity with which childhood is by-
passed here; the rigidity of 'a rigid
children's carousel of cement' applies
to the rigidities hardening the children,
and contains an apparent contradiction
even their roundabouts or merry-go-
rounds are rigid.
Even more tellingly upon our
senses, the whirling motion of the
water, the circular movement implied
in carousel (= whirligig, merry-go-
round, roundabout), the turning over
in the round pot contained in stewed,
the quick cycle of life and death in
'breeding' meet in the word 'revolve'
in line 22 'whose lives revolve round
prison, graveyard, church', and spin
forward to the deepening striations of
'lives; fixed in the unalterable groove
of grinding poverty' of lines 76-77.)


We can now return to the open-
ing line of the poem and see how the
suggestiveness of.the descriptions in
this first movement of the poem is
also contained in the peculiarly apt
verb 'huddles'. The primary reference
is to the shacks heaped confusedly
together, but by the time we come to
the end of the first movement, the
word draws into itself the sense of
something, coiled up, ('It huddled')
waiting to strike.
The rich verbal effects looked at
above suggest an imaginative under-
standing which must penetrate deeper
than surface truths and surface ani-
mosities between classes; and an
involvement by the poet more inward
than that of a detached observer.
As Laventille develops we are
drawn into recognizing a common fate,
different forms of being cast away
uniting poor and rich, uneducated and
educated, those who live perilously
on the hill or those who reside flatly
in the city. And we follow as the
concomitant of this reveals itself to
the poet that he is part of the wreckage

that he had begun by registering from
the point of view of an observer in the
opening movement. The process can be
traced in the alternating use of the
pronouns 'we' and I' over the course
of the poem.
In the second section of Laven-
tille- (lines 3143), the detached
observing 'we' of the preceding move-
ment comes closer to the other de-
scendants of slaves who are less fortu-
nate, it seems, than the poet and his
The journey to the church
through the slum becomes a type of
journey through the horrors of the
middle passage to the new world; and
the sight of waves of heat rising from
the roof-tops down below shimmers
into a vision of that historical trauma
the hot corrugated iron sea/
whose horrors we all/shared
But the poet, who has come
from the city below to be godfather

/ .--------

io the child being christened, has made
more progress socially than the slum
dwellers. So the 'climbing' with which
this section begins is charged with two
sets of meanings giving tension to his
life: 'Climbing, we could look back/
with widening memory' The 'climbing'
refers both to his social evolution
(educated, middle-class, writer) and to
the physical journey which is becom-
ing a psychic journey into his own
Similarly, the 'widening memory'
is both the forgetting of links with
'the inheritors of the middle passage'
which occurs during the social ascent,
and the memory now spreading out to
reclaim kinship with 'those who suf-
fered, who were killed and who
We can see in the second section
of the poem, therefore, a personalising
of the theme of the relationship
between the middle class and the masses
in the developing drama of the
observing poet's relationship with the
observed of Laventille.But in the
third section lines 44-77 there is a
move back again from the rapproche-
ment of the common 'we'.
An alienated 'I' bursts into the
poem, irritated by the sight of
S. .The black, fawning
his bow tie akimbo, grinning,
the clown-gloved
fashionable wear of those I
deeply loved
^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^__'-

The phrase 'those I deeply loved once'
hints at the poet's earlier involvement
in the process the verger and others
are now undergoing; and the same
phrase suggests the effect his involve-
ment in that climbing has had upon
him in his relationship with the
But if in section two, we see the
dividing effect of social and economic
striving, in section three the poem
deals with the stifling effect of an
imposed religion that teaches gratitude
to the shipwrecked inhabitants of such
desolations as Laventille, and allows
them under heavy influence to be
close to death on alien earth and not
know it.
The odour of 'bay rum and talc'
and the intoning of 'the supercilious
brown curate' waft the poet back to
his 'childhood fear of Sabbath, grave-
yards, christenings, marriages', remind-
ing him how far he has travelled com-
pared with those churchgoers. The
droning of the curate does not in fact
heal the rickets of the undernourished
slum children already suffering, the
poet ironically observes, from original
sin, which the Christian religion has
taught them about since the middle
The poet's awareness of the fact
of death (they are in the churchyard),
of spiritual death, and of the living
death he has just seen in the journey
through the slums makes him feel this
Christening to be a baptism into
Nevertheless, the poet does not
separate himself from the congrega-
tion. The 'We'returns with a confirmed
sense of identification with a betrayed
Which of us care to walk
even if God wished
those retching waters where our
souls were fished

for this new world?

