Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
March 9, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

Development F

For Whom? 4

THIS week Tapia features
a full-length interview
(pp. 6,7, 8+9) with Kari
Levitt, in which she
argues for the primacy
of human values over
blind economic and
technological forces. The
interview, together with
other statements on
world political, economic
and social issues, was
published originally under
the auspices of the "Ten
Days for World Develop-
ment" programme of the
Inter Church Committee
for World Development
Education in Canada.
The goals of the pro-
gramme, according to the
sponsors, "are to increase
understanding among church
members concerning world
needs and world development
and to encourage appropriate
-actin-i-nresponse". As far as
is possible, the attempt is
made to draw Canadian
analogies to the problems of
poorer countries. In her inter-
view, originally titled "The
Canadian Paradox: Rich and
Dependent", Mrs. ,Levitt
points to Canadians' intreas-
ing dependence on large,
powerful corporations, many
of them based in the United

ONCE again an audience
of oil workers has greeted
the Tapia plan for oil. The
plan is for winning and
spending the colossal sums
of money which the
League of Texaco and the
Government has managed
to deny the country over
the last five years.
On Wednesday last at the
Hall of the Revolution in
Fyzabad they applauded con-
stantly as they heard the case
for demanding 80%, 144%,
147%, or $800m. whichever is
more. It was the San Fernando
Town Hall meeting all over


Nothing drew such a big
response as the proposal that
the union should go for across
the board dollar increases and
so reduce the income differ-
ences between the top and the
bottom; and that the increase
in wages be saved and spent
by the union;
on buying shares in
on food production at
Las Lomas Farm,
on vocational schools in
the Oil Belt,
on an expanded pro-
gramme for housing for oil

States. Material wealth
obscures the extent to which
individuals are lashed to the
capitalist wheel of earning,
spending and debt with
desperate attempts to increase
income only renewing the
cycle. She makes a plea for
a society geared to human
needs, and devoid of laige-
scale, over-centralized con-
Mrs. Leviitt been
associated with West
Indies since 1960 whci she
first undertook an assignment
for the Federal Government
to study regional freight
rates. In the 15 years since
then her involvement with
the area has been progres-
sively deepened and she has
virtually become a Caribbean
economist as much engaged
in field research as in theore-
tical speculation on the
regional economic system.
Among her publications is a
book on Canada-West Indies
Trade written jointly with
Alister McIntyre, current
CARICOM Secretary General.
At the moment Mrs. Levitt
is a Visiting Professor at the
UWI, St. Augustine, where
she is teaching at the Institute
of International Relations and
completing a manuscript on
Plantation Economy.

workers, and
on small business loans
to retired oil workers.
Michael Harris spoke of the
political and industrial dimen-
sions to the current struggle in
oil and sugar. He pointed out
that the presence of multi-
national giants in our econ-
omy's key sectors constituted a
compromise of our political
The opening address was
made by Mickey Matthews.
He called for a Government
which would proceed to
establish a welfare sector for
the people as well as a highly
technological sector, and a
sector open to popular enter-
After the speakers had
gone on for one hour and a
half the question period went

ONE oil worker at the
Fyzabad meeting asked
about "Tapia's concrete
proposals for backing
OWTU before the next
"The answer is doing ex-
actly what we are doing this
evening," Tapia Secretary
Lloyd Best replied.
He added that the move-
ment of which Tapia was just
a part was made up of cultural,
industrial, intellectual and

on for an equal period. Every
conceivable issue about the
politics of oil was raised
giving the lie to those who
would claim indifference and
apathy among the ranks.
Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best
told the meeting that the
industrial dispute had reached
a stage where everybody could
see that the Government and
Texaco occupied the same
"It is a question of putting
this industry in the hands of
the people because Texaco
Trinidad has to go and if the
Government is in that camp,
then the Government must go
Best explained that the
Union must take the initiative
to compensate for the loss to

political components; that
Tapia is well placed to contri-
bute on both the political and
intellectual levels.
He reminded the audience
that Tapia has from the very
beginning of the constitutional
crisis "insisted that the only
way to resolve it is by having
a Constituent Assembly or a
Conference of Citizens which
was nothing but a meeting of
all the industrial, political and
other community groups with-

the country caused by the
Government's failure to tax
to the hilt and by the total
incompetence of the Govern-
ment's spending.
Every dollar gained by the
Union means 45 cents added
to the national income even if
it means 55 cents transferred
from the Government to the
Union, the Secretary con-
"But this only dramatises
the need to remove the irra-
tionality of the whole arrange.
ment by placing the industry
in -the hands of the people."
The Tapia estimate of the
1975 profit for Texaco if
everything went was $75m for a company with
a net book value of only
$180m. "It is strange that the

in the society."
Through this means it was
possible to dovetail the needs
of the workerwith the political
demands of the society.
"If the Government had
been interested in a solution
without blood, that is what
they would have done."
"The next stop is for all
those forces opposed to the
Government to call the
Assembly. If such an instru-
ment does not produce a
solution, the next stage is war."

Government cannot find the
will and the money to buy."
Inspection and taxation of
oil were completely slipshod
and all the energies of the
Government over the years
seemed to be devoted to
"tranquility in industrial rela-
The question which the
Tapia Secretary asked was
whether the Government had
the will to collect the money,
and if they collected it, whe-
ther they would spend it right.
It was the meet, right and
bounden duty of the union to.,
collect the money on behalf of
the people.


Best further pointed out
that the Plan for spending the
money was itself an essential
part of the strategy for win-
ning the increase. The Plan
was necessary on both moral
and political grounds.
It was essential for the
success of the battle that the
issues must be carried around
the country as part of a larger
plan for the entire nation.
He warned that we must
remember that the Govern-
ment, incompetent and cor-
rupt as it is, has been in
power for 18 years.





F r us
A Fight

Finish fa

United Labour Front
held its massive rally at
Skinner Park in San
Fernando. Since that
time the issues that have
commanded the Public
Stage not only have not
disappeared but have
all mounted to explosive
climaxes. Any one of
them could plunge this
country into the night-
mare of civil war.
This is the third in our
series of editorials dealing
with the political implications
of the issues in Oil and
Sugar. As in the two previous
editorials, and if possible
more urgently than in those
do we now return to urge
upon the forces of change a
revolutionary cool.
The situation could not
be any more critical. The
talks between the O.W.T.U.
and Texaco have broke
down. The talks between All
Trinidad and Caroni have
broken down, and Caroni has
given not the slightest indica-
tion that it intends to grant
recognition to ICFTU.


We are poised on a razor's
edge and our next step must
not be made without first an
utterly clinical and objective
assessment of our aims, of
our present position, of our
resources and above all of
the strengths and strategies
of those who oppose us.
If we are agreed, and it is
fo their credit that Shah,
Panday and Weekes have not
hesitated in accepting this,
that our final goal is to
remove the present iniquitous
regime and to set in place a

Government capable of com-
mitting the vast majority of
our people to the task of
radical social and economic
reconstruction, then there
are certain vital considera-
tions which we cannot ignore.
The first of these, and
undoubtedly the iumost i ipu-
tant one, is that we cannot
hope to succeed until such
time as our movement can
claim to have involved in the
struggle every section of the
population, in the North and
South, in the East and in the
West, in Sugar. in Oil aid in
everything else.
The tasks of politicization
are absolutely necessary if
only because we cannot hope
to defeat the forces of reaction
other than in the political
arena. We cannot defeat them
by trying to shut down the
economy. This will only play
into their hands by alienating
the majority of people ,ot
immediately involved in Oil
and Sugar.

