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Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
April 27, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

30 Cents




LAST Monday, April 21,
sugar workers started
their phased return to
work. In the middle of
the week, cane farmers
decided to call off their
no-cut campaign. The
leadership of the Oilfield
Workers' Trade Union
was at the same time
preparing to send its
members back to their
jobs. Very little fanfare
greeted these steps
toward a cessation of
industrial conflict, and,
indeed, there is little, if
anything, by way of
victory to trumpet.
In fact, the unions
have been offered nothing
even in the way of face-
saving devices Caroni
has insisted on a return
to work before a resump-
tion of discussions on
outstanding disputes. No
concessions have been
made to the ICFTU on
the issue of the with-
drawal of the Levy and
the question of the
recognition of the union,
despite the ridiculously
transparent stratagem of
introducing Shah to the
Caroni negotiating team
as an adviser to the All
Trinidad Sugar Union.
The toughest stand of
all has been taken by
Texaco, who have refused
absolutely to take back
the workers until a new
wage agreement has been
settled, an outcome
which rests, as far as the
Company is concerned,
on OWTU adopting a
"reasonable" wage claim.
The failure to settle
even the basic bread and
butter issues (apart from
the sugar workers, who
have long settled their
wages and working con-
ditions) is paralleled by
an equally abject failure
to make any headway on
those matters concerning
economic reorganization
and national economic
Mention has already
been made of the failure
of the ICFTU to wring

any concession out of
the Government with
regard to the law govern-
ing the representation of
cane farmers. Nor has
the OWTU been able to
budge the Government
from its passive position
on the role of the multi-
national corporations, or
even to get them to open
up the discussion.
And while Caroni Ltd.
has agreed in principle to
discuss the issue of profit
sharing, the Prime Min-
ister's fulminations at
Point Fortin on April 11
on the question of the
ownership of national
enterprise, leave little
doubt as to the essenti-
ally negative stance
Caroni's major share-
holders will adopt on
the question.
The leadership of the
United Labour Front is
talking now of moving
into the "political" phase
of the struggle. The
question remains, though,
whether they have missed
an historic opportunity
to advance the political
game in a major way,
and whether that failure
has not compromised
their ability to build
political organisation at
this stage? The composi-
tion and location of the
ULF forces, and the
particular point in time
at which they came
together, put them in an
unprecedented position
to bring into national
focus a range of far-
reaching issues.
First, there is the pro-
blem of economic in-
equality. The ULF em-
braced the highest-paid
and the most lowly paid
workers in the land.
Second, there is the over-
lapping, but distinct,
question of race. Third,
there is the issue of
economic Independence.
And fourth, there is the
matter of a popularly-
based political alternative
to the present ruling
regime. On each of these


questions, the ULF con-
tained within its ranks
the possibility of a long-
term solution.
If it is true to say that
it is the perception of
this possibility that ex-
cited interest among the
ULF following and in
the wider community,
then it is equally true
that by its insistence on
short-term agitation for
narrow sectional goals, by
its headlong rush to
confront the Government,
and by its failure to lay
the groundwork for sus-
tained political education
and organisation, the
ULF has dissipated much
of the active support
and goodwill it initially


The prospects now
for political organisation
cannot but be greatly
diminished in a situation
where confusion and dis-
illusionment are sure to
succeed, if they have not
already done so, the
first flush of enthusiasm,
and in which the early
and easy stages of com-
mittment on the part of
the rank and file have
been allowed to slip by
without any serious
attempt on the part of
the leadership to anchor
the movement in a firmer
understanding and con-
sciousness of the issues.
This failing on the part
of the ULF is amply demon-
strated in the case of Basdeo
Panday, who has from time
to time hinted at the need
for a larger political strategy,
but who has never explicitly
stated to sugar workers that
he is embarked on a political
campaign, and that it is quite
legitimate, in defence of their
interests, for him to attempt
to build a political party
around the nucleus of their
trade union support.
Yet, as it stands, because
of the continuing racial polar-
isation of the country and
the vacuum left by the
decline of the DLP, Panday

is likely to emerge with the
best prospects for his personal
political survival. Whether he
now has the ability to spon-
sor radical change in the
sugar belt is quite a different
The position of George
Weekes is much more pro-
blematic, for he has never
enjoyed explicit political
support from oilworkers, and
is now openly distrusted after
his political adventures in
the past. His position has
been further compromised in
the eyes of his union mem-
bers and the general public
alike, by his seemingly
capricious handling of the
wage claim issue, and by the
ambiguity surrounding the
ULF alliance.
To make matters worse,
there is the presence on the
ULP platform of such band-
wagon riders as Millette,
Jacobs and, especially,
Robinson, who figures in the
minds of workers as one of
the chief ideological archi-
tects of the ISA and an
advocate of unions staying
out of politics, all for the
principle of a proper climate
for investment;such shadoN. y
presence must serve to dis-
credit Weekes more than
anyone else.
The other prominent ULF
leader, Raffique Shah, in no
way changes the picture, for his
political reputation rests more
on an inflated notion of the
significance of his role in
the Army Mutiny of 1970
than it does on any realistic
assessment of the strength
of his current support.
In sum, the prospects for
the ULF as a long-term
political force, far less as a
movement for change, are
minimal. To date, their.
biggest achievement has been
to create the conditions in
which the Government could
attempt to upgrade the
status -of the military with-
out arousing widespread
public indignation. As a
whole, the political method
of the ULF has not been
markedly different from that
of Williams.
The key elements of that
method are the manipulation
of popular ignorance and
the exploitation of popular
hardships and frustrations to
advance the political interests
of the so-called leadership. In

this game of colonial politics,
predictably the ULF have
been outplayed by Williams.
If now the channels of free
expression in the media are
being closed off, it is a
development which has been
facilitated by the open dis-
dain of the ULF leadership
for democratic discussion and
The biggest mistake we
could make now would be
to try to determine whether
Williams or the ULF has
won or lost.
Essentially they are in the
same camp of colonial ex-
ploitative politics. The only
real difference between them
is one between ins and outs;
the view that our people can-
not be moved by anything
serious or noble is shared by
both of them.
Opposed to both these
camps are the vast multitude
of the people who are either
unrepresented by the
managers of the State, badly
represented, nominally re-
presented or not represented
by the Unions, and com-
pletely outside the world of
business and the corpora-
Victory for all these little
people requires the break-up
of all forms of organised
power whether in the
Unions, the Corporations or
the agencies of State. With
the heightening of political
consciousness and the growth
of permanent political or-
ganisation, this breakdown
has been advancing fast ever
since the start of the Febru-
ary Revolution.
With each succeeding
mock battle between these
organised branches of the
privileged elite, that victory
is coming nearer. The end
will come only when we
finally repudiate the politics
of mere agitation and reject
for once and all the methods
of manipulation.


Nomination forms for
the Election of the Tapia
National Executive for
the 1975-76 term are
available from the Tapia
House (662-5126). The
Election takes place on
Sunday, May 11, at the
S.W.W.T.U. Hall on
Wrightson Rd., P.O.S.
Nominations close at
12.00 noon on the day
of the Assembly.

Vol. 5 No. 17


Lloyd Taylor Reports On The U.L.F. Public Meeting In Woodford Square

The Last Hurrah?

