Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
November 23, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text


TEL 662-5126.

Th 1Q070

Buldge7t 'ic i



is all

e, after

tit' icc



L7 a c'



getting pay on

Friday y and

waking-up broke

on Monday!


ALL signs point to an election.
earlier rather than later. More
and more, opinion agrees that
the Government must cut its
losses. Some observers have even
decided that the actual day will
fall on Tuesday January 20. In
more ways than one, only God
must know.
No sweat; even if the Prime
Minister, wearing The hat of the
Minister of Finance has closed
off the Government Accounts
one month earlier than usual. The
normal practice is for the Budget
Books to close on the 15th of
December. This year 1975, the
money windows were sealed on
November 15 gone.
It is a better-than-evens bet
that the Budget will be early. It
is an even bigger steal that it will
be a colossal expenditure Budget
aimed at the pensioners, the
housewives, the consumers, the
producers, the tinkers, the tailors,
the candlestick makers.
As usual, every sector,
every industry, every activity
will be a high priority this year.
This meeting, only the scale will
If the 1975 Budget was a
charismatic billion dollar budget,
blessed with gifts of grace, the
1976 Budget will be a Budget
twice blessed, blessed with grace

aJl.i oiL'Ss d \ii.iu i i gIciI s O go':U.U
At least it will be one and a half'
times blest, what with total
expenditure of the order of
$1.500 million.
Money is the only trump
they have, after twenty years of
getting pay on Friday and
waking-up broke on Mlonday
after the Saturday and Sunday
drinkk-tup. Eat, drink and be merry
because when you dead you done.
For over a decade now it has
been materialism gone mad, nary
a penny on a library or theatre,
not a cent for any stadium or
It is fitting that the con-
summation of this extravaganza

of constitutional nihilism must
come in a spending spree; that
the culmination of this nothing-
ness must come with an Election
Budget; that the annihilation of
this bancorrupt old regime must
come via a gigantic bribe.
The irony, the historically
necessary contradiction, if you
like, is that this final desperate
manoeuvre .will be camouflaged
by a constitutional gesture of
the noblest dimensions.
The Joint Select Committee
on Constitution Reform must
now proceed to an early finish.
The public sittings are over and
the studied irrelevance of the
entire process has set the stage

for an act of grace from above.
We can safely expect a zig-
zag to the left in pursuit of a
radical dispensation. We antici-
pate a Senate capable of assembl-
ing all the reputable organizations
and all their valid leaders, we
expect Parliamentary Committees,
bouquets to women, possibly a
Constitutional Court.
The only problem is the
method. In this respect, even a
Conference of Citizens, in one
guise or another, is not com-
pletely out of the question.
The combination is irresist-
ible. Huge expenditures of
money and liberal constitutional
reforms. They would catch the
conventional opposition bathing
and make off with their clothes.
It is a beautiful hand to
play, if everything goes well.
The only. thing is that his-
tory moves in mysterious ways
i.; wonders to perform. The
only fly in the ointment is that
the act of declaring the elections
is certain to shatter illusions.
However we make up the bed, so
we go lie down.
It is better-than-evens money
that all will go very badly. God
alone knows the future but the
signs are very clear. More and
more opinion in the country
agrees that the Day of Judgment
is here.

NEXT Sunday November
30, the Tapia Convention
will shift to the Lions
Civic Centre, Circular
Road, San Fernando,
close by the OWTU Head-
It is the second of at
least three National
Assemblies in preparation
for the upcoming General
Elections just as the
Tapia tide is mounting. A
full turn-out is anticipated
especially from Tapia
people in the South.
.The accent this week
is on travel arrangements
different from those we
normally have for gather-
ings in Tunapuna or in
By Thursday 27, we
must finalise cars and

buses making the trip. We
need to know all those
Tapia people who are
expecting to travel by
organised transport.
In the DElP SOUTH,
Dalton O'Neil and
Gregory Burns arc plan-
ning out of Point. Stephen
Douglas and Arnold
Hood are organising out
of Vessigny-La Brea.
The strip from lrin
and Palo Secto to Siparia-
Penal is being served by
Annan Singh anld Billy
Mon tagu,. ielephon

649-5847. For the Fyza-
bad Route, Mickey
Matthews is in charge.
Telephone 65-79053.
For Marabella and Vis-
tabella, contact Julius
(Clrke, 652-2970.
l'ewarie can be reached
alt 0 2-3 2()0.TChe bus will
start from the corner of
Knowles S reel and
Southern Main Road
(urepe and go down tlhe
Old Southern Main.
In the Far I AST.
Buntin Joseph is at 668-

2563 or at his Barber
Shop, Sangre Grande. In
Arima, Noel Gordon is
the man; in Arouca Cyril
From the TAPIA
IOUSE. Tunapuna, trans-
port will be leaving at
8.30 a.m. Phone 662-
5126. From Port-of-
Spain, we leave from the
Campaign Headquarters,
opposite Slhay Shay Tien
Restaurant, C i p r i a n i
Boulevard. Details from
Angela (ropper who will
be on hand tlere from

Monday November 24 to
make an inventory of
cars going from the city.
For Laventille-Barataria,
Yaxsee Joseph and Lloyd
Taylor are the men res-
ponsible. Telephone 638-
From Diego Martin and
the FAR WEST, Junior
Wiltshire is co-ordinating
plans. Telephone 637-
Tapia people are re-
minded that we must
have enough information
in order to be able to
plan catering as well as
transport. Further details
may be had from the
Central Office at the
Tapia House, 84, St.
Vincent Street, Tuna-
puna. Telephone 662-

_ ICCC ..____. ----~III-P~-C

B -----~P I`-PBIPPl~a~(lPMa~~

' I i ..

~n~"~L~ ~ Y- ~I-----~- --`--~ "--~--

7 Z

Vol. 5 No. 47



IN a full page advertise-
ment in the Sunday
Guardian last week, the
Oilfield Workers Trade
Union fired the first salvo
in, what we might term,
the battle of T&TEC.
In what was generally,
a well written and well
argued statement, the
Union sought not only to
present the public with
some indication of what
its basic position is going
to be on the coming wage
negotiations, but also
revealed a few more
dismal facts in the con-
tinuing tale of incompe-
tence at T&TEC.
In the coming negotiations
the Union approaches the
Corporation from a position
of strength.
The woefully bad service
which T&TEC has been pro-
viding to its customers these
past few months, in addition
to all the tales of gross incom-
petence bordering on corrup-
tion, which have been
revealed in recent weeks,
none of which has been
satisfactorily explained, all
serve. to deprive the Corpora-
tion of any credibility that it
might have had.
Even so the coming battle
threatens to be avery interest-
ing one and while the Union
starts from strength, it is by
no means going to be a walk-
SThere is as much political
dynamite in the coming battle
as there was in the Battle
against Texaco. T&TEC, is
involved in a vital and sensitive
area of national life and the
public sentiment will be an
important factor.
Indeed, in one serse, the
present conflict is even more
clearcut than the Texaco
affair, if only because the
significant, but somewhat
obsfucatory considerations
which must be brought to
bear in negotiations with a
multinational corporation,
are not here present.
When, at the beginning
of this year, Tapia came out
in support of the claims made
by the OWTU againstTexaco,
and indeed, encouraged the
union to up its demands, we
were criticised by many for
adopting that position, in the
face of our vociferous opposi-
tion to James Manswell and
the PSA demands.
But, as most people today
recognize, there-was no incon-
sistency. Texaco is a multi-
national corporation, gaining
huge profits from its exploita-
tion of our most important
natural resource.
Moreover, as we pointed
out time and again, it was
doing so in conditions where
the Government was irrespons.
ibly and callously failing to
gather, in terms of its total
taxation policies, over 800
million dollars in revenue that
should rightfully have been
accruing to the country.
Under these circumstances,
it was the meet, right, and
bounden duty of the Oilfield
Workers Trade Union to
do for the country what this
totally incompetent Govern-
ment was failing to do, i.e.;
win back for the country
some of the vast sums of
money which Texaco was
taking out of the country
Even so, our support for
the huge claims made by the


Battle of T&TEC;