We cannot defeat them the first place as far as the
by mere agitation alone. This Government itself is con-
lesson we should have learnt cerned their strategy has
since 1970. With the mighty been one of adamant silence.
resources of publicity and As far as they are con-
patronage in their hands the cerned there was, is and will
Government can always mani- be no crisis. So that when
pulate the views of the they had the opportunity to
puguIILL~c Un u ?U A ils ci.oIJ
in the ianks of the opposi- at their Council meeting it is
iion. not surprising that the issue


Above a!I we cannot hope
to defe:i them by a resort t .
arms?. inevitably the King andi
Shit to .ps arc a 'ways. better
armed han ih1 population;
antI if tlhey are nol theiI
friends abroad certainly are.
The validity oif his analysis
conves i!ot because we say so.
but ihrougi a critical assess-
ment of cie strategies adopted
by tihe Regime thus far.
From the Chronicle of Events
since the rally, which acconm-
panies this editorial, two
related strategies emerge. in

was deferred indefinitely.
We must not delude our-
selves into believing that their
silence steins from any
paralysis of fear. i,. only
playing dead to kclch cor-
beaux alive. Wc :cpe;:t Iwhat
we have said hor "in a
counflici siination the best
policy of those in power is to
do nothing and let the
opposition make the mis-
The oi.y siategy better
than this is to attempt to
goad the o,1 i.: i'; ill into
making inisa '.Lout
seeming to do so. A.:'n tis is
where the role ol iceir


Cb0fole Of Events

Feb. 20th O.W.T.U. ups it demands from 80',
to 147%

Feb. 22nd O.W.T.U. discloses that the T.U.C. has
been appraised of development in Oil

& Sugar.

Feb. 25th OWTU demands that Texaco resumes
refinery operations.

Feb. 26th Panday charges Caroni bent on con-
frontation ao Gov't can impose Stale
of Emergency.

Feb. 27th O.W.T.U. & Texaco agree in principle
to interim payment.

Feb. 28th Prime Minister returns. Voice of
Raffique Shah banned from 610 radio.

March 2nd Weekes alleges alliance between Gov't
& Texaco against O.W.T.U.
Caroni Ltd. issues Press Statement
claims reaping programme 3 weeks
behind schedule and some $24 -30
million at risk.
Caroni halts grinding operations be-
cause of worik-lo-rule.
P.N.M. Council defers study of Labour
March 3rd Texaco claims Ilal T&T already lost
3.3 ', ....l i as result of O.W .T.U.

March 4th Labour Congress approaches Minister
on O.W.T.U. Texaco dispute.
Grinding operations resumed at Caroni.
T.U.C. claims Texaco not serious.
March 5th All Trinidad Union breaks off talks
with Caroni. Panday charges political
interference in talks by Gov't.
Gov't announces increased share-
holders in Caroni.
O.W.T.U. rejects interim wage rise
conditions. Weckes charges Texaco
provoking confrontation inimical to
national interest.

March 61h Minister of Labour declares Texaco
OWTU dispute "unresolved".
Weeks say Union averse to going to
Industrial Court.

II U I U a I

I~___ __1_1__ ___



henchmen in the multi-
national corporations clearly
is an integral part of the
overall plan. Both Weekes
and Panday have had occasion
to comment on the stone-
walling tactics adopted by
the Companies. Weekes has
charged that Texaco seems
bent"on provoking confronta-
tion inimical to the national
interest." Even the Trade
Union Congress has been
moved to charge that "Texaco
does not appear to be
Other examples of Com-
pany intransigence can be
gleaned from the Chronicle.
The pattern however should
be clear. If the Companies
can goad the Unions into
some rash action then the
Government is in a position
to intervene as a supposedly
impartial arbitrator, acting
solely in the "national in-
terest", and take whatever
steps it deems necessary to
restore stability. Who dares
ask what these steps will be?
If this overall analysis is
correct then we need to
admit that this struggle will
not end overnight. There is
no magical formula by which
the essential task of the
politicisation of the popula-
tion can take place. The
work must be done.
The first step is to estab-
lish the avenues by which the
political education of our
people can proceed.
The second requirement
is a plan which links the
present sectional demands to
the problems of the entire
9 Thirdly we must work
unceasingly towards a Con-
ference of ali opposition
forces with a view to shaping
a political organization
which, an be presented to the
coutiiry as one manifestly
superior to the present
But perhaps before any
of these 'steps could be
undertaken those forces in-
volved in the present indus-
trial struggles need to reassess
their present policies and
tactics to determine whether
they make sense in the face
of a battle that must neces-
sarily be prolonged.



Does Not Make



Michael Harris

A "BRIEF" I now know
is a document prepared
by the building committee
responsible for a part-
icular building project,
which seeks to outline in
detail the philosophical,
functional and financial
considerations which
underly any concept of
that building.
A proper brier I was told
not only provides compre-
hensive justification for a
project which can then be
evaluated by anyone, but it
also constitutes the only real
safeguard against wasteful
expenditures of time and
money. "A proper brief
finishes three-quarters of a
building before the first stone
is laid".
The recently concluded
workshop on the planning of
Library buildings can be con-
sidered a Brief for better
planning in a society in

which planning seems norm-
ally to be confused with the
announcement of intentions.
The Workshop which ran
from February 25 28 was
organised by the School of
Library and Information
Science of the University of
Western Ontario., and was
jointly sponsored by the
Library Association of
Trinidad and Tobago and
the Society of Architects.


The Workshop Directors
were Mrs. Margaret Beckman,
Chief Librarian at the Univer-
sity of Guelph and Mr.
Stephen Langmead an Archi-
tect. Both Mrs. Beckman
and Langmead have a back-
ground as consultants in
Library Planning and they
are joint authors of a book
dealing with the subject.
The main aim of the work-
shop was the generation of a
greater competence in the
planning of Library buildings.

As was pointed out in a
preliminary pamphlet on the
workshop, "The majority of
libraries in Trinidad and
Tobago do not presently
occupy quarters which were
assigned to them."
A significant achievement
of the workshop was the
tact that it brought together
perhaps for the first time
two distinct professional
interests in a framework of
joint collaboration on a
matter of common concern.
Just as significant perhaps
is the fact that the collabora-
tion took place free of any
commercial or political pres-
sures. The topics covered by
the workshop reflected both
of these points.
Very early in the delibera-
tions it was pointed out that
the architect needs to know
the type of activity that will
be generated by the library
in order to provide the type
of facility that will be most
So that proper planning
needs to begin with some
cleat identification of the
objectives and policies of the
Library. These however do
not remain the same for

every Library. Libraries may
be either Academic, Public
or Special.
With regard to the Public
Libraries another interesting
point emerged. The objec-
tives and policies of a public
library are in large measure
determined by the needs of
the community within which
it is located.
If this is so then the
proper identification of these
needs may require the in-
volvement of professional
skills other than those of the
Librarian or Architect.


It is perhaps a pity that
the workshop did not have
the time to deal to any great
extent with the specifics of
local conditions. It was
pointed out that community
conditions of environment
and culture, economic and
educational development
would be crucial in determin-
ing library objectives.
But it might have been
even more beneficial to take
as a test case some small
community in Trinidad and
try to evaluate the library

requirements in that com-
munity. This would have been
worthwhile even if all it did
was identify what particular
professional skills were neces-
sary to the task.
Nonetheless a major
recommendation emerging
from the workshop was that
a joint working team be.
established to continue dis-
cussions on a long term basis
on the particular aspects of
planning for library buildings
here in Trinidad and Tobago.
In addition the workshop
also recommended that "all
authorities" accept the need
for planning teams to be
established before any public
building project is under-
In addition it is not too
much to hope that the
example set by the librarians
and the architects will be
taken up and followed by
other Professional organisa-
tions in the country.
Any professional collabora-
tion however must not neglect
the need to inform the public
as far as is possible on its
concerns and hopes. Public
education must be a part of
all planning.

