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Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
May 25, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

Vol. 5 No. 21


ALL the Tunapuna Market
vendors are fed up and they
planning a big get together
this weekend (May 24). A
meeting is scheduled for
Saturday afternoon at 3 p.m.
Down to speak are hmran
Khan and Lloyd Best who
are expected to outline plans
for moving from talk to
In recent weeks, long
years of frustration at the

WATER horrors in Tunapuna
have reached altogether new
heights. This week gone, most
places up on the Northern
side of the Eastern Main Road
have hardly had a drop.
For full four days, people
up St. Vincent'Street, Maingot
Road, Tunapuna Road and

Market have been coming to
a head with the full support
of the Tunapuna buying
In the last month, vendors
have been trying to get a
statement out of the St.
George (East)County Council
to clarify the Government's
policy -towards the market.
So far there has been no
reply to a letter sent off to
the County Council since the
end of April. .


Clark Lands at the top of
Balthazar St. have been
digging blues like mad.
People are saying that if
something does not happen
soon, something go happen
for sure.

POWER to the Hardwuk.
After ole mas is new politics.
The green, gold of
a hundred posters announced
the Tapia meeting for just
when the sun would set.
You could hear a pin drop
at the Society Hall,'Cedros
last Wednesday (May 21)as
Chairman Billy Montague
started offthe Meeting. Itwas
6.45, on the edge of the Gulf
of Paria.The occasion turned
out to be one of very cautious
ice-breaking with a flow of
enquiring questions coming
front the floor.
Members of the crowd
heckled an attempt to break
up the meeting by- fishing
bossman Anthony Singh.
Singh complained that
Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best
had failed to join people like

John Humphrey in promoting
agitation for the Cedros cause.
Best, he charged, was pre-
senting false figures taken
from the official records of
the 1973 National Consulta-
Asked by Lloyd Taylor to
explain himself, Singh strutted
out of the meeting.
Hamlet Joseph urged that
the problems of Cedros could
be solved only if Local Gov-
ernment in the area were
given the power to act for
You will be forever waiting
for the fulfilment of promises
from Port-of-Spain, he said.
If Cedros is to have a real
voice in the National Govern-
ment, the MP for the district
must be backed by a good
number of local community
leaders sitting in a greatly
enlarged Senate.
The Tapia Senate will not

be just a rubber stamp, he
Lloyd Best explained that
Tapia had come to Cedros in
response to a call that could
be heard from all comers of
the country.
People are satisfied that
the time has come for a
Cedros had made that point
by taking its grievance to
town. Matelot had done the
same, and so had the sugar
workers, the: youth, the
clergy and all those who had
been participating in the
popular uprising.
The Tapia Secretary out-
lined the problems of the
fishing industry and proposed
a complete reorganisation of
Inshore Fishing to remove
the pressure from 6,000
employees in, 25 major
centres all over Trinidad &

THIS week the Govern-
ment will reintroduce
into Parliament the
Mental Health Bill and
the more widely known
"Sabotage Act". Both
bills will- be reintroduced
with absolutely no signi-
ficant changes. This is
notwithstanding the fact
that the ostensible reasons
for deferring their pre-
sentation on the last
occasion was the receipt
of last minute representa-
Both bills have been
the object of intense
criticism from various
organizations and mem-
bers of the public. The
volume of the agitation
recalls to mind the
concerted public furor
created in 1970 in
opposition to the Public
Order Bill.
On that occasion the Gov-
ernment was forced by public
pressure to withdraw the Bill.
Williams claimed subsequently
that it had never reached the
The reality is however that
all the intended provisions of
the Public Order Bill were
subsequently reintroduced
and enacted in small doses.
The Summary Offences Act
and the FirearmsAct accomp-
lished between them all that
the Public Order Bill had
intended to do.





Those concerned citizens
who are voicing their protests
against the two latest repres-
sive measures have an even
tougher fight than we did in
1970. The fact is that in 1970
public pressure won a victory,
albeit apyrrhicone, only be-
cause the Government was
still amenable to pressure, in
that they still hoped to
recoup their losses by political
In 1975 we have long
passed that stage. The Govern-
ment is' well aware of how
widespread is the opposition
to them throughout the
country. They have abandon-
ed all hope of ever again
inspiring day confidence, trust
or respect in the people.
They have, therefore, little
need to fear or even pay
heed to the anguished out-

cries of the citizens.
Moreover the whole range
of legislation which is already
on the books severely curtails
the range of protest available
to members of the public. So
the Government knows that
the current protest will die
away in frustration or escalate
to a point where it runs
counter to some law passed
just for some such eventuality.
Any such outcome, as in the
case of the U.L.F. March,
would be gleefully welcomed
by this cruel Government.

There is of course one
ray of hope in an otherwise
dismal landscape where these
Bills are concerned. It lies in
the presence ji-the Senate of
the four Tapia members.

The value of Tapia's
presence in the Senate has
long been recognized, but it
is at moments like these that,
as in the Constitution Debate
and the Budget Debate, they
must truly show their worth.
The reality of the Tapia
presence of course is that we
are only four and past perfor-
mances of the Independent
Senators does not give hope
for anything like full support.
Yet the Tapia Senators can
and will take the lead in
elaborating for the Senate and
for the country at large,
firstly, a perspective of social
organisation that stands in
direct and radical opposition
to this brutal and inhuman
Secondly, and at this stage,
more urgently, Tapia will try
once again, to detail the clear
alternatives that now face our

The Mental Health Bill and
the Sabotage Act are but the
latest of those solid blocks
of legal repression behind
which the Government has
been entrenchin--itself.
Devoid of legitimacy,
legality is now the strongest
weapon and they shall con-
tinue to seal every discernible
opening left to the opposition
with their draconian laws.
Paradoxically, the one
opening which they cannot
close is the constitutional
road; they themselves now
need it more than anybody
They need Parliament and
they need the law. Having
used both so arbirtarily and
despotically they must avoid
at all cost any confrontation
on that fundamental issue.
It remains only for all of
us who stand opposed to this
Government to perceive that
such an issue could never be
sparked into life by any now-
for-now adventure in agitation
or by any sporadic resurrec-
tion from traditional quies-
Our freedoms and our
liberties can only be defended
by systematic and sustained
political activity, activity
which would bring home to
all our people the dangers
that we face and re-affirm the
truth of the saying that
Trinidad & Tobago shall only
save ourselves by our own

Next Week: Part 2

of Pat Ismonds Review of


Council Meeting

THE first Council Meeting A full day's work is envis-
for the 1975-76 term will aged and members are advised
come off at the Tapia House, o bring Ihir own packed
Tunapuna on Sunday June 1. lunches.
New Chairman Denis Uppermnos on the Agenda
Solomon will open proceed- is the Tapia piogramnn I'oi
ings at 10 a.m. sharp. tdie currcit election vca;


I, -

I I I i ,--r e~

PT "f


30 Cents-

SUNDAY M'AY 25, 1975




THIS is the text of an address delivered by Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best to the
Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Presbyterian Board of Men. The
Conference was held at the Archibald Institute, St. Augustine on Saturday
May 17, 1975.

Brothers & Sisters,

YOU have honoured me
today with an awesoine
responsibility. When
Frank Mohan called me
on the phone and told
me your title, I stood in
my shoes and wondered.
How could I have dared
to choose so manifestly
explosive a subject? -
least of all when, in these
times, of trouble, we
need to deliberate about
it; when none of us is
equal to the task. I can
only say I am humbled
by your trust.
I was brought up in
the Church both the
High Church and the
Low. On the weekends
we went to the Pentecostal
Church just around the
corner but at Easter and
Christmas, we invariably
turned to the Anglican
Church away down the
road. Years after is it
surprising? I introduced
the concept of Afro-
Saxon Culture into the
language of our time.
Yes, we straddled those
two very different
Those of us who have
been brought up in the
Church whether High or Low

must know how cautiously
we all need to tread .
even those of us who like me
may feel that they are
religious without being actual
Christian men.
As a hopefully
religious man in the political
field, I take comfort in the
fact that religion and politics
find a trysting place, a cross-
roads, a confluence in the
realm of ethics.
William Barclay's "Ethics
in a Permissive Society", is,
I am told, your theme for
today. Never can this theme
have been more apt than at
this particular historical
"The whole Christian
ethic", writes Barclay, "is
under attack." we are
facing today a situation
which the Christian Church
never had to face before."
(p. 13)
Undoubtedly we are today
in a revolutionary condition,
at home and abroad. The
entire Christian, .merchant
technological civilization is
collapsing fast beneath us -
in both its capitalist and
socialist variants. The most
fashionable response is
escape to an orgy of
drugs, sex and mysticism, a
trip to apocalyptic cult and
charismatic extravagance.
Permissiveness is running
riot and everybody doing
they own thing. We success-

fully defy both the king's
horses and the king's men -
and his ox, and his ass, and
everything that is his.
To my mind, the immedi-
ate task is therefore.. the
restoration of order not in
the conventional sense of law
and order but in the sense of
recognizing the need for a
new morality, a new system
of beliefs, a new way of

"The basis of the old
morality, the conventional
economics and politics,
the hallowed world-view,
have been shattered
beyond repair throwing
us into persistent crisis."
We Must Marry The Politics
and Poetry, Tapia, Sept. 8,