The penetration of Laventille
comes from the way in which the
journey into a hill-top slum becomes
for the poet a journey into his own
darkness which has a direct bearing
upon his relationship with words.
The 'I'who now (line 77)'stands
out' on a balcony watching the sun
'pave its flat golden path' is the poet
(his Laventille kinship established)
yearning for a language that can march,
like the sun spreading over Laventille
and the city,with elemental directness
and healing.
For the 'swaddling cerements'
which images either the still-birth and
mummification of the society or its
need to subsist on its own deprivations
(bandaged even in grave-clothes for
healing) can also be seen as having to
do with the poet working with an
inherited language and in a heavily
influenced culture. ('Cerements' accord-
ing to the Concise Oxford Dictionary
refers figuratively to the 'influences
that restrain freedom of action or
To justify this reading we must
return to lines 74, 75 and 76;
. desperate woras,
born like these children from
habitual wombs

from lives fixed in the unalter-
able groove
of grinding poverty.
The restraining influences lie in a
language worn down in certain ways
by its previous usage, fixed in -an
apparently 'unalterable groove' which
he must mimic because of his history
of spiritual and cultural impoverish-
ment ('some deep, amnesiac blow')
It is nevertheless out of these
'swaddling cerements' that the poef
must temper his 'desperate words' and
find his own voice in the same way
that the music of the steel pans,
'tempered in violence', tinkling in the
blue metal air over Laventille repre-
sents a triumph of creativity and
end urance.


Yet outside the brown annexe of the church, the
stifling odour of bay rum and talc, the particular,
neat sweetness of the crowd distressed

that sense. The black, fawning verger
his bow tie akimbo, grinning, the clown-gloved
fashionable wear of those I deeply loved

once, made me look on with hopelessness and rage
at their new, apish habits, their excess
and fear, the possessed, the self-possessed;

their perfume shrivelled to a childhood fear
of Sabbath graveyards, christenings, marriages,
that muggy, steaming, self-assuring air

of tropical Sabbath afternoons. And in, eyes prickling with rage,
the children rescued from original sin

by their God-father since the middle passage
the supercilious brown curate, who intones,

healing the guilt in these rachitic bones,
twisting my love within me like a knife,
'across the troubled waters of this life...'

Which of us cares to walk
even if God wished
those retching waters where our souls were fished
for this new world? Afterwards, we talk
in whispers, close to death
among these stones planted on alien earth.
the ceremony, the careful photograph
moved out of range before the patient tombs,
we dare a laugh,
ritual, desperate words,
born like these children from habitual wombs,

from lives fixed in the unalterable groove
of grinding poverty. I stand out on a balcony
and watch thesun pave its flat, golden path
across the roofs, the aerials, cranes, the tops
of fruit trees crawling downward to the cil!,.
Something inside is laid wide like a wucii!.

some open passage that has cleft the brain.
some deep, amnesiac blow. We left
somewhere a life we never found,
customs and gods that are not born again,
some crib, some grill of light
clanged shut on us in bondage, and withheld

us from that world below us and beyond,
and in its swaddling cerements we're still bound.





byRobert Lee

by Alvin Massy

Calm for B

But then you came into, the dark and humped silence of this island,
into its squat bell-ridden city,

where mothers lurk with rosary beads to strangle and to prey,
where brothers, high.on fear, lash out at open eyes and open palms,
where sisters' hopes yo-yo arcrid taut fingers poking holes in faiths;

you came, laughing proof that promise is not always dream, and vague,
you lu laughed and showed i the many faces of that one truth...

and the moon; clearing all storm clouds,
rode well the sullen humps of Virie and La Morne Du Don.