OWTU must play

cards right this time

OWTU against Texaco, was
not unqualified. At the same
time as we supported those
claims-we insisted that they
should be located within the
framework of a plan for
spending the bread, in such a
way, that the whole country,
and not just one small minority
of workers benefited.
In the case of the PSA
claims however, there was no
multinational presence- to
contend with. The issue
therefore was plainly and
simply one of the redistribu-
tion of wealth in the country
In our arguments in this
case, we never once told the
PSA that it should not be
demanding more bread. What
we did insist on, however, was
that any demands which it
was making, had to be made
in the context of the scandal-
ous inequalities in income dis-
tribution which existed, not
only in the country as a whole
but in the union itself.
And in this context, we
pointed out, that flat per-
centage demands, whatever
their magnitude, invariably
served to widen the inequal-
ties in distribution within the
union, as between the lower
'ranks and the higher ones.
This obviously would have
repercussions within the entire
Again, speaking now from
the view point of the whole
country, we tried to point
out to the PSA, that its
demands could not simply
be based on comparisons with
similar occupations in the
"Private" sector, but had to
take into consideration the
existing incomes situation in
the entire country.
These then, are the same
objective criteria which we
are going to bring to bear on
any demands made by the
OWTU in the Battle of
the full page advertise-
mert the OWTU declared,

Prof. Xca Juliti. acting Chainnan .l(T&TEC.

spelt out.
Nonetheless, as far as the
immediate negotiations are
concerned, the full page
advertisement gives grounds
for both hope and despair, in
anticipating the eventual
demands which the OWTU
may bring.
The statement, in the
section entitled "Workforce
Structure and Wages" points
quite rightly to the evident
disparities which exist, in
terms of salaries, between the
top levels of management
and the workers.
But if one is going to
make one's case on the evi-
dence of inequality between
management and workers,
then one's demands must
also take into account, the
problem of inequality amongst
the workers themselves.
And it is therefore disturb-
ing to see the statement
making the claim that "if our
workers are to enjoy the
same standard of living for
the next three years as they
do today then they must be
assured of a wage increase

"We believe that our first
responsibility as a Trade
Union in safeguarding the
interests of purmembers, is to
ensure that they are fully
compensated through- wages
and other conditions of
employment for selling their
-labour power under these
There can be no quarrel
with that. Indeed we in
Tapia would suggest that a
union goes further and con-
ceives of its role as the
protection and enhancement
of the total welfare of its
What this means in real
terms is that the Union must
see its role as moving beyond
the tyranny of wage negotia-
tions and into a whole field
of economic enterprises and
social enterprises which are
owned and controlled by the
workers and help to free
them from utter dependency
on their employer.
The added bargaining
strength which any such free-
dom would give to the negotiat-
ing union need hardly be

over this period that amounts
to 95%."
It is to be hoped that
Comrade George is not falling
into the same mistake as did
Manswell. Comrade George
must see that while an increase
may be necessary for every-
one, that for the lower
echelons of workers the task
cannot simply be one of
maintaining their standard of
living, the task must be one
of improving it.
So that any demands for a
flat percentage increase merely
serves to assure those who
already enjoy an adequate,
and in some cases, a very
generous, standard of living,
that they will maintain it,
while it assures those who
are struggling that they will
continue to struggle.
There is still time for
Comrade George and his men
to sit down and work out a
differential scale of claims,
which does not jeopardise the
standards of those at the top ,
but actively seeks to improve,
in real terms, the standards of
those at the bottom. To do
otherwise is to lend them-
selves to the perpetuation of
the gross differences between
rich and poor which is the
single most evident achieve-
ment of the PNM regime.
Comrade George is right
when he says that the entire
country is watching. He is
also right when he says that
there is no affection for
T&TEC. But victory in the
battle will not be so easily
Comrade George also has
the obligation of demonstrat-
ing to the entire country
that his demands are made
on the basis of an awareness
of the dispossession of many
of our people and seek, in
some way, to redress the
iniquitous balance.

Michael Harris



s Stephens


People must unite Caribbean

Next week we will publish
the full text of the statement
delivered by Mr. Mclntyre at
the Surveyors Symposium.

Warns Caricom Bos!

CARIBBEAN Integration will not be achieved
if left to Governments and to small groups of
technocrats. It must become-a widely based
movement generating its momentum from
the people. That was how Alister McIntyre
put the problem of West Indian nationhood to
the opening session of the Surveyors' Sympos-
ium at the Holiday Inn last Wednesday.
The CARICOM Secretary-General was
making his first official appearance in Trini-
dad & Tobago since he has taken over the
Georgetown Seat from William Demas. The
Ballroom was bursting at the seams as
personalities galore came out in support of the
effort put out by Surveyors to host the Com-
monwealth Conference at the highest interna-
tional standards.
A stylish opening by Commonwealth
President Sir Oliver Chesterton was matched
by the charm and control of Victor Hart's
welcome and the wit and verve of his Jamaican
counterpart G.P. McFarlane who moved a vote
of thanks to the participants in all their rich
Prime Minister Williams spoke with an
ominous absence of flourish, more than ever
these days the austere Victorian primary-
school headmaster, laying down the rules.
Admitting his pre-occupation with the Bud-
get and by implication with the upcoming
general elections he did a Cocoa Pagnol on
the Conference. He talked and he left.
Making the feature Address
of the morning, Mr. McIntyre full employment
pointed the regional integra- of the 1970's bu
tion movement to a range of little cause for c
critical development choices the fact that we
bearing on the pace and creating rather
character of evolving West 50,000 per year.
Indian nationhood. The Unemploymen
energy crisis has forced these Mr. McIntyre, was
choices on us by raising the aspect of the wid
question of sheer survival in of urban and rural
the face of galloping infla- a major legacy of
tion, balance of payments decades ofeconon
difficulties, and production and management
deficits especially of food. aspect was an u
The Secretary-General production struct
admitted to a real crisis in heavy concentrate
the large majority of CARI- cost export agricul
COM countries. Over the past An even more f
three years there has been difficulty, he elab
little growth and even less been our failure t(
development. For 1976, he domestic demand
added, the outlook is equally "The regional fc
bleak owing to rising costs of bill escalated from
fuel and freight rates, falling lion in 1973 to a
prices for staple exports EC $1 billion in 1
especially sugar, continuing And yet the p
low expectations for bauxite, underfed and under
and sustained recession in the Consumption of
tourist trade. not reach minimi
Even in the three bigger ments for 44% of
countries other than Trinidad population. The
& Tobago, the balance of ing deficiency
payments gap was assuming was 56%. To elir
staggering proportions and the nutrition in the l
gap in regional resources had nation would probe
grown to over $1 billion. The $300 million mc
region had remained so vul- of food at 1974
nerable to external influences The picture fc
that structural change posed a touring revealed by
colossal challenge to the C Secretary
native ingenuity. sector "of an enc
High among the deep- tot s fcan
seated problems, said the and forward linka
Secretary-General, was un-
employment, now 13% of the latest (1971)esti
labour force or 160,000 a regional market
factures of $2.3
persons in the CARICOM which 74% was s
region as a whole. The burden b extra-regional
fell so heavily on the youth
that no less than 50% of the "The Caribbea
age-group 15-19 were behind with the
chronically out of work. import
We now need to generate port sutituti
p100alacement." Aski
100,0~00 eao t this was due to th



O e
Y s
d t

at the end
t there was
optimism in
have been
less than

t, continued
simply one
der problem
poverty -
the last two
nic planning
it. Another
ure "with a
on on a high
Sorted, has
? satisfy the
for food.
)od import
i $550 mil-
n estimated
population is
protein did
um require-
the region's
for calories
ninate mal-
Vest Indian
'ably require
ore imports
r Manufac-
the CARI-
showed a
lave nature
t backward
ges. ." The
late showed
: for manu-
billion of
till satisfied

n is still far
process of
on and dis-
ng whether
he problems

of small -scale production, Mr.
McIntyre urged that "these
dis-economies are not as
severe in the Caribbean as is
sometimes made out."
The problems of manu-
facturing and agricultural pro-
duction lay more, he felt, in
the shortage of research and
development aimed at build-
ing up an indigenous technol-
ogy; in our failure so far to
build up a widely based
indigenous class of entrepre-
neurs and managers.
The solution to these pro-
blems, urged the Secretary
General, lies in "a comprehen-
sive approach to development


L ---- I--

Further particulars including an outline Terms of Service are available

The Registrar (Post 75/58)
University of the South Pacific
GPO Box 1168
Suva Fiji

to whom 6 copies of applications should be returned by 31 December 1975.
______________________________________ m

Laucala Bay, Suva, FIji


Applications are invited for the above position in Accounting in the
School of Social and Economic Development at the University of the
South Pacific. Applicants should have higher degree and have
experience in university teaching and research. Some professional
experience would be an advantage but is not essential. The newly
established degree programme in accounting provides the opportunity
for teaching in all aspects of accounting and finance but preference
will be given to an applicant with interests in management accounting
and systems analysis including computer applications.