New agreement may lead to Angolan


From Labour Challenge

ON January 15 the Portu-
guese government and
the leaders of three pro-
independence groups in
Angola signed an agree-
ment that could lead to
independence for that
Portuguese colony.
The three liberation
organizations are the
MPLA (Mo vimento
Popular de Libertacao de
Angola Popular Move-
ment for the Liberation
of Angola), the FNLA
(NationalLiberation Front
of Angola), and UNITA
(Uniao Nacional para a
Independencia Total de
Angola National Union
for the Total Indepen-
dence of Angola).
The agreement in Angola
followed similar accords in
the Portuguese colonies of
Mozambique and Guinea-
Under the terms of the
agreement Portugal would set
up a "transitional" regime to
rule Angola until indepen-
dence, which is supposed to
be granted November 11,
1975. The transitional regime
would be a joint administra-
tion including representatives
of the Portuguese armed
forces as well as representa-
tives of the liberation groups.
A constituent assembly is
to be elected before indepen-
dence to write a constitution
for an independent Angola.
The. assembly would elect a
president to whom sovereignty
would be turned over by the
The question of tvhen to
hold the elections had been
a point of dispute between the

Portuguese government and
African representatives in the
negotiations that proceeded
the agreement. According to
the January 12 New York
Times. The Portuguese had
'wanted "to hold elections for
a constituent assembly in
Angola before the indepen-
dence date and while Portu-
guese troops are still present.
The Africans were said to
prefer elections after the
Portuguese left."
Angola, with a population
of more than six million, is
Portugal's largest and most
important African colony.
Oil reserves owned by Gulf in
Cabinda province produce
400,000 barrels a day.
Angola is also a major
producer of coffee, sugar,
cotton, sisal, iron ore, and
diamonds. It is believed to be
a potentially big producer of
copper, phosphates, and


Liberation organizations
have been carrying out an
armed struggle for the inde-
pendence of this colony since
The situation in Angola
has been complicated by the
fact that the three guerrilla
organizations fighting the
Portuguese, MPLA, UNITA,
and FNLA, have maintained
a factional attitude toward
each other.
For example, for years the
MPLA claimed that Holden
Roberto, leader of the FNLA
was an agent of the American
CIA. In recent monthsMPLA
and FNLA leaders have
claimed that Jonas Savimbi,
leader of the UNITA, is a
Portuguese agent.
Differences between the


Angolan Freedom Fighter
Angolan Freedom Fighter

liberation groups frequently
spilled over into armed
clashes between the African
fighters. The FNLA used its
influence with the U.S.
backed Mobutu regime in
Zaire to deny access to that
country to UNITA and MPLA
However, under pressure
from African governments,
and in the face of the

opportunity for a settlement
with the Portuguese govern-
ment, the leaders of the three
groups met January 4 and 5
in Mombasa, Kenya, to map
out a united approach to the
Under the "transition"
regime each liberation organ-
ization would contribute
8,000 troops toward an
armed security force. These

24,000 African troops would
be matched by an equal
number of Portuguese
soldiers, who would stay in
Angola until February, 1976.
Silva Cardosa, currently
head of the Portuguese air
force in Angola, will report-
edly preside over the transi-
tional regime as high commis-
The highest African
authority will be a three-
member presidential council
under Cardosa. According to
the January 16 Washington
Post, the council posts will
be Lucio Lara of MPLA,
Johnny Eduardo of FNLA,
and Fernando Wilson of
Another provision of te
accords is respect for the
economic interests of the
350,000 white settlers in
Angola, Under the agreement,
the ministries of the econ-
omy, communications, trans-
port, and public works are to
be held by Portuguese,
Like the accords in
Mozambique,- the Angola
agreement still leaves sub-
stantial power in the ha
of the Portuguese.



JS Stephens

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One Man's View


The Libbers

Of International Woman's Year

Dear Sister,
I have been watching with
no little bit of concern all
the recent transports of joy
of you and your 'sisters as
you celebrate International
Women's Year.
While I admit that it may
be a bit too early to make
any firm judgement it does
seem to me, thus far, that
4Internationa: Womens year is
threatening to be nothing but
365 Mother's Days rolled
into dne,
It looks thus far like,
Orchids and roses
And platonic male poses,
With lunches and speeches
,But nothing that changes.
So far all I have seen is
nothing but a lot of euphoric
assertions as to the place of
women in this man's world,
and the glorification of those
few women who have "made
it" in that world.
-But, Deaf Sister, tokenism
in whatever guise is still
tokenismn. What does it really
matter that a few women
have made it up the male
ladder, Does this change in
Sany way the economic,
social, political and above all
psychological system which
militates against the vast
majority of your race.
The irony, of course, is
that by celebrating the
advances of the "fortunate"'
few, you implicitly
accept the philosophies and
Criterion of the entire system.
:A system within which we
males ourselves, although you
may not believe it, and few of
us recognize it, are also im-
prisone d,
You must recognize,
Dearest one, that the role of
women throughout the entire
Western society is a functional
and -necessary part of the
system as a whole, And that
role cannot be changed to
any significant degree unless
the philosophies and struc-
tures of that system are

Once you recognize this
then you must see that the
vital role of women today is
to confront the entire system
of the male-dominated order
and to oppose it with entirely
new definitions of being and
It seems to me so far that
you have been dabbling with
peripheral concerns. It is
heartrending to see how
readily you have accept-
ed what is really a con-
founded impertinence on the
part of a male dominated
World Body which has seen
fit to grant you a year of
recognition. And by its for-
mat has successfully managed
to dictate the boundaries of

your activities and the range
of your vision.
I have no doubt that this
letter is going to generate the
wrath of your more militant
sisters who will no doubt dub
me a male chauvinist pig.
They may of course be Quite

S I know that one of the
conditions under which we
males exist is an inability to
be certain as to what is
reality and what is illusion.
Yet I dare to hope that
our relationship in the past
has been such that you will

grant that even though my
ideas may be wrong my
motives are at least honest.
I recognize you see that
between your race and mine
there is a symbiotic...
relationship. Liberation shall
corn to neither of us until
and unless it comes to both

of us. And so I have dared
to express my fear that
International Womens Year
may turn out to be The
International Fraud of the
Your Brother

I IL -



a local entnepnei

talks business

3 an international

business capital



ue talk his finance

The National Commercial Bank
works for you through more than
140 respected international banks
in 33 countries.