That is how I put it when
meditating on our Indepen-
dence Day last year (1974).
I am satisfied that the cross-
roads of crisis joins all the
institutions, the political
parties as much as the
Shattered beyond repair.
Ihe old morality has been
shattered beyond repair. It
follows that for those of us
erigaged in picking up the
pieces of a dream, integrity
is the word to make a new
whole, to raise our perspec-
tive, to elevate our spirit and
to generate newhope.
Integrity alone can .settle
this upheaval. But what
exactly is integrity? that
enigmatic missing-ball? Not
so long ago, I used to think I

Lloyd Best

knew the answer. Now ex-
perience has taught me other-
wvise; very recent experience
has taught me otherwise. You
might very well judge that
the lesson I've learnt is a
quintessentially Christian one.
The new morality, I
thought, was simply a moral-
ity of discipline and hard-
wuk; of systematic building
and organic measured
growth. In opposition to this
method of taking up our
beds to walk, I saw, as I
still see, the magic method
of huffing and puffing, of
overnight sweeping transfor-
Today I would say that
that is too mechanical an-
interpretation, innocent of
the cosmic ingredient which
really could make the differ-
ence. That iigiedient is plain
and simply what Barclay
defines as Christian love, a
thing which, I hasten to add,
is no exclusive preserve of
Christian doctrine in that it is
as much universal as it is
passionate and positive if I
may here 'once more take my

clue from Barclay.
To speculate about a new
movement towards a whole-
some new order is to envisage
a new dispensation in which
the integrity of the individual
is an attainable human stand-
aid, not a wil-o'-the-wisp.
Immoraity in public
affairs is not simply an
ethical issue concerning the
accepted code of conduct by
which the individual is
guided. Nor is it simply a
matter of political arrange-
ments for Integrity Commis-
sions or for declarations of
We cannot be content to
repeat that power has cor-
rupted individual X and
absolute powerhas corrupted .
individual Y absolutely.
Power does indeed corrupt
b -- t -- st~~i n- : is simu!-
taneously a political and
moral one, and very complex
in the bargain, complicated
certainly by culture.
Morality in public affairs
is the outward social expres- a
sion of private and personal
Continued Over

West -Indian Social Sciences Index

m New World a Moko a Tapia

U Savoeou

1963- 1972

Subject and author entries in one alphabetical sequence
Comprehensive coverage of all articles
Supporting cross references

Professionally prepared by a librarian at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
the Index includes an Introduction by Dr. Gordon Rohlehr, Head of the English Depart-
ment, which places the publications in a social and historical context.

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From Page 2

integrity framed by political
arrangements and cultural
habits by which that whole-
some integrity is sustained
by cultivation.
Here we find at once a
vicious circle. Which comes
first? The personal integrity
or the political and cultural
climate? Is it the chicken or
is it the egg?
When we are disposessed
and disadvantaged, when we
are beyond the pale, estranged
in Babylon, responsibility is
necessarily an alien thing.
Reality for us is just a little
bit part and our restricted
participation robs us of a'
crucial insight into our own
condition by' depriving us of
the information and the
experience that accrue from
full responsibility alone. Our
world becomes a fantasy of
grand illusion and inevitably,
of disillusion.
Anything which contrives
to rob us of responsibility -
be it slavery, be it indenture,
be it colonialism, be it the
tight centralisation of power
whatever it may be, it
forms this vicious circle. To
be responsible we need
integrity; to cultivate integrity
we must enjoy responsibility.
In our weakness and our
lameness, we fail to see and
we cannot truly hope to see
that it is our decision and
participation which count.
Even when we do glimpse
the reality, we seldom have
the strength to act.
What do we therefore do?
We abandon our right to
make decision, the same
right which, if only we were
to exercise it, would break
the chains of bondage and
bend power to the ways and
means of justice. We abdicate
our rights and then, you
may ask, are we then in
Babylon for good?
No; there are moments
when, by ways that no philos-
opher has yet unravelled, our
leaders generate new hope by
igniting that spark of divinity
which inheres in every single
human being.
At that point, what was
formerly an abandonment of
rights becomes an uncondi-
tional covenant of trust.
When we trust our leaders,
we surrender to them our
rights in a responsible act
which reaches out for noble
guidance from the higher
wisdom which we are entitled
to expect that they have.


The risk of such a relation-
ship is that it may tend to
stray from the straight and
narrow way of unbridled trust
into the meandering and the
zigzagging futility of patron-
age and protest.
-The power of trust is its
essentially open nature, which
is at once its vulnerable
underbelly. The only shield
against abuse is if there is
feedback between the leaders
and theled, a mutual teaching
how to speak.
Now when a movement
moves by magic, the feed-
back and the teaching lack
the space and the time to
work. Robbed of the patience
and the insight and the dis-

cipline which is built by
measured toil alone, both
the leaders and the led are
tempted into playing God,
succumbing invariably to
When we consider the
recent history and experience
of our own bewildered and
embattled country, it is clear
that we have settled few
basic codes of conduct, how-
ever much at the beginning
our leaders insisted on
political education, on new
morality, on freedom and
The accent on action
seems to have muffled all
the feedback and inexorably
the power has settled at the
top. The catastrophic results
are plain for all to see. Dr.
C.V. Gocking has reported
sadly that:
"Unfbrtunately, there was
little noble in Indepen-
dence. There was a mad
rush and scramble for
wealth and power and the
blandishments of material
life. Oligarchy has been
the result."
(Democracy or Oligarchy,
Once power settled so
snugly at the top and around
the centre, the leadership was
marooned and very lonely.
There could be no question
of political education, of
teaching one another how to
sptdk. Deprived ofresponsibil-
ity, we offered no dedication.
Halting and lame, too weak
to stand and fight, we gave a
grudging involvement in,
exchange tor gold. Without
responsibility, there could
be no integrity, no morality
in public affairs. Hear Dr.
Gocking again:
'There is a sizeable num-
ber of individuals and not
a few corporate bodies
engaged in creative work
in this country but the
prevailing view is that our
society is materialist,
individualist, oligarchy-
dominated,. one in which
everybody plays, safe,
where we suffer from
the undeveloped charac-
ter of professional organ-
izations, where corruption
is rife in high places,
where nepotism is ram-
pant, and where cynicism
and general indifference
to things of the spirit are
everywhere in evidence.

SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975
There is a spiritual malaise
in which not the least
among the sufferers are
the young. "(p. 9)
That has been the sad
consequence of magic in the
1950's. The latest symptom
has been a titanic struggle
for advantage between the
competing forces of organised
power: the Corporations, the
Unions and the Juggernaut
State Machine.
Needless' to say, the
struggle ruthlessly ignores the
vast multitude of unorganised,
minimally organised, nomin-
ally organised,badly organised
and impotent forces, using
them invariably as the cannon
fodder, as the faceless cast of
thousands, a silent throng of
tongueless spectators.


We have reached this sorry
stage by a road that has
witnessed bribery and corrup-
tion as a necessary mode of
administration where dedica-
tion and higher purpose have.
fallen by the way. Next came
intimidation and terror. With
each succeeding generation
of mercenaries, the price of
involvement has escalated
until corruption is no longer
a deviation but has become
the standard. Idealism, it is
said, is guaranteed to fail.,
Now even that stage pass
we and the only bond of
intercourse is naked power.
We have hurried through the
stage of intimidation and
terror and now the stock
response is violent and
We have reached a state
of war and revolution endur-
ing now for seven lean years.
,It is dorg eat dorg and nation
against nation.
But what, then, is the
alternative to magic? Is it
only systematic hard-work
and proceeding very slowly?
-Is it enough to grab our beds
and walk?
On the evidence, I have
personally come to doubt it.
The very act of taking up our
beds to walk the straight and
narrow way is itself a source
of stress and conflict, of
tensions not easily adjusted,
precisely because we are so
It is here we see the need

for higher purpose which, in
the last analysis, is love
because Love alone call nuke
us whole. Love, says Barclay,
'is an altitude to other
people. It is these of the
will towards others. It is
the attitude of a goodwill
that cannot be altered, a
desire Jbr men's good that
nothing can kill this
is not simply a response
of the heart; this is not an
emotional reaction; this is
an act of will it is
our whole personality.
And this is why it can be
commanded and demand-
ed of us."
(p. 34)
That is the spiritual ingred-
ient which I am satisfied we
need. Without it we will
destroy the human spark. I
remember quite distinctly a
comment from a colleague
which warned that we need
great patience with the fail-
ings of our brethren.
As Christians, doubtless
you would know you
should know that Jesus
understood it. Luke 22 (24-
26), reports on the last supper
when a dispute arose among
the disciples as to which was
to be regarded as the greatest.
Christ replied that among
the Gentiles kings exercise
lordship and authority was
enjoyed by benefactors. He
repudiated Plato's philos-
opher kings, the magnificent
few in the oligarchy.
"But not so with you",
he said, "rather let the
greatest among you be-
come as the youngest; and
the leader as one who'
serves. For which is the
greater, one who sits at
the table, or one who
And then, according to
John 1, Jesus laid aside his
garments and washed the
feet of the disciples. The
Teacher, he explained, has
washed our feet....
"you also ought to wash one
another's feet."
The teaching is clear but
although so many of us have
been brought up in Church,
we know the teaching but
we are innocent of the ethics.
Marx before he died, confes-
sed that never he could be a
Marxist. Christ, I suspect,
coulr nver have been a
Integrity is impossible
without love. That is the

message for all and for
sundry. Which one of us is
without sin, present company
specifically included?
1 remember a colleague
saying that if our followers
have not learnt to speak then
our leaders are the ones to
blame. Where there is no
spark of love, there is no
responsibility, no dedication. only immorality and
integrity shatters into pieces.
The speed of magic move-
ment dissipates love into the
air but discipline and work
and patience do not guarantee
that force of soul, that spark
which we must find and


The mortal peril of per-
ceiving this imperative is that
in promoting love, we may
once again out o,f weakness
slip into the common human
error of playing we are God,
transforming love into the
gimmick of self-indulgence.
The challenge of today is to
walk the tricky way between.
Barclay's injunction, I find
a very salutary one:
"The whole point .
about .Christian love is
that it is that attitude of
the mind and the will and
the whole personality
which can make us love
S. even those who hate
us and injure us, in the
sense that, do what they
like, we will never have
anything but goodwill to
them, and we will never
seek anything but theil
Christ has put it even
better. "I am among you".
he said, "as one who serves."
Paradoxically perhaps, that
is the only morality to deliver
us from the messianic com-
plex in which we are clearly
all enmeshed; to make us not
only free and eqral as the
political philosophers have
demanded long ago but to
make us also, responsible as
It is with that hope that I
welcome you all here today,
to deliberate on this, the
most fundamental matter of
our age.
It is with great joy that I
declare open the Conference
of Men 1975.
I thank you.