Salary according to experience and qualifications in one of the follow-
ing scales:

Lecturer $F630 x 222 8328
Senior Lecturer $F8610 x 245 10080
Salaries are currently under review.

10% gratuity, superannuation contributions, partly furnished housing
at rental of 15% of salary, appointment and termination allowances, 3 year
contract renewable by mutual agreement. Other allowances in certain cases.

Formal applications should contain full name; date and place ofbirth;
nationality; marital status; educational qualifications; employment history and
experience; names and addresses of three referees; general statement of physical
fitness; date appointment could be taken up.

which goes beyond the simple
setting of targets for increas-
ing GNP per capital We
need measures to achieve a
greater degree of convergence
between local needs and local
The West Indies needs new
institutions "founded upon
strategies of self-reliance and
popular participation in econ-
omic life." To this end, one
important step is a greater
rate of nationals for invest-
One disappointing feature
of the past decade, declared
the Secretary-General, had
been the rising share of con-
sumption in national expen-
diture, Between 1970 and
1973 CARICOM GDP grew
by $US697m. in 1971 prices
but consumption spending
grew by $U.S 838m.
The Leeward and Wind-
ward Islands were the classic
case of living beyond our
means. In 1971. consumption
had reached 105% of income.
Against this background,
the Governments of the
region have been struggling
to make ends meet. Budget
deficits had become the rule
owing to wage and salary
increases and, inflated costs
of supplies. Even day-to-day
cash requirements are posing
a management problem.
Restraint. advised Mr.
Mcmtyre, is the only answer,
"with respect to the demands
being made on the public
sector for providing admin-
istration and services."


The framework for restraint
'and self-reliance is an inte-
grated Caribbean region.
CARICOM had moved to
create this framework in two
stages and we had now laid
the basis in the freeing trade
to a point further than other
communities, in the common
external tariff, in theharmon
isation of incentives and in
the double taxation arrange-
ments, in the special measures
for the smaller countries,
and in the establishment of
the Secretariat and the inter-
governmental machinery.
At least one indicator of
the success of the regional
enterprise tO date is the five-
fold rise in the value of intra-
regional imports between
1968 and 1974, figures also
comparing favourably with
other economic communities.
The first stage is phasing
into the second where West
Indians must now develop
joint projects in the key
-productive sectors. .The
Regional Food Plan, Mr.
McIntyre felt, should be "the
centre-piece" of the coming
The tender plant of inte-
gration will flourish, he con-
cluded, "in a positive atmos-
phere of commitment born
out of a clear sense of
direction and a willingness
to adjust to and to accom-
modate to the needs of
The Conference concurred
with fulsome applause.






The key to any

Future Economic Growth

TRINIDAD and Tobago like
most developing countries experi-
enced a major influx of migration
from Country to Town in the
years immediately succeeding
World War II.
There was as well a meteoric rise
in the birth rate over the same period.
Coupled with immigration from the
smaller islands a corresponding gradual
awareness of the acuteness of the
Housing problem became evident in
the late 50s.
Legislative machinery in respect
of planned development has met with
limited success.
The Housing Tradition as it
existed in Trinidad & Tobago before
1950, was centered on the Tapia House
and the Barrack House in respect of
Worker housing. The Barrack house
continued to have its stigma of over-
crowded urban worker housing and
attempts were made to declare the
most abominable of these as slums
and re-schedule development.
The Tranquillity Estate, The St.
Anns Estate and the St. Clair Estates
were the outer suburbs attracting the
well to do who lived in the' Country
and worked occasionally in the Town.
The main worker population
of the City lived in the Belmont and
East Port-of-Spain area, and while
Belmont has notably improved in
urban character, the entire-East Port-
of-Spain is the subject of a redevelop-
ment proposal by the Town and
Country Planning Division
The East Port-of-Spain Area
highlights the major current problems
of Housing shortage and unemploy-
ment which are probably the underly-
ing hallmarks of.problems of Trinidad
The National Housing Authority in
the early 60s recognized the need to
build between 10,000 and 15,000
housing units per annum for between
seven and ten years to alleviate the
critical housing shortage.
By publication dated October,
1975, the C.S.O. states that 71% of
the households in Trinidad and
Tobago have no electricity and 70%
are without a water-borne W.C.
system. By measure of four criteria
for substandard housing and living
condition, (- No water to the
house No toilet No flush toilet
- Expenditure exceeds income by
50% or more.) the C.S.O. estimates
that 62% of the household in Trini-
dad and Tobago are in this category.
With the total No. of Households
being approximately 192,000, this
means that some 115,000 households
are physically and economically un-

Of the 192,000 Households con-
taining a little over one million persons
the major concentration (63%) is in
the Urban and Semi-urban areas. 43%
of the total population lives in the areas


-- ,C

N ATL ._


... -
,* N A'LL

designated as the Capital Region i.e.
From Clguaramas to Arima a com-
paratively highly populated strip which
has continued to develop along the
traditional transport routes.
Squatter Developments such as
Shanty Town, John John and Water-
Hole have developed because'of the
large majority who come to the City
seeking employment and unable to
afford any but the most rudimentary
form of shelter.
This phenomenon oflarge urbhnn'
migration has been analysed and
documented in several detailed studies
but can bear repetition in respect of
Trinidad & Tobago. Urban squatting
has occurred as a result of the rural
agricultural depression and incomes,
the quest for subsistence in an urban-
ised setting, and simple opportunism.
It is also a product of the critical
housing shortage.
People squat on Government
Land, or laid which they can easily

appropriate lack of consistency of
official policy encourages further
squatting, because political identifica-
tion with those in need is crucial to
the realities of the situation.
Theere are as many social cate-
gories of squatters as there are Social
relationships between those who pay
for their housing e.g. There are squatter
Landlords, tenants, owners, speculators,
semi-squatters to name a few.
Nevertheless indiscriminate ur-
han squlntting is not in the llt1C iiol ._.
interest for it inhibits orderly develop-
ment, impedes planned expansion,
discourages needed urban investment,
and provides a climate of political
The relationship between squatter
settlement and places of work is
clearly one of easy accessibility part-
icularly measured in terms of time and
cost of travel.
Trinidad and Tobago is possibly
unique amongst developing countries

The following is the first part of the Statement presented by Members of
the Trinidad & Tobago Society of Architects during their anniversary
celebrations last week.
We shall conclude the statement in our next issue, as well as present
a review of the proposals made.

:. o Our printing-plant is open at
:, The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.
Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


in its mode of transport and its lack
of Public Transport. The Normal route
Taxi is now being supplemented by
the PH form of Transport-whilst the
National Public Transport system
continues to deteriorate.
With this phenomenal increase
in vehicular traffic, people within the
capital region are gradually recognizing
that the time relationship to their
work place is of paramount import-
ance, so that whilst the price of land
and land development has increased
throughout the region, the price of
land around the City has trebled.
A major source of contribution
to the Urban crush is also the com-
petition of the educational system
and the dependence of school children
on vehicular rather than bicycle or
rail transport (or pedestrian).
S Land Ownership is still the major
source of wealth to Trinidadians, there
being few other, opportunities for
investment. With the spiralling land
cost it has become a speculator's
paradise needing urgent land legislation
to rationalise development.
Whatever the circumstance con-
cerning the price of land to those
who can afford it the majority of
Urban dwellers live in housing and on
land which they cannot economically
afford. Urban areas account for 75%
of the nation's rented accommodation
,of which 40% of these are overcrowded.