IN what was certainly
among the last of its
purely industrial stands
the United Labour Front
advocated, and argued
for, an open political
struggle which it hopes
would secure the eventual
liberation of working-
class interests from PNM's
minority domination.
This position was made
clear by the leaders (Young,
Shah, Panday and Weekes)
at a meeting in Woodford
Square, Port-of-Spain, held
on Thursday April 17, 1975.
Elaborating upon the case
for politics Joe Young said
that one could not accept the
"false idea that the fate of
the peoples in oil and sugar
would be removed from the
political situation."'In oil, he
added, workers were up
against one of the largest
MNC's in the country. The
struggle was essentially a
people's one.
Referring to Senator
Julien's call for a "benevolent
dictatorship" to restore law
and order Mr. Young warned
against the mistake of think-
ing that dictatorship is some-
thing you read about in
books, or that it could not
happen here. It was important
to note that people's rights
were being eroded. For in no
democratic country is it
,necessary for police permis-
sion to hold a meeting.
Weekes, seemingly under-
scoring the need for the new
political emphasis, informed
the fairly large gathering that
the Port-of-Spain bound
religious march which was
aborted in San Fernando was
decided upon with the inten-
tion of bringing the "struggle
to a quick end." He felt
certain that if the march had
been allowed to proceed as
planned the industrial struggle
would have ended soon after.
According to both Basdeo
Panday and George Weekes
the new phase of the struggle
should take the form of Com-
mittees for Bread, Peace and
Justice; Committees organ-
ised in the streets, villages and

Arguing for himself
Panday felt that the course of
action being proposed would
do away with the need for
violence. He said that a
people united can take care
of the enemy without "one
shot." Violence was part-
icularly to be avoided since
it was the scene that the
Government wanted them to
be on.
About the current phase
of the battle against the
PNM, Shah, President of the
ICFTU, said that there was
"an air of finality." The
people in the oil and sugar
belt, he noted, had prepared
themselves for a long and
drawn out battle. "The indus-
trial battle may come to an
end. This time it
is going to be a fight to the
He appealed for people,
including professionals, to
feel themselves a part of the
working-class army, arguing
that "working-class" is merely
an attitude of mind.
Shah felt that Government
had to take blame for the
suffering among the strikers
among whom were people
who had large families but
had to do with "four pounds
of flour." Cooking oil, flour
and rice were now running
out. It was clear that the
Prime Minister "was not-
concerned about the suffer-
ing masses. His only concern
is how he is going to stay in
power next week, or next
To this picture Shah added
the fact that thousands and
thousands of tons of farmers'
cane were being maliciously
burnt. Cane farmers in the
Valley Line area had been
beaten but were arrested and
chargedd for violence.
He described the Board of
Caroni as a bunch of mes-
senger boys. He went on to
describe how they (ICFTU)
were bending over "backwards
in limbo" to meet the Board
of Caroni. Disguising himself
he managed to appear before
it as part of the team repre-
senting the All Trinidad Sugar
Estates and Factory Workers

Trade Union. But he charged
that Sam Worrel, Personnel
Manager, Teckle Skinner and
others were there to see that
Caroni Ltd. had nothing to
with him.
He was finally allowed to
take part in the negotiations
as an Adviser to the All
Trinidad-Union, a develop-
ment which the Chairman of
the meeting saw as a step
towards further unity despite
the obvious attempt by the
Government to put the ULF
At the meeting President
James Manswell and Vice
President Nathaniel Critchlow
were severely berated for the
"reactionary" behaviour ofthe
Trade Union Congress
throughout the struggle.
In exposing the treachery
and the duplicity of the TUC
George Weekes said that there
was a missing paragraph in
the advertised version of
TUC's letter to the OWTU.
That paragraph contained
Congress' promise not to
publish the letter during the
current negotiations in order
that OWTU's case be not pre-
judiced. But two days later
the letter'had appeared as a
full paid advertisement.
Weekes charged that their
intention was to prevent his
union from obtaining the
increases demanded from
Texaco "sp as not to embar-
rass Manswell".
Weekes went on to outline
a history of "reaction" on the
part of the Labour Congress.
In 1965, for example, Mans-
well, two Jamaican colleagues
and himself had agreed to
organise the Caribbean Labour
Congress to seek for a repeal
of the ISA. Yet two days
after that decision Manswell
had instead called on him
(Weekes) to resign as Presi-
dent of the Congress.
In 1971 "reaction"
appeared again when, accord-
ing to Williams, Mr. Spencer
of the TUC had called on the
Prime Minister to do some-
thing "to stop Weekes and
them" or else they'll have no
alternative but to join in.
But, said Weekes, he had
approached Congress "extend-

George 'leeke5 "IW L. HI/'011 1unjld ovvitihere".

ing" the hand of goodwill.
After all such a course of
action, he felt, was quite in
order, especially when it is
remembered that the United
States and China who were
'two worlds' apart,had agreed
to meet.
An appeal was made to
the people of the North to
extend and to continue the
struggle for total liberation.
According to Weekes there
was in the Southland an
attitude of liberation. "They
were in control of the situa-
tion" there.
He informed the crowds
of the poor attendance at
Williams' political meetings
in the South. Particularly
washed-out was the San
Fernando meeting which wit-
nessed a heavy transfer of
police forces from Texaco's
gates, the comic sight of
Errol Mahabir appealing for a
louder applause than was
possible from the poor show-

iiA&IA, *-" -

ing of PNM support, the
fight that took place behind
the rostrum, and Williams'
'splitting' the scene after
only twenty minutes speak-

_Also featured at the meet-
ing was a letter (to ULF)
from Raoul Pantin, free-lance
journalist, and dismissed 610
newscaster. The letter which
was read by the Chairman
emphasised the need for a
free Press as demonstrated
by the recent curbs on news-
reporting at National Broad-
casting Corporation.

The meeting wound up
after two switch-offs and
switch-ons of the rostrum's
lights, reminding them of
the City Council's ruling not
to continue after 6.30 p.m.
so that Trinity Cathedral's
service could proceed in
quiet. The Governor General
was said to be in attendance.

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--- --


wonder now international Womans Year
would be celebrated in the land of the
Amazons? Or in one of those matriarchal
societies which anthropologists delight in
telling us about? The question is important if
only to serve as a reminder that different
societies exhibit different social and cultural
conditions. The International woman may
therefore be be a rare and unique creature
So that the question of equal rights foi
both men and women cannot be other than
linked to specific cultural and social contexts
within different societies. In the first instance
there needs to be a critical examination of
the role and status of women in terms of the
customs and beliefs within a particular
Secondly concrete and extensive research
needs to be undertaken with a view to deter-
mining exactly 'where women are placed
economically and socially in the society, the
areas of discrimination, and the possibilities
and policies for amelioration.
It is unfortunate that here in Trinidad
and Tobago much of the discussion thus far
has proceeded in an atmosphere of militant
ignorance. The absence of any extensive
research literature on the status of women
may be all the evidence necessary to demon-
strate the case of womans unequal role in our

But to proceed to call for the elimina-
tion of barriers to the full participation of
women in the society without addressing
ourselves to the task of documenting the
nature, extent and real effects of 1,- ... bar-
riers is, inevitably, to confine ourselves to the
traditional cliches and simply to invite
"sympathy" for our unfortunate position.
So that any effort which seeks to remove
ignorance and to clarify misconceptions must
be welcomed as a tremendous step towards
a proper formulation and discussion of the
issues. The H.A.T.T. report, recently pub-
lished on the "Status of the Household
Worker in Trinidad and Tobago" is clearly
one such attempt, and, it is to be hoped, the
first of many.
Finally, and perhaps, most importantly,
the discussion on the status of women
cannot realistically proceed without a wider
consideration of the status of all the citizens
of the society, women, men and that unfortu-
nate hybrid breed called children.
Equality is neither divisible nor particular.
It must embrace all or it does not exist at all.
Any struggle for women equality that pro-
ceeds in splendid isolation from the struggle
against all inequality comes dangerously close

to being, if not illusory, then peripheral.
There are 70,000 people unemployed in
Trinidad and Tobago and that is inequality;
70% of our households live beneath the poverty
line and that is inequality; more than one-
third of our labour force is unrepresented or
badly represented and that is inequality,
more than 50% of our families live in sub-
standard housing and that is inequality.
The list of course is not complete. The
point is that if we, as women, are making
demands for equality we cannot afford to
limit the range of our attention or the scope
of our inquiries. Our call for equality must be
a call for the elimination of all inequalities.
And any call for the elimination of inequalities
in a society such as ours is a call for social
International womans year gives us the
splendid opportunity to seize the initiative.
If our fullest development and participation
in society is our aim then we cannot afford
not to do so. To limit our focus now is to
institutionalise barriers to our participation.
For in the end there is only one way in
which any creed or race or sex can secure for
itself an equal place in the society, and that is
by participating fully in every aspect of the
construction of such a society.