Calm for H.S

Wvhy this is hell nor am I out of it.'
On nights like this dark hills take pause; humped knobs conjure to
streaming sky,
and harboured, safe, night retreats to shallow doormouths of the supine
And I, becalmed, gaze from this bridge down on that pallid whore beneath.

No fable this, for I haev seenthat face burn black with wanting me,
Ihave watched those eyes grow soft as smoke with passion's warmth;
Have had those slender fingers clutch my face,
have heard those pouting lips swear unrealities;
Ihave felt those breasts grow full with promise,
and I have waited,
long among hills' mists, and snare of blue wood-smoke,
have waited love's sweet tonguing flute among the creaking bamboo roots;
have listened vainly to the distant violons,
eared the throbbing drum of earth;
and I have wept my youth upon the giggling mountain stream,
cracked my age between the dry town's ghetto boards.
And come aboard this manoood.

Toward horizons decked with choice,
set off to promise of the magic words of art.
They would confound this choke of dust-filled August hills,
this arid town of vague deceits,
this-comedy of public privacies, french-flavoured morals,
withered, thirsting dreamers.
Lost the freedom that I never naa
somewhere between the steaming Boulevard and some Dread-full pis-clogged

At a kind of miadling of age,
(when to be as clear as Reduit sand ones was is locked forever
in the orange secrets of the sky),
still too young for failure, not old enough to know Success,
I found myself a metaphor: the homeless prodigal

I've heard the evening's belling lure me gently back to lighted streets,
soft skirts,
to tinkling glass ware, the instalment plan.
I've; heard the wood-doves whisper tales of dancing hills and lonely
valleys too,
heard them moan for bamboo fluting high above the river bed,
where Lusca sits and sings her mothers 'songs.

But I have made a pact with one whose name Ido not know,
with one who waits for me in every dirty dockman's bar,
in every corer doorway where I stop to strike a light;
she is that familiar swinging hip within the crowd,
the profile at the corer of the eye; she is faceless
and as many faced as countless memories left at wedge of many dawns.
Maddened when 1 'e stared too long at old men bowed ih dark green quiet,
calm upon taut veins of violons,
she is'a ball of fire that among the scented sheets strips firm resolve
to limp acceptance of this sole ambition:
to name her with the clarity
of certain women's grace,
a child's quick glancing smile.

And I have come to parched tongues of bays that whispered treacheries
in crevices of brittle, splitting shells of burning brains;
I too have screamed to 'Mountains, hills, to come, come fall on me!

And I have come, clutching berth right in my sweating palm,
have come back to see her sprawled, to see her splayed like this,
to see above that open, vulgar mouth,
the gently staring eyes that never change with changing image.

from Calvary Bridge I watch that face that set me far adrift,
of all whose promises, only this is sure, sure as the charity of this
good night, this:
an old and broken voyager,
eyes all ablaze and tongue gone mad,
drifting onwards to receding shores.


(an ode)

Steel drum steel drum
hit the hot calypso dancing
hot rum hot rum
who goin'stop this bacchanalling?
CAL YPSO, Edward Brathwaite

Hidden in the anatomy of the city
by refuse, dust-gnawed fences
huddled against bales of putrid garbage,
men resided in anonymity
like unlabelled insects in bottles,
breeding as rats in dark places.
Closely the gutter-guarded its stink
with the avarice of a predator
over its taken game, bloating
with the slow ruination of maggots
while as a frontier *
the Dry River bisected two civilizations.
into stratified classes, demoting one
of vassals, choking between the bowels
of hill, into an oblivion
of statistics multiplying as bacteria
into crimes and epidemics.
a society expended its quota of stigmas.