Governmental policy so far in
the housing field has been somewhat
erratic.There are some examples of
.limited successes such as: Diarfiond
Vale; Piccadilly; Morvant and Malick
and simultaneously outstanding
failures such as: Beetham Estate,
Malick ff 2 and Pleasantville and Bon
Meanwhile the policy in respect
of Tax incentives to persons who live
in their own houses or persons who
trade in houses is working quite suc-
cessfully. Whilst not being discriminat-
ing to income groups a review of the
Government policy will show that the
Tax allowance and incentives favour
the higher income groups to the extent
that the traders price valuation by
Law may be $40,000., and he is perpetu-
ally involved in leaving out finishes in
order to get the Tax incentive whilst
selling the house at a considerably
higher price.
The National Housing Authority
-. .-Jias-beeiia-ad-ep'Bg-Sian ple
low cost housing and a combination
of low and middle income flats and
houses. It has been attempting to
make progress on all the housing
fronts except at the highest income
level but its combination of efforts
over the past 11 years have been an
average of under, 1,000 units per

Continued on Page 9



-- --

I AirIA PAUit *

Greg Chamberlain

leaders in the French
South American colony
of Guyane have appealed
to the world to stop
France's plan to settle
30,000 whites in the
They called the scheme,
launched in August, "an
attempt to perpetrate geno-
cide in pure eighteenth-
century colonial fashion,"
and accused France, of defy-
ing United Nations resolutions.
The appeal comes just
before neighboring Surinam
gains its independence from
Holland, which will leave
Guyane as th% last European
colony in South America.
Venezuela, Brazil, and a
group of Caribbean Govern-
ments are known to be
worried about the new mani-
festation of colonialism in
their backyards, and Guyana
has already openly expressed
concern and implied its
opposition to the plan.
There are only 52,000
people in Guyane, most of
them Africans and local
Indians, but the territory has
vast unexploited riches of

- e m[.{ N-ide in G y' El.]


bauxite, gold, uranium, and
timber which France has
now decided to harvest by
means of the emigration
plan. The first settlers are
due to arrive in the new year
with the help of Government
grants of cash and land.


The international appeal,
signed by six nationalist
groups, some of whose
leaders the French Govern-
ment imprisoned last year,
said that after "350 years of
negligence and incompetence"
by France towards Guyane,
the Intention now was the
"ultimate destruction of the
local population" through a

scheme which "cynically
mocks the anti-.colonial spirit
of current world public
The nationalist groups
pointed out that France was
organisingg and encouraging
the mass emigration of
Guyane's youth to France"
under aided emigration
schemes and appeared to
want to replace. the local
population, "as in Palestine."
The appeal quoted a 1970
UN resolution condemning
"massive emigration. of
foreigners" to colonial terri-
tories as "harmful to the
social, political and cultural
integrity" of the inhabitants.
Some 40,000 people have
so far applied for the aided
passages available to Guyane,
but the French Government
is giving priority to those
with investment, cash, and

The enthusiasm of the
ambitious young Overseas
Territories Minister, M. Olivier
Stirn, who thought up the
scheme and declared that
Guyane's "hour of redemp-
tion" had come is being
tempered, however, by reality.


Guyane's -Prefect, M.
Herve Bourseiller, recently
flew to Paris to impress on
the Minister and the Govern-
ment generally that the local
authorities had no resources
to receive even hundreds of
immigrants in the immediate
This and other doubts
have also been expressed

privately by Senator Leopold
Hedder, the Socialist Mayor
of Cayenne and the colony's
de facto political leader, who
is being criticised in Cayenne
for not having the courage
publicly to oppose the
French plan.


It has also been found
that the core of the first
stage of Guyane's grandiose
development plan, two large,
Pulp mills to help France
reduce its huge paper import
bill, will not now be able to
start production for at least
five years.
M. Stirn is meanwhile
Ihapsodising on the French
radio about how Guyane
"must be the agent of pro-
pagating French civilisation
in Latin America" and about
France's "non-racist tradi-
One Paris'daily neverthe-
less wondered the other day
how many years it would be
before the present "pioneers"
would be fleeing back to
France as refugees.

I DO not know who gave
the story to the Express,
but whoever did, the
story that appeared in
their November 14 issue
about "threats of violence1
among works women" in
Success Village, is abso-
lutely misleading.
I wrote in Tapia and in
the Trinidad Guardian that
Special Works workers are
used as political pawns and
the Prime Minister in his
address to the PNM conven-
tion in October this year,
confirmed what I had said by
putting the blame for the
mess with which we are faced
in Special Works, on the
The Prime Minister left
himself blameless in all this
but found it convenient to
criticise members of his party
for interfering in Special
Works business for the purpose
of votes.
I agree with all he said but
what he forgot to say was that
.he was the mastermind be-
hind it all. He is equally to
It is not my business to
judge the Prime Minister for
what happened on the morn-
ing of November 14 in Suc-
cess Village. I merely want to
state the facts which led to
the disturbance in School
Street and leave it up to
citizens to pass their own
Long before the disturb-
ance, the Success Central
Community Council wrote the

Hamlet Joseph

Prime Minister requesting
jobs for its members. The
Prime Minister decided that
the matter should be handled
by the Parliamentary Secre-
tary for Special Works and
referred the members of the
council to Mrs. Muriel
At Mrs- Donawa's office.
the Council members asked
to investigate the schools in
the area to see what repairs
were needed to be done.
Mrs. Donawa told members
that the government had
plans to put people in the
schools to work towards the
end of the year.
The meeting also gave
members of the council the
opportunity to raise the ques-
tion of recruitment on the
Special Works.
Mrs. Donawa was told that
Mr. Wilton Hinds was now
recruiting labour on the
Special Works and that he
had a gang of forty women
to start work in November.
The Council argued that
some of its members be
given work on that gang.
Mrs. Donawa called up the
Director immediately, ex-
plained ye si ~ tion to him
and directed t fi e labour
be divided equally;
The Director -called in
Mr. Torn, a labour oter,
into the matter. Mr. orn.
was instructed by Mrs,
Donawa to divide the labour
equally between Mr. Hinds

and the Council.
Mr. Torn asked the Council
Members to see him and
submit the names of the
twenty (20) people whom
they wanted to start work on
that same Thursday.
The names were submitted
and a labour force was made
out to that effect. People
were then informed that
they were to report to work
on the 14th. but their joy
was turned into sorrow that
Wilton learnt that Mrs.
Donawa had upset his plans
and he decided to put an end
to this interference once and
for all. He insisted that his
for0Ly (10) women workers
were to work now but he
was willing to share the last
ten days with the Village
The Council therefore,
was asked by the Director to
return the labour force and
and were told that Wilton's
plan was to be carried ,out
without interruption.
So on that Thursday when
people turned out and learnt
that they were not to start
work that morning, it
sparked off a spontaneous
I do not know how long
we are to be subjected to
this kind of treatment. It is
only around Christmas time
and around Election time
that the Government feels
that people want to eat and
All during the year they

think and care little about
the people who placed them
in office. However towards
Election time they can be
seen opening large gangs of
40 and 50 people to work
on the projects. As soon as
the election is over, the gangs
boil down to the barest
The Prime Minister said,
"Don't blame me, blame my
members." He separates him-
self from the Party in a bid
to bring back lost souls.
Nothing could be clearer
as to where the blame lies for
this total mess of Special
Works. The mysteries and
'shameful doings of Special
Works are now seen for what
they are.
The Prime Minister, "far
from being the guardian of
Special Works, has been un-


Trinidad & Tobago
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Bound Volumes 1973
Bound Volumes 1974

Senator Hamlet Joseph

masked as the villain behind
this low and disgraceful piece
of political dishonesty.
Go ahead Dr. Williams,
the longest government has
an end.

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A CHURCH council meeting in
Rome in the 16th century came
to the conclusion that the Indians
encountered by Columbus in the
New World did after all, have
souls. About the same time in
France, Montaigne recounted that
the nuns in a certain convent had
one day made the startling dis-
covery that a peasant was a man.
Today Latin Americans are
becoming aware of the fact that
women are human beings (though
when one thinks of the favoured
treatment given to animals in some
places, one might well ask what real
benefits this has brought then).
In Cuba, which is from many
points of view an exception on ite map
Sthe Americas, women are treated
ke human beings.
But whatever Cuban women have
won thus far has not come to them on
i plate, as a gift from the powers-that-
.je. History gave them no time to
engage in theoretical discussions about
On the contrary, they became
aware of their rights day by day as
they fougP t to change their society, in
9 struggle culminating in the victory of
January 1, 1959, a struggle in which
many of them became heroines and
Of the 270,000 volunteers in the
great Literacy Corps which reduced
illiteracy in Cuba from 23 per cent to
3.7 per cent in one year, some 60 per
cent were women.
Similarly, women have helped
to retrain domestic servants forproduc-
tive work, to establish nursery schools,
to carry out vaccination campaigns
and other public health measures.
They have also co-operated in
the elimination of prostitution, not by
repressive measures but through educa-
tion and by making available jobs in
other sections of the city or in other
towns, to prevent the past from being
an obstacle to the incorporation of
these women in the new society.
Today in Cuba women are "in
transition" on the road to equality.
By 1970, girls accounted for 49 per
cent of children in elementary schools,
55 per cent of those in secondary





schools, and 40.( per cent of students
in higher education.
Prior to 1959 Cuba's 194.000
women workers. 70,000 of them
domestic servants represented only
9 per cent of the country's total labour
By 1974 ihe figure had reached
590,000, or more than 25 per cent of
all workers, thereby freeing a large
segment of manpower for other occu-
pations, such as sugar-cane harvesting.
Cuban women considered they
had won a victory when a provision
stating that every business enterprise
should reserve a certain number of
posts "for women" was removed from
the Labour Code.