c'rTTtAV APRIL 27 1975;


One of the long overdue changes in our
society is the need to find a new basis
on which to rationalise the organisation
of household work. Such a rationalisation
would have beneficial effects on the lives of
women who, to support themselves and their
families perform household services.
The new rationalisation would establish
much needed minimum standards, thus
placing this category of employment on per
with other categories. It would ensure that a
worker receive a fair day's wage for a fair
.day's work. It would put an end to the ex-
ploitative and archaic conditions of employ-
ment which are typical for this category of
worker. It would mean that the "servant" -
the good old household drudge and jack of
all trades will disappear. Those women who
remain in household service wou dg so by
choice. Many of them will be specialists, who
operating under good conditions, will be
motivated to perform professionally.
The cost of household services will
in turn affect the demand. It is not un-
increase and this will in turn, affect the
demand. It is not unlikely that the household
worker, operating as she does from a single
home, will become a rarity. But it is equally
conceivable that many of these women, un-
daunted by the risks, and fired by the chal-

lenges involved, will form co-operatives
through which they will make a variety of
services available to a wider community.
Baby-sitting, home-nursing, cleaning and
companionship for older citizens, many of
whom are lonely, unloved and no longer part
of the main stream of their families' lives, are
some of the services which come to mind.
Because of the higher cost of household
help, families have to decide what priority
they will give this item in their budget. Un-
limited service for a small limited financial
outlay will not be acceptable any longer.
The liberation of the household worker
will have other serious repercussions in house-
holds which use their services. It can certainly
force households to operate more efficiently,
deciding what is an essential and what a non-
essential chore. Any housewife alive to the
need to have time for her own self-fullfilment
will redistribute the household chores so that
ALL who live in the home share meaningfully
in its administration. It will be the only way
to render ineffective, the irrational notion
that "a woman's place is in the home".
This kind of reorganisation will be worth
it, if it succeeds in achieving more time for

household workers to enjoy the company of
their families and to learn new skills to up-
grade their earning capacity.
The household worker, like any othne
worker, needs encouragement to become the
best possible person she or he is capable ot
becoming. But our concern must not be res-
tricted to household workers. What we should
ultimately be striving for, is the creation of a
climate for growth of ALL citizens, particularly
for our women-folk, many of whom through
prejudice are way behind in the developmen-
tal process. The store clerk, the street
cleaner, the factory worker, the waitress,
each of whom is constantly on the treadmill
of poverty, has no time to think about her
own self improvement.
Thus the fight to improve the status of
the household worker must be put within the
wider context of the search to find effective
means of improving the quality of life for the
underprivileged and disadvantaged among us.
It must form part of the struggle to make the
unskilled into skilled workers; to revive many
of the dying crafts in our community; and
to provide day-care facilities for those who
cannot afford private care.
It has to be linked with the restructuring
of a whole society so that we can ALL share
in the resources of this land.

A C.S.O. sample study record-
ed the population of Trini-
dad and Tobago in 1970 at
approximately 930,600 persons
of which 456,300 were male and
474,300 female. Of this popula-
tion 600,200 persons fell within
the 15 years and over age group,
302,500 of these persons being
males and 297,700 females.
These persons were Mre
accurately referred to as he
"non-institutional" population.
the "institutional" populadlon
being those persons who at the
time of the study were either
hospitalized, imprisoned guesto
in hotels or boarding houses and
other institutions.
Of the total non institu-
tional population 15 years old
and over, all persons who were
engaged in work, who were will-
ing and able to work, that is
those persons who had jobs (the
employed) and those who did
not have jobs but were either
seeking employment or were
willing to work (the unemployed)
were classified as being part of
the "labour o force."
Of the non-institutional
population fifteen years old and
over quoted above, 253,600
male were classified as belonging
to the .labour force while only
107,400 females fell into this
category, the proportion of men
being 84% while that of women
was only 36%. This meant that
more men than women were
interested in finding jobs in the
Labour market. During the

period 1970-1973 the proportion
of men in the labour force
remained constant while the pro-
portion of women decreased from
36% to 35% during that same
Of the 253,600 males who
comprised the labour force
225,600 were actually employed
leaving 28,000 or 11% un-
employed, while of the 107,400
females, 88,000 were employed
leaving a total of 19,000 or 18%
Although the proportion of
women who comprised the
labour force was smaller than the
proportion of men, more men
than women had actually suc-
ceeded in finding jobs, although
the large majority of the un-
employed of both sexes were

recorded as seeking work during
the censal period.
In the case of both sexes
unemployment was recorded as
being highest in the 15-19 age
group, where the figure for men
was 26% in 1970 and 29% in
1973 while for females the per-
centage was 36% in 1970 and as
,high as 47% in 1973.
Unemployment for males
was lowest in the 45-54 age
group where the unemployment
rate was only 4% in 1970 and

5% at the end of June 1973 while
for women the unemployment
rate was lowest in the 65 and
over age group, the figure being
6% at the end of December
1970 and 4% at the end of June
However, the general un-
employment rate for men stood
at 11% in 1970 and 12% in 1973
while the rate for women was
18% in 1970 and 19% for 1973.
This showed an increase of 1%
in the unemployment rate in
both sexes over the two and a
half year period, while the un-
employment rate for the general
population rose from 13% to
14% during the same period. In
1974 the general unemployment
rate again rose by 1% this in-
creasing to 15%.
In Trinidad and Tobago as
presumably in other places there
is a direct relationship between
educational attainment and
facility in obtaining jobs. How-
ever the evidence suggests that
jobs are becoming increasingly
difficult to find and that the
general unemployment situation
will worsen unless adequate and
immediate steps are taken to
curb a declining situation.
A C.S.O. sample survey
conducted during 1973 showed
that jobs were relatively easily

Pat Downes

attainable before 1972. Before
this period school leaves in the
15-24 age bracket with 5 G.C.E.
O'Level passes or with School
Certificate I or II obtained jobs
with relative ease.
The figures showed that in
this category 47% of-both sexes
found jobs within six months of
having left school while 19%.of
the males and 30% of the females
took 6-12 months. 28% of the
males and 19% of the females
took over 1 year before finding
a job.
Of young persons leaving
school with GCE A Level or
H.SC 2 or 2 plus subjects
females took a shorter period in
finding jobs than males for while
all the males in the sample took
6-12 months, 85% of the females
found jobs within a six month
Men who left school with a
University Diploma were all
working within a six month
period while 66% of the women
found work and 33% were still
searching for jobs after 1 year.
Persons with University degrees
both male and female had no
difficulty at all in obtaining jobs
since 100% of the sample found
jobs within a six month period.
With regard to the labour
force of 1970 though, there was
some variation in the level of
education attained by males and
females of the total male labour
force, 3% had no education at
all, 3% reached as far as the
Continued on Page 8


Faith Willtshire

Women In The

Labour Force

LL I ---- I IIII L

n AA-- irA I

T he louiscl lives Associationi
of I riniiLdad and Tobago has
recently published its re-
port. long in the works, on the
status of the Household worker
in Trinidad.
The timing of the report is
certainly advantageous. Coming
in a year which has been desig-
nated International Women's
Year the report focuses atten-
tion on the status of a group of
women who occupy, as the
report points out on Page 5,
"one of the most unenviable
positions in the employment
structure in Trinidad and To-
For this reason, plus the
fact that the report constitutes
one of the few attempts to
research and document the status
of any group in the Society, one
is tempted to thank God for
small mercies and to let it be.
And indeed in the case of
most of the objectives of the
report one cannot deny that it
has accomplished exactly what it
set out to do. The report lists
five main objectives; 41) to
investigate the terms and condi-
tions of service of household
workers in Trinidad, 2) to
inform public opinion, on the
matter, 3) to identify problem
areas requiring urgent attention
4) to propose a new basis for the
rationalization of household
work so that it can be given a
realistic job classification, con-
sistent with the real economic
value of the job performed, 5)
to use the study as a means to
improve the status of women
engaged in household work
whether they are paid or not.
As far as the first three are
concerned the report quite
clearly satisfies them. This review
is not going to attempt any
evaluation either of the research
methods employed or .the
or the veracity' of the find-
ings in relation to the informa-