Under tapestries of loose, hanging beams
supporting groans
of ailing, corrugated iron
when nations had wrestled each other
in frightening Armageddons a generation
ago, fire and discordance moulded
meticulously into the chemistry of steel
sweet, elusive sounds.
Scorned riff-raff hands blended
atop the hollow skulls of drums, metal
melodies, reticles of high-pitched notes
which now explode in crescendos
their ecstasies within
the hearts of an affluent, myopic middle-class.

The demon domesticated by fire
is imprisoned now
by its very stubbornness, as a broken horse.

Metal pummelled into resistance
has given its hollow soul to Art
and imaginations are grateful and agape.
But the euphony of innovation
leaves unchanged in its wake a cacophony
of fates which bridged the Middle Passage.
Hovels clamber up the back of the hill
as if seeking refuse from some vague sin
committed in ignorance.
In the maze of streets which becomes lost
in the scarred earth of quarries
or sudden impasses of cramped tenements
prowl beasts of prey rabid dogs
rummaging apar paper debris
tinged with a sodden stench of privation.
The dumb conscience of the land
does not even quiver with remorse.

As always, Art prospers in adversity,
its complexion a swarthy pride inflating
within the precincts of its backwardness,
un- pasteurized, where each promise is a paper moon
self-incinerating after each won election.
All stink long those ant-size men have ambled
over the cobbled prose of coughing statesmen,
till their skins are scales, or coats of mail.
Any black day if you listen to their steel,
jamette, you can hear their eyes pray, "0 music
save us. Redeem us from a life of flies
and quarters. "Like day the vision comes
and goes. By night, like horizon, it submerges
beneath a harsh sea of tinned darkness,
thinking "One day we too shall be gods, one day..."
And the whole blackboard of reverie
is erased, quickly, as eyes crumble,
like hymns rolling down the slope's instep,
down, cascading over the whole dream of death.

Somewhere in that web the spider is caught.




r A o Q r" A T" A


From Page 4
protected against major short-term
fluctationsk of prices.
The report states that the terms
of trade of some developing countries
which are net importers of commodi-
ties covered (or to be covered) by
commodity arrangements could be
adversely affected insofar as the
arrangements raised the average price
of imports of these commodities.
In view of this, the group has
recommended that special considera-
tion should be given to cases where
such adverse effects arise and appropri-
ate facilities should be built into any
integrated programme for commodities.
Such facilities should be of a system--
atic and predictable character and
might take the form of a compen-
satory financing, granting of rebates
or, in appropriate cases, concessional
sales from buffer stocks.
This is an important point
because unless such safeguards are
available, the effect of these arrange-
ments would be to benefit some
developing countries at the expense
of others. Indeed, it can well happen
that the countries which are adversely
affected are the poorest and the least
equipped to withstand the adverse
impact of the worsening of their terms
of trade.
The report has also some other
specific suggestions on the question
of trade liberalisation and access to
markets. The report recommends that
tariffs and other restraints on the con-
sumption of non-competing tropical
products should be immediately. re-
it further recommends that the
application of quantitative restrictions,
countervailing duties and anti-dumping
regulations or other safeguards, should
not 'be resorted to by industrially
advanced countries except in clear
cases of injury to domestic manufac-
ture; and even in these cases barriers
should not be raised against develop-
ing countries unless it is evident that
they are the main source of injury.
The report also recommends that
developed countries should undertake
adjustment measures linked specific-
ally to promotion of imports from
developing countries. This is an impor-
tant recommendation because its
acceptance would help to reduce the
opposition of producers and organized
labour to the liberalisation of trade
with developing countries.
It would also help a planned
and orderly phasing out of non-
competitive industries within their
own economies; and would enable
consumers in these countries to enjoy
the benefits of cheaper imports from
developing countries.
The group notes with concern
that much of the industrial develop-
ment in developing countries has been
confined to ENCLAVE activities
having minimal linkage effects with