Co r n The closer you look,

C.or the better we look.

Look close at
Me Enearney
_- I -u

SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

Recolonisation: Denis Solomon

A Twenty Year Odyssey

Continued from last week.

All the Government had done is to throw
good money after bad by seeking to buy or charter
unsuitable ships from abroad to reproduce the major
shortcomings of the Federal ships, which constituted
the best example that foreign aid is dangerous to
development. These ships were equipped with loco-
motive engines, and were consequently always
breaking down, because Canada does not manufacture
marine turbines; they were principally, passenger
ships whereas the principal need in sea transport was
for cheaper transport of freight; they were derrick-
loadipg instead of side-loading, a drawback intensified
by the inefficiency of our,ports; and in its efforts to
reduce their operating deficit the West Indies Shipping
Corporation constantly favoured high-freight-rate
cargo such as television sets at the expense of low-
freight-rate cargo essential to our Caricom partners
such as cement or propane gas.
At no time has the Government of this country
sought to stimulate shipbuilding of any kind, let
alone the design of vessels suitable to West Indian
conditions and needs. Ironically, shipbuilding is
designated an 'essential industry' in Trinidad and
Tobago, but only for the purposes of the Industrial
Relations Act i.e. to keep OWTU from organising
the workers at Tugs and Lighters, not for the sake of
any fruitful administrative action on the part of the
And one would think from Williams' criticism
of the shipping conference in Mexico that Trinidad
and Tobago had no part in it; in fact. This country
was represented, but we did little of the home work
for, sending a powerful delegation to make something
useful of the conference, Williams sent Mr. Francis
Mungroo, General Secretary of the Seamen and
Waterfront Workers Trade Union.


And on the subject of China, Williams' trip
there didn't seem to give him any idea about shipping,
though the Chinese have done wonders in that area.
He probably didn't see any of the ferrocrete,(rein-
forced concrete) boats they have been using on the
rivers there for decades. In fact a company in Trini-
dad has built a large ferrocrete workboat for Its
own use, and even yachtsmen here have built boats
for themselves out of ferrocrete. Only the Govern-
ment had not thought it worth a try.
Williams' record on Caribbean unity has been
dismal since the days of Federation and even before.
It is true that the Government of Trinidad and
Tobago favoured free movement of goods and people
as a constitutional guarantee in opposition to
Jamaica; but once Manley proved adamant on this
and on the representation issue in the constitutional
negotiations Williams, instead of trying to rally the
other units around a liberal and farsighted policy,
immediately alienated them by the cheap recourse of
victimising illegal immigrarns from the other islands
in 'retaliation'. Convinced he couldn't work with
corrupt clowns like Gairy and Joshua (with whom he
now jgakes common cause) he not only contributed
by his lordly attitude to the collapse of the Federa-
tion, he institutionalized it with his apt phrase 'one
from ten leaves nought".
The death of the Caribbean Commission was
the direct result of the personal dislike of Eric
Williams for it. Instead of'seeking to convert it
into the kind of Caribbean development agency he
is now professing to sponsor within the framework
o. ECLA, he killed it out of pure pique.
Now we are making a call in ECLA meetings
for 'concerted government control.over transnational
corporations', and for a Caribbean economic council
within ECLA. In other words, a new Caribbean Com-
mission. But why a Caribbean subsidiary of ECLA
and not a full UN Economic Commission for the
Caribbean? Why not such an agency within the
framework of Caricom? And above all, why is
Williams only proposing it now? The 'answer is that he
has only just got the idea from Tapia. In our
'Manifesto on Foreign Policy delivered at our

Assembly of 18 November 1973, we proposed:
'.. a UN Economic Commission for the
Caribbean, something infinitely more substan-
tial and better equipped than the current ECLA
subdivision in Port-of-Spain.'
It has been the same with other regional
institutions. In Caricom, instead of rationalising
production and dealing with the question of
unemployment at the regional level, they have
worked to liberalise distribution. As for the Univer-
sity, it has been the target of criticism for its lack
of 'accountability' for Trinidad and Tobago money
spent on it. Williams is probably banking on public
ignorance of the fact that the University Council and
the University Grants Committee are composed of
representatives of the contributing governments, of
which Trinidad and Tobago is the most powerful.
If the University is not doing the kind of job
Williams would like it to do, it is entirely as a result
of the fact that his government has never done its
homework in this area either, but has so often sent
civil servants at twelve hours' notice to attend the
meetings that for the last two triennia not only has
no planning for the University been done at regional
governmental level but the unpreparedness of Trini-
dad and Tobago has resulted in the freezing of the
budget for that period, while for internal political
reasons the Government has insisted that student
intake for the same unsuitable courses be increased
by more than a third.
Tapia made proposals for the restructuring of
the University to bring it into line with our needs

and those of the region i.e. to make it more
'accountable' and we are not ashamed to say that
these proposals are very close to the proposals that
Williams himself made in the 1940's. But Williams
has been in power for nineteen years (US) and Tapia
has not.
BWIA is another example. Do you remember
how long we had to wait for a white paper on
BWIA, and how useless it was when it came? Now
LIAT has crashed and the Government of Trinidad
and Tobago, refraining from giving aid to it, is
criticising the Venezuelans for doing exactly what it
should have done itself using petrodollars to
revitalise LIAT. In fact the Venezuelan 'recolonisa-
tion' seems to consist of an interim loan (at tough
rates of interest) to tide the air over until it can be
reorganised by th-e regional governments, with or
without Venezuela, and of deposits of petroddllars in
the Central banks of the Caricom countries to be
used as low-interest loans. In fact, exactly what we
ought to have been doing ourselves.
It is true that Trinidad and Tobago increased
its contribution to the Caribbean Development Bank
as well as giving Gairy some money to pay his

Tontons Macoute.
The oil crisis and the LIAT crash were remark-
able opportunities for this country to exercise
statesmanship and assume leadership in\the integra-
tion of the region. We said so in the Budget debate
in the Senate. Williams could have sold oil to the
other countries, lending them petrodollars to pay for
it; he could have initiated talks to reintegrate LIAT
with BWIA (or Air Jamaica, what does it matter, as
long as a satisfactory service was ensured) and
negotiations with other countries for the purpose of
rationalising air transport in the region.
Instead, at a time when we are taking over
Shell and Amoco is finding-oil almost within sight
of the stranded motorists in Barbados, Williams
complains how hard it is to sell our output of re-
fined gasoline because he has neglected to seek
distribution outlets in the Caribbean or to negotiate
with Caribbean governments to for contracts to
supply their long term energy needs, which they are
satisfying by agreements with countries as far afield
as Iran.
In any case the terms under which he has
allowed Amoco (and even Tesoro) to operate do
not permit him any say in the sale of their product,
alnd the excuse he gives (in a speech at the Caribbean
Union College) for not selling gasoline in the Carib-
bean is the best i.e. the most incomprehensible -
yet; he does not want to do anything to create com-
petition for the National Petroleum Company. Work
that one out if you can.
This oil question is of course a microcosm of
our external relations. It contains all the factors that
characterise our foreign relations in general: the
government's inability to come to terms with foreign
influence; smallness of size being cited as an excuse
for impotence instead of being turned to account;
the failure to provide ourself with the political and
technical resources to operate in the international
Tapia's proposals in the budget debate, and
since, for taking and keeping control of our natural
resources are well known. We must nationaliste
Texaco and Amoco secure supplies of crude and
development of downstream operations by agree-
ments with the other producing countries of the
Third World; secure markets for refined products by
agreements for sales in the USA in other Caribbean
territories, and seek to acquire retail outlets at least
in the Caribbean.