H.A.T.T. Report

on The

Household Worker

tion gleaned. But the final two
objectives indicated by the report
are of a different nature entirely.
Consideration of the last
two objectives obviously lies in
the realm of values since they
address themselves to the ques-
tion of action towards change.
That the researchers decided to
include those last two as part of
the objectives is to be welcomed

and, given the record of
H.A.T.T.'s enterprising spirit, not
However, it is possible that
they might have done better to
question themselves a little
more realistically as to whether
they had the resources to tackle
these questions since they must
have irecognised that to do so
would be to plunge themselves
headfirst into an open sea -of
social and economic analysis.
As it is the open sea turns
out in the report to be a dry
gulch and the report is seriously
inadequate in the attention it
pays to the status of the house-
hold worker, paid or unpaid, and
of household work, and of any
changes in these, in the context
of the totality of the economic,
and social situation which per-
tains in the country today.
The result is confusion. An
indeterminate position between
the obvious need to give atten-
tion to the more fundamental
questions and the simpler task of
merely proposing palliative
measures to improve the status

Let us consider objective
.No. 4. The researchers would
seek to propose a new basis for
the rationalisation of household
work so that it can be given a
realistic job classification, con-
sistent with the real economic
value of the job performed.
Now in its conclusions (p.8)
the report lists as No.1, the con-
firmation "of the urgent need
for the rationalisation of house-
hold work" and as No.1.1 it
"identified the need for several
community facilities which could
provide many of the services now
done by household workers". It
further states. "Child care,
laundry and cleaning services
organised on a Community and/
or commercial basis can effect-
ively serve the needs of house-
This same "urgent need"
turns up again on Page 10 as No. 5
in its list of Recommendations.
Now it is quite clear that all the
services performed by the paid
household worker can be, so to
speak, taken out of the house-
hold and commercialised. But
equally clear is the fact that any
such policy implies the elimina-
tion of the household or domestic
worker as exists today.
This has been the pattern in
those economies. with highly
developed Service sectors and it
seems to be the most ,efficient
solution the problems of the
domestic worker. For presum-
ably under commercial service



Michael Harris

arrangements those persons per-
forming household services will
be either employees of a.firm or
partners in some co-operative
venture and as such within the
pale of the I.R.A., on an equal
footing with the other workers
under the N.I.S. open to union-
isation and thus more likely to
escape the twin evils of long
hours and low rates of pay and
finally free of the prejudices that
do now attend the "servant
So that if your first con-
clusion deals with rationalisation
of household work through
commercialization then it is
reasonable to expect some dis-
cussion of the problems and
possibilities for proceeding in
this direction and to expect
recommendations which flow
from such discussion. And it is
difficult to understand why this
is not done and why the report
contents itself with recommenda-
tions which implicitly accept the
present arrangements for house-
hold work.
Even more mystifying is the
attempt to deal with the objec-
tive of improving "the status of
women engaged in household
work whether they are paid or
not." Now improving the status
of the paid household worker is
one thing, improving the status
of the unpaid household worker
quite another. I may be wrong,
but the majority of the people
in the category of unpaid house-
hold worker are the housewives
and clearly this is a different
Indeed at one level the two
objectives may be quite incom-
patible. The Report itself points
out that in discussion with some
employers, it was argued that,
"an increase in rates might
prevent many households from
affording help, and might even
put some workers out of jobs".
Continued on Page 9



you get a giant 20% discount. On all
cash purchases of home equipment you get a big 15% discount.
But if you buy on credit NOW and you pay off within 12 months
you NEVER pay a credit charge.
That's an offer that's never been made before.

Drop n at your
nearest Singer Store
or call your frlerndly'
Singer Salesman NOWI




ith today's new awareness
of women and women's
roles the Caribbean woman
must reappraise and redefine her
role in the society. The West
Indian woman has exercised a
great amount of control over
the family unit. She has borne
the brunt of the child raising
experience and has been the
stable element of the family
Much of this was necessary
and praiseworthy and although I
believe that true freedom comes
from choice and those those
from choice and those who
choose motherhood should be
permitted the right to be full-
time or part-time mothers the
question is Are we going to
continue to function only in
this role or are \we going to help
to form a new Caribbean.
Have we in recent times
made any real impact on the
society as a whole? Have we been
utilizing our resources or have
we benefitted from our West
Indian experience?
I don't really think that we
have been making any concerted
effort to do so. We as women
have been managing money or
almost no money for ages and
yet we make no demands. Does
the part of our economy over
which we have control reflect
our wishes or demands?
Can we as women exercise
any control over the economy?
Can we change the status quo to
adjust to our needs? There is one
major avenue open to women -
Control and innovation within
the areas of commerce where we
are the major market viz food,
clothing and home furnishings -
We have always had this avenue
but have never really used it or
sought to use it in any aggressive
Women engaged both in.
traditional roles and non-tradi-
tional roles have had control of a
maj6r part of the national spend-
ing. Our foodbill for 1973 alone
was over $150 million T.T.

dollars. However, do we spend
this money with our needs and
goals for progressive develop-
ment in mind?
Every year I see thousands
of (imported) plastic flowers alid
plants for sale in a country with
lush vegetation where one does
not have to try too hard to
make things grow. When it is
difficult for plants to grow dried
shandelay and money bush are
going wild and are available.
We have our coal-pots, yet I
see Japanese hibachis and Ameri-
can barbeques being bought to
serve the same function that the
coalpot can do so efficiently. So
potatoes are scarce what do we
do? Grumble and complain or
adapt breadfruit, cassava, dasheen
and eddoes to our needs?
Are we going to continue to
eat imported preserved fish when
local fish is available in the
market? It may take a little
more time to prepare but who
benefits in the end? We should
think about the fact that
$5,26.1,574.00 T.T was spent for
the period 1971-1972 on the
importation of smoked, salted
and canned fish.
Do we query the Baker's
coconut imported from the
United States or do you shrug

Expenditure Per Year
Candy $ 126,480.
Relishes & Pickles $ 63,240.
Dried Fruit $ 733,584.
Prepared Sauces $ 151,776
Breakfast Foods $1,334-364
Prepared Cereals & Mixes $ 50,592
TOTAL 2,460,036

and say it is so much easier than
using fresh coconut. It costs
300% more than the price of

one coconut in the market yet
we "cheups" at paying 30 cents
for a coconut which can produce
twice as much shredded coconut
as obtained in the can.
Have we been asking our-
selves why Sara Lee frozen cakes
and pastries are available in
supermarkets here? Haven't we
been making pastry and cakes
from way back when? Are these
things really necessary?
The following is the cost of
just a few imported items, (based
on the C.S.O. Household Bud-
getary Survey for 1971 1972)
which we are capable of pro-
With the'increase in prices
since 1971 1972 the total
amount of money spent is now
considerably increased. But do
we stop to think what the re-
percussions of buying such items
are? The cost in foreign exchange,
money which should and could
easily be kept circulating in the
country. To whose benefit is it
to buy this kind of product?
Certainly not to local farmers or
We the Caribbean women
can have some impact on the
West Indian Society as a whole
by setting up demands for the
kinds of things that we want,
however we should seek to build
and expand to the fullest our
own traditions and start with
what we have and know.
During the war Caribbean
women made breadfruit, cassava
and plaintain flour. Where are
these skills now? Why haven't
they been expanded and
developed? Where are the fac-
tories to process this type of
product? Why haven't they
emerged? Or is it that what was
imported was better?
Many of the processes in-



By Controlling

Our Economy



/S Stephens




TUNAPUNA 662-5126

r-l pg~rBrsl-q

volving food have been carried
out by the majority of Caribbean
women for ages, what we need
to do now is to bring all of our
combined skills together through
discussion, teaching one another
and evolving co-operative ven-
tures. We must write books
passing on our acquired skills.
The books on West Indian
cookery, home care and decora-
tion are still too few.
It is time that we moved on
from selling sugar-cake from the
box on the street corners to
opening of shops for the sale of
local candy. From there we
could move on to the opening
of factories. Think of the export
market for exotic products like
coconut fudge and toolums a
natural as a health food.
We must investigate what is
taught to our children in schools,
and demand that fields like
home economics be tailored to
fit our needs.
All women should be help-
ing to advocate change, helping
to establish centres in local areas
for teaching, demonstrating and
exchanging ideas on how to use
local materials. It is in this role
that the hundreds of women
who stay at home can be in the
vanguard, as they possess much
more so than the working
woman or man relative freedom
without having to be worried
about the consequences on the
We the present generation
of Caribbean women have to
move into tomorrow building
upon the ground that our
mothers and grandmothers have
broken and we must utilize all
possible avenues to make our
economy a local economy.
This could be one of the
most significant contributions
which we can make to our
society. It is now time to take a
critical look at ourselves, develop
ourselves to the fullest, and work
alongside our men to build a
new Caribbean.