the rest of the economy; and the
absorption of difusion of technology
and skill has been marginal.
The report points out that the
technological gap which separates.the
poor from rich countries is, in many
ways, the most crucial which has to
be narrowed if the development pro-
cess in the poorest countries is to
acquire a new dynamism.
This is not merely a question of
adapting technologies and methods
derived from the world outside.
Equally important is the need for
investments in the kind of technology
required by developing countries; and
such investments need to be made
both in industrially advanced coun-
tries as well as in developing countries
so as to build up their own capacities
for research and innovation.
For instance, there is in today's
circumstances a clear case for massive
investment in particular fields of
technology such as adaptation to local
sources of energy, in particular solar
energy; or improved technology for
organo-chemical manures. In the past,
investments in development of new
technologies in those and similar field
have lagged behind.
Most of the industrially advanced
nations do not have as much sunshine
as the developing world gets; and as
long as oil was cheap and abundant
there was no incentive to use sub-
stantial resources onresearch in solar
energy. Now however, such a massive
investment would be not only to the
advantage of developing countries but
would also be an answer to the medium
and long-term problem of "spaceship
earth" running out of energy sources.
It has tobe emphasised,however,
that research and development have to
integrated into the internal structure of
the developing countries so that they
become self-generating. It is in this:
context that the group recommends
the establishment and, where! they
already exist, the strengthening of
indigenous centres of research and
development in developing countries;
and also increased international sup-
port in such efforts,
The group's views on the ques-
tion of transfer of resources for deve-
lopment merit special mention. The
report is forthright in stating that
as the developed countries have
become richer and have increased
their economic strength, they have
not made available a comparable
increase in the net flow of official
development assistance to developing
The percentage of total gross

national product of the developed
market-economy countries going as
development assistance has progres-
sively declined from a little over 0.5
per cent in 1963 to around 0.33 per
cent in 1974. The real volume of net
official development assistance flowing
from the United States decreased
sharply from around $4 billion in
1963 and 1964 (at 1970 prices) to
around $3 billion in period .1969 to
1972. As compared to flows from the
developed market economy countries,
those from the centrally planned econ-
omies have remained small in total,
though they are important for some
developing countries. In 1974 and
1975, petroleum exporting countries
have emerged as an important source
of capital flows to developing coun-
ties, including flows on concessionary
Another way of looking at the
performance in respect of official
development assistance is to compare
the present position in relation to the
U.N. target of a net transfer of official
assistance equal to 0.7 per cent of
gross national product (GNP).
By 1974, only one country of
OECD development assistance com-
mittee (DAC), namely, Sweden, had
reached the U.N. target of net transfer.
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Australia,
Norway, France and the Netherlands
were in a band from 0.49 to 0.62 per
cent of GNP. Britain and Germany
transferred about 0.38 per cent of
GNP. The remaining DAC countries,
including the United States and Japan
an well as Switzerland, Italy, Finland,
Austria and New Zealand, all transfer-
red 0.30 per cent of GNP or less.
Several of these countries had
transferred a considerably higher pro-
portion of GNP in the past than they
had now when they have grown rich;
by several years' increase of their per
capital GNP. Transfers from the higher-
income centrally planned economies
are very much smaller in relation to
their products.
After analysing the lessons of
experience and considering the need
for an increased transfer, the report
comes to the conclusion that fulfilment
of 0.7 per cent target for official
development assistance is essential.
The report also categorically states that

the reasons that developed countries
have advanced in an attempt to
explain why annual aid appropria-
tions have failed to reach the 0.7
per cent target already, and in some
cases have resulted in back sliding,
have little economic substance or