The National
Commercial Bank
of Trinidad & Tobago

the bank with international banking know how

- I '' II




KARI LEVITT is a Canadian economist. She
teaches in McGill University's Department of
Economics. Her father was Karl Polanyi,
famous for his innovative scholarly work on
economics and human societies. After high
school, Kari Levitt studied at the London
School of Economics. In 1957 she returned to
university and did graduate work in econ-
omics at Toronto, then joined the department

TEN DAYS What does the word "development"
usually mean?
K.L. Well, I think that most people most books,
and most so-called experts when they talk about
economic development, they mean a situation where
there is constant modernization, where incomes are
perpetually rising, where fewer people work on
farms and in agriculture and more people go to
cities; where there is more industry, and, I suppose,
in the large cities there are more high-rises and more
old buildings that are being torn down and new ones
being put up I suppose that's what most people
mean by development.
What do you mean by development?
It's probably pretty obvious from what I've just said
that I don't think that kind of caricature of develop-
ment is going to bring anybody a better life more
peace of mind, more happiness, or, indeed, the
necessary material things for life. I don't really think
in terms of "economic development"; when I think
of development, I just think of human development.
And I feel and I think a great many other people
feel that this kind of so-called economic develop-
ment (growth, modernization, urbanisation, more
cars,-more pollution, more confusion, more money,
more credit, more spending, more alienation) this
kind of development dosen't really deserve to be
called "human development". And furthermore, I
think the Western world is pretty arrogant to think of
itself as more "developed" than, let us say, China or
India or parts of Africa, whose civilizations are very
much older; and in a human or cultural sense,
perhaps are much more highly developed societies
and persons. But I suppose all those reflections are
beyond my domain as an economist!
That is not to say that there are not serious
problems of poverty, which must be solved..Nor is it
to deny that there are certain material necessities, a
certain necessary quantity of food and shelter and
clothing and other things which every man, woman
and child in this world needs, and in that sense has a
right to. Of course. But our system dosen't attack
the problem of poverty directly. When our econom-
ists talk, they don't talk about necessities. They talk
about growth. And we need to think more in terms
of genuine necessities. There is really no reason for
the middle-class and richer individuals and nations to
have an ever-increasing volume of stuff.
Most of us in North America and I really mean
most of us are enormously wasteful of material
stuff. You know, we throw away so much. I'm sure
everyone knows how in, the old days we would save a
paper bag, and string, and bottles; and other things
were treasured and cared for and kept for years that
now are just tossed aside so.that we can buy some-
thing else.

So although Canada is rich by world standards, you
don't necessarily feel- that Canada is a shining,,
example of healthy. balanced development t?
I don't think anywhere in the Western world there is
healthy, balanced development. (Nor, for that matter,
anywhere else either.) I think in some ways Canada is
a saner society than the United States. Many ('ana-
dian economists are concerned that Canada catch up
to the U.S. I don't want us to catch up. There's
nothing to catch up to.
What about ithe general trend in the Canadian econ-
omy do you think it a healthy trend, towards
more genuine developmuznt ?
Canada is in an unusual position. Canada is a lucky,


at McGill and moved to Montreal. In Canada,
her best-known book is Silent Surrender: The
Multinational Corporation in Canada. This carefully
argued, carefully researched work has con-
siderably influenced subsequent research and
discussion, since it was published in 1970, on
the risks and disadvantages of foreign domina-
tion of the Canadian economy.
In conversation, Kari Levitt is very far
from most people's image of the professional
economist. She does not put money or capital
or technological know-how first in her under-
standing of development. She puts human
culture first, and affairs that our urgent pro-
blem is a problem of values and of social and
political organization. Though she insists that
she has "no religious background whatsoever",
her hopes and fears and judgments seem to
put her more closely in touch with an audience
of religious people than with her colleagues,
the professional economists.

lucky country as far as the wealth of its economic
resources are concerned. Canada is a very big terri-
tory and has almost every kind of mineral resource
and forest resource and land resource (for agricul-
ture), along with a relatively small population. So
Canada is in an enormously lucky position in a
world in which all these resources are becoming
increasingly scarce.-But I don't think Canada is in a
position to make use, in any humanlyineaningful sense,
of this good fortune. I don't think there is another
country in the world in quite the same situation as
Canada so highly industrialized, so "developed"
(to use the word in its conventional sense), but
with such vast quantities of foreign capital and
therefore so little control of its own economy. I
think Canada in that sense is unique.

You mean, unique in being so rich and so dependent?
Yes, so rich and so dependent.

Well, if we're so fortunate and yet have never suc-
ceeded in creating a healthy, independent economy
which we are Iesponsible for ourselves, what are we
lacking? Is it capital we lack?
Oh, no. Good Lord, no. I've written a book about
that. I don't think Canada is lacking capital in any
sense of that word. We have no lack of capital in a
very simple financial sense, in terms of funds which
are generated here but which are so often invested
elsewhere, usually in the U.S. Nor do we lack capital
in terms of real resources. Because the only sensible
way to look at capital, when you come right down to
it, is as hum-an resources, natural resources, technol-
ogy, know-how and all the physical assets we have
(cities, roads, railways, the rest of the real assets).
There is no shortage. In fact, the large corporations
which siphon capital into their head offices (they
distribute some of it to their shareholders, but by
no means the major portion of it) these corpora-
tions have so much capital that they don't know
what to do with it. And right now, they are investing
rather a lot of it in real estate and commodity
speculation, which is assisting in driving up prices.

Well, if it isn 't capital, perhaps it's technology that we
lack? Perhaps we can't compete technologically?
I don't think we lack technology. First of all, we
have a highly developed educational system, which
has the capacity to turn out experts in nearly every
kind of field. In fact, we have the opposite problem;
there are now highly trained young people graduating
in Canada who really can't find employment. I
don't think we lack technology.
Besides, technology dosen't cause the situation
people are in so much as it results liom the situation
people are in, and from who.they iltink they are
and what they believe they can do. Technology
dosen't fall from heaven, all finished, like rain. It's
produced by a human culture. Our technology, for
example, has been developed to serve the capitalist
organization of society.
Most economists separate technology Iromn econ-
omiics; .they have an idea that "technology inarches
on", aid that we have certain problems because of
the inevitable development of modern technology.
But I have my doubts. I feel that takes a more
historical look at this thing, one can see that the
development of the technology is itself a function of
the form of the organization of society. After all,
civilizations develop the technologies which are ini
tune with the rationale of those civilizations. Go
back to the Indians of North America, for example.


The Indians have technologies of dealing with the
high North. They know how to survive, how to keep
dte ecological balance, how to hunt up there, how to
live up there. That's a technology, right? And it's
totally part of their culture, their survival, their
existence which now, of course, is breaking down,
because the capitalist technology, the capitalist way
.has been sweeping them out or buying them out or
driving them out of their old way. Or the technology
of the pyramids, let's say; clearly.that was related to
the entire society, culture, religion and way of life
of the people at that time (about which, incidentally,
I don't know very much). That technology is famous
foi its sophistication. But it's not because they had
technology for the pyramids that the Egyptians built
a civilization like that. It's probably dte reverse.

In other words, our tcclmology fits Western capiia/ist
profit-making needs very well, hut isn't n ecessalihl
the best possible technology Jr solving all inhmana
problems or fr .sin'porting all levels of development.
Well, that's a bigger perspective than the one I started
to ask about: I was onl wondering if it's lack ol

A TA L 1 %4




technology that is keeping us in Canada from develop-
ing an autonomous, healthy economy. You say no
it isn't lack of technology. Or capital. What's the
problem, then? Is it our size? Are we too small to
compete in the real world?
Oh, no. That's ridiculous. Not only in a geographical
sense, but in the size of its market, Canada is among
the top ten countries in the world. Most countries in
the world have smaller populations, and certainly
smaller internal markets, than Canada has.

What's our problem, then?
The basic problem as I see it is that it's very difficult
to regain control, in this country, from the corpora-

You mean, from the multinational corporations
based largely in the U.S.A.?
Well, yes, but just huge corporations in general. It so
happens, because huge corporations get higher by
swallowing up smaller corporations that most of the
hughest corporations based in the U.S. But some are
based in Europe, some in Japan and some in Canada.