I '' ~lr nvl R I 'I I~ I


Lit A brahc n



197 has been designated
9 International Women's
Year and recently, when
I referred jokingly to this fact, a
friend of mine a man -
remarked that it was the worst
possible thing that could have
happened. I suppose he meant
that needing an International
Women's Year simply showed
that we did not consider ourselves
equal to men.
But discrimination has a
way of becoming part of life and
therefore acceptable. When this
happens something must be done
to jolt the consciousness of
people. So International Women's
Year is needed if only to make
people take stock of the in-
equalities between the sexes and
to make women more conscious
of their potential worth to their
community beyond that of wife
and mother.
There is no doubt that
much (but not enough) has been
done to eliminate discrimination
against women throughout the
world and in some countries, like
Soviet Russia, women comprise
nearly half of the labour force,
though sex discrimination still
exists there.
But the question of equality
does not have only to do with
jobs and salaries. It has, in fact,
to do with the fundamental
relationship between man and
woman; and, in the Caribbean,
because of our peculiar history of
colonization, this relationship is
more strained than in other
countries where the historical
experience was not the same.
The inhabitants of these
islands did not descend from
the indigenous people. We were
all brought here through slavery
and later through indentureship.
The legacy of that colonization
is an irrational economic, political
and social system wherein the
traditional family structure of
the Africans brought here was
destroyed by slavery. Not only
was family life not encouraged
by the colonizers but every
effort was made to prevent
lasting unions between man and
woman. Men were never allowed
the responsibility of looking after

Caribbean Woman:



a family.
As a result, after emancipa-
tion, there arose the situation
where the women were the ones
largely responsible for rearing
the children, for keeping the
family together and, more often
than not, having to be both
mother and father. In most
cases, for historical reasons the
man did not see any responsibil-
ity, financial or moral attached
to fathering a child.
The Caribbean situation is
further complicated by race.
Sexually exploited by white men,
the real tragedy facing the
Caribbean woman was that she
encountered a similar attitude
from men of her own race. Not
intentionally, perhaps for
colonization dehumanised all
those involved by creating a
situation in which it was difficult
to have normal relations between
sexes or better races.
So in a country where the,
majority of citizens were already
second class, the status of women
was reduced still further, in spite
of the fact that for generations
she has borne the responsibility
of the family.
Her counterpart in other
countries was more fortunate.
The man's role was that of
provider for and protector of
the household while the woman's
task was to care for the children
and the home. So the roles were
more clearly defined than in the
case of the Caribbean where there
exists between the sexes this
basic antagonism caused by
slavery and colonization.
But the values of our society
are those of the Western world
and the role that women are
supposed to play are those of
women everywhere custodians
of the home.

Practically from birth the
process of socialization, by which
these roles become part of the
individual, begins. The choice of
play material, among other things
depends on the sex of the child.
So girls play with dolls, pots,
pans etc., while boys play with
trucks, guns etc., Behaviour
patterns are also determined by
sex. Girls are supposed to con-
duct themselves with decorum
while it is a well known fact
that boys are loud and aggressive!
The process continues
through school. Some years ago,
girls were not encouraged to do
science. That was considered to
be the domain of the male and
girls were not supposed to have
the logical turn of mind needed
for science. Things are changing
though. Boys and girls are being
taught the same things in school
but the attitudes have not
changed. Sex still determines
largely the role we play in life.
By the time a girl becomes
a teenager she knows that she is
expected to get married and
have a family. In most cases she
is not encouraged to seek further
education or to choose a profes-
sion other than motherhood.
Social acceptance is largely
based on her relationship to
some man and a girl who remains
unmarried after a certain age is
made to feel that she is lacking
in some way. The socialization is
so complete that she herself
believes this.
But the winds of change are
blowing through the world. In
this age of industrialization when
air travel (in a Concorde of three
times the speed of sound) has
made the world shrink, when
international communication is
relatively easy, women are no
longer accepting that their role

Thora Laughlin

in life must be confined to the
household. They feel the urge to
give vent to their creative in-
stincts, to become full fledged
members of society with a share
in the decision making processes
of their country.
If this is to come about, if
women are to develop their full
potential as members of society,
then we will need to have a
thorough and honest appraisal of
the existing relationships be-
tween men and women. We have
to see that the attitudes Carib-
bean men and women have to
each other have been conditioned
by our history and our accept-
ance of western values as being
the ideal.
True equality for women
does not consist in seeking out
male dominated areas and trying
to enter them or competing with
men for jobs. That is simply
accepting a male-oriented world's
standards as given.
We have, in fact, to seek
out new relationships based on
humanism and on the dignity of
the individual. Once we remove
the restrictions caused by the
old attitudes then we see the
possibility of more meaningful
relationships to replace the
existing ones. We will see each
other as people each with his
own dreams, needs and aspira-
tions. We will see then that we,
each of us, have the responsibility
to ensure that the other develops
his potential to the fullest.
For the task of reconstruc-
tion in this country of ours is a
monumental one and calls for a
great deal of commitment and
dedication. So we cannot afford
to deprive ourselves "of the
enormous storehouse of intelli-
gence, devotion, energy and
creative imagination, not to
speak of good common sense
that women represent", to use
the words of Pierrette Sartin,
French sociologist.
The vision of a brighter
world will only become reality
when "men and women join
forces so that the children of
tomorrow can see a better world
and a civilization really worthy
of the name".


0 a

b ~and






you ge


4'~P1 -a Is r-- I Is~~Ll ---C-- r~sr--=l -~IPC~lsP ii -BP- -~bl

L1 Ill' qglL---_l --T ------.~ar~

SUNDAY:'APRII 27, 1975



From Page 4
kindergarten level, 28% reached
as far as Standard 5.43% as far as
Standard 7, a further 13% com-
pleted Secondary schooling but
received no certificates 6%
obtained certificates and 1% had
any type of University Educa-
Among women 12% had no
education at all, 3% reached
kindergarten level, 20% reached
Standard 5 level, 35% Standard
7, 18% completed Secondary
education but did not receive any
certificates, while 7% obtained
some type of certificate. Only 1%
had University education of any
A detailed analysis of the
various 'occupational groupings
show that there are essential
differences between the types of
occupations chosen by men and
women. 7.5% of the working men
worked in the Professional and
Technical Workerss category,
while 14.6% of the working
women fell into this category,
limiting themselves however only
to a limited few occupations.
Of athletes, Sportsmen and
Related workers the proportions'
were .06 men to .17 women.
Of administrative, Execu-

Women In The

Labour Force
Professional and Technical Workers $351.00 $258.00
Athletes, Sportsmen + Related
Workers 132.50-
Administrative, Executive Managerial
and Clerical 265.00 208.00
Commercial Financial and Insurance
Workers 157.00 115.50
Farmers Fishermen Foresters 94.00 77.50
Craftsmen, Production Workers +
Labourers 169.00 98.00
Transport and Communication
Workers 174.00 210.50
Construction Workers 159.00 81.00
Service Workers 177.00 45.00


tive, Managerical and Clerical
workers there were 8.9% men
and 19.6% women, the large pro-
portion of women belonging to
the clerical category.
Of Commercial Financial
and Insurance workers 8.2% men
and 10,9% women.
16% of the men were
Farmers, Fishermen Hunters and
Foresters while only 9% of the
women worked in this category.