Williams' cry now -is that we cannot sell the
refined products that we produce and that we cannot
therefore nationalise Texaco, and that besides we
need the help of multinationals in our petrochemical
industries. But as for the petrochemical industries,
you can always get technology if you are prepared to
pay for it; and it is only for lack of machinery and
initiative that the Government is not taking advant-
age of our small output in world terms to make sales
deals here there and everywhere. IBrokerscome here
almost every week seeking to buy petroleum pro-
ducts go away empty-handed.
You can't claim at one and the same time that
petroleum is hard to sell and that you don't have
enough of it to make mucli difference in terms of
world production. The second fact is what should
enable you to overcome the first.
What, in short, is needed, in the matter of
petroleum as in the case of our other primary exports,
is the development and emancipation of local exper-
tise a powerful techretariat versed in all the
technological, diplomatic and commercial ramifica-
tions of the world petroleum industry. It should be
complemented by an autonomous National Oil
Company with powers to make deals on its own
initiative, to enter into contracts with producers and
distributors, inside and outside the country. The per-
fect example of this kind of agency is ENI of
Italy, which, although Italy produces no petroleum
at all, was able to earn large revenues for the state by
purely commercial deals all over the world.
Continued on Page 9


SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

Brazil: Mining Oil From A Wishing Well.

THE formidable news
coverage on Brazil's pur-
ported self-sufficiency in
oil thanks to the dis-
covery of fabulous
deposits dwindled away
after a few days. Now,
many people in the know
express the view that the
brouhaha was hatched
for political reasons both
at home and abroad.
The press campaign, even
claimed at one point that
Brazil was ready to apply for
membership in OPEC (Organ-
ization of Petroleum Export-
ing Countries).
It all began December 3
last year with a report issued
by the official press office to
the effect that Brazil would
become self-sufficient in
,petroleum. This announce-
ment naturally made a strong
impression on the press,
military, management and
Once the initial euphoria
was over, contradictory state-
ments began to appear. On the
part of ministers in the econ-
omic sphere generally of an
optimistic nature, and more
moderate ones by executives
and experts at the state oil
agency Petrobras.
From the umpteen barrels
a day to pour from the
Garoupa, a wonder-well off
the coast of Rio de Janeiro,
and the forecast of a million
barrels a day issued by
Treasury Minister Mario
ienrique Simonsen, to the
more prudent estimates of
the president of Petrobras,
there is quite a difference.
According to the oil
agency, in 1976, when
Garoupa comes into produc-
tion, total Brazilian extrac-
tion could amount to 400,000
barrels a day, which would
cover slightly over a third of
that year's estimated con-
sumption of one million 200
thousand barrels a day.
At present Brazil produces
23 percent of its oil needs,
about 200,000 barrels a day.
By a strange coincidence
the disclosure of the fabulous
finds came less than three
weeks after the crushing
electoral defeat of the regime
on November 15. The govern-
ment's isolation, the frictions/
within the ruling, manage-
ment and military circles,
have reached extreme limits.
Constant threats of an
ultraright coup to cancel the
- election results came in the
midst of a serious economic
A foreign debt of 21
billion dollars, a trade deficit
of more than 6 million and
a 34 percent inflation rate
point to a crisis, with hard
currency reserves down from
six and a half billion to five
billion 100 million dollars.
Several investment pro-
grams were interrupted or
seriously pruned, creating a
climate of pessimism among
the industrialists.
With the oil fanfare Presi-
dent Geisel sought to neutral-
ize the impact of the negative
election results and to earn
the confidence of the econ-
omic sectors closest to the

military ultras, for instance
the auto industry.
The oil-find fable came
precisely while powerful sec-
tors inside the government
were promoting a revision of
Law 2004 which set up
Petrobras in 1954 and assign-
ed it the state monopoly of
petroleum prospecting and
Petrobras' mandate en-
croached on foreign interests
and gave rise to an initial
negative reaction on the part
of top military and civilian
personalities. But a subterfuge
appeared and Petrobras began
to sign "service contracts"
with the global corporations
for oil exploitation.
Geisel, who himself head-
ed Petrobras until he was
appointed Medici's successor,
-'helped to keep the country's
oil extraction almost station-
ary since 1968 thanks to a
drastic cutback in prospect-
ing, which keeps close to 50
percent of the agency's
resources idle.
A less than 5 percent
increase in crude production
since 1968 can be compared
to a sixfold rise in the bill
for imported oil. In 1974
Brazil spent over three
billion dollars on petroleum

A Petrobas Oilfield: encroaching on foreign interests.

purchases abroad.
Once the fanfare-is over,
what remains is the fact that
Brazil possesses huge re-
sources and that the state oil
agency is perfectly able to

exploit them.
It is evident however, that
the recent oil finds will not

provide Brazil with enough
to cover its needs, which
means still further burdens
for the trade balance.
Even if the oil bonanza
proves real, it would not
change the structural problems
of the Brazilian economy,
the limited nature of the

domestic market, the lack of
alternative export, markets
and the overwhelming foreign
debt. The crisis did not arise
in oil problems and will not
end with the appearance of
abundant black gold.
(Prensa Latina)

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SUNDAY MAY 2, 1975

THAT Tagore was one of the
most prolific and versatile of
poets will hardly be disputed.
His poesy like his famous "water-
fall" once it burst out from
the cavern in which it hlad been
imprisoned spread far and
wide, "flooding" not only his
native Bengal and- other parts of
India, butalso strange and distant
lands, to the extent that it won
him the Nobel prize for literature
in 1913.
Throughout a long and
fruitful life, thousands of poems
of love, life and nature and his
now famous patriotic, "mystic"
or "devotional" songs, flowed,
incessantly from his pen.
Together, these'different facets
of his poesy present a rounded and
integrated personality of the poet.
But still one wants to know
which is the real Tagore and what is
the "essence" of his poetic personal-
ity? *The critic wants eternally to
classify. In sheer numbers, his songs
and poems on nature, perhaps, pre-
dominate, swollen as they are by
Tagore's numerous songs and poems
-r-the seasons in particular, on the
advent of spring-and of the great
tropical rains.
It was, however, not as a
nature-poet, but as a "mystic" that
Tagore burst forth on the west
through the "song offerings" a
small collection of his own-prose
translations of a few of his songs and
poems from his Gitanjali, Kheya and
Naivedya which have been described
as "mystic" in texture and content.
This was, in. a way, an accident.
There are many who regard this as

an unfortunate accident, because, in
the first place, most of his admirers
in the west and in the English-speaking
world never came to know of his
many-splendoured poetic genius.
Secondly, the west has fallen
into the habit of regarding the east as
a repository of "spirituality" and
has, for decades, tried to extract from
the east a spiritual "message". Even
today, the west seeks eternally to fill
its own spiritual vacuum by turning
to the teaching of so-called Indian
gurus and swamijis, some of whom
are little more than mountebanks and
So, when the western readers
came across the Gitanjali, they
immediately found in Tagore not so
much the poet that he essentially was
but a seer, a prophet or even a
philosopher. Under the mantle of
the prophet and philosopher that was
thrown on him, the existence of
Tagore, the poet, was smothered.
For a period, Tagore became,
in the west, a vogue and a fashion.
But as Tagore was not a prophet or a
philosopher (in the accepted sense of
the 'term), the "fashion" could not
last. People became tired of the
"fashion" and-Tagore the philosopher
was soon forgotten. There was not-
much to regret in this. What was
unfortunate, however, was that, along
with Tagore the philosopher, Tagore
the spontaneous poet of beauty in all
its forms was also forgotten in the
Even- in the west, however,
there were some discerning spirits who
recognized the depth, power and
novelty of Tagore's message and the
potential influence of his "mysticism"
not only on English but on the entire
corpus of European literature. One

The Phil(

Rabindra n

Deliverance is not for me in
renunciation. I feel the em-

brace of freedom in a thousand
bonds of delight .... No, I
will never shut the doors of
my senses. The delights of
&ight and touch and hearing

will bear thy delight.

was W.B. Yeats himself a mystic and
a nobel laureate who introduced the
Gitanjali to the west. On the depth,
poignancy and tenderness of the
lyrics of the Gitanjali, Yeats wrote:
I have carried the manuscript of
these translations about with
me for days, reading it in rail-
way trains or on the top of
omnibuses and in restaurants,
and I have often had to close it,
lest some stranger would see
how much it moved me: These
lyrics display in their
thought a world I have dreamed
of all my life long.
On the role and contribution of
Tagore's works vis-a-vis English and
European-literature a western critic
has written:
The poems take their place
without question, not far from
the summit ofEnglish literature.
They are perhaps the forerunner
of the greatest movement in
European -literature yet experi-
enced its coming emergence
from the low levels of mere
"realism" and intellectualism to
the place of its true voice as the
exponent of the divine humanity.

In India, the message of Tagore
was much more easily and widely
understood, because it was in line
'with the long tradition of mysticism
from the age-old Upanishads, through
the spontaneous insights of mediaeval
poets and singers like Dadu, Rajjab,
Kabir, Nanak and Mirabai down to
the 15th and 16th .century Bhakti,
cults like Vaishnavism all of which
are known to have influenced the
poetry of Tagore. With reference to
this line-of thought, Tagore came, not
as a rebel, but as a fulfilment.
Like those of this line who had
gone before him, Tagore was, how-
ever, a rebel against all closed "sys-
tems" of logic or philosophy. His so-
called mysticism.
was not a creed or a philosophy
which he consciously adopted,
nor was it an escape from the
bewilderment of reality which
he found too much.