But, yes, it's true that most of the huge corporations
operating here are based in the U.S. And furthermore,
I don't think most people see anything the matter
with that situation.
Well, what is the matter with that situation? What
risks are built in?
I think the risks and the patterns, in Canada and
elsewhere, are easier to see today, perhaps, than
they were a few years ago. Everybody at this moment
is affected by the world-wide inflation, by the rise in
prices. Now, inflation in Canada is not nearly as
bad as it is in many other parts of the world. But
that's not much comfort; if you're very ill, its no
comfort to know that somebody else is more sick
than you are. The whole system is tremendously
overinflated with money and credit; it's getting
worse, the monetary instability is getting worse, and
no one knows where this is going to end. Certainly
many people expect a major crisis in the interna-
tional economy. We are in a very insecure situation
The collapse hasn't come yet, but already in-
flation is producing some painful pressures. The
present inflation is a shift to profits and rent and
interest that is, those people who have money
become richer, at the expense of those who don't
even have salaries because they don't have jobs. It's
a tremendous mechanism for making tie rich richer
and the poor poorer. And all the people in the
middle are being squeezed harder. Even middle class
people are feeling the pinch when they go to the
grocery store. And of course, money gives power. So
the people with the money which is above all, the
corporations are growing in power during this
inflationary ,period. So there is something to fear
from that quarter.

What other risks do you see right now in the world
I think we're going to have a real crisis of food. On a
world scale.

1W),y now? Why) iln the tventiclh century, when we
have better seed, better fertilizers, better machinery,
better everything than we have ever had before -
why now a crisis, in food?
For the same reason as the inflation. The profit
motive. ln agriculture, in all capitalist economies,
small producers are being squeezed out by agri-
business, by packing houses and whatever. And land
speculation all around the bigger cities is making land
so expensive that it's not worth while farming; yotr
can make more money for the price you get for
selling out the land. You can go through whole areas
of Quebec, for example, and see how the agricultural
frontier is shrinking. Farms are abandoned, they are
up for sale. And middle class families are buying the
farms for fun places, to keep horses and so their
children can ride around on ponies. So land is being
lost to agriculture. And this isn't happening only in
Canada. It's happening on a world scale. This
happens in so-called underdeveloped countries as well.
I have a suspicion more than a suspicion -
that the current world food shortage, which the FAO
(Food and Agriculture Organization) has been wring-
ing its handsabout for five years or more, is not due
to "natural" causes. Sure, a drought can cause a
food shortage. But way back in biblical times, in the
days of the Ph'araohs, people stored and stockpiled
food more efficiently than we do now. You know,
there were seven good years and seven lean years; and
the central authorities would. stockpile food during
the seven good years to have something in the bad
years, But now this doesnothappen, There's no
stockpiling. Everything is pulled out of the soil and
immediately used up as fast as possible. If there is
stockpiling, it's only very temporarily for speculative
purposes, as happened in the soyabean market
recently. But that's not stockpiling in the sense of
taking account of the fact that sometimes nature is
bountiful and sometimes not. Meanwhile, the dis-
placement of people from the land, the increasing
use of land to produce export commodities in Latin
America and in Africa and in the Caribbean, produces
a really seriously underdeveloped state of domestic
agriculture in those areas. All that is a direct result
of the kind of premium our notion of development
places on export-oriented agriculture the cocoa,
the coffee, the ground-nuts or whatever. Land,
increasingly, is used just for that, just for cash crop.
For that, people can get foreign exchange with
which to import stuff. Domestic, local, subsistence
agriculture increasingly is neglectedwhile meanwhile,
of course, population grows. So.the really seriously
increasing possibility of world famine needs to be
explained in terms of these factors. These are not
"natural disasters".

So the internationalizing of the economy can
go too far or rather, can go in the wrong direction?
It can actually harm the chances people have of
producing enough of what they themselves need to
Yes. That kind of specialization which
economists call "die division of labour", and which
they believe is beneficial without end of course it
can go too far. It can make us as individuals and as
countries very vulnerable, so that we might not
survive any breakdown in the enormously compli-
cated system we depend on. We,certainly saw that in
Montreal during the fuel crisis. People really thought
there might not be fuel oil for Montreal during the
winter. That's an extreme example, perhaps. But
there is a problem of extreme specialization in the
economy, and massive loss of control on the scale
of the individual, and even on the scale of the nation
- of the basic conditions of life. People increasingly
become more helpless. Young people today often
don't know how to cook, or sew, or light a wood fire
if necessary. They don't know how to help them-
selves in basic situations of life which their parents,
or certainly their grandparents, would have had skills
We often think of this as a Third World pro-
blem this loss of traditional skills when factories
or new technologies move in; but we don't often
notice the loss of skills from our own daily life.
Oh, I think the loss has gone much further here.
For example, in the Third World countries you can
still find, often, much better car mechanics than you
can find here. Because there people still take cars
apart and fix whatever is broken whereas here
people rely much more on sending parts back to the
factory; and the factory does something with the
gear box and sends it back. So even those manual skills
are disappearing here,

Are individual skills disappearing because the
forms of production we have now need lots of passive
consumers to keep them going, lots of people who
need to buy things rather than make, or fix, or get
along without things?
It's as simple a thing as this; that the following
of the profit motive does not result in the highest
development of the society. These two things simply
aren't the same.

Is the same thing going on loss of skills and
growing helplessness and dependency on the level
of the nation, as well as the level of the individual?
I think Canada and other peripheral countries
have been sold a real bill of goods in being convinced
that we have to gear our economy more and more to
export so that we can earn more foreign exchange so
that we can import more things. Often the things that
are imported are things that in the'past had been
locally produced, and that should still be locally
produced. The idea that a country's economy has to
be geared to earning foreign exchange is something
like die idea we have that individuals have to keep
earning higher and higher incomes so that they can
buy more goods. What for? It seems to me that
Canada, and many Third World countries as well,
should be trying for more self-sufficiency in their
economies. I don't mean that we won't have any
foreign trade at all; that would be ridiculous. But we
should have much more self-sufficiency,much more.
local production for local needs..
But it's hard to imagine our present govern-
ments or political parties trying anything like that.
They seem to perceive problems at a very short range
They don't have long-range strategies. And of course,.
in dte short range it's always easier to sell something,
to sell out natural resources for example, to avoid
some sort of economic discomfort. If there were a