Male 170.50 Female115.00

In the Transport and Com-
munication sector, the propor-
tions were 8.9% men to 1.7%
women. In Construction there
were 7.4% men to .17%
women and of Service work-
ers 6.9% men to 25.7% women.
However these proportions
must be closely examined toge-
ther with a list of special occupa-
tions appearing itn the same
document which revealed that

whereas men worked at almost
any and every type of profession
or occupation, women limited
themselves to a certain few pro-
fessions. These included, teachers
and nurses and nursing personnel
saleswomen, ship assistants and
demonstrators stenographers,
typists and secretaries while a
smaller number worked as Radio
and T.V. repair personnel and
draughtswomen. The female
doctors, lawyers and other high
level professionals were so small
as to have not been picked up
by the sample.
Salaries among male and
female workers varied consider-
ably. The table shows the median
income of male and female
workers in the various occupa-
tional groupings.
Among non-government
workers the median salary for
males was $158.00 while that
for females vwas only $85.00.
Among government workers the
median salary for males was
$190.50 while that for females
was 191.00.
The above statistics have
shown that there are differences
in many areas with regard the
two sexes. These may be listed
Men have less difficulty in
obtaining jobs than women
either because of (a) The
fact that men seem to be
qualified in more fields
than women and (b) that
iobs which are still available
are available only in certain
areas and in occupations
dominated by men.
Women still occupy certain
traditional fields and have
not really explored the
possibilities of certain pro-
fessions dominated by men.
Median salaries paid to men
are higher than those paid
to women in private non-
government jobs, while both
men and women who work
at government jobs obtain
the b same median salary
Less women than men are
interested in joining the
labour force and the propor-
tion of women seems to be
The unemployment rate in
the country has been slowly
increasing over the past few
years for both men and
Unemployment for the
general population is high-
est in the 15-19 age group.
More women than men have
received no education at all
however on the higher edu-
cation level equal percent-
ages of men and women
obtained certificates of any

The job situation, that is
the ability to find jobs is
becoming increasingly dif-
ficult and the situation has
worsened considerably since


a touch of


103 7160
Sizes 32-38
Price $15.95

104 7027


1% mo moI



From Page 5
The researchers, with admirable
candour, state. "The significance
of this last point should not be
overlooked." And one can only
surmise that their solution to the
dilemma was to quietly drop the
whole issue of improving the
status of the household worker,
MM "not paid".
This is not quite true. The
report in its recommendations
does call for Government support
for community organised house-
hold services. What I presume
this really means is a call for
Government subsidies of such
services making them cheaper to
the housewife and thus freeing
her of some of her burdens.
The important question of
course is how cheap is cheaper?
In other words how cheap must
these services be in order that
they become available to all
households and free all the "not
paid" household workers from
their burdens. Given the present
income distribution among
households in this country Gov-
ernment subsidisation 'would
have to be almost total to
ensure that it does not end up
discriminating against those who
need it most.
This is probably the whirl-
pool of revolutionary socio-
economic analysis from which
the researchers thought it best
to pull back



Household Wor ker

For to ask that Government
subsidise household services to
the extent that those households
which need then the most
benefit, is not too far from
asking that Government should
pay all full time housewives a
salary. What sense there is in
recommending that the "ap-
propriate authority take steps to
value all household work in
monetary terms" and to include
this value in the calculation of
Gross National Product and
National Accounts. I cannot
readily conceive.
It seems to me far more
worthwhile and meaningful to
suggest that the appropriate
authorities value all household
work in monetary terms and
then pay the housewives. The
economic' implications of this
are clearly enormous and cannot
be gone into here. My point is
simply that the report was the.
place where they should have
been gone into.

The other alternative of
course was for the researchers to
have faced up squarely to the
problems of income distribution
in the society. This was neces-
sary even if only in the context
of the call for a monetary value
to be placed on household
services. What is a housewife's
task worth to the society?
Should it be valued at more or
less than that of a teacher, a
doctor, a night soil worker? Is
the administration of a family
less or more important than the
administration of a firm? In any
case who decides and on what
In short it becomes neces-
sary to demand a rationale for
the present distribution of in-
comes among various professions
and occupations and if H.A.T.T.
is serious about improving the
status of housewives it is mad-
ness for them to leave the deter-
mination of the housewife's
worth in the hands of "appropri-


ate authority", whoever they
might be.
The question of Income
distribution should also have
arisen in connection with their
recommendations for minimum
wages for household workers.
True enough they included these
wage proposals in their "Draft
Code of Standards," but no-
where do they attempt to ex-
plain by what method and on
what basis they suggest the
minimum wages that they do,
nor do they devote any consider-
able attention to discussing the
effects of adopting such mini-
mums on the domestic worker
as well as on the vast numbers
of unorganised or badly organised
workers in the employment
The Report therefore in the
very areas where it should have
been most expansive and detailed
is almost mute. It is there-
fore to be hoped that H.A.T.T.
will not stop here and that they
will continue to conduct further
research into this area as well as
the many others which equally
as urgently demand attention.
It is also to be hoped that
whatever resources are brought
to bear on future reports bold-
ness and imagination will be first
amongst them.






Of people who know
how to cope
with rising



H.A.T.T. Report


Literature Econ

Lloyd King Economics
Gordon Rohlehr
Victor Questel George Beckford
Denis Solomon Norman Girvan
Cheryl Williams Owen Jefferson
Derek Walcott Clive Thomas
Wayne Brown Maurice Odle
William Demas
Roy Thomas
Havelock Brewster
Alister McIntyre

James Millette Lloyd Best Vernon Gocking Dennis
Forsythe Fitz Baptiste Vaughan Lewis

Phone 662-5126 or visit our office at
82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna.



Dear Sir,
Some twenty years
ago a political party was
born in this land of ours.
To its banner flocked
people of all walks of life
it was named The
People's National Move-
ment and at its head was
a Political Messiah who
was to lead us into a
Promised Land. All we
needed was leadership -
we were a nation of just
about one million happy
souls and Nature had
bountifully bestowed her
largesse on us oil,
arable land, asphalt, and
encircling seas full of
Twenty years later we are
a disillusioned people. The
P.N.M. is a light that failed.
The banner of Morality in
Public Affairs lies in the
gutter. The Prime Minister
publicly states there is cor-
ruption among his ministers.
The true wealth of the
country the natural re-
sources, are in the hands of
expatriate interests multi-
national corporations, and
these interests are guarded by
a handful of native political
The P.N.M. is no longer
supported by the People, its
concern is no longer national,
and its has ceased to be a
movement unless it is
retrogressive. Trinidad &
Tobago is a one-party state.
After twenty years the two
major racial groups the
descendants of African-slaves
and of indentured Indian
workers have called a cessa-
tion to their senseless fratrici-
dal strife and made common
They no longer engage in
internecine battle for empty
political honours. They have
grown up and sighted the
common enemy the ex-
patriate exploiters and their
local running dogs. Once
this stage of development has
been attained then, as Mao
Tse Tung could have told
Eric Williams: "When a man
reaches old age, he will die;
the same is true of a party."
The end of the P.N.M. is at
hand. As Mao Tse Tung
could also have told Eric
Williams: "We are approach-
ing the Realm of Great Har-
Eric Williams can hope
only to prolong the death
throes of the P.N.M. for a
while longer. He can hope to
do this only by the use of
force the Police, the
Army and eventually Ameri-
can troops to bolster his
tottering regime a puppet
government doing the bid-
ding of its foreign masters
and suppressing the legitimate
demands of its own nationals.
The Citizens of this
country expect the Police to'

do their duty. The Police
must enforce Law and Order
- such laws as are passed
with common consent. But
decadent and'corrupt bureau-
cracies always, the world
over, raise the cry of "Law
and Order".
A policeman is protected
only while he acts in the
execution of his duty, i.e. his
lawful duty. When he exceeds
that he goes beyond the pale
of the Law and acts at his
peril. To effect arrest he
must use such force as is
necessary and no more.
The events of Bloody
Tuesday show that the evil
of the 'Mongoose Gang' is
upon is and that policemen
are being required to do the
scavenging of a tottering
regime. Scavenging is not the
role of the Police or the