He was never a philosopher in
the generally accepted sense of the
term. As an Indian critic said,
he found no bondage more irk-
some than that of a closed or
formulated system of thought
which has an explanation for
He was, of cotirse, aware -
indeed, overwhelmed by a mystery
within him and all around him. He
also vaguely and intuitively recognized
a universal spirit or the "ultimate"
who was also immanent in all beings
and in nature and all its manifesta-
tions. But Tagore's understanding of
this universal spirit was not through
rationalisation and a logical system.of
philosophical thought but was direct,
intuitive and intensely personal. As
Krishna Kripalani, his biographer, has
put it,
Tagore's mysticism was nothing
but his sense of kinship with
everything, his innate awareness
of the unseen link that binds all
the living things together as well
as the living with the so-called
non-living the seen with the
unseen .. He was above
everything else a lover who saw
beauty in the commonest things,

who felt its touch in the outside
world and felt it in his inmost .
being and knew that at some
level of the subconscious or the
super-conscious, the two were
ultimately linked. The, same
spirit that suffused and ruled
this vast universe dwelt within
him and guided his life and

This "sense of kinship with
everything", particularly with nature,
is unquestionably a strong and obvious
element in Tagore's poetry. He was
one of the greatest nature poets in any
language. Therehave been other nature
poets before him who were also very
sensitive to the antennae of nature.
Take Wordsworth, for instance, who
in his "Lines Written in Early Spring"
asserted, simply and directly, the
basic element in his poetic faith:
To her fair works did Nature
link, The human soul that
through me ran.

What Wordsworth felt and
wrote in early spring, Tagore also
felt with the advent of early autumn
on the wide horizons of riverine
Bengal. I translate below what Tagpre
Thil morning, little rafts of white
Float across the blue sky


SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

ISophy of

S71 nrr

(Indian and Foreign Review)

atn1 iagore

And Sun and shade play hide
and seek
On the rice-fields.
The bees are so busy wheeling in
the sunshine
That they forget to seek the
And on the sandy islets athwart
the river
There is a gathering of ducks
and drakes.
I, would not remain indoors
But would break the doors of
nature and loot all its beauty.
4 Like the foam lacing the tidal
The breeze today is lined with
On such a day, one cannot work
But only play the flute.
The gathering of the tropical
rain-clouds in July filled the spiritof
Tagore with similar answering delight.
He writes:
July has come again, with over-
cast skies,
And the breeze carries the scent
of rain.
The massing of new clouds
rouses my tired spirit
Which begins to pulse again with
Every now and then the sha-
dows of the clouds
Darken the green sward

"It has come, it has come" sings
my spirit,
Through mny eyes, it has come
to nv heart.
Tagore, however, was not con-
tent with merely noting this joyful
links with nature. He has tried to
fathom why the moods of nature
have their strange reflections and
echoes within the soul of man, and
to pry into this nexus between the
manifest life-cycle of nature and the
inward development of the human
In course of this search, he
evolves a channing hypothesis accord-
ing to which man and nature have
this spontaneous kinship because
they are companions and playmates
who have been nursed at the same
breast, brought up in the same nursery
and have been exposed, during their
common childhood, to the same kisses
and lullabies, to the same sounds,
touches, colours and beauty. Says he:
There is no end to the joy
That has gone into the making
of my body.
Each cell of it has been reared
In the company of the corpuscles
of light itself.
Countless flowers have poured
their fragrance on me,
And countless waves have rocked
me with their eternal rhythm.
Between the layers of my
Lie hidden the caress of count-
less melodies
And my baths I have taken
In waters of countless colours.
Many a morning star has left its
touch on my dreams
And many a spring has poured
on me Its spontaneous joy.
If nature and man have been
brought up in the same nursery and
are now inseparable companions and
playmates, it is but a step to ask,
whose nursery, whose house is it?
When we ask this further question, we
enter the portals of Tagore's mystic
mansion. To Tagore who, ever since
his childhood, had been brought up
among the chanting of the verses of
the ancient Upanishads, the answer
was simple.
The Being that pervades the
Radiant, Sensient and Deathless
Is the same Being, Radiant,
Sensient and Deathless
That also pervades the Soul.

Tagore realized intuitively that
the same spirit (or God) that pervades
this wide world also dwells within
him and guides his life and genius.
Tagore called it jeevan devata or the
"lord of his life". This belief has been
referred to by critics as Tagore's
"pantheism". Philosophically, this
universal spirit /Paramatma or the
"ultimate") is, of course, an abstrac-
Tagore was a poet, not a philos-
opher. He could not, therefore, live
with an abstraction. Mystics and poets
through the ages have endeavoured
eternally to establish emotional bonds
and direct relations of intimacy with
this spirit, calling it, Father Lord,
Beloved, etc. Tagore as a poet and a
mystic also made this effort with
signal success.
Tagore's realisation of this
universal spirit in his life and his
relationship with it was intensely
personal. Many a song has Tagore
sung about his jeevan devata. Only
one is translated below.

Who is He deep inside me?
From His tender touch stem my
feelings and my pain;
He touches my eyes with magic
And plays on my heartstrings,
Making my pulse throb
In unison with all the joys,
sorrows and ecstasies.
A magic screen has He woven in
my world
With threads of green and gold,
,rvver and blue.
And from behind the screen
Has He stepped forward
To immerse me in a lake of bliss.
Through the passing days and
passing ages
He holds my heart in thrall,
Ever creating new Beauty
Even though of new forms and
with new names.
The interesting part of the
relationship between Tagore and his
jeevan devata is that the love is not
one-sided. His jeevan devata needs
Tagore ahnost as much as Tagore
needs him.
Why or how should the "lord of
the universe" need a mere mortal?
Tagore explains in his own words:
Thus it is that the joy in me is
so fill. Thus it is that thou hast
come down to me.
0, thou lord of all the heavens.
where Would oe hy lov'e, if I
were not? Thou hast taken me
as thy partner in all this wealth.
In my heart is the endless play
of thy delight. In my life, thy
will is ever taking shape.
This theme of "thou hast come
down to me" appears again and again
in many a song and poem of Tagore.
This approach, this eternal journey,
of the "master" towards his humble
devotee had begun in the misty past
and has continued through the ages.
To quote the poet,
I know not from what distant
time thou art ever coming nearer
to meet me. Thy sun and stars
can never keep thee hidden from
me for aye. In many a morning
and eve, they footsteps have been
heard and thy messenger has
come within my heart and
called me in secret.
"You came down, from your
Throne" and at the end of your
long journey, "stood at my

cottage door."
What is the compulsion of the
"master" to undertake this long
odyssey towards his humble devotee?
The compulsion is that of love. As
Tagore replies,
O, thou, lord of all the heavens
where would be thy Love, if I
were not.
Tagore's jeevan devata is not an
abstraction. He loves his devotee and
he alsoldesires, in turn, to beloved and
admired. Having created the beautiful
and wondrous universe, he is eager to
learn how it looks and sounds in the
eyes and ears of his devotee who is
also a poet. This idea has been exquisi-
tively brought out by another song of
Tagore a translation of which I
have attempted:

0 my -Master,
What einbrosia dost Thou wish
to drink
Filling the cup of my body and
0 my Poet,
It is Thy desire to see Thy Own
Through my eyes:
And to listen to Thy own Music.
Sitting silently behind the
portals of my ears.
In my consciousness, 1Thy7 Crea-
Writes down a wondrous mes-
Thy Love playing on that
Gives birth to all my songs.
By' coming down within me
Thou art only enjoying the
sweet pleasure
Of admiring Thyself.

Tagore's poetry has shown us
so far that he had a deep and com-
panionate feeling for nature, and
through nature, he had caught a
glimpse of the creator who lives
within all his creation and who steps
forward, now and then, from behind
the magic screen, woven in green and
gold, silver and blue. With this creator
who is also the lord of his life, Tagore
had succeeded in establishing an inti-
mate and responsive relationship of
Continued on Pg 8.

"Tagore the mystic poet,

the poet of nature, is,

almost a third of a century

after his death, still the

best, tenderest and the

most poignant poet of

Indian life and love."


SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

Tagore's Philosophy

But is this all? All this could be
realized by retiring to the forest or
the Himalaya, by contemplating and
meditating on the creator and by
renouncing and shunning the society
organised by one's fellow men, per-
haps, for the reason expressed by
Much it grieved my heart to
think think What man has made of
But Tagore was very far from
a recluse and loved the world and its
inhabitants too much even to think in
terms of renunciation. To quote his
own translation,
deliverance is not for me in
renunciation. I feel the embrace
of freedom in a thousand bonds
of delight. No, I will never
shut the doors of my senses.
The delights of sight and hearing
and touch will bear Thy deligh t.
Tagore wanted the union with
his jeevan devata not in the wilds
and deserts, but right in the centre of
the web of human' relationships. He
has expressed this unequivocally in
many of his poems, one of-which I
translate below:
Where you are in touch with
your wide world.
It is only there that I can reach

Not in a forest, nor in solitude,
Nor within the recesses of my
lonesome soul,
But where you are amongst all,
.There, my Beloved, you are
mine too.
When you stretch your arms to
It is then that my love turns to
Love cannot live secretly, con-
fined in, a room;
But spreads out like light itself;
So, if you are the joy of all,
You are the source of my joy,
Tagore's brand of mysticism did
not compel him to live in an ivory
tower far away from the tillers of the
soil and the labourers making a road.
To quote his own translation,
Leave this chanting and singing
and telling
of beads. When dost thou wor-
ship in this
Lonely dark corner of a temple
with doors
all shut? Open thine eyes and
see thy God
is not before thee!
He is there where the tiller is
the hard ground and where the
is breaking stones. He is with
them in
sun and in shower and his
garment is
covered with dust. Put off thy
mantle and even like him come
down on,
the dusty soil!