I ARCH 9). 1975


Capitalist Whi

From Page 7
long-term point-of-view, it's obvious that Canada
would not have been selling its resources, or be
continuing to sell its resources, on terms that are so
obviously unfavourable from a long-range point-of-
view. But governments do things when they are
selling natural resources which private individuals
would never do, not with their own personal resources.
By now, of course, the situation has become enor-
mously more complicated. Because the rise of
private corporate power (not only in Canada, but on
a Western world scale) is such that one begins to
doubt to what degree Governments still have the
ability to call the shots at all any more.
"The rise of private corporate power" you
mean the multi-national corporations?
Well, the corporations. Being multinational is
just a function of bigness all it means is that the
corporation has long ago outgrown the boundaries of
any one country, and operates in umpteen countries.
Al the large corporations are more or less multi-
national, and increasingly the banks are, as well. And
because these corporations are increasing in power in
so many countries, thefr links with the political, with
the government level, are becoming more and more
intimate. Very often, corporations aiz bigger than the
governments they deal with. They are like private
states. They have their own sources of capital, they
have managements skills and expertise and technology
- they have everything except political sovereignty.
And they are becoming more and more concentrated;
larger areas of control passing into fewer hands. Soon
I think it will be possible to identify not a ruling
clique, exactly but 1000, 2000 or 3000 individuals
who in fact, between them, have power not only in
the -corporate sphere and the financial sphere but
also in governmental spheres. Not to mention all the
ancilliary institutions, like the universities, where in-
creasingly one can feel the power of the great cor-
I find it helpful to compare some of these
developments with the old "chartered companies" of
the eighteenth century the Hudson's Bay Company,
the East IndiaCompany, the Royal AfricaCompany.
They were given licenses by kings to be, actually, a
private territorial government in huge regions. They
shaped the economy of those regions to their own
I remember that they often set up huge plan-
tations, or perhaps thought of the whole territory
they controlled as a plantation to be organized. Is
Canada becoming "a plantation of the north" for
Well, it's not that simple. Having made the
analogy with the old chartered companies, I wouldn't
like to press it too far. But I'll tell you what the
plantation idea makes me think of today. The old-
style plantation was total institution. People were
totally socialized within that institution. You can't
maintain an exploitative concern by coercion alone;
people have to be socialized so that they accept their
roles in the concern and believe in their roles. You
need a whole set of mechanisms by which people
come to accept their environment. (This is most
obvious in "total institutions" like mental hospitals
and prisons today after awhile some people, when
they are released from the institution, don't know
how to function outside of it). Well, I think one
should make the analogy between that and the society
that we live in as a whole (not just one or another
corporation). The forces which are brought to bear
to socialize us to accept the roles we play in our
society, right here in Canada they are designed to
get us to keep the circular flow of income and spend-
ing going as fast as possible. So people kill themselves
to get a job, to earn more income, to spend more
income, to go further into debt, to have more credit
cards Yet when people actually stop from time
to time to look at what they're doing; or when their
teenaged children say to them "Mum and Dad, what
are you doing with your lives?", they are hard put to
it to answer, People are so socialized, so accustomed
to that capitalist wheel, that earning and spending of
money, that they can't imagine life off the wheel.
And of course, the wheel enriches someone at each
turn; people who work in factories are enriching the
company for which they work. When people spend
their wages they enrich the store that sells them
goods. When they save money,theyenrich the banks,
which invest their money and make more on it. When
they borrow money, they enrich the banks, which
charge interest on the loan. It's really a perfect
system, a total system. But it only functions because
people have been taught to believe in it, because
people are socialized to it. That's the plantation,
new-style; it's the whole system in which we work;
It's almost impossible to opt out. This is where we
come to the power of ideas because so many people
have been led to accept without question this whole


eel Of Misfortune

Could you give an exam tle?
Jamaica; 've seen that myself, or in Venezuela,
for example, which is notorious for this. What
happens is that with this kind of economic develop-
ment, there is an increasing internal inequality,
There are the people at the top (some of these are
the old elite become richer, some are new middle
classes formed in the state sector because of the
new bureaucracies in these countries, or formedof
the people who work for the MNC'i in these cont-
tries). Then there are people at the bottom; a
rapidly increasing number of people who are un-
employed, who live round the edges of cities in shanty
towns, who have been uprooted from their previous
more agricultural forms of existence, and who are
really a proletariat in the most literal sense of the
word. They have nothing to sell but their labour
power, but there are no jobs yet. So the social ten-
sions within such countries become very explosive.
Therefore the local elites and the local middle class
- the top 10 or 15% of people become more up-
tight, increasingly concerned to keep what they have
against the danger of uprising from the poor. And
their lifestyles are really very similar to those of the
elites and the middle class in North America. They
have the same kind of houses with the same kind of
consumer durables in them. They are very much
closer, they have more communication with their
counterparts in North America or Europe, than they
have with their own people. They read TIME maga-
zine; they are the internationally homogenized con-

You've been painting a pretty critical picture of
what "development" has been like in the last 300
years. What would human development be like in the
next thirty years, if your best hopes were to conie
I feel like a fool trying to answer a question
like this, but it's part of the game that one has to
All right. The challenge is to regain some of
our independence. The danger is a galloping pace of
centralization and control. And it's an urgent danger,
because at some time we must reach a point of no
return. As time passes, I think it will be increasingly
difficult to create on this planet a human type of
social structure. "Human" means that people have to
have some control over their own physical environ-
ment and their own social environment, And itinust
be, it can only be, on a reasonably small scale. So the
problem is not one of economics. Economics, as I've
said before, and the forces of capitalist economics,
have put us where we are. As part of that, they have
given us a technology that can do some pretty fan-
tastic things. Dangerous things, and also newpossibili-
ties. But the problem is one of political and social
organization. It's a problem of regaining our indepen-
dence. Our incorporation into this enonnous system
has made us dependent. All of us who are incor-
porated are dependent. And the manner in which we
are dependent is first of all economic. So we have to
work for more economic self-sufficiency; more self-

sufficiency in each region, in each society.

Is Canada workable framework for self-
First of all, in Canada you can already detect a
shift of power from the federal to' the provincial
level. This is a trend that has gone on for some years,
I think it's both irreversible and good. The provinces
are still very large political and social units. But they
do give a chance for more people power, more
pi\ ticjip-i nio : "ore local con trol, more doci.,lraliza-
tion, than the federal level makes possible. I think
decentralization is a necessary component of the
growth in participation, in community, and in self.
sufficiency that we need.
What is economic development, in a very
positive sense?
First, remember the warning I gave earlier, that
we really have no model in our minds for development
except Western capitalist development. We don't
know any other kind. (I would include the Soviet
model here, because I think, as some people have
said, that's just capitalism without capitalists). Still,
with that limitation, I would say: the name of the
game, in development, is increasing the dimensions of
independence, on many levels. At the economic level,
and at the personal level. Not that people shouldn't
depend on each other as persons, as human beings.
Of course they should; that's good, that's human. But
if you have credit, you are dependent on the bank,
and so on; and that's an impersonal relationship, an
economic one. We have too many links which make
us dependent on impersonal relationships. Impersonal
relations should not make us more dependent.
One of the dimensions of independence seems
to have something to do with people learning to
keep their eye on their own actual needs, and their
community's needs, and to produce first of all for
their real needs what we used to call subsistence
needs, rather than get fascinated by, say, foreign
exchange accumulation.
Yes. Or income growth. The point of departure
for what should be produced, and how much of it,
should be basically what do people really need, and
how much do they need of it. It's perfectly clear
that in our system, no matter what the economics
textbooks say, the allocation of land and of labour
and of other resources is not done with respect to
the most urgent needs first. It really is not. It's done
with respect to meeting "demands", as we say in
economics, that is, producing those things for which a
high price exists. And that is not die same thing,

Do you see any signs of hope?
Of course I see signs of hope, People, There are
billions of people in the world. And any number of
then could say "Enough!" at any moment and
begin to change things. It must be people that count.
I am not a detenninist. Whenever people come together
on their own terms not on the corporations' terms
or even on the unions' terms, not to marginally
improve their economic situation within the present
system but to be together as human beings, that's a
sign of hope.
Continued on Page 9

I~uClrU~-~s~lPrCI~~,- C1


There is a "REVOLL'-
TIONS" taking place
among all of us in
Trinidad and Tobago
right about this moment.
The problems of our
Nation cannot be solved
by a United Labour
Front alone going into
Politics. What Trinidad
and Tobago need is a
United Front of all
Parties, Groups and
Unions: this includes the
Churches, Charitable and
Voluntary Organisations
etc.. getting together to
exchange ideas and form
policies by which to
work and not the disunity
that now exist.
We need people,'groups
and Organisations prepared
to sacrifice and work for the
good and the upliftment of
our Nation generally and not
for any one part. History has
already proved that Labour
Unions comprise of members
with different ideologies and
attached to different Political
Parties and others to certain
types of Churches which
forbids their members to
vote for certain Political
Parties or not to vote at all.
This is one reason why I
am advocating this type of
Get-together where a little
from each will help to form
a large majority.
Not enough is being done
in proportion to the talk that
is going on. People are fast
loosing all respect for Law
and for Authority. On the
whole people now seem not
to have respect for anybody
or anything and something
must be done to give them
back that respect.
Do we earnestly believe
that by simply changing our
government all these and our
many problems will be
changed automatically? Or to
we need o sit together and
bring all our problems before
us and take them one by one
now and try to solve them
before taking over the govern-
One-cannot be all that
selfish in believing that in
this day and age any one of
our Political Parties can solve
all or most part of our
Nation's problems with all
these Organisations, views and
ideologies flying around.
What we need dear
illustrous Leadersis"UNI'IY"
and the one of which I speak.
If the Hon., Roy Richardson
is not prepared to take the
initiative will someone else
take it?
I would like to try but
here is where incompetence
comes in. I may have Courage
and in this case Virtue but I
Feel to myself that I might
not be considered competent
enough to call such Elite
Organisations together in
talks for the good and benefit
of our Nation and all its
peoples and those associated
with us.
Good Luck and may God
be with us.
Charles Clarke