The group's conclusion is that
the present total transfer of official
development assistance is too small
and wholly inadequate to meet the
most pressing problem, let alone to
support the kind of structural trans-
formation required for a new econ-
omic order. In all too many cases, the
effort made is too small in relation
not only to needs of the poor coun-
tries but also to the capacities of the
The group, therefore, has urged
that all developed countries regardless
of their economic and social system
and particularly those with per capital
GNP of over $2000 should without
any further delay implement the U.N.
target of 0.7 per cent.
The report, of course, recognizes
that ultimately action in this field is
really a question of priorities which
governments themselves attach to the
needs of developing countries, as
compared with the domestic demands
on resources. Essentially, it is a ques-
tion of political will;
Nevertheless, in view of the
developmental needs, which are clear
and pressing, the group comes to the
conclusion that achievement of the
target of 0.7 per cent is only a neces-
sary first step; and that the present
needs of developing countries require
an assistance effort equivalent to at
least 1 per cent of GNP by 1980.
Lest it be said that this level of
developmental assistance would impose
an intolerable burden on the industri-
ally developed countries, the report
points out that this would entail their
devoting to increased development
assistance only some 5 per cent of the
amount by which they may reasonably
be expected to grow richer between
1975 to 1980. They can thus retain95
per cent or more of the increase of
their GNP-for their use and still
increase the net development assist-
ance to 1 per cent of GNP by 1980.
The economic logic for larger flows is
thus unquestionable.
The question, however, is whe-
ther the political will necessary for
the purpose of implementing this and
other recommendations in the group's
report will be forthcoming. This, in-
deed, is the main issue. The future of
the world community and the quantity
of life of hundreds of millions of
human beings will depend upon whe-
ther 'or not the international com-
munity is able to muster the requisite
political will to meet at least the mini-
mum requirements of the situation.


Eastem Main Rd.. Laventille
I Near to Trotman street)


Galvanise, Cement,

Blocks, Tiles,


etc, etc.

A New Economic Order




From Page 3
to provide additional open space, including
the commencement of the Chaguaramas
National Park

to complete the Deep X-Ray Therapy Unit

to construct a new 100 bed Maternity and
Teaching Hospital at Mt. Hope

to construct 7 new Health Centres in Diego
Martin, Toco, Chaguanas, Rio Claro, Freeport,
La Remain and Debe

to construct 1 Delivery Unit at Roxborough,
a new Family Planning Clinic at the San,
Fernando Hospital

to extend the POS Nursing School

to construct a new rural Community Health
Centre at Arima and a Family Planning
Institute at POS


" there has been a good deal of criticism
of the Special Works Programme; some of this
criticism is valid ....

Control measures which have already been set
in train to detect and curb these excesses will
be intensified and the programme itself is
being reviewed; so that while it will support
the level of employment which is so neces-
sary it will include projects that will con-
tribute to general economic and social develop-
ment, in environmental sanitation, beach
improvement, the provision of parks and
open space and those aspects of the mainte-
nance of public buildings and schools where a
high level of technical skill is not required.
Further refinements to the concept of the
programme will also be made from time to


over $40m will be spent on road improvement
"The goal for 1974 is to bring about a marked
improvement in the physical conditions of
our main roads and bridges."

to rehabilitate 5000 acres of rice-

to re-stock the pig industry which was severely
hit by hog cholera in 1973

improvements to be made to the marketing
facilities of San Juan, Rio Claro, San Fernan-
do, Couva and Arima (IADB financing)

assistance to the Agricultural Dev. Bank to
sustain its lending programme

support to private efforts to rehabilitate cocoa
and coffee

to complete facilities provided for by World
Bank Loan i.e.

16 Junior Secondary schools
6 Senior Comprehensive schools
a Teachers' Training College at
Corinth, San Fernando

to commence construction of

5 Junior Secondary schools
1 Farmers' Training College
a Southern Technical School

to complete the rebuilding of 8 Primary Schools

Phoenix Park
Las Cuevas
East Morvant
Orange Field

to improve water and toilet facilities in a
number of Primary and Secondary schools

to commence construction on 3 of the 7
Vocational Schools in Chaguanas, Fyzabad a
and Scarborough

to commence construction of the Teachers'
Training Unit at the John S. Donaldson
Technical Institute

to continue the immunization programme
against small pox and polio

to train additional public health staff at all

to complete the Deep X-ray and Cancer Unit at
the St. James hospital

to complete the improvement of the laundry a
and kitchen facilities at the general and regional

to open the Toco Health Centre/Delivery Unit
on a 24-hour service basis
to complete the construction of Health Centres
at Debe, La Romain and Freeport

to complete the delivery unit at Roxborough
and the Health Centres/Delivery Units at Rio
Claro, Chaguanas and Petit Valley