Come out of thy meditations
and leave
aside thy flowers and incense!
What harm
is there, if thy clothes become
and stained? Meet him and stand
by him
in toil and in sweat of thy
This is a far cry from renuncia-
tion. This is, in fact, a triumphant
acceptance of man's travail, of life and
This is why Tagore the mystic
poet, the poet of nature, is almost a
third ,of a century after his death, still
the best, tenderest and-the most
poignant poet of Indian life and love
and especially, of life and love in
his native Bengal. Commenting on his
mysticism, Tagore's critics have said
that "the artist in Tagore is subdued
by the man of God". .
It is important here to realise
that all facets of Tagore's poetry are
integrally connected. His understand-
ing of nature, as well as of human
life and love, is, as has been shown
here, closely interwoven with his so-
called "mysticism".
To Tagore, his relationship and
intimacy with his jeevan -devata is
basic and his deep sensitivity to
nature, on the one hand, and his
tender understanding of human feel-
ings, on the other, stem from the
fact that he sees both nature and
man from the vantage point of his
communion with his master, or his
jeevan devata from whom the bonds,
Sthe" antennae extend to everything,
and in every direction. Kripalani
seems to regret that in his mystic'

phase, Tagore became "outweighed
with a sense of responsibility to God
and to Man". It is understandable that
Kripalani should think so. For, he has
not'lived the life of Tagore and never
reached his direct realisation.
Yeats, in his introduction to the
Gitanjali has related how
Every morning, at three, he
(Tagore) sits immovable in con-
templation and for two hours
does not'awake from-his reverie
upon the nature of God.
Yeats a mystic himself is
impressed by this biographical detail
and sees its significance. He under-
stands that the poetry of such a man
is likely to have a special flavour and
that the "man of God" in Tagore can
only provide illumination for and not
"subdue" the poet in him. Says Yeats:
We had not known that we
loved God, hardly it may be that
we believed in him; yet, looking
backward upon our life, we dis-
cover, in our exploration of the
pathways of woods, in our
delight in the lonely places of
hills, in the mysterious claims
that we have made unavailingly
on the women that we have
loved, the emotion that created
this insidious sweetness. "Enter-
ing my heart unbidden even as
one of the common crowd,
unknown to me, my king, thou
didst press the signet of
eternity upon many a fleeting
moment. This is no longer the
sanctity of the cell and of the
scourge; being but a lifting up,
as it were, into a greater inten-
sity, of the mood of the painter,
painting the dust and the sun -

Your Family is well

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From Page 4
And it is not only in petroleum that our small
size might be put to account instead of being cited
as an excuse for failure. Instead of seeing EEC con-
cessions as the only way to sell agricultural products
in Europe, or throwing up their hands in dismay at
the Israeli penetration of the citrus market in the
UK, why is the Government not operating, through
the London High Commission, a scheme to set up
West Indian migrants in small banana and citrus
retail businesses in the UK?
Which brings us to the question of the Foreign
Service and its total lack of efficacy as the instru-
ment of the nation's relations with other countries
and international organizations. This problem has
been brought into prominence recently as a result
of the Prime Minister's abject and unethical outburst
against Mr. Matthew Ramcharan, High Commissioner
in Ottawa to explain his own behaviour toward
Trudeau. In the course of this outburst he made
public the contents of a dispatch in which Ramcharan
in all good faith and in the pursuance of his job
tendered certain advice to Williams which the latter
now says he found unacceptable.
Now Williams appointed Ramcharan, and if he
thinks he is incompetent (which he quite probably
is) he can fire him. But to keep him in post after
post and then humiliate him publicly in order to
save his own face is intolerable, and if Ramcharan
had any stones he would of course resign immedi-
But Trinidad and Tobago Ambassadors do
not resign instead, they hold meetings of heads
of mission at which they arrange to receive pensions
on retirement.
The Trinidad and Tobago Foreign Service was
conceived and planned with one purpose in mind -
not the efficient carrying out of the nation's foreign
affairs, but complete political subjection to the
wishes of the Prime Minister. The Alexander Report,
on the basis of which it was set up, made the case
for political control openly, and said: it should have
no connection whatever with the rest of the public


The conception of the nature of diplomacy
embodied in the Alexander Report, and in the con'-
'uct of the Foreign Service ever since, is amazing. It
.-. raiders that there is something called diplomacy
sepca,, from the conduct of political, commercial
or consular relations abroad, and that people who
perform this are diplomats; all the latter functions
are added on, and if a particular mission 'needs' to
perform such relations, specialists must be attached
to it from somewhere (they rarely are, except for
useless sinecures like Sutton's post of Labour Attache
in Washington and Colonel Johnson's short-lived
appointment as 'Military Attache' in the same city.)
The idea of commercial, consular or political
relations as the daily stuff of diplomacy, let alone
any idea that the overseas missions should perform
them in a dynamic way, is non-existent.
Considering the extent of the executive's con-
trol over all the organs of the State, its control over
the foreign service comes as no surprise. Although
the conduct of external relations is an area in which
the executive has traditionally somewhat more power
than in- others, in a parliamentary system they
nevertheless fall under the same general control of
policy and review of performance that the legislature,
and through it public opinion, exercises elsewhere.
In Trinidad and Tobago foreign policy and the
conduct of external relations have been subjected
along with all other aspects of our political life-to the
total control, both constitutional and de facto, of
the executive, which as we well know means Dr.
Eric Williams.

Soon after Independence a Foreign Affairs
Committee of the House of Representatives was set
up. Such a committee in the parliamentary system
generally has the function of studying, reporting and
advising on foreign policy. In fact, the only task
which our Foreign Affairs Committee performs is the
political vetting of applicants for appointments in
the Foreign Service every applicant for a post in
the Ministry of External Affairs must come before
a committee of politicians to make sure they have no
anti-establishment views.
In view of this it is not surprising that Parlia-
ment as a whole has played a completely insignific-
ant role in foreign affairs in Trinidad and Tobago. In
the entire life of the nation there have been only two
debates on foreign affairs. The first consisted almost
entirely of the usual mixture of spurious erudition
and tortured reasoning by the Prime' Minister, then
Minister of External Affairs, and the second of a less
erudite but equally unenlightening one by ANR

SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

The Trinidad and Tobago

Foreign Service was con-

ceived and planned with one

purpose in mind not the

efficient carrying out of the

nation's foreign affairs, but

complete political subjection

to the wishes of the Prime


So in this as in all other areas perhaps, by
virtue of its comparative remoteness, more than in
others the conduct of our affairs has been charac-
terised by the pompous dialogue of himself with
himself, by one-man expertise in everything but no
constructive action on anything.
Take the matter of our relations with the OAS,
for example. When I was at the Embassy in Washing-
ton (Washington is the seat of the OAS Council)
I spent two years writing despatches assessing the
state of the OAS, the attitudes of its members
toward the prospect of our membership and the
pros and cons of our joining. No reply or acknowledg-
ment ever came from Whitefiall. But after a while the
columns of the Nation, dozens of copies of which
constituted practically the entire contents of our
diplomatic bag, began to report speeches made by
Williams in Woodford Square in which he expatiated
on a tremendous range of foreign policy matters -
from the OAS to OPEC and in which whole para-
graphs in the despatches we had so laboriously re-
searched and drafted for the guidance of govern-
mental decision and action. Williams was, as usual,
spilling the seed of his and in this case our intel-
lect in the massive sessions of mutual political
masturbation that constituted the "University of
Woodford Square.
And when he thought he had postponed the
decision about the OAS long enough, Williams sub-
mitted the question for debate not to Parliament but
to the General Council of the PNM. The General
Council promptly formed a committee to consider
the question, and this committee immediately
elected a sub-committee to go and ask Williams what
he thought the decision should be.
So, brothers and sisters, the mess in which our
foreign relations are in at the present moment has its
origns in that same onanistic conduct of public
affairs which began, as much as anywhere, here in
this library, in the phony academic dialogue con-
ducted in the restricted code of robber-talk on one
side and groundless adulation on the other.
Tapia is here, tonight and in the future, to put
an end forever to these barren practices and substitute
the fecund principle of constant political dialogue and
truly representative institutions. Tapia's foreign
policy proposals, as well as all its other proposals for
change, are firmly based in constitutional and econ-
omic reforms. Let me outline these proposals.
We see three basic objectives of foreign policy:
(1) To bring a new world into existence by
rejecting the mercantilist division of the old into
irrational spheres of influence and by so doing to
demolish the basis of imperialism and colonialism.
(2) To persuade people of the value of small-
ness, intimacy and face-to-face relationships and to
abolish the colonial notion that large-scale industrial
technology and large-scale capitalist or social organ-
isation are the basis for human development.
(3) To create a Caribbean State in the Carib-
bean by uniting all the English-speaking countries
into a single participatory democracy and to pro-