A A a H

I:'slih r L Gendre
BY THE time I arrived
there was standing room
only. Henry Mtttoo was
singled out in the soft

circle of spotlight, the
flute a plaintive accom-
paniment to the pathetic,
amusing letter from the
lonely though grateful


Public Meeting For S. Grande

TAPIA will hold a public
m e e t i ng down-town
Sangre Grande on
Wednesday March 12 at
5 p.m.

After many frustrations
with meetings in the Eastern
capital, the Tapia Caravan
returns just before the
Annual General Assembly to
discuss the industrial unrest

mother to her daughter
in England.
DEM TWO was on stage
presenting All Ah We, spon-
sored by the Kairi Group at

in the country and the
coming general elections.
Speakers include Buntin
Joseph, Michael Harris, Lloyd
Taylor and Augustus
A meeting will also be
held in Trincity on Sunday
March 9 at 6.30 pmn.

Constitution Amerndments For Assembly

THE Constitution of the
Tapia House Group is up
for Amendment. Change
has been proposed by the
Executive partly to take
account of Tapia's pre-

sence in the Senate.
The Annual General
Assembly is being asked to
approve a revision of Council
Membership so that Parlia-
mentary Members of Tapia
would be members ex-

Wheel Of Misfortune

* From Page 8
Because of what you said about the "plantation,
new-style" about the insidious power of our being
socialized to run all our lives on a wheel of more
earning for more spending and more indebtedness -
would it follow that, in the process of breaking some
of our unnecessary links of dependency, it would
help to have people coming together who definitely
do not believe that money is the most important
thing in life?
Of course it would help. And that's a good place
to start. There really is not much hope for change if
people base their self-respect on the expectation of
earning an increasing arnount every year of personal
income, and being able to spend more and more
money. But surely it's not beyond the power of
individuals to liberate themselves from that expecta-
tion. Of course we all need some money. We all need
to buy some things to live. But we don't have to live
for the wheel of more earnings, more spending, more
Quebec is a sign of hope in this area. It's a sign
of hope because of the determination of so many
people in Quebec to hang on to their language and
their culturalheritage, even though they do so at some
economic cost. There's no doubt at all that from the
strictly economic point-of-view, Quebec would be
better off to bury French, to forget all about the
language question, and to live in English. English is
the language of business, the language of "making it"
in North America. And yet we all know that there is
in Quebec a strong resistance to being assimilated into
the mainstream English-speaking North American
culture. That's hopeful. Our system tries to subordi-
nate culture to economics; but even so, probably the
strongest rallying-point for resistance to powerful
economic forces, is culture, is common cultural
identity. Quebec is the best example of that we have
in North America. It's encouraging to see people
putting their cultural survival ahead of economic
advantage in a society like Quebec's even though, if
present trends continue there, and if the majority of
Quebeckers remain so ambivalent, within ten years
the foundations for that kind of defensive cultural
nation alism might have crumbled together.
You mean, language is an important line of
defense for a meaningful cultural identity, but
language isn't enough by itself:
Of course, it isn't. And all over Canada you see
people searching (and I really think searching is the
right word) for their cultural roots. And that isn't
easy in North America, because basically everyone is
an immigrant. The history is so short. This search
we're talking about is perhaps easier in other parts of
the world where the local culture is still distinct
from that of the dominant economic power.
I suppose in the end it becomes a question of
faith, you know. I simply refuse to go through my
life believing that we're heading for some kind of
1984, where these huge conglomerates and multi-
nationals and their governmental anns are literally
going to rule the world, using electronic satellites to
monitor everything that's going on, or whatever. In
the end, I refuse to accept the inevitability of all that
- even though I can see there are strong forces work-
ing towards a very controlled and centralized type of
thingg on a world scale.

Representation is also
proposed for Chairmen of
Tapia Standing Committees.
Committees now exist for
Economics & Planning, Edu-
cation, Sport and The
The Council of Represent-
atives now consists of two
delegates from local Tapia
Groups along with members
of the National Executive.
The Amendments will be
presented to the first sitting
of the Assembly on March
16 but voting on them will
not take place until the
Second Sitting on April 13.
The first sitting is open
all Tapia associates and
friends. The second sitting is
for members only. Copies of
the existing Constitution will
be on sale at the Assembly for
10 cents.

the Little Carib Theatre last
The programme drew en-
tirely from Caribbean poets.
Themes ranged from the
Selvonesque emigrant situa-
tions of Bruce St. John's
'Letter to England' and
'Street Scene in Canada', and
Jones' 'Lament of the Banana
Man' to Braithwaithe's 'May-
Dust' and Marc Matthew's'
own 'Jum bie Picnic'.
The programme was light,
entertaining, with all the wit
and ease of our distinctive
West Indian oral tradition.
Old jokes certainly get around
the Caribbean and while the
audience was doubling up at
the fresh, dramatic approach,
Ken Corsbie was fighting to
keep a straight face. Did Marc
Matthews really go off to pee
in the middle of that drunk


St. John should have been
there to hear Matthews, a
master of West Indian accents,
do his 'Kites'. He is a superb
story-teller: share the excite-
ment as the boy relives his
kite-flying days, go along on
that 'Juinbie Picnic', catching
crabs to cook with stolen
vegetables, pulling up crosses
from the cemetery to make
firewood, then feel the cold
hands slither over you, the
relief to find yourself in bed
sweating and wetting.
All against the newspaper
mosaic by artist Judith Laird,
comic-strip sun over news-
print mountains. Ken Corsbie
quips, 'Probably the best use
newspapers have ever been
put to in this country,'






Of people who know
how to cope

with rising








Arnold Hood

1975 11.45 a.m. Nine
unemployed youths are
assembled in a "Drag"
hut: two enjoying a game
of cards; the others look-
ing on or planning the
day's sale procedure. One
youth, Allister Frame, is
standing outside.
A Tesoro pick-up pulls
up; two men in plain
clothes jump out; "You
see this shit .!", and
a warm, brusque clutch
is applied to Frame's
shoulders You are
under arrest!" (Charges:
(1) Assembling to gamble,
(2) Having 'whe whe'
marks in his possession.)
The youths gathered
inside the hut all flee -
fear and confusion lend-
ing greater speed to their
already fleet-footed steps.
Sketched above was the
setting for the arrest of one
youth and the demolition by
the police of the first of two
Drag huts at High Road, La
Brea last Saturday. After the
youth was carried down to
the La Brea Police Station,
the police jeep returned with
five persons one corporal,
two constables, in plain
clothes, one S.RP., also in
civilian, and the cleaner of
the station.
This Demolition Squad,
wielding hammers, set to
work with the savagery of a
woodcutter felling a giant
Samaan tree, and in three
minutes the pride, Joy and
hope of five scrunting youths
lay a crumbled mess on the


This hut was built early in
1975 the most permanent
of several flimsy preceding
structures, and served as a
stall for the sale of citrus
fruits and coconuts and,
around Carnival, the then-
popular head scarves. The
youths claim they netted on
an average $10 per day and
their building was constructed
on authorisation from Miss
Cynthia Mark, the reputed
When the squad returned
to do their dirty work, the
corporal allegedly told four
or five youths liming in the
area at the time: "No liming
here, day or night!"; and to
one lad who hesitated to take
to his feet, he remarked:
"You seem reluctant, but the
cell have plenty room!".
They conducted an exhaustive


Terror In


Police are exploited to do the regime's dirty work

search for marijuana, then
proceeded to demolish the
When this was completed,
they continued on down the
High Road to another hut
which they summarily
demolished by reversing the
jeep into it. They also gave
orders to have a third one, in
which a young man of the
district lives, broken down
within 24 hours or else, in
the words of the S.R.P., they
would "huff and puff and
blow it in!".