will award this year the contracts for the Mt.
Hope Hospital and the Nursing School in POS

to commission the engineering and design
work for the .Caroni-Arena project which will
produce 33 million gallons of water per day

to complete the design work on the Interim
Oropouche Scheme which will increase the
supply from the Hollis Dam by 1 million
gallons per day

to complete the accelerated water develop-
ment programme launched in May 1973 which
will provide 8.9 million gallons per day

to complete the intake from the Guanapo
river which will provide I million gallons per

to improve the distribution system of truck-
borne water

to rehabilitate existing wells in order to
increase their yields

to make available class room training at Trade
Centres and other technical institutions

to emphasis projects in environmental sanita-

to launch a pilot project involving agricultural
development with emphasis on food produc-

"Some of the projects which will be executed
have been discussed for a long time, but
could not be undertaken before because of a
shortage of funds.'

- e I I LI- II -rl1-- r-U

"They include:-

the development of the Nariva Swamp and
other areas to produce more of the food we

the development of the Point Lisas industrial
estate which is so important for the creation
of new employment opportunities in the sugar

the establishment of energy-based and energy-
using manufacturing industries as well as new
agro-based industries

the production of new and additional indus-
trial raw' materials and building materials

the construction of the pipelines to transport
natural gas for T&TEC and other gas using

the expansion of Government participation in
the petroleum sector

Sthe introduction of administrative and train-
ing facilities'to enable the population to play
a leading role in the development and manage-
ment of the national petroleum industry."

to establish the Institute for Petroleum

to establish the Institute of Banking
$12m to subsidise rice and flour
to stimulate food production

$500,000 to increase working capital of
storage facilities to be built
land development programmes
expanding fishing fleet by purchasing 20
establish fish processing facilities

to buy 200 new buses to expand bus fleet

to accelerate the improvement of certain
basic services and amenities in the community

100 miles of road to be resurfaced
to construct low income houses
to make more loans available for low
income houses
to have a new cement plant constructed
$2m to improve school buildings
$500,000 to improve public buildings
to construct new gaol at Golden Grove
to build a Technical School on existing
gaol site resite youth rehabilitation
centre and other youth detention centres
to construct facilities in the district
hospitals for aged patients.

to commence work on the Scarborough Park-
to commence work on the construction of the
Carrington Street Bridge
to provide a new abattoir


to undertake to study the capacity of the
construction materials sector

to resurface 100 miles of road
to improve drains and waterways
to repair stage 1 of the Solomon Hochoy
to award the construction contract for widen-
ing the Beetham and Churchill-Roosevelt
Continued on Page 11



to increase water supply from 64m. gal. day
(1974) to 77m. gal/day
to undertake capital works on sewerage facili-
to construct the Navet Pumped storage project
to-complete the design of the Caroni-Arena
water project
to execute works designed to rehabilitate
existing water wells and generally to improve
water production and water storage in Valsayn,
El Socorro, Freeport, Diego Martin, Maraval
and in the Hollis Reservoir
to continue the programme to develop and
improve local water supplies in rural areas
to improve the water supplies in rural areas
to initiate the study relating to the Caroni
River Basin


to improve POS port in 1975 $3.2m.
to dredge harbour + approaches
to complete design and engineering, phases'for
:container berth at Berth 10 Carifta Wharf
to purchase a trailer suction dredge
to improve approach roads in and out of Port


additional facilities for primary $2m, second-
ary $12m,vocational $4m, technical education
$18.5 m. (P. 32)
to shift education into the technical field
to construct no new Senior Secondary
to accelerate action for the construction of
Junior Secondary Schools (by World Bank
to construct vocational and Farm schools
under IADB financing.
to expand the technical school facilities in the
to convert some senior sec. schools into junior
to provide additional equipment in Home
Economics and Science Labs. to finance activi-
ties of the National Vocational Training Bd.
to build a new library complex as part of the
Princes Bldg. complex (construction and com-
pletion planned for 1975.
to expand health facilities (not including
funds provided to Local Gov't. authorities
for environmental health and sanitation) ($10
million) to complete and make operational in
1975 the seven health centres and delivery