mote a closer collaboration between this State and
the French, Spanish and Dutch-speaking peoples who
share a similar heritage.
These are by no means airy projects because
they are anchored in our theory and practice at
The reason the attempt at a West Indies Federa-
tion failed was that the leaders, in Trinidad, above
all, could not break away from their psychological
and intellectual dependence on the conceptions
formed during the colonial experience. In Trinidad
and Tobago, in particular, we have been able neither
to perceive the opportunity for fruitful action in the
regional field, nor to.prepare the internal requisites
for taking the chances when they come. The Federa-
tion failed mainly because we had had no experience
of local government and democratic participation
inside the single island. The stridently centralist
plans which were promoted from Port-of-Spain
offered only a new imperialism and offended the
West Indian instinct for freedom.
A good example of our failure is Cuba which,
in its attempts at liberation, has leapt from one camp
to another and imposedon itself a Soviet view of
change, in disregard of its own surroundings and
character. That this was no simple parochial failing is
proven by Trinidad's matching folly in declaring in
1960 for "the Western side of the curtain".
Tapia intends to reverse these failures by out-
lining a series of specific measures and devsiing
strategies and tactics for their successive realisation.
Tapia proposes to work for Caribbean integra-
tion at a number of different levels. Not only will we
promote regional economic integration to embrace
all the Greater and Lesser Antilles as well as Guyana.
Venezuela and other territories on the Caribbean
ittoral, but we will aim at the creation of an Eastern
Caribbean, a West Indian and perhaps even a Carib-
bean nation state, to be achieved in successive stages.
The motivation needs to be grasped because it
discards the orthodox economic argument. No
matter how necessary it is for markets to expand
and for freer trade to develop, it is for another reason
that West Indians hunger for Caribbean integration.
We are impelled to come together by the rootlessness
and the personality dislocation which we have suf-
fered during and since the rigours of the Middle
Passage. Black Power even tended to look to the
whole of Afro-America because it is in search of a
larger home.


The African in the New World has not been
sure of his place. He has been uncertain as to where
he belongs. Black West Indian Governments have
not had the sense of security to permit true participa-
tion and open democracy; they have run, instead
tight, twisted and tortured regimes.
In particular, the Government of Trinidad and
Tobago, although it preached a genuine multiracialism,
failed signally to show generosity to the Indian racial
minority. The PNM have been afraid to develop
agriculture, the necessary first step for the emer-
gency of indigenous manufacturing industry all for
fear of "an Indian takeover".
As the African learns that the West Indies is
the only place outside of Africa where it is feasible
to achieve Black Power, and once he achieves that
power and wins his confidence back, he will adopt a
philosophy to convince the minority peoples that a
reasonable place for them is assured. Without this
assurance to minority peoples the objective of a new
and humane society becomes an impossible one.
Tapia's regional policy aims to pave the way
for such assurance.
Onr first step will be to draw the Eastern
Caribbean countries together, which purpose we will
immediately upon embarking on our scheme for full
employment, throw our doors open to unrestricted
immigration from that area. In any event, we will
abolish work permit requirements for all bona fide
English-speaking. West Indians and give preferred
treatment to those from other islands.
Now, our greatest diplomatic strength must be
in the Caribbean and it must consist not only of
efficient permanent missions but of a series of
initiatives designed to accomplish the ends Tapia has
Let me repeat, brothers and sisters, that these
proposals must be supported by economic reforms
that will give all citizens a stake in the product of our
resources and our technology, and in the successes
of our diplorfiacy; and by the constitutional reforms
necessary to full participation of all citizens and all
interests in the political process. Only in such condi-
tions can reason and optimism, planning and organisa-
tions, enthusiasm and initiative be substituted for
the corrosive cynicism and self-contempt that now
paralyse our foreign policy.



Dear Sir,

Please accept my com-
mendation on your topical
and thought-provoking article,
"The Messiah's Third Coming"
(Tapia, 13th April), which
revealed a probing insight
into the motivations and
idiosyncrasies of the existing
administration. The conclu-
sion that the People's Na-
tional Movement is destined
to be victorious in the politics
of "crowd-manipulation" is
as valid tpoay as it had been
a decade ago.
The most conspicuous dif-
ference, of course, between
the crowds of today and
those of yesteryear is that
they are smaller in size and,
understandably, decreasing
with each passing year. Suc-
cess in crowd-manipulation
can be of little significance
ifin our anxiety to cultivate
an image of popular enthusi-
asm, the very task of building
a participator, democracy
becomes subordinated to
narrow, partisan extravagances
and the propagation of
monotonous monologues.


To determine the reasons
for the limited degree of
public involvement in the
political activities of the
country, three questions must
be considered:
(1) Are there accessible
and readily recognizable
channels through which the
public can ventilate their
grievances, without having to
resort to mob rule or open
defiance of the political
(2) Is the political sys-
tem responsive to the wishes
and aspirations of the vast
majority of the population?
Ideally, it should reflect the
hopes of all segments of the
community; whether govern-
ment or opposition, whether
democrats or socialists, whe-
ther law-makers or law-
breakers. As has been
recently demonstrated by
challenges to the constitution-
ality of acts passed by
parliament, the government
itself is potentially amongst
the law-breakers.
(3) What is the rationale
governing the nature of laws
in the society? Are the laws
punitive or morally sanctifi-
able, internationally justifi-
able or unmitigated parochial
eccentricities? Do the laws
help in the development of a
vibrant, pulsating culture or
are they considered anachron-
istic or peripheral to the
wider goals of the citizenry'?
In most democracies the
major vehicles through which
mature public opinion mani-
fests itself demonstrations,
publicmeetings and picketing
- are often the first visible
expressions of the nature of
strains and tensions gnawing
at the very heart of society.
If the channels of com-
munications are allowed to
become clogged up and the
voices of dissent continuously
stifled, it is inevitable that,

SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975

Law Must Serve The People

in a population as inherently
volatile as ours, periodic
eruptions of discontent would
be predicated. From these no
section of the community
could claim immunity.
The Law in most societies
is not envisaged as a punitive
or pestilent imposition on
human rights and individual
freedoms, but rather is con-
ceived as sacrosanct in con-
secration and just in its
implementation. Ideally, the
legal system is an obligatory
garment of a stable society, a
reality that is neither transient
nor unchangeable, but vital
and constantly evolving to
meet the demands and chal-
lenges of the time.


If this ideal is tarnished
or forgotten, the legal system,
as well as the political en-
vironment which spawns it,
is denounced as an anachron-
istic encumbrance to be
ignored, evaded or tolerated,
but never venerated.
The rule of law pre-
supposes the spiritual involve-
ment and sanction of the
population as a whole. It is
the charismatic strength
behind its application rather
than the barren phraseology
alone that transforms the
law into a conscious and
living reality. The Indian
poet, Rabindranath Tagore
expresses this idea when he
visualizes the heaven of free-
dom "where the clear stream
of reason has not lost its
way into the dreary desert
sands of dead habit."
Since the development of
public opinion plays such an
integral part in the growth
of a just society, it is incum-
bent upon Caribbean peoples
and governments to explore
or design indigenous institu-
tions by means of which a
liveable balance of power is
maintained. Such institutions
should be aimed at stimulat-
ing the dialogue between the
electorate and the elected


The small sizes of our
populations need not be
faulted as natural impedi-
ments, but should be
recognized as enviable
opportunities for building
and maintaining vibrant and
participatory democracies.
Political processes, such as
plebiscites and panchayats,
should be examined as path-
ways for the diffusion of
responsibili y among citizens.
Plebiscites provide unique
iieans through which the
public can articulate their
feelings and are genuine
instruments for verifying that
the ultimate sovereignty of
the people is not violated nor
The most compelling
deterrent against arbitrary
and hastily conceived legisla-
tion is that laws can be
directed against members of

the House of Representatives
either at the present moment
or in the future when the
Government no longer
occupies its position. This is
of some concern to citizens
of Trinidad and Tobago
since, in seeking to expand
and consolidate its influence
in public administration, the
People's National Movement
would have bequeathed con-
siderable constitutional
authority to its successor in
Against this background
the Security Amendment Act
must be viewed.
The first responsibility of
the parliamentarians is to
determine whether they
would be prepared to live
under the legal and admin-
istrative system that shall
have been created. Has the
Bill been measured against

the existing system of laws
of the land? Is the passage of
bills in response to signs of
discontent degenerating into
a syncopated ritual?


One of the greatest con-
tributions that the British
Legal System has made to
humanity is that in normal
circumstances a citizen can-
not be imprisoned without
a fair trial; a defendant must
be presumed innocent unless
proven guilty beyond a rea-
sonable doubt. Each crime is
judged to be an independent
event, irrespective of the
number of convictions an
individual might have chalked
up. However, should a defen-
dant be proven guilty, only
then must the nature of

previous guilts be reviewed.
Unless a direct and sequential
relationship could be shown,
guilt does not hinge upon a
previous conviction. Once
this right is abrogated an
intrinsic element of our way
of life would have been lost.
In adding to, or altering,
our present political and
legal systems each act must
be scrutinized to ensure that
an equitable balance ofpower
is preserved and can be so
justified to succeeding genera-
tions of citizens. In the final
analysis the most competent
judge of any generation, or
of the established govern-
ment, is its immediate succes-

Cecil H. Seetahal.

SUNDAY MAY 25, 1975





GUYANESE actors Ken
Corsbie, Marc Matthews
and Henry Muttoo are
combining with three of
Trinidad's top musicians,
Lancelot Layne, Michael
'Toby' Tobas and Edison
Quarliss to present the
'ALL AH WE' show in
Trinidad during the last
week of this month.