Today women are even working
in the docks and on building sites.
doing jobs which were traditionally
men s.
Whereas scarcely 20 pelci -et i o
Cuban women could afford hospital
and clinical services before t-1').
today 95 per cent benefit from them.
This has reduced the deatcih-ii, of
babies and deaths in childbirth in
Cuba to the lowest levels in Latin
Death-rates of babies i!; othei
Latin American cotuinieu n atre ,ome-
times as high as 150 or 200 per i .000

but in Cuba only 26 babies died for
every 1,000 births in 1973 and fewer
Ihain six mothers out of every 10,000
i died in childbirth.
Nevertheless, just as everywhere
else in the world. Cuban women have
been, as it were, an occupied territory,
and liberation has not brought instant
emancipation from the colonized men-
tality, and still less from the occupying
power, the male.
At the closing session of the
Second Congress of the Federation of
Cuban Women, in November 1974,
Prime ;i... I Fidel Castro referred
to the fact that "(after more than
fifteen years olf revolution) ... there
are still objective and subjective
actors thlct esuilqtin discrimination
against women."
Fidcl Castro explained what
structural changes would be made by
the State in Cuba's next five-year plan
to attack various Iiol ms of discrimina-
Such measures include the con-
struction of 400 nursery schools (in
addition to those being built by
volunteer groups) with ,facilities for
150.000 children (thlee times tie
present nmb;er ): 400 da y-boarding
schools, which will Cin :iase ldie present
number of pupils b' 120,000: no
fwer than 1.000 secondary schools,
\,sIltl places fot moie than half a
miHi on inal si talents who are now
receivingg s,:liolanliii s- special schools
with 4.t000 p1:!.ce foi ,children with


learning problems; 49 new hospitals,
110 polyclinics, 19 clinics, 51 homes
for old people and 16 homes for the
Referring to the need for a
fundamental change in attitude, he
added: "We still have to ask ourselves
when will we eradicate the age-old
ways of thinking, when will we over-
come all those prejudices?" And. he
declared, ". when the objective of
national liberation is finally attained,
women will still need to continue the
fight for their own liberation in human
Following the proclamation of
International Women's Year, and even
before, some of women's claims to
equality were immediately and univer-
sally acknowledged (almost as though
no thought had been given to the
sweeping economic and social reforms
they imply).
But no matter how reasonable
such legal or political changes may be,
they can never be fully effective if
they are'considered in isolation from
the general context of a country.
This is proved by the vigorous
struggle that usually has to be waged
before a principle, such as "equal pay
for equal work" or "men and women
are equal before the law", is actually
put into practice.


It is open to question, for
example, whether the mere exercise
of the right to vote, which Ecuadorian
women have enjoyed since 1929, has
brought them a more favourable social
situation than that of Paraguayan
women who have only been voting
since 1961, Or whether Uruguayan
women, who can divorce without
having to prove anything whereas
their husbands must establish grounds
for divorce are better off than
women in Argentina where there is no
Cuba has made it clear that "the
struggle for the equality of women is
not only the task of women but of
society as a whole," in other words,
that an out-and-out battle must be
waged against the ideology of the
occupying male.
This ideology finds its ultimate
expression in the reaction of the
Indian woman whose husband was
striking her. When someone intervened
and tried to defend her, she turned on
her would-be rescuer and cried: "But
he's my husband, so he may beat me!"
A century ago, Engels claimed
that monogamic marriage is a reproduc-
tion in miniature of relations in
society, the husband corresponding to
the oppressor and the wife to the
oppressed class.
Since then, however, changes
have taken place in some societies.
(In some marriages as well: "There
was a man who beat his wife when he
was drunk and who was beaten by her

2lAi ,' PAGE 7






the rest of the time" is not only the
beginning of a short story but the
epitome of a situation which, though
infrequent, is none the less true to
Male supremacy in its extreme
form is known as "machismo" and is
attributed to Latin Americans as if it
were an exclusive legacy from ancient
times, or something inherited from
Hispanic tradition.
Its remote origins are surely to,
be found in the economic dependence
that has always been woman's lot, first
under her father (who at least considers
it a moral and legal duty to provide for
her), and subsequently under her
husband (who often hands her money
as if he were giving aims, disdainfully
like a millionaire or grudgingly like a
poor man).
But when women are economic-
ally independent, as they are in Cuba,
the die-hards who still defend the old
way of life turn to biological argu-
ments, such as the weakness and
timidity of women (even though they
serve as soldiers and paratroopers), or
to historical arguments, such as their
supposedly greater aptitude for house-
work than for creative activities
(though it now appears that both
sexes are equally capable of both
types of work), or even to some dis-
tant justification taken from the Bible
to the effect that women was created
to be man's companion (in which case
man should automatically become
women's companion).
Cuban men, like all other men,
have been accustomed to make a dis-
tinction between Woman, as idealized
in life and literature, and woman
spelt with a small "w". Woman with a
capital "W"is the archetype of tender-
ness and moral perfection if she is a
mother, and if she is a fiancee she is
the archetype of beauty as well. On
the other hand, woman, the wife, is
stripped of her capital "W", along
with all the qualities once extolled in
her, all her rights, and even her
family name.
Latin Americans have been
:aricatured as sex overlords, and
what is worse we have accepted this
image which portrays us as keeping
our submissive little wives huddled
and trembling in a corner, preferably
in the kitchen, waiting for us to come
Yet paradoxically we break into
tears in our love songs, be they from
Mexico, Cuba, Argentina or Brazil,
over the Woman who has jilted us
heartlessly or because unkind fate has
willed it. When we squarely face the
tact that she left us for another man,
we insult her, but since we were not
yet married to her, we do so in verse
and to music.
As for woman with a small "w"
she only rarely finds a place in our
songs, such as the one that runs:
"Victory, victory I am in paradise, My
wife has gone." On the other hand,
she is the favourite target along with
mothers-in-law, alcohol;- mentally y
sick, etc., of jokes ai. zs that

women themselves sometimes repeat
blithely and at others listen to with a
sad smile of resignation.
Such an attitude is still prevalent
in ,Cuba, though the radio and televi-
sion, as well as cartoonists, are now
being encouraged to desist from this
often vicious type of humour which is
either an import or a throwback to'
the past.
The survival of this feeling of
superiority in men coincides with an
unconscious acceptance of that superi-
ority by women. In Cuba, in the
province of Matanzas, the number of
women candidates standing for elec-
tion to the Poderes Populares (the
bodies through which government
is decel:ralized and which function
at the level of the city block, the
neighbourhood, town, city and pro-
vince) was only 7.6 per cent of the
total, and a mere 3 per cent were
elected, even though women make up
half the population of the province.
Prime Minister Fidel Castro, in
stressing the fact that these figures
should be of concern to all Cubans,
added: "The day will have to come
when we have a Party of men and
women, a Leadership of men and
women, a State of men and women,
and a Government of men and