Police brutality is a rela-
tively new but apparently
growing phenomenon in the
graveyard-like district of La
Brea. A few months ago, a
youth, Carlyle Simmons, was
beaten by eight policemen
and left overnight in a cell
while there have been one or
two futile marijuana raids on
Winston "Garrat" Weekes- a
young man suspected by the
police of influencing a
dangerous build-up of youth
in the area.
Policemen are now talking
in terms of shooting to kill,

Cake Sal
THE Tapia Fund Raising
Committee sends hearty
thanks to all those well-
wishers who supported
our Cake-Sale last week-
end at Hi-Lo St.
Augustine and Valpark
We received many kind
donations of materials and
cakes came in from North
and from South. The result
was a handsome profit which
goes towards the Special
Monthly sales are planned
to keep Tapia reliant only on

organising snap searches for
guns, ammunition and weed,
and, in their own words,
"leaving what they don't
find" i.e. planting the damag-
ing evidence on whomsoever
they wish to nail.

e 4Sores
our people's support. The
Committee has also an-
nounced a big fund-raising
drive at the Assembly in
Port-of-Spain on March 16.
We are looking forward
to enthusiastic patronage for
well-supplied lunch counters
and refreshment bars. Posters
and the usual range of Tapia
books and literature will again
be on sale.
A new feature will be
coloured Tapiajerseys in blue,
gold and white, attractively
printed with our emblem.
Available in all sizes, they
are priced at$5.

Bat what has led us to
this pass: How have the up-
holders of law and order
become, in cases, the per-
petrators of lawlessness, and
why is the law so anti- the
people it was instituted "to
protect and serve"? What
justification is there in this
day and age for a cuss charge
on our law books, or a
charge for illicit gambling,
whe whe betting or even the
making of bush rum? Loss of
excise? Ha! Not when one
large refinery is blending
several of its liquid products
with a colouring agent so as
to avoid the proper tax then
purifying them again by a
simple and inC.pensei.c pio-
Not when an off-shore
producer is selling thousands


of barrels of oil exwell-heid
and other multi-national
corporations are falsifying or
simply not preparing any
accounts for submission to
Government because the out-
moded, decrepit 1929 Com-
panies Act under which this
country operates cannot
enforce this. It must be due
to some other reason.


Clearly it has to do with
die excessive, often totally
indefensible, power given to
the Commissioner of Police
and his cohorts by the equally
indefensible distillations of
the Public Order 1111 1971,
viz: Firearms Act, Summary
Offences Act etc., So that itis
possible to destroy the one
source of livelihood of several
scrunting La Brea youths who
have had limited educational
opportunities; possess no
skills; have no sporting
facilities except a netball
court a half mile away and
in a bad state of repair on
which they play basketball,
and who indulge in nothing
more violent than liming on
the block and smoking an
occasional stick of marijuana
in some secreted area to ease
their frustrations it is
possible to do all this under
the umbrella of legality!
Clearly, the date for the
complete realisation of the
police motto "To Protect
and ,-vc" is a -; ay off
and the road to its achieve-
ment a really long and
winding one,

T a- oan 173- 01

I ~I Ir





Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent Street Tunapuna



General Assembly

S.W.W.T.U. Hall

Wrightson Road Port. of .Spain

Sunday March 16 1975

I" ,w








Augustus Ramrekersingh MORNING
Mickey Matthews AFTERNOON

Opening Remarks Augustus Ramrekersingh
Tapia's April Elections Denis Solomon
Fund Raising Drive Angela Cropper

Chairman's Address
State of the Nation Syl Lowhar.
Administrative Report
From the Central Office Allan Harris
Tapia Membership Drive Sheilah Solomon
Community Report
Tapia's New World Ivan Laughlin

Opening Remarks Mickey.

Campaign Report
Tapia Caravan Michael
House to Huse Elducation Beau T,
Secretary's Address
Lloyd Best



I I st

r ~a u-~u



Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.


general Assembly To


Opposition Unity


THE Tapia National
Executive is seeking clear-
ance from the General
Assembly for a move
towards unity of opposi-
tion forces.
Last Sunday March 2, a
Resolution to that effect was
approved by the Council of
It will now go forward
for consideration by the
Fifth Annual General
*Assembly of Tapia scheduled
for the SWWTU Hall in
Port-of-Spain on Sunday
March 16, 1975.
This resolution comes at
the end of a period of hard
but quiet political prepara-
tion for the general elections

which .are due injust over one
In October last, Tapia
rushed the political spot'lght
when four Executive memn-
bers made a controversial
entry into the Upper House
of Parliament.
The theme of the coming
General Assembly is actually
The Coming General Elections
and a full platform of
speakers is carded for the
It is expected that the
turnout of members, associ-
ates, supporters and friends
will go away clear as to how
Tapia sees the job of creating
the political alternative which
could move the present

hopelessly unpopular govern-
ment finally from control of
the State machine.
The three resolutions going
forward from the Council are
old planks of Tapia policy.
Our leadership are clearly
seeking confirmation for
them at what could will be
the last full Tapia gathering
before the election campaign
is initiated in earnest.
Over the six years of its
existence Tapia has always
insisted that a valid political
party cannot ever be formed
as such.
A party would arise and
could only arise as an endur-
ing alignment of those com-
munity and political interests
which are persuaded to come
together when the trumpet
Now that all the people
are seeing that our survival
and development depends on

the fundamental
tion of Trinidad
all the signs and

& Tobago,
signals are

The moment of re-align-
ment is drawing near and an
assembly of the new move-
ment has become an impera-
tive of history.
The three resolutions are
as follows:
1. Economic Independence
Be it resolved that
Tapia take all steps neces-
sary to ensure that all the
lifeline sectors of econ-
omy be speedily brought
under the effective
control of the people of
Trinidad & Tobago.
2. Constitution Reform
Be it resolved that
Tapia promote a Confer-
ence of Citizens/Constitu-
ent Assembly so as to
convene all valid political

and community organisa-
tions with the objective
of reconstituting the State
of Trinidad & Tobago
along lines which would
effectively entrench the
sovereignty of the citizens
over the Government and
the Adniinistration.
3. Opposition Unity
Be it resolved that
Tapia promote the endur-
ing alignment of all those
political and community
forces in Trinidad &
Tobago which have
proven their opposition
Sto the regime of Doctor
Politics and which could
create for our people a
unified political alterna-
tive to the present un-
populaiigovernment in
the coming general



S S.W.W.T.U. Hall



Wrightson Road

of .Spain

Sunday March 16 1975

s See Page 11 For Agenda

I _I ~r '19 I _L--e~a~O~


The,. Coming 'Election