units which were started (World Bank loan)---
to start six new health centres
to start construction work on the Mt. Hope
to improve kitchen and laundry facilities at
POS General Hospital and provide other
equipment to POS and San Fernando hospitals
and St. James Infirmary

to construct a new Boy's Ward at St. Ann's
to construct a new Pediatrics, Physiotherapy
wing at the San F'do. hospital establish a trair
ing school for Dental Nurses in POS (UNDP)-
$201,000 allocated

to phase out development subsidies (except
for fertilizer) and introduce a system of con-
tract and/or guaranteed prices
to develop an additional (to the 1974 5000
acres) 5000 acres in 1975 rice mill to be in
operation in 1975 (couldn't deliver in 1974)



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Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research nstitut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New ork N 10021,
U.S.hl~h 5 8448.

~ f~cF





THE West Indies have
entered the second test at
Perth having lost their
last two first class
matches -- the important
first test and the state
match against Western
Thus the psychological
advantage of the World
Cup victory has been lost
and Australia must ,feel
very confident indeed.
Yet, it is a six match
series and Greg Chappell
is fully aware of the
strength of the West
Indian batting and knows
that it will be unleashed
before the series is over.
In any event, the first
test match was much
closer than appears. After
the irresponsibility of the
first innings it was virtu-
ally impossible to save
the game and to have
come back so well in the
end and make Australia
fight for victory with
ofily three bowlers for
most of the match is an
indication of our poten-

Chappell is aware of
the relative inexperience
of his own batting and
the responsibility that Ian
Chappell and himself
must continue to carry
in the absence of Doug
What a different match
the first test would have
been if the opportunity
that presented itself to
separate the Chappell
brothers early in Aus-
tralia's second innings

Keith Boyce

was in fact taken. We
must take these chances
if we are going to win
this series and this is the
match in .which to start.
Our ability to fight
back has never bothered
me it is our uncanny
ability to falter when
everything is going our
way that has always been
our down fall.
I am not dismayed by
our defeat against Wes-
tern Australia. Much more
important is that three
batsmen who very badly
needed batting practice -
Fredericks, Lloyd and
Richards got some and
Boyce had a long bowl
and, in the first innings,
when the wicket had
more life than later on,
was very lively.
I have always opted
for a balanced team

Rod Fredericks

rather than one padded
with batsmen. Now, with
Murray -playing the role
of a reliable and prolific
miciad. cide batsman we
can afford to open with
In addition one should
not be misled by the leg-
spinner Paulsen's success
in, the state match. I will
opt for a team in batting
order as follows:
Fredericks, Rowe, Kallie-
charan, Lloyd, Murray,
Richards, Julien, Boyce,
Holding, Roberts and Gibbs.
I think that this is a
very well balanced side -
the lower order is quite
strong in batting and there
are four quick bowlers
and Gibbs this seems
suitable for the Perth
In addition, re-arrang-



ing the batting order to
put Murray between
Lloyd and Richards re-
duces the brittleness of
the middle.
Although the West
Indies have never played a
Test Match in Western
Australia before, the un-
certainty that surrounded
the Brisbane wicket is not
present. On the contrary
the Perth wicket is reputed
to be full of runs it is also
very fast, so Australia
would replace one of the
spinners with Walker. It
should be good cricket
to see Kalliecharan, Rowe
and Fredericks against
Walker, Lillee and Thomp-

Everything points to a
game of high scores most
likely ending in a draw.
But cricket is a difficult
game to predict and my
money remains with the
West Indies.
If Manager Kentish'
curfew. -works we should
not have.a 'first day that
virtually decides the game
for us. Greg Chappell is a
tough captain -I feel that
he has always been
tougher than Ian and if
he gets an opening he
will not let us escape.
But the first test must
have brought us to our
senses and we would not
lose through irresponsi-
bility this time.






Of people who know
how to cope
with rising






-~ -
Z~; '"