On the other hand, some men
raised objections to Cuba's Family
Code in the discussions that took
place in the various organizations of
workers, farmers, women and students
throughout the country. This legal
document, which was promulgated *on
March 8, 1975, is perhaps the fairest
and most human legislation in the
world governing relations in the home.
The article that aroused the
most heated discussions was the one
which !.ys dovn', that the husband and
wife must contribute to meeting the
needs of the family .each one
according to his abilities and his econ-
omic capacity. Nevertheless, if one of
the spouses only contributes to that
subsistence through housework and
care of the children, the other should
contribute (financially) by himself
alone, but without being exempted from
sharing in the housework and care of
the children.
In her book La Mujer Cubana
Ahora ("Cuban Women Now"), pub-
lished in Havana by the Instituto
Cubano del Libro in 1975, Margaret
Randall, a North American writer who
lives in Cuba, examines the interviews
that she carried out over a three-year
period. She makes a fair analysis of
the current situation, after which she
recounts some of the arguments she
heard presented when the bill was
being discussed at all levels of the
population before being passed.
"During a lively debate in which
both sexes took part, one woman

stood -up and. shouted : 'If they are
going to incorporate us in the labour
force, they will have to incorporate
themselves in the home, and there is
Sno more to be said!' "She was given a
standing ovation.1
Other women stated that they
did not really expect the older men
to change. "One woman said: 'The
women around here drafted this law
before the Government even thought
of it and there is nothing for the
young men to do now but accept it!' "
Such a re-appraisal of housework
and insistence on its being shared
frees woman from her status as head
servant in tie home or as someone
supported by her husband. Formerly if
a young man earning a good salary
married a teacher or a nurse, for
example, he thought it unnecessary
for her to work, and thus tlie country
lost the services of a teacher or nurse.
Young men also used to object
to their fiancee's being involved in
political activities "because it was'
obvious that such participation re-
leased women from the direct control
which society had taught men to want
and to demand" (M. Randall)
These prejudices have been
neutralized by Article 28 of the Code
which stipulates: "Both spouses shall
have the right to practise their proles-
sions or trades and shall have an
obligation to show consideration and
be helpful to one another in that
respect, and also as regards studies or
the improvement of their knowledge
..." And it adds, with a true sense
of realism: ... but they shall in any
case strive to organize life in the such a way that these activi-
ties are co-ordinated with the fulfil-
ment of the obligations that this Code
lays upon them."
Divorce no longer depends upon
the usual grounds required in other
Latin American countries, such as
"adultery" which in most of them is
only deemed a transgression when
committed by the woman or
"mental cruelty" or "abandonment of
the home."
Indeed, in some countries
divorce for adultery requires the
testimony of eye-witnesses, which, for
obvious reasons, is almost impossible
to +!1 *;- '' .. -- ,

more human reasons, such as "mutual
consent", and grounds that are more
just, such as "causes as a result of
which the marriage has lost its mean-
ing for the spouses and for the
children, and hence for society as
hi a society that thus establishes the
bases of human dignity (in which
women have achieved economic
equality with men; children receive
an education that combines study
and work so that by the end of their
secondary schooling they have a good
c.iounding in a freely chosen occupa-
'. .a society in which money has
ceased to be a fetish and has once
again become the medium of exchange
that it originally was; and in which the
State proVides medical care and
medicines and guarantees a serene old
age) the many dreary arguments that
are usually put forward in Latin
America as reasons for marriage all
fall by tie wayside.


The sole valid motive that
remains the Cuban Code does not
say as much but it is obvious --- is
love itself, or the closest thing to it,
even if it is occn ',hally onlv a mrir-ae.
Equality, Cuba's Prime Minister
has said, is not to be confused with a
lack of consideration. And he adds:
"If there are to be any privileges in
human society, if there are to be any
inequalities in human society, then
these must be small privileges and
small inequalities in favour of
women' "because women have
tasks and functions and human res-
ponsibilities that the man does not
Tlis applies with even more
relevance to those Latin American
societies which are so full of privileges
and inequalities that have never been
in women's favour.
We may know or we may search
for the reasons for this situation and
we may even be aware where the
responsibilities lie. But one thing is
certain: since it is impossible to con-
ceive of man's happiness independently
of woman's, the tragic and shameful
practice of discrimination is a game in
which all ol us .ac losers.

UER 23, 1975


This week we begin a new column written by a Tapia sup-
porter Phillip Woodward. Phillip has, in the past, been a
frequent contributor of both articles and letters, to the pages
of this Paper.

Flowers Yes


,rB At tW-t

For KanLr

Our. friend Kari Levitt
finally flew out of Trini-
dad this week, but not
before she had expressed
her warmest appreciation
to the friends 'she was
leaving behind and had
muttered deep, dark
imprecations against the
monstrous multinationals.
The ripples caused by the
manner of her departure will
soon subside. Life will go on.
We may have been deprived
of her work on the role of

the multinationals in the
economy, but no big ting. We
know they guilty anyway.
And in any case we are
saved from feeling too badly
about the whole affair, know-
ing that she is going back to
her job at McGill. Bureau-
cratic redtape can sometimes
be a blessing.
No t'- re need be no
flowers ior Kari. But for the
University let us now sing
our requiems.
For really, as far as this
column is concerned, the

The banner of nationalistic
concern is usually as incon-
testable as any Government's
right towithold work permits
from foreigners.
So because of that little
nationalistic prick the bubble
of protest burst. And we still
do not know today why the
Government refused to renew
Kari's permit.
Kari, as we said is safe, the
University is not. The Govern-
ment now knows that the
nationalism of the academics


Our good friend Ivan
Perot, having grown up
enough to flee the protec-
tive mantle of his political
mentor Ashford Sinanan,
last weekend launched
the country's latest polii-
cal party, the Liberation
Action Party, now known
to every Tom, Dick and
Amral, as the Love and
Peace Party.
The launching at the White
Pebbles was not distinguished
for its method. It was just as
overnight and now-for-now as
all the rest. But we have to
admit Ivan does have style.
He, of course, was the
main, in fact, the only speaker
from the party. All the other



whole issue was only inciden-
tally, about Kari, and very
much about the independence
and integrity of the University.
Which, apparently, the dis-
tinguished members of the
faculty of Social Sciences,
never once thought about
when they took the decision,
or had it taken for them, to
let the matter subside.
If the reports are true, it
would seem that our social
scientists could find no ready
answer for the amazingly
incisive question put by
another friend of ours,
Ainsley Mark, when he asked
then why they were fighting
to preserve the job of a
foreigner when there were so
many nationals unemployed.

will always take pride of
place over the protection of
their integrity and freedom.
And all the Kari Levitts,
and let us not forget those
other foreigners, the Walter
Rodneys and the Bill Reveres,
can henceforth be uncerem-
oniouply kicked out and so
long as the Government is
careful to maintain the
present unemployment levels
no one on campus is going
to raise so much as a query.
And some still wonder how
it is that Errol Barrow, who
has always been a politician
could be so bold as'to threaten
to shut the entire University
down. Peace be still.


PL'' / S

Laucala Bay, Suva, Fiji

The University is upgrading the teaching of Physics from its present
three staff teaching first and second year degree courses to four staff
teaching to all three years and with a Professor rather than a Reader
in charge of the discipline.

At the same time it wishes to see teaching, research and consultancy in
physics very strongly oriented towards environmental Physics and the applica-
tion of technology to the countries of the South Pacific.

Applications are therefore requested from .persons interested in the
opportunity to develop and lead Physics along the lines indicated and
in assisting the Head of School in the overall administration and
development of the School of Natural Resources.

The post requires a Physicist with proven university teaching and
research ability with research interests preferably in energy resources or an area
of Applied Physics such as soil or environmental physics, meteorology,hydrology,
biophysics or physical oceanography.

Salary according Lo experience on tie range for Professor which runs

$F12670 $F13820
Salaries are currently under review.

10% gratuity, superannuation contributions, partly furnished housing
at rental of 15% of salary, appointment and termination allowances, 3 year
contract renewable by mutual agreement. Other allowances in certain cases.

Formal applications should contain full name; date and place of birth;
nationality; marital status; educational qualifications; employment history and
experience; names and addresses of three referee; general statement of physical
fitness; date appointment could be taken up.

Further particulars including an outline Terms of Service are available

The Registrar (Post 75/59)
University of the South Pacific
GPO Box 1168
Suva Fiji

to whom 6 copies of applications should be returned by 31 December 1975.

-- -


speakers were at pains to
point out that they were there
as guests.
And behind the platform
from which he spoke there
hung an immense picture of
his favourite dragon Eric
Eustace, to which Ivan would
turn time and again during
his speech, to accuse the
picture of all sorts of dastardly
Greater love hath no man.
Incidentally if you are
wondering how come so
many people turned up, this
column understands that the
good Doctor sent a short
note to all his patients notify-
ing them that he would be
assigning. them to a new
doctor and at the same time
inviting them to the launch-
And as the old Tubal Uriah
would say, if a man has saved
your life then yop owe him
something, particularly if he
may be called upon to save it


One lady friend of
mine, whose taste for
politics is considerably
impaired, told me that she
was so emboldened by
the fact that Tapia had
declared its Shadow Cabi-
net, that she was seriously
contemplating declaring
herself a shadow supporter.
,Into each life a little rain
mustfall. (P.W.)