The three actors were last
seen accompanied by three
guyanese musicians when
KAIRI presented them in a
sell out preview at the Little
Carib theatre in March. Since
then they have revamped the
show and are working with
the Trinidadian musicians to
forge a theatrical combina-
tion which they hope will go
beyond making the musicians
mere accompanists.
The musicians were picked
b'y Lancelot Layne for their
versatility so that though
they be only three, they can
command a number of
instruments and so increase
the range of musical possibil-
ities. Lance Layne will be
doubling- on tenor pans and
bass, Toby on a variety of
percussion instruments and
Quarliss on soprano sax and

Arriving in Trinidad a
week before their shows, the
actors will be working day
and night with the musicians,
who have been preparing
with the aid of tapes, to

weave music into
fabric of the show.

the very


The actors use the writing
of a variety of Caribbean
authors and poets as well as
their own topical material to
portray the Caribbean Experi-
ence and will be performing
special shows for school
children both in South and
North Trinidad.
The tour is again present-
ed by KAIRI who are joined
by the Performing Arts
Technical Team (P.A.T.T.)
for the first two shows which
are at the Naparima Bowl, a
matinee for schools and a
full show at 830 p.m. on the
28th. May (the eve of
Corpus Christi). Tickets are
$4.00 available at Stephens in
High Street.
From there 'ALL AH WE'
moves'North for three shows
at the Little Carib theatre
in Woodbrook on the 29th,
30th, and 31st. at 8.30 p.m.
Tickets for these shows are
also priced at $4.00 and are
available from the theatre
from 3.00 p.m. on the days
of pero performance.

14HLJ t

MAY 27TH-28TH 1975

3 10 YEAR
This is a $5 million issue. The 63/% bonds 1982/85 can
be purchased at T.T. $96.14 percent with a running
yield of 7.02% per annum, and gross redemption yield
of 7.30% per annum.

This is a $10 million issue. The 7.15% bonds 1995/2000
can be purchased at TT$90.87 percent with a running
yield of 7.87% per annum, and a gross redemption yield
of 8.00% per annum.


The list of applications will be opened at 8.00 a.m. on
Tuesday 27th May-,1975 and closed at 12 noon on
Wednesday 28th May 1975. Bonds will be dated 28th
May, 1975.

The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago is the sole and
exclusive agent for the raising and management of this

Interest will be payable'half-yearly by the Central Bank
of Trinidad and Tobago on the 28th November and the
28th May. The first payment will be made on the 28th
November 1975 at the rate of T.T. $6.75 per T.T.$100.
face value per annum for the 6/4% bond and T.T. $7.15
per T.T. $100. face value per annum for the 7.15% bond.

The proceeds of this issue will be applied to financing
Projects in the development programme for 1975 and
to providing long term securities for insurance companies,
pension funds and similar investors.

Prospectuses and application forms may be obtained at
the Investment Division of the Central Bank of Trinidad
and Tobago, Comptroller of Accounts, Central Bank
Building, any of the branches of the commercial banks
operating in Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad Co-operative
Bank Limited, Caribbean Stock and Bond (Trinidad)
Limited, West Indies Stockbrokers Limited, all Trust
Companies operating in Trinidad and Tobago and
Barclays Finance Corporation of Trinidad and Tobago

Applications will be received at the Investment Division
of the Central Bank, St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain,
and must be accompanied by the full amount of the
purchase price of the Bonds applied for.
The issue will be made under the Development Loans
Act 1964 (No. 19 of 1964), as amended by the Act No.
17 of 1965 and Act No. 14 of 1969.
Further information may be obtained from the Central
Bank, St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain; all banks and
trust companies or your stockbroker.

12 Noon, 28th May, 1975





Lloyd Tavlor.

TO DATE, the experience
of the Cumana Multi-
purpose Co-op has not
been one of unqualified
success. The main pro-
blem is the shortage of
managerial skills. .But
other problems such
as a spate of thefts -
have added to the
Yet as taxing as these odds
are on one's already short
patience the leadership and
the large body of members
are determined to make a
go of it.
Such is the story given by
Carolee Joseph and Catherine
Joseph the persons directly
responsible for the day to
day runring- of the co-op's
marketing outlet. Respect-
ively they are the Co-op's
Manager and Assistant Secre-
Their very names tell us
another interesting story. But

ON Wednesday of last
week,Tapia held a street-
corner meeting in
Siparia. What was sup-
posed to be a house
meeting flowed out on to
the block and became a
virtual public meeting.
The response in Siparia
was heartening.
Speaking at the meeting
were Billy Montague who
acted as chairman for the
evening, Mickey Matthews,
Lloyd Best and Beau Tewarie.
Billy Montague spoke of
Tapia's New World. He
emphasised the need for
political discussion as a first
step towards working to
create that new world.
Mickey Matthews outlined
some Tapia proposals for
ecLonomic reorganization. The
list step, he said, was to
take control ol the lifeline
ndustriics such as oil and
'sulu Mathews added that it
was. also necessary to re-
oganise the Banking sector,
close off til' economy and
encourage national enterprise.
Beau Tewarie emphasized
that the time had come for
political change. Tie type ol
chaiinr e thail T;ipi;i was talking
about, lie stressed, was not
merely a chaingc )if govern-

for the male-chauvinists and
the cynics who see nothing
but the flesh and blood of
our women-folk it may still
be necessary to confirm their
Together with the rank
and file members they have
been all working ceaselessly
for the last three years now
to establish firmly a measure
of economic independence
out of the foundations of a
40 year old credit society.
Now out of these efforts
has grown a fairly heavy
volume in the buying of
members' produce, namely
cocoa, coffee, and tonca
beans and in selling items
of sundry agricultural sup-
So much so that the mar-
keting center itself is cramped
for space, literally bursting at
its seams. Hundreds of
pounds of agricultural pro-
duce, bagged in jute-bags
and stacked in heaps virtually
crowd the entrances.

ment. He argued that Tapia
was proposing a complete
transformation of the social,
political and economic struc-
ture itself.
Lloyd Best, Secretary of
Tapia, spoke at length on
the problem of effecting
political change in the coun-
try. Best emphasised that the
only time the people of this
country will opt to remove
the present government is
when they perceive a move-
ment that becomes a moral
force a political party with
men, plans and vision superior
in every way to the present
The Tapia Secretary
pointed out that when the
people perceive such a force
neither patronage, legality,
control of the media, noi tlhe
police and the military, all of
which the government now
uses to keep itself in power,
would make any difference.
The meeting which began
at 7.30 p.m. lasted for
almost three hours. Several
questions were asked and
discussion followed.
People at the imeeling
expressed inlcrest in having
Tapia come back at an early

Carolee Joseph Manageress of the Cunana Co-op

Snall and low-roofed
natural light is almost blocked
out leaving a rather dull view
of the building's interior.
Soon the- passage-ways
themselves are bound to be
gobbled up by produce,
forcing persons to swivel
across uncomfortably on tip-
toes! Making height in order
to reduce girth.
It is clear that everything
points to the need for expan-
sion, forbreathingspace. As it
stands perched on the edge of
Toco Main Road, and too on

Matelot bound bus
caught the Public Trans-
port Service Corpora-
tion's vehicle without a
spare-tyre after driving
only a quarter of the
40-odd miles journey
from Sangre Grande.
The unforeseen mishap
occurred just outside Matura
sometime after nine o'clock
on the night of Whit
Sunday's eve.
Several persons travel-
ling on what was the day's
last scheduled run were left
stranded in a fitful hope that
something could be done

die entrance to Anglais the
building has no more laund
space for cheap and quick
But. said Carilee, May
1975 would make it five
months since they applied to
Athe Ministry for the use of
some Crown Lands. And no
answer has as yet been forth-
coi nlI'g.
However, when they began
the C(o-op their detractors
had given them only four
months to survive. With
about 300 members and

about half of, a $15.000
shire capital taken up, and
S' ,000 yearly turn over of
business activity the work
continues patiently.
And the question of
Well that is a matter now
before the Courts in Sangre
Grande. With cocoa beans
ii-nlg + *-t r-n gh! y 51 15 p er
Il: last year pilferage amount-
ed to some $2000. The duo
assured me that steps are
being taken now to stop the

Matelot Bus-Service

Breaks Down Again

when the news reached the
authorities stationed in
Sangre Grande.
Scores of others lined
the route at Balandra, Mahoe,
Cumana, Toco, and San
Souci in the vain hope that
the last bus would soon
arrive to pick them up.
Unperturbed perhaps
were those who remained
home at Matelot, and who
have long since ceased to
worry about what the govern-
ment can do for Iliem.

They were eagerly en-
gaged in preparations for a
Whit Suntide fete, the objec-
tive of which is to raise funds
to purchase a Multi-purpose
Bus that would and could
service their own needs.
For them the mishap
is another in a series of
mixed-blessings from which
ihey are now rediscovering
the virtues of self-sufficiency,
after waiting for 17 long
years on the promise land.

Caiman Gets


Water -Pipe
CAIMAN HILL is to have
another water-tap. The tur-
pentine has worked again.
Wherever bird number-
two, the Government setting
lagice; anyway ketch drop,
they pulling a ni1n.
Wait and see i Ithey will
make tIe house connections
Let us see wletlher we go
get water in Maingot Road
and ('larke l; nds; and up lhe
back of Mount D'oi and the
million (lliel places where
people cain'l evenl scrub Iley
lecll when Ilc morning comlle.

A AP *, I4' Rs 6D