Army. The happenings of
Bloody Tuesday are the first
victory of the People against
the Establishment.
Will the P.N.M. want the
blood of Isaac or will the
blood of a lamb be enough?
Has enough blood been spilt
or must the insatiable greed
of the P.N.M. for power
require a greater sacrifice on
the part of the People?
The judgment of history
will not be kind to the per-
petrators of the heinous
atrocities being done against
the working class of this
country. How are the mighty
fallen! Like the image in
Nebuchadnezzar's dream, the
feet of the P.N.M. god is
made of clay.
I accuse the P.N.M. of
being responsible for the
brutality of Bloody Tuesday,

of being the lackeys of the
the multi-national corpora-
tions, of suppressing the
legitimate struggles- of the
People of Trinidad & Tobago.

Letter to
'heEditor: The Blood Of Isaac Or

The Blood Of The Lamb ?




VALENTINO is no ordinary calypsonian. He
has consistently, year after year, impressed
ever so many audiences with his richness of
subject matter, his lyrics, satire and subtlety
of wit and above all he relates very closely to
a society that has been plagued with dejec-
tion, dissatisfaction, want and waste.
His messages are clear and not directed to
personal entities as such but rather towards an
awakeningof the consciousness of our people. It has
been felt by many that he does not come over to
full advantage in the tents during the Carnival season,
since he tends to compete with the frivolities,
alcohol and abandon that dominate the scene.
In short, Valentino is not an entertainer,
neither does he want to be and it is in this context
that 'Poet and Prophet.' interprets his coming recital
as a 'Dialogue in Kaiso' This new production will
feature fifteen numbers by Valentino and goes to
Queen's Hall on Friday May 2, Saturday May 3, and
Sunday May 4.
Not since Sparrow in the sixties, has a locally
based calypsonian accepted the challenge of a full
length concert in calypso outside the Carnival season.
Valentino, however, has divided his dialogue into
four parts and will sing such favourites as 'Barking
Dogs', 'Liberation', 'Dis place Nice' and 'Life is a
Stage'. He will also sing 'The Seven Wonders of
Mankind' a work he composed specially for the
occasion and 'Smokey Joe' an Andre Tanker com
Blessed with a glittering supporting cast which
include the Repertory Dance Theatre, Errol St. Hill,
Mau Mau Drummers, Andre Tanker and the New
World Performers Choir, Valentino may well be the
champion of a great step forward in the history of
Trinidad Calypso. This step could mean greater
aspirations on the part of the public towards recog-
nising the creativity, musicality and the sheer literary
power of the calypsonian.
Astor Johnson, the choreographer of the
Repertory Dance Theatre will direct the production,
while Clive Bradley will supervise the musical
arrangements for Valentino. Tickets go on sale from
April 18th, at Sealey's Gent's Store, Frederick Street
and Administration Building, University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine, at $4.00 each. The curtain
rises nightly at 8.30 p.m.

Let those in the P.N.M. who
have any self-respect left
resign from the P.N.M.
The inexorable march of
history cannot be stopped.
Man is born free and is
everywhere breaking the
economic chains which still
bind him. History and time
are on the side of the People.
The oil worker wants a fair
share of his birthright, the
sugar worker will no longer
be a starveling. Let the paper-
tiger of the P.N.M. roar, the
People are no longer afraid.


Tank Top Jerseys



Available at the House Ring 662-5126

- ~ -~----- ~ ~L~s~ RRn -




Tapia Reporter

Another Call Made For

Environmental Secretariat

THERE is no govern-
mental agency for the
management of waste in
Trinidad and Tobago.
This came to light last
Thursday evening at a
talk given by Dr. Emru
D. Millette to members
of the Field Naturalist
Club at the St. Mary's
College Library.
Speaking on the subject
"Perspectives in Waste
Management for Trinidad
and Tobago", Dr. Millette,
Chief Engineer, Operations
and Maintenance, at the
Water and Sewerage Author-
ity, expressed the urgent
need for such a department
of government with the
advent of our new industrial
Dr. Millette warned -
Trinidad and Tobago is on the
verge of vast industrial expan-
sion. That is to say that we
are transforming our society
from an agricultural one where
waste materials are relatively
little and easily manageable,
to an industrial society generat-
ing toxic, persistent and
hazardous wastes.
Our economic impulses tell
us that this industry will foster
our independence. Our con-
cerns for the national welfare
ana our ultimate survival
dictate that we view indus-
trialisation from the perspec-
tive of its ability to provide
an improved quality of life
to ourselves and our children.
In this context, an im-
proved quality of life means
maintaining the balance in
Nature's laws and protecting
the equilibrium between her


He said that the developed
world has learnt the hard
way from their rapid indus-
trial growth. Determined to
stop the further destruction
of their environment, Dr.
Millette confided that the
prevailing opinion in these,
countries is to locate certain
industrial enterprises in third
world states where "regula-

tory practice on industrial
trial emissions is lax or non-
Using chalk and black-
board throughout his talk,
Dr. Millette explained that
by 1980, 60% of our water
supply will be utilized by
industry as compared to 30%
at present. This rising indus-
trial demand will mean a
jump of production from 67
m.g.d. at present to 160
m.g.d. over the next seven
From these projections he
calculated that the liquid
waste volumes in the country
could be expected to increase
fivefold. The health hazard
and environmental impact of
this increase in liquid waste
would be great, he warned.
The general practice he
said has been to release liquid
waste to the nearest river or
stream. This practice must
cease he declared as the
rivers and streams of Trini-
dad are already heavily pol-
luted with industrial effluents.
Dr. Millette further warned -
Waste dilution will also affect
the water supply potential of
the country, and at best, will
greatly increase the unit costs
in respect "of the manufacture
of potable water".
Touching on solid waste
management, Dr. Millette
estimated that about 4 lbs.
of solid waste was produced
by each individual in Trinidad
and Tobago. This amounted
to 4 million pounds of solid
waste per day. By 1980, this
would double to 8 million
pounds of solid waste per
Noting that our present
methods of solid waste dis-
posal were antiquidated and
impractical, he called for the
reappraisal of these methods.
He explained -
A prerequisite for success in
our future solid waste disposal
programmes is the realisation
that the management of the
solid wastes produced by
modern living is a scientific
exercise requiring adequate
levels of competent profes-

sional staff.
As the general wealth of
the community improves it
becomes more and more dif-
ficult to justify the retention
of antiquated methods and
On the subject of gaseous
waste, Dr. Millette explained
that "the action of sunlight
and bacteria in the atmos-
phere may convert gaseous
effluvia to more dangerous
compounds". Making refer-
ence to the proposed iron and
steel plants soon to be con-
structed, he advised that
positive action be taken now
to develop national air con-
servation programmes.