From Page 4

Initial momentum in respect of
the various types of housing, core,
self-help, Farm houses, as well as
urban types would appear to have
waned. This may have been because
of the attitude of the lending agencies
such as the I.A.D.B.
Whatever the circumstances the
N.H.A. has been consistent in its
inability to complete projects some of
which have been in the field since
1971 a clearly unsatisfactory state
of affairs.


The failure of the N.H.A. and
the Government to make any meaning-
ful contribution to the solution of
the Housing problem requires some
-There is'evidently no overall
approach to the housing need. Houses
have been built and have remained
unoccupied for years meanwhile
they have been vandalised and more
money has to be spent on repairs
before they are made habitable. A
typical case was Curepe, where because
of a dispute between the N.H.A., the
lending agency and the contractor,
concerning the sanitary ware which
did not come from a country which
had contributed to the loan, -the
houses were unoccupied for two (2)
Houses in San Fernando which
have been completed inside are
awaiting sewerage connections for
several years. In Tobago houses have
been provided which have been un-
occupied for two (2) years.
In Malick houses started in 1971
and still in construction have been
unoccupied, have lost their roofs, their
roads, their drainage, their walls, their
The N.H.A. made the eroneous
assumption in respect of Cumana
Village and Buccoo, Tobago, that
housing as a national need could
ignore the needs of the Local Areas.
Had the necessary research been
done the N.H.A. would have provided
people in Tobago with assistance to
complete or to rebuild their own
houses; rather than to build new
houses for a population which by and
large own their land and whose
population has remained static because
of emigration.
Research would also have indi-
cated that rural people do not live in
such close proximity to each other

even if for economic reasons the
Government wished to sewer the
development. While housing might be
a national need its market is always
restricted to its locality.
The N.H.A. has also not clearly
identified the categories of persons it
intends to house -by income. Housing
for the Low Income or unemployed
need not have the same vehicular
access pattern as Units which have two
(2) car facilities. A hierarchy of pedes-
trian routes could be infinitely more
sensitive than vehicular streets.
Perhaps the greatest reason for
the N.H.A. failure is its lack of money
to implement new housing schemes
and/or to do the necessary research
and documentation so vital to under-
standing housing needs. On the other
hand little credit has been given to an
organisation which up to four years
ago could get units completed at a
cost of $4,000.00, a clearly remarkable


The present situation whereby
housing has to compete with other
social programmes should be reviewed.
Housing is recognized as a durable
consumer item, it should be compared
with food, clothing and health care as
essentials of human life.
The problem has been that most
developing countries have preferred
earlier returns on public investment
and' have concentrated attention
towards e.g. education.
.Any situation where 15,000
units of a manufactured product
are required per annum must give
rise to economic examination? Put
another way, could the economics of
the system be worth the necessary
In identifying housing needs for
economic use, it is not enough to
specify numbers, the minimum socially
acceptable standard would of necessity
have to be quantified.
A needs survey would also have
to indicate the possible sections of

the community which would require
subsidy. If the C.S.O. analysis regard-
ing Sub-standard households is to be
used, then this would apply to 62% of
Trinidad Households.
Clearly then, the construction
industry would need direct subsidy
and/or incentives to relate to the
housing situation. Direct subsidy would
mean that the Construction industry
would become a generator of Economic
activity, rather than an indicator of
economic growth.
The industry is the most suitable
to directly relate to the unemploy-
ment situation currently officially
recognized at 15% of the working
population. An examination of manu-
factured items for the construction
industry based on 15,000 units per
annum would show:-


135,000 150,000 tons of
'57,00.- 70,000 truck loads of
22,000 30,300 truck loads of
30 60 million building blocks
16,000 24,000 tons of Fabric
1.5 2 million board feet of
100 180 million sq. ft. of
roofing material,
12 million sheets of
90,000 Doors, Locks, pairs of'
500,000 700,000. sq. ft. of
20 30,000 W.C. 's, Wash Basins
15,000 Kitchen and Laundry
Sinks, Taps,
Stoppers, traps etc.
160 miles of 4" piping
2 as well as '".
The list is endless when one
considers the furnishing items neces-
sary as well. We anticipate that direct

key to


employment would be in the order of
27,000 and indirect employment
approximately' 13,000.
From the above list, it would be
obvious that in purely economic
terms, the Construction Industry,
were it oriented towards the Housing
problems, would be infinitely more
valuable than some of the major
consumer industries which have been
given incentives such as, the motor
cars, fridges and televisions.


The condition imperative in the
decision to build these numbers of
Units is the Localisation of the "con-
struction industry as it relates to the
Housing programme. Importation of
all major materials should be replaced
by Local production over a 3-5 year
The Cost of the conventional
unit is at the level of 509% Labour and
50% materials, so that the cost
of providing 15,000 units in terms of
money remains a high item.
In a situation where.the two (2)
basic ingredients of Labour and
material are localised, the cost of the
unit takes on a difference significance
- a social significance in terms of the
unemployment situation.
The employment and wages
generated will help to raise the stand-
ard of Living for those for whom the
Housing is being provided. Another
important factor has been the steadily
reducing size of accommodation,
relative to the cost of the units being
Conventionally a bedroom can
hardly get below 70 sq. ft., nor can a
Living/Dining Room below 100 sq. ft.
A Kitchen can hardly be less than 40
sq. ft. etc.
The point being that in a sub-
sidised situation, and in the provision
of minimum standards, while cost may
be an important end product, it is only
in repayment possibilities and not to
the space standards necessary for
Human Habitation.


1 ouszng:



r ~



. 5i '

~rs~rJhc.-,._.. ~bs~.-;Y 9


Letters to the Editor

Dear Sir,
I wish to use your paper
to reply to a letter written by
an "Angry Parent" to the
Trinidad Guardian on Oct-
ober 27. I have chosen your
paper I feel it is the only one
in the country that can be
trusted to give the truth and
nothing but the truth.
I have chosen to reply to
the letter because it touches
a very sore point in me and
because I feel that the allega-
tions made are unfounded in
the extreme.
I am from Vessigny vil-
lage. I was born there. I know
my -people young and old,
and knowing them feel oblig-
ated to write in their defense.
'The letter in the Guardian
stated something should be
done about the boys of
Veqsigny who constantly
molest, curse and handle the
schoolgirls who attend the
Vessigny secondary school.
The importance of that
particular charge could easily
be ascertained by assembling
all the children in the school
and asking for a show of
hands from all those who
feel that they have been
Nonetheless I feel that it
is necessary to assist that
parents and others to see
where the real problems lie
and to try to get them to do
something about it.
We who live in this village,
we may have been forgotten
by the Government but we
exist nonetheless, know what
it is like to live a life of few
choices. You either lime day
and night or you just sit at
home and let your frustra-
tions strangle you.
Now if one takes careful
consideration of the plight of
young lads who have nothing

to do and nowhere to go and
no one to turn to. And con-
sider also that the majority
of them are unemployed or
under employed.
Consider also the families
in the village of which less
than 2 percent could be
considered to be "well off'.
Weigh this against the fact
that the size of the average
family is above tive.
Then remember that we
have no community organisa-
tions, no public facilities and
then tell me what kind of
young citizens a village like
this could be expected to
That the boys lime is true,
that they curse is true, but
that they curse or molest the
girls is not true. Yet even so
efforts have been made to
have stop the liming and
cursing and the truths that
they have sought to comply.
Yet in the case of the
liming at least it is part of a
really terrible pattern. The
boys are up early and go job
hunting to nearby firms and
to the contractors.
But each day the routine
is the same. They must go
because it is constantly drum-
med into them at home that
they must look for work.
But they must return because
there is never any work for
them to do.
So to postpone the agony
of the "ole talk" at home,
to ease some of the tensions
they sit out on the block
rapping with each other. The
odd guy may call out to a
passerby including students
but this is as far as molesta-
tion ever goes
In any case the question
is what do we do about the
liming on the blocks. Do we
send for the police to move

them? Move them to where?
To Jail I suppose. But the
jails cannot hold all the boys
on all the blocks.
The fact remains that
until we find worthwhile
activity for them to do the
problem will continue. Admit-
tedly liming is a foolish and
inefficient way of adjusting
to frustration but for the
present it is all there seems
to be.
Even so there are encourag-
ing signs that in the village
we are moving back to the
times when we used to make
our own shoes, and carry out
our own handicraft, when
we used to have small fisher-
men on every beach. In
short when local areas used
to satisfy local needs.
'When these times return
and the big foreign industries
are no longer with us, when
everyman start planting his
own garden again then there
is going to be a removal from
places on the blocks to places
of worthwhile production.
Thenwe wouldn't have to
call the "competent authori-
ties" to stop limers from
molesting schoolgirls. I sug-
gest that a more productive
task for all "angry parents"
is to get together to forr
groups and organizations
which could assist in this
genuine movement away from
the blocks.
Help the youths to develop
what they can do instead of
rejoicing when their efforts
are thwarted by uncontrollable
circumstances, and do not
rejoice in their humiliation.
For remember always "Bles-
sed are the meek for they
shall inherit the earth."

Yours faithfully
Hector Kern.

Vessigny youth live

A Life of Few

Real Choices

Dear Editor,

Did you notice a news
report in last week's T'dad
Guardian to the effect that
45 policemen are to share
$3,800 award payout. Do you
realise that the payment is
largely a reward for hunting
down guerrillas?
One wonders whether the
intention isn't to breed in
the police officer an incentive
scheme for extraordinary vigi-
lance or shooting skill in
dealing with political dissen-
Why haven't each awards
been given to police officers
who have been -trying to form

What about


Civil List

Long ago and far away,
the Government used to
publish a complete and com-
prehensive Public Service
It was a most helpful
Office Bible and no doubt
you nave seen one.
Could you please make a
noise and ask that they get
cracking and publish one as
soon as possible i.e. if they
know who is working in the
multitudinous departments,
sections and branches of the
Somehow I feel they
dare not.
If we wait too long, they
may get buried in the "holes"
in the road and we wont
even have a requiem.
Kindest thoughts, and get
that Civil List!
Yours faithfidly

I know that when a man
reaches sixty-five years that is
retiring time, but not forty-
five years. I am forty-five
years and I am not perma-
nently employed. Anywhere
I go for a job they say I cant
get a permanent job.
Mr. Best in 1973 Iwent to
Ponce, Puerto Rico, and in
one week I got a job at
$160.00 a week, no age limit.
There are men in Puerto
Rico who can get permanent
jobs at the age of 58 years.
So this age limit is a
barrier to we, the men-of 45
years. Please see what you
can do for us in the Senate.

I.beg to remain,
Yours truly
Palo Seco.

youth groups? Or to the
policeman who disarmed an
attacker with a shot to leg,
not head?
What about the traffic cop
who has been trying to reduce
the, slaughter on the road,
rather than dealing in slaughter
in the hills and streets?
What about those in
The approach to award
giving can only be seen as a
scheme for adding to the
power of the "Political Force"
as distinct from the "Police
Do we have police officers
or Bounty Hunters?

John Khan.




Dear Brother- -

Greetings wishing the
group success and prosperity.
I would like you to use
your good office to make
known about poor old age
pensioners, I am one of them.
Some get $19.00 excuse
figures, some twerity, some
thirty others forty five
dollars, which is the amount
voted for.
My reason for telling you
this is the cause there are
some pensioners with two-
storied houses they live above
and rent below.
I have no quarrel with that,
but why deny those like
myself who have to pay a
rent and get thirty-four
Please make an inquiry.
Yours faithfully

Tapia House
Senator Lloyd Best,

Dear Sir,
I do hope my few lines
reaches you quite as safe as
it leaves me. I have a big
grievance. I am asking you
kindly, if you can, to move a
motion in the House about
this thing which Dr. Williams
is saying. Dr. Williams is saying
that when men reach forty-
five years they cannot get a
regular job.
If we men cannot get a
regular job then, as I see it, I
believe that we should be
given some assistance, like in
Puerto Rico, the United
States, Russia, Germany and
many other countries. Imean
a dole.

Who will speak for

The Older Folk

Blood Money for

The Bounty Hunters






'75 '76





9 10.00
10 10.15
10.15 11.00



11.45 12.30



Michael Harris
Denis Solomon
Allan Harris

SU N VA Y INUV M VIDE-m 1,0, 1-7 1.3


SMrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehdgh 5 8448.

~ai H INSTIT4t'l

Market Vendors Resolve

to seek Proper


TUNAPUNA Market The crowd shouted its never maintained and stalls
Vendors have called for approval when Mr. Clifford were demolished by the
an end to police harrass- Prescott, a newspaper Vendor police.
ment pending the con- in the Market for 25 years, Lloyd Best told a cheering
struction of a new announced that the Meeting crowd that problems of the
market had been properly called Market were not a matter for
marketunder the law. Vendors, he political agitation. He said
At a public meeting held said, very ambitious little that he had promised to raise
at the Market on Sunday people trying to earn an the matter in Parli:ament but
morning, two resolutions honest living "and law must had first written to the
were adopted by acclamation, be on our side." County Council. Hie been
The first called for the Prescott claimed' that assured that the Market
new market to be equipped between fifty and sixty would be extended on the
with adequate stall s space, thousand people used the adjoining lands but now the
toilet facgities and amenities Tunapuna Market on week Government was harassing
to house vendors and shop- ends because it was the vendors and "playing both
pers. cheapest market in Trinidad ends against the middle."
The second demanded & Tobago. The Secretary warned that
that the Police cease harassing Vendors, he added came the Govcrnment would get
vendors and shoppers until to sell from all comers of the "cattle boil" for keeping the
such timqp as anew building country but although they vendors in q, land of promises.
.and adequate facilities are paid market dues, proper "We are rat the end of our
provided environmental sanitation wasn patience" hip concluded

Resolution No.1

(1) Whereas 50,000 60,000 citizens of this country
come to the Tunapuna market every weekend to buy
their foodstuffs at reasonable prices;
And whereas between 1,000 1,500 citizens of
our country make a living to support their families
and themselves by selling their goods in the Tunapuna
And whereas substantial benefit accrues to the
National Economy as a result of the buying and selling
at the Tunapuna market;
Be it resolved that a new market with adequate
stall space, toilet facilities and other amenities be
constructed to properly house the vendors and shop-

Resolution No.2

(2) Whereas the Police acting on instructions from
the County Council have been harassing'vendors and
And whereas vendors have been incurring sub-
stantial losses as a result oi' his poice- harrassmert
Be it resolved that the Police stop harassing
vendors and shoppers, until such time as a new build-
ing and adequate facilities are provided.

do Library Corner
on Wednesday 26.
liursday 27 two

indoor meetings are sche-
duled for Cap-de-Ville
and for Point Fortin.

Eid, Divali,
Christmas and
. in season

.,.....! o u nd a n d ,A '-O-

Work goes On.g~o gai,

THE enset of the festive
season seems only to
have widened the round
of Tapia meetings. As
the San Fernando
Assembly approaches,
activities in the South
have been stepped up to
a hot pace.
Fortunately, *
ponse from le res-
ing rp- wo enchant-
.,eetings in San Fer-
iando and Point last
week was enough to keep
tiredness away from the
Tapia door.
To our enduring as-
tonishment, the Library
Corner drew a big and
enthusiastic crowd which
so enjoyed the evening
that the meeting went
well beyond the final
curtain. Then Hi-Lo
Roundabout exactly re-
peated the performance.
That was on Tuesday
11 and Friday 14 Nov-
ember. In between, we
had Vessigny where a
good crowd also came
out only to be greeted
by another T&TEC black-

This week gone Taba-
quite spent an evening

in the moonlight with
Kelvin Ramsum ur, Ivan
Laughlin and rd Best.
Following loyd Best.
Follows de eclipse, it
was~e~ ,ght of entertain-
ment and education to
the great satisfaction of
the gathering of youth
with the entire township
listening at fibme. "Not
a radio, not a single
television was on", said
our genial host at the
Recreation Club.
That was Tuesday 19.
On Wednesday it was St.
John, Avocat, Beau
Tewarie, Mickey Matthews
Denis Solomon, Michael
Harris and Allan Harris
spoke to Mickey's
(adopted) home crowd
and found such fertile
soil that they arrived late
for a second meeting
scheduled for Fyzabad
On Friday 21, we go
to Frederick Settlement,
Caroni. Next week, it is
Marabella Junction on
Tuesday 25 and San

Readers should note that there his been a change in the MANJAK subscrip-
tion rates, with effect from 1st December, 1974.
MANJAK now offers 'rates for one (1) year. rather than for 26 issues of
the journal, as at present
Current subscribers should, however, note that their subscriptions fog 26
issues of the journal remain in force.




Rates for annual subscription to AfANJAK:

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