He said that he was given
the assurance that there
would be 90% control of the
gaseous wastes from the new
plants but he explained that
it is the uncontrolled 10%
of these gaseous.wastesthat is
responsible for the respira-
tory disorders in the indus-
trial countries.
He suggested that we in'
Trinidad and Tobago accept
'the four basic assumptions
identified by-the Air Conser-
vation Commission of the
United States with respect
to air pollution. These
assumptions are:
I. Air is in the public
domain; ......
11. Air pollution is an
inevitable concomit-
ant of modern life;..
111. Scientific knowledge
can be applied to
the shaping of public
policy; .....
IV. Methods to reduce
air pollution must
not increase pollu-
tion in other sectors
of man's environ-
ment; ......"
With respect to thermal
pollution Dr. Millette
strongly advised a compre-
hensive study of the effects
of vast quantities of waste
heat being released into the
Gulf of Paria if we are to
avoid a major catastrophe
with regard to marine life in
these waters. He also warned

Dear Sir,

Is anyone in Tapia
reading the drivel (and
not too subtly reaqtion-
ary drivel) Gradussov is
writing on Jamaica?
Surely a paper which
shows so much sophistication
and radical good sense when
dealing with Trinidad, Cuba
and indeed just about any-
where else, can do better
than this on Jamaica?
Otherwise I enjoy the
paper. Good luck.
Bertell Oilman
New York.

that power stations produce
several varieties of waste
streams besides the vast
quantities of waste heat.
Lamenting the total
absence of any discussion on
waste management in the
communications media, Dr.
Millette hoped that his talk
will stimulate interest and

concern on so vital a subject.
He was of the firm opinion
that any waste management
programme must have the
support of the community
else it will fail. Successful
waste management demands
the constant vigilence of an
informed general public, he


Cricket League

C.C. has scored the first century in the league
for the season. Eighteen-year-old Faizool
blazed 105 out of his team's total of 142 for
6 in their second innings, slamming three
sixes in the process. But his effort failed to
save Bamboo who conceded 1st innings points
to their opponents Super Stars.
Mico E.Y.M, and Klondykes scored out-
right victories to remain deadlocked at the
head of the table well ahead of the other
competitors at the end of the 3rd round.
Mico cruised past San Juan Private Secondary
by 66 runs, while Klondykes just edged
Spoilers by 8 wickets.
The following were scores in the 3rd
round games.
1. MICO E.Y.M. 158 and 78 for 2 declared:
R. Bharat 58, K. Stanislaus 31; E. Paul 7 for 85, J.
Dookie 3 for 25.
San Juan P.S.S. 92 & 78. M. Roberts 29,
A. Boyke 9 for 50, R. Bharat 4 for 28, A. Theodre 4
for 32. (Mico, won outright).
2. Klondykes: 103 for 8dec. &35 for 2 R.
Ram 32, H. Singh 26;S. Singh 4 for 25.
Spoilers: 59 & 77 K. Sookhoo 30, N. Ali
25, N. Hosein 7 for 10, S. Ali 7 for 41, R. Ram 3 for
21. (Klondykes won outright).
3. Illinois 58 & 80 for 2 T. John 36, A.
Lewis 30; D. King 5 for 22, W. Mahabir 3 for 15.
Alley Kats 97 H. Singh 36; M. Joseph 4
for 29. (Alley Kats 6 pts.; Illinois 2 pts).
4. Bamboo Grove: 85 & 142 for 6 F.
Rambarran 105; A. Keshwar 4 for 7, A. Kurjah 4 for
Super Stars: 1 47 for 7 dec. A. Mohammed
37, W. Ramnanan 21; R. Rambarran 3 for 18.(Super
Stars 6 pts; Bamboo Grove 2 pts.)
5. El Socorro South: 20 & 123 B.
Ramnath 21, V. Ramoutar 21 n.o., L. Grant 7 for
21, K. Ramcharran 6 for 48.

Riversdale: 72 for 5 dec. & 76 for 5 L.
Grant 40, K. Ramcharan 32; B. Babwah 3 for 46,
M. Bachan 3 for 39. (Riversdale won outright).
6. Happy Wanderers: 48 & 118 M.
Dobkhan 48, B. Dookhan 34; M. Ragoonanan 25;
H. Mohammed 7 for 35, J. Mannie 4 for 25, H.
Rahim 4 for 6.
Metro: 143 & 44 for 3 dec. S. Rhambarose
36 & 29 n.o. J. Mannie 23 n.o. B. Roopchand 4 for.
35, M. Ragoonanan 3 for 54. (Metro 6 pts; Happy
Wanderers 2 pts)'
7. Melbourne: 1 21 & 67 for 8 dec. A
Khan 27, C. Maraj 26 n.o., K.Wilson 4 for 22, S.
Jones 4 for 37.
Lower Mt. D'Or: 92 and 101 for 5: K.
Prescott 40 & 27, R. Dey 32; B. Lalloo 5 for 32. 1.
Felix 3 for 25. (Mt. D'Or won outright)
8. Mallick: 1 43 & 96 for 3 C. Paria 71. C.
Ganpat 26 & 32 n.o., M. Ali 5 foi 82. A. Kassim 6
for 49.
Glamorgan: 238 for 9 dec I. All 47. A.
Panchoo 52. Z. Ali 32 n.o.. A. Mannah 3 l ol 81. P.
Ganpat 2 for 1. (Glamorgani pis: Mallick 2 pis),


A symbol of security

SFor all citizens who
strive towards a better
life for themselves
& their children.


PHONES: 31421.

cm t^


Tunapuna Market

Vendors Up In

A BIG big noise is brew-
ing in the Tunapuna
market. Suddenly the
other day, the officials
started to terrorise the
vendors for selling on the
street. And now the
vendors are fighting back.
Last Wednesday morning,,
they held a demonstra-
tion and .called Tap'a in.
Tell the Senator who
taking bribe. Come clean
with the whole story. Tell
him how they treating poor
people like if they is dog or
something even down to
obscene language and all.
STell him how this market
ptrol man does come in
*plain clothes and victimise
people. How he does force
people to move they vehicle
even though you more than
thirty feet from the comer.

And when you ask him he
say he don't have to tell you
he name.
All the vendors admitted
that space is a real problem
in the, market. Aaron
Patterson who sells oranges
under the big tree has been
selling there for over ten
He told Tapia that for
five years now he has been
coming every day to sell but
he has no stall inside the
market. There are plenty
people like that because the
population is growing and
the market is the same.
When you ask the clerk
for a spot, he takes you
inside the compound and say
build up something nah. But
it don't work out because
on weekend, the people who
pay for that spot before you

does come for they
and is then trouble
Tell the Senator ho
dealing with that p
now; how they bring:
hose on Sunday morn:
hosing down people
the goods get w.t.
Tell the Senator
kind a spite work goi
how about three montl
they start this clean
campaign; and how
paying some to spite
how they even charge
vendors and the case
and still they tearing
the stalls even on th
And you thifik you
get back your wood an
galvanise after that mz
it on 'tie Tel
Vendors claim that

Place would not be so bad if the
start! chief market clerk were
)w they around a little more often.
problem They say he has a taxi and a
ing the stall in Diego and is only
ing and now and then he does pass.
and all They would like to know
from the clerk if the spots
What marked out on the road are
ing on; to park car or what? And
hs now why they are still collecting
ing up the market dues if people
some have no place?
some; Bertie Pierre is a fish man
e some who comes from quite Dow
dismiss Village near Point. He brings
; down anything like 800 to 12001bs
e train a fish per day. He complained
bitterly to Tapia about the
u could sometimish policy, of the
id your market people.
an put Last week they put hit
I the table right on the angle of
the compound across from
things the big tree. This week, if he

only sell a fish there, they
would summarily oust him.
Injustice riding the ven-
dors, said one old 'lady. We
en have no other job, w'
only working for an honest
bread. We have hungry
children and house rent to
pay, said another. I does walk
down here quite from
Tell the Senator how
they treat that old lady, the
widow who have 63 years.
And the other cripple lady
with she hand who did get
the dase the other day. And
the girl who husband foot
break and she have to sell to
mind-the baby.
Tell the Senator how in
San Juan by Nova Scotia,
they have stall all about. And
is only we they coming here
to embarrass. Tell the Sena-
tor; I hope he go put some
turpentime in they tail.


S.W.W.T.U. Hall

Wrightson Road


of .Spain





May 11th 1975

Chairman's Report
Treasurer's Report
Secretary's Report
Other Business

The National Crisis-

Syl Lowhar

Angela Cropper

Lloyd Best


Elections To National Executive

Returning Officer.
Arthur Atwell

Lloyd Best